Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
A hard, brittle, grayish-white rare earth metal with an atomic symbol Ru, atomic number 44, and atomic weight 101.07. It is used as a catalyst and hardener for PLATINUM and PALLADIUM.
Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A field of chemistry which pertains to chemical compounds or ions that do not contain the element carbon (with the exception of carbon dioxide and compounds containing a carbonate radical, e.g., calcium carbonate).
Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)
Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.
Multiple symptoms associated with reduced oxygen at high ALTITUDE.
A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.

Regulation of body length and male tail ray pattern formation of Caenorhabditis elegans by a member of TGF-beta family. (1/24796)

We have identified a new member of the TGF-beta superfamily, CET-1, from Caenorhabditis elegans, which is expressed in the ventral nerve cord and other neurons. cet-1 null mutants have shortened bodies and male tail abnormal phenotype resembling sma mutants, suggesting cet-1, sma-2, sma-3 and sma-4 share a common pathway. Overexpression experiments demonstrated that cet-1 function requires wild-type sma genes. Interestingly, CET-1 appears to affect body length in a dose-dependent manner. Heterozygotes for cet-1 displayed body lengths ranging between null mutant and wild type, and overexpression of CET-1 in wild-type worms elongated body length close to lon mutants. In male sensory ray patterning, lack of cet-1 function results in ray fusions. Epistasis analysis revealed that mab-21 lies downstream and is negatively regulated by the cet-1/sma pathway in the male tail. Our results show that cet-1 controls diverse biological processes during C. elegans development probably through different target genes.  (+info)

Dominant activity of activation function 1 (AF-1) and differential stoichiometric requirements for AF-1 and -2 in the estrogen receptor alpha-beta heterodimeric complex. (2/24796)

Estrogenic responses are now known to be mediated by two forms of estrogen receptors (ER), ERalpha and ERbeta, that can function as homodimers or heterodimers. As homodimers the two have been recently shown to exhibit distinct transcriptional responses to estradiol (E2), antiestrogens, and coactivators, suggesting that the ER complexes are not functionally equivalent. However, because the three possible configurations of ER complexes all recognize the same estrogen response element, it has not been possible to evaluate the transcriptional properties of the ER heterodimer complex by transfection assays. Using ER subunits with modified DNA recognition specificity, we were able to measure the transcriptional properties of ERalpha-ERbeta heterodimers in transfected cells without interference from the two ER homodimer complexes. We first demonstrated that the individual activation function 1 (AF-1) domains act in a dominant manner within the ERalpha-ERbeta heterodimer: the mixed agonist-antagonist 4-hydroxytamoxifen acts as an agonist in a promoter- and cell context-dependent manner via the ERalpha AF-1, while activation of the complex by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway requires only the ERalpha- or ERbeta-responsive MAPK site. Using ligand-binding and AF-2-defective mutants, we further demonstrated that while the ERalpha-ERbeta heterodimer can be activated when only one E2-binding competent partner is present per dimer, two functional AF-2 domains are required for transcriptional activity. Taken together, the results of this study of a retinoid X receptor-independent heterodimer complex, the first such study, provide evidence of different stoichiometric requirements for AF-1 and -2 activity and demonstrate that AF-1 receptor-specific properties are maintained within the ERalpha-ERbeta heterodimer.  (+info)

Neu differentiation factor stimulates phosphorylation and activation of the Sp1 transcription factor. (3/24796)

Neu differentiation factors (NDFs), or neuregulins, are epidermal growth factor-like growth factors which bind to two tyrosine kinase receptors, ErbB-3 and ErbB-4. The transcription of several genes is regulated by neuregulins, including genes encoding specific subunits of the acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction. Here, we have examined the promoter of the acetylcholine receptor epsilon subunit and delineated a minimal CA-rich sequence which mediates transcriptional activation by NDF (NDF-response element [NRE]). Using gel mobility shift analysis with an NRE oligonucleotide, we detected two complexes that are induced by treatment with neuregulin and other growth factors and identified Sp1, a constitutively expressed zinc finger phosphoprotein, as a component of one of these complexes. Phosphatase treatment, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and an in-gel kinase assay indicated that Sp1 is phosphorylated by a 60-kDa kinase in response to NDF-induced signals. Moreover, Sp1 seems to act downstream of all members of the ErbB family and thus may funnel the signaling of the ErbB network into the nucleus.  (+info)

Ligand substitution of receptor targeted DNA complexes affects gene transfer into hepatoma cells. (4/24796)

We have targeted the serpin enzyme complex receptor for gene transfer in human hepatoma cell lines using peptides < 30 amino acids in length which contain the five amino acid recognition sequence for this receptor, coupled to poly K of average chain length 100 K, using the heterobifunctional coupling reagent sulfo-LC SPDP. The number of sulfo-LC SPDP modified poly-L-lysine residues, as well as the degree of peptide substitution was assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Conjugates were prepared in which 3.5%, 7.8% or 26% of the lysine residues contained the sulfo-LC SPDP moiety. Each of these conjugates was then coupled with ligand peptides so that one in 370, one in 1039, or one in 5882 lysines were substituted with receptor ligand. Electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to assess complex structure and size. HuH7 human hepatoma cells were transfected with complexes of these conjugates with the plasmid pGL3 and luciferase expression measured 2 to 16 days after treatment. All the protein conjugates in which 26% of the K residues were modified with sulfo-LC SPDP were poor gene transfer reagents. Complexes containing less substituted poly K, averaged 17 +/- 0.5 nm in diameter and gave peak transgene expression of 3-4 x 10(6) ILU/mg which persisted (> 7 x 10(5) ILU) at 16 days. Of these, more substituted polymers condensed DNA into complexes averaging 20 +/- 0.7 nm in diameter and gave five-fold less luciferase than complexes containing less substituted conjugates. As few as eight to 11 ligands per complex are optimal for DNA delivery via the SEC receptor. The extent of substitution of receptor-mediated gene transfer complexes affects the size of the complexes, as well as the intensity and duration of transgene expression. These observations may permit tailoring of complex construction for the usage required.  (+info)

p27 is involved in N-cadherin-mediated contact inhibition of cell growth and S-phase entry. (5/24796)

In this study the direct involvement of cadherins in adhesion-mediated growth inhibition was investigated. It is shown here that overexpression of N-cadherin in CHO cells significantly suppresses their growth rate. Interaction of these cells and two additional fibroblastic lines with synthetic beads coated with N-cadherin ligands (recombinant N-cadherin ectodomain or specific antibodies) leads to growth arrest at the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The cadherin-reactive beads inhibit the entry into S phase and the reduction in the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitors p21 and p27, following serum-stimulation of starved cells. In exponentially growing cells these beads induce G1 arrest accompanied by elevation in p27 only. We propose that cadherin-mediated signaling is involved in contact inhibition of growth by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase and elevation of p27 levels.  (+info)

Thymic selection by a single MHC/peptide ligand: autoreactive T cells are low-affinity cells. (6/24796)

In H2-M- mice, the presence of a single peptide, CLIP, bound to MHC class II molecules generates a diverse repertoire of CD4+ cells. In these mice, typical self-peptides are not bound to class II molecules, with the result that a very high proportion of H2-M- CD4+ cells are responsive to the various peptides displayed on normal MHC-compatible APC. We show here, however, that such "self" reactivity is controlled by low-affinity CD4+ cells. These cells give spectacularly high proliferative responses but are virtually unreactive in certain other assays, e.g., skin graft rejection; responses to MHC alloantigens, by contrast, are intense in all assays. Possible explanations for why thymic selection directed to a single peptide curtails self specificity without affecting alloreactivity are discussed.  (+info)

Calorimetric studies on the stability of the ribosome-inactivating protein abrin II: effects of pH and ligand binding. (7/24796)

The effects of pH and ligand binding on the stability of abrin II, a heterodimeric ribosome-inactivating protein, and its subunits have been studied using high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry. At pH7.2, the calorimetric scan consists of two transitions, which correspond to the B-subunit [transition temperature (Tm) 319.2K] and the A-subunit (Tm 324.6K) of abrin II, as also confirmed by studies on the isolated A-subunit. The calorimetric enthalpy of the isolated A-subunit of abrin II is similar to that of the higher-temperature transition. However, its Tm is 2.4K lower than that of the higher-temperature peak of intact abrin II. This indicates that there is some interaction between the two subunits. Abrin II displays increased stability as the pH is decreased to 4.5. Lactose increases the Tm values as well as the enthalpies of both transitions. This effect is more pronounced at pH7.2 than at pH4.5. This suggests that ligand binding stabilizes the native conformation of abrin II. Analysis of the B-subunit transition temperature as a function of lactose concentration suggests that two lactose molecules bind to one molecule of abrin II at pH7.2. The presence of two binding sites for lactose on the abrin II molecule is also indicated by isothermal titration calorimetry. Plotting DeltaHm (the molar transition enthalpy at Tm) against Tm yielded values for DeltaCp (change in excess heat capacity) of 27+/-2 kJ.mol-1.K-1 for the B-subunit and 20+/-1 kJ.mol-1.K-1 for the A-subunit. These values have been used to calculate the thermal stability of abrin II and to surmise the mechanism of its transmembrane translocation.  (+info)

The integrin alpha v beta 6 binds and activates latent TGF beta 1: a mechanism for regulating pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. (8/24796)

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) family members are secreted in inactive complexes with a latency-associated peptide (LAP), a protein derived from the N-terminal region of the TGF beta gene product. Extracellular activation of these complexes is a critical but incompletely understood step in regulation of TGF beta function in vivo. We show that TGF beta 1 LAP is a ligand for the integrin alpha v beta 6 and that alpha v beta 6-expressing cells induce spatially restricted activation of TGF beta 1. This finding explains why mice lacking this integrin develop exaggerated inflammation and, as we show, are protected from pulmonary fibrosis. These data identify a novel mechanism for locally regulating TGF beta 1 function in vivo by regulating expression of the alpha v beta 6 integrin.  (+info)

Clearly, the reliability of the relative affinity of a candidate ligand relies on the validity of Eq.(6), and requires the simultaneous satisfaction of the following prerequisites for the pair of the candidate ligand and its reference ligand. (a) The candidate ligand and its reference ligand bind to the same site(s) on the target. In practice, the binding site(s) of the candidate ligand can be judged based on its competitive binding against a reference ligand but can not be optimized. (b) The candidate ligand and its reference ligand, in both the PMFS and the concentrated extract, produce peak areas within their own linear ranges. (c) The candidate ligand and its reference ligand, in both the PMFS and the concentrated extract, produce peak areas over five times the absolute values of their own intercepts of linear response. (d) The candidate ligand and its reference ligand have binding ratios of below 10% in the competitive binding system. All the later three prerequisites should be met by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural characterization of a subtype-selective ligand reveals a novel mode of estrogen receptor antagonism. AU - Shiau, Andrew K.. AU - Barstad, Danielle. AU - Radek, James T.. AU - Meyers, Marvin J.. AU - Nettles, Kendall W.. AU - Katzenellenbogen, Benita S.. AU - Katzenellenbogen, John A.. AU - Agard, David A.. AU - Greene, Geoffrey L.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank T. Earnest for advice and assistance at beamline 5.0.2 (ALS is funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences). We also thank M. Butte, N. Ota and Y. Shibata for assistance with data collection; P. Coward, A. Derman, and Y. Li for comments on the manuscript; and H. Deacon for extensive graphical assistance. This work was supported by the NIH (B.S.K, J.A.K. and D.A.A), the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (D.A.A.), the Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation (G.L.G.), the USAMRMC (G.L.G.) and the Illinois Department of Public Health (G.L.G). In the initial phases of this work, A.K.S. ...
Protein target information for Chain A, WILD TYPE ESTROGEN NUCLEAR RECEPTOR LIGAND BINDING DOMAIN COMPLEXED WITH ESTRADIOL (human). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
Ligand binding assays (LBA) is an assay, or an analytic procedure, whose procedure or method relies on the binding of ligand molecules to receptors, antibodies or other macromolecules. A detection method is used to determine the presence and extent of the ligand-receptor complexes formed, and this is usually determined electrochemically or through a fluorescence detection method. This type of analytic test can be used to test for the presence of target molecules in a sample that are known to bind to the receptor. There are numerous types of ligand binding assays, both radioactive and non-radioactive. As such, ligand binding assays are a superset of radiobinding assays, which are the conceptual inverse of radioimmunoassays (RIA). Some newer types are called mix-and-measure assays because they do not require separation of bound ligands. Ligand binding assays are used primarily in pharmacology for various demands. Specifically, despite the human bodys endogenous receptors, hormones, and other ...
The nature of the ligands dictates the composition, molecular formulae, atomic structure and the physical properties of thiolate protected gold nanomolecules, Aun(SR)m. In this review, we describe the ligand effect for three classes of thiols namely, aliphatic, AL or aliphatic-like, aromatic, AR, or bulky, BU thiol ligands. The ligand effect is demonstrated using three experimental setups namely: (1) The nanomolecule series obtained by direct synthesis using AL, AR, and BU ligands; (2) Molecular conversion and interconversion between Au38(S-AL)24, Au36(S-AR)24, and Au30(S-BU)18 nanomolecules; and (3) Synthesis of Au38, Au36, and Au30 nanomolecules from one precursor Aun(S-glutathione)m upon reacting with AL, AR, and BU ligands. These nanomolecules possess unique geometric core structure, metal-ligand staple interface, optical and electrochemical properties. The results unequivocally demonstrate that the ligand structure determines the nanomolecules atomic structure, metal-ligand interface and
TY - CHAP. T1 - Induction of cell adhesion and cell spreading by various cell surface ligands. AU - Grinnell, F.. PY - 1977. Y1 - 1977. UR - UR - M3 - Chapter. AN - SCOPUS:17344391658. VL - 6. BT - Journal of Supramolecular and Cellular Biochemistry. ER - ...
Glyconanomaterials, nanomaterials carrying multiple carbohydrate ligands, provide an excellent platform for sensitive protein recognition. Using nanomaterials as the scaffold, multivalent interactions between glycan ligands and proteins have been demonstrated. However, the quantitative analysis of the binding affinity of these glyconanomaterials has been lacking. In this Article, we report a new method to measure the binding affinity of glyconanoparticle (GNP)-protein interactions based on a fluorescent competition binding assay, which yielded the apparent dissociation constant (K-d) of GNPs with the interacting protein. Au nanoparticles conjugated with underivatized mono-, oligo-, and polysaccharides were synthesized using our recently developed photocoupling chemistry. The affinities of these GNPs with lectins were measured and were several orders of magnitude higher than the corresponding free ligands with lectins. The effect of ligand display on the binding affinity of GNPs was, furthermore, ...
PREFACE TO THE SIXTH EDITION. ABBREVIATIONS.. 1. Applications in Coordination Chemistry.. 1.1. Ammine, Amido, and Related Complexes.. 1.2. Complexes of Ethylenediamine and Related Ligands.. 1.3. Complexes of Pyridine and Related Ligands.. 1.4. Complexes of Bipyridine and Related Ligands.. 1.5. Metalloporphyrins.. 1.6. Metallochlorins, Chlorophylls, and Metallophthalocyanines.. 1.7. Nitro and Nitrito Complexes.. 1.8. Lattice Water and Aquo and Hydroxo Complexes.. 1.9. Complexes of Alkoxides, Alcohols, Ethers, Ketones, Aldehydes, Esters, and Carboxylic Acids.. 1.10. Complexes of Amino Acids, EDTA, and Related Ligands.. 1.11. Infrared Spectra of Aqueous Solutions.. 1.12. Complexes of Oxalato and Related Ligands.. 1.13. Complexes of Sulfate, Carbonate, and Related Ligands.. 1.14. Complexes of b-Diketones.. 1.15. Complexes of Urea, Sulfoxides, and Related Ligands.. 1.16. Cyano and Nitrile Complexes.. 1.17. Thiocyanato and Other Pseudohalogeno Complexes.. 1.18. Complexes of Carbon Monoxide.. 1.19. ...
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Multivalency achieves strong, yet reversible binding by the simultaneous formation of multiple weak bonds. It is a key interaction principle in biology and promising for the synthesis of high-affinity inhibitors of pathogens. We present a molecular model for the binding affinity of synthetic multivalent ligands onto multivalent receptors consisting of n receptor units arranged on a regular polygon. Ligands consist of a geometrically matching rigid polygonal core to which monovalent ligand units are attached via flexible linker polymers, closely mimicking existing experimental designs. The calculated binding affinities quantitatively agree with experimental studies for cholera toxin (n = 5) and anthrax receptor (n = 7) and allow to predict optimal core size and optimal linker length. Maximal binding affinity is achieved for a core that matches the receptor size and for linkers that have an equilibrium end-to-end distance that is slightly longer than the geometric separation between ligand core ...
This invention is directed to a ligand-receptor assay for determining the presence of at least one target ligand, capable of competing with a ligand analogue conjugate for binding sites available on a ligand receptor, said ligand analogue conjugate comprising at least one ligand analogue coupled to a colloidal gold particle, in a fluid sample suspected of containing said target ligand comprising the steps of: a. contacting said fluid sample with said ligand analogue conjugate and said ligand receptor to form a homogeneous reaction mixture, the relative amounts of said ligand analogue conjugate and said ligand receptor being selected such that in the absence of said target ligand and subsequent to substantially equilibrium binding in said reaction mixture, substantially all of said ligand analogue conjugate is bound to said ligand receptor such that no unbound ligand analogue conjugate is detected as a result of the assay method; b. detecting unbound ligand analogue conjugates in said reaction mixture by
Antagonist-bound closed state GluA2 density map quality and resolutiona,b, GluA2em antagonist-bound closed state density map with coordinates for ATD dimers, LB
The new β2 Adrenoceptor (β2AR) crystal structures provide a high-resolution snapshot of receptor interactions with two particular partial inverse agonists, (−)-carazolol and timolol. However, both...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison between single saturating dose ligand binding assay and enzyme immunoassay for low-salt extractable oestrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer. T2 - A multicentre study. AU - Gion, Massimo. AU - Dittadi, Ruggero. AU - Leon, Antonette E.. AU - Bruscagnin, Giuliano. AU - Pelizzola, Dario. AU - Giovannini, Gloria. AU - Giganti, Melchiorre. AU - Messeri, Gianni. AU - Quercioli, Massimo. AU - Flamini, Emanuela. AU - Riccobon, Angela. AU - Bozzetti, Cecilia. AU - Benecchi, Magda. AU - De Lena, Mario. AU - Paradiso, Angelo. AU - Ruggeri, Giuseppina. AU - Luisi, Patrizia. AU - Piffanelli, Adriano. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - An excellent correlation between ligand binding assay (LBA) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for both oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors has been reported. Nevertheless, considering that the clinical value of any discrepancy between LBA and EIA probably varies with the receptor level, we undertook a collaborative study in which a single ...
article{8565564, abstract = {Currently, there is mounting evidence that intermolecular receptor-receptor interactions may result in altered receptor recognition, pharmacology and signaling. Heterobivalent ligands have been proven useful as molecular probes for confirming and targeting heteromeric receptors. This report describes the design and synthesis of novel heterobivalent ligands for dopamine D-2-like receptors (D-2-likeR) and the -opioid receptor (OR) and their evaluation using ligand binding and functional assays. Interestingly, we identified a potent bivalent ligand that contains a short 18-atom linker and combines good potency with high efficacy both in -arrestin2 recruitment for OR and MAPK-P for D4R. Furthermore, this compound was characterized by a biphasic competition binding curve for the D4R-OR heterodimer, indicative of a bivalent binding mode. As this compound possibly bridges the D4R-OR heterodimer, it could be used as a pharmacological tool to further investigate the ...
Описан подробный протокол для выполнения титрования ELISA. Кроме того представлен Роман алгоритм оценки титрования ELISAs и получить...
In case functional assays are available TriCEPS coupled ligands can also be tested to see if a similar output is achievable with a TriCEPS coupled ligand compared to a ligand that is not coupled to TriCEPS.. In addition, TriCEPS V2.0 can be utilized as Flow Cytometry (FACS) reagent for detecting binding of primary amine containing molecules to cells.. As first step, the TriCEPS v.2.0 molecule is coupled to the ligand of interest (peptide, protein, Antibody, ADC or other primary amine containing molecules) and to the positive control ligand (e.g. transferrin) and negative control ligand (e.g. glycine). This coupling reaction is tested with Dot blot to assess if the coupling worked.. Then, the TriCEPS coupled ligands are then added to the non-oxidized cells to show that the ligand binds to the unknown targets at the cell surface and TriCEPS does not interfere with the ligand receptor interaction.. Flow Cytometry tests with TriCEPS coupled ligand on oxidized cells can be further performed to test ...
Binding Affinity Prediction of Protein-Ligand complex containing Zinc [ BAPPL-Z ] server computes the binding free energy of a zinc containing metalloprotein-ligand complex using an all atom energy based empirical scoring function
Recently the first community-wide assessments of the prediction of the structures of complexes between proteins and small molecule ligands have been reported in the so-called GPCR Dock 2008 and 2010 assessments. In the current review we discuss the different steps along the protein-ligand modeling workflow by critically analyzing the modeling strategies we used to predict the structures of protein-ligand complexes we submitted to the recent GPCR Dock 2010 challenge. These representative test cases, focusing on the pharmaceutically relevant G Protein-Coupled Receptors, are used to demonstrate the strengths and challenges of the different modeling methods. Our analysis indicates that the proper performance of the sequence alignment, introduction of structural adjustments guided by experimental data, and the usage of experimental data to identify protein-ligand interactions are critical steps in the protein-ligand modeling protocol.
Background: Using the popular program AutoDock, computer-aided docking of small ligands with 6 or fewer rotatable bonds, is reasonably fast and accurate. However, docking large ligands using AutoDocks recommended standard docking protocol is less accurate and computationally slow. Results: In our earlier work, we presented a novel AutoDock-based incremental protocol (DINC) that addresses the limitations of AutoDocks standard protocol by enabling improved docking of large ligands. Instead of docking a large ligand to a target protein in one single step as done in the standard protocol, our protocol docks the large ligand in increments. In this paper, we present three detailed examples of docking using DINC and compare the docking results with those obtained using AutoDocks standard protocol. We summarize the docking results from an extended docking study that was done on 73 protein-ligand complexes comprised of large ligands. We demonstrate not only that DINC is up to 2 orders of magnitude ...
While human and mouse genetics consistently have unveiled various physiological roles of members of the pGC family, overall the mode of ligand‐dependent as well as ligand‐independent activation of these transmembrane enzymes leading to intracellular cGMP synthesis remains enigmatic. The intracellular region of pGCs consists of a juxtamembranous protein kinase-homology domain, an amphipathic α‐helical or hinge region, and the C‐terminal cyclase catalytic domain (Fig 1) (reviewed by Potter, 2011). The hinge region is involved in higher order oligomerization. Hence, although pGCs contain a single cyclase site per polypeptide chain, receptor dimerization is essential for the activation of this cGMP‐synthesizing domain (Potter, 2011). The crystal structures of the extracellular domain of GC‐A, in complex with atrial natriuretic peptide, or in absence of the ligand, suggested that hormone binding induces a rotation of the juxtamembrane domains, which is transmitted across the ...
The use of surrogates either as native orthologous proteins or as optimized chimeras, which can be readily crystallized and soaked with small molecules, has been validated by its success in other fields, particularly in guiding kinase inhibitor development (Ikuta et al., 2001; Breitenlechner et al., 2004). One should bear in mind, however, that the surrogate approach has its limitations, and local structural differences may have considerable effect on ligand binding (Davies et al., 2007). HIV-1 and PFV INs are fully orthologous, with identical canonical domain folds and stoichiometry. Fortuitously, all intasome atoms (protein, DNA, metal ions) that are in contact with the soaked INSTI molecules are invariant between HIV-1 and PFV (Hare et al., 2010a). Thus, we expect that structural differences between HIV-1 and PFV intasomes that are directly relevant to INSTI binding will be small. An unbiased test of this idea can be made by comparing the active sites in isolated catalytic core domains from ...
Recently, N,N-trans Re(O)(LN-O)2X (LN-O = monoanionic N-O chelates; X = Cl or Br prior to being replaced by solvents or alkoxides) complexes have been found to be superior to the corresponding N,N-cis isomers in the catalytic reduction of perchlorate via oxygen atom transfer. However, reported methods for Re(O)(LN-O)2X synthesis often yield only the N,N-cis complex or a mixture of trans and cis isomers. This study reports a geometry-inspired ligand design rationale that selectively yields N,N-trans Re(O)(LN-O)2Cl complexes. Analysis of the crystal structures revealed that the dihedral angles (DAs) between the two LN-O ligands of N,N-cis Re(O)(LN-O)2Cl complexes are less than 90°, whereas the DAs in most N,N-trans complexes are greater than 90°. Variably sized alkyl groups (−Me, −CH2Ph, and −CH2Cy) were then introduced to the 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)-2-oxazoline (Hhoz) ligand to increase steric hindrance in the N,N-cis structure, and it was found that substituents as small as −Me ...
In the case of the CaM-CaMKK complex, we obtained a set of desired near-native decoys with lowest interaction energy (Figure 3) and high Tc-IFPs (Figure 4). These results are explained by the structure of the CaM-CaMKK complex, which is different from those of the CaM-CNG and CaM-PMCA complexes. The globular cognate structure of CaM in the CaM-CaMKK complex differed only slightly from that of the CaM-CNG complex, indicating that the cavity of the CaM-CaMKK complex is narrower than that of the CaM-CNG complex, as shown in Figure 2. In contrast to the simple alpha helical structure of the CNG and PMCA ligand peptides, the CaMKK ligand peptide has an additional loop region in the C-terminal end. These structural features of the ligand have contributed in obtaining a set of near-native decoys for the CaM-CaMKK complex. In context with the shape of the ligand peptide, it is noteworthy that we found CaM-CNG b-decoys in which the CNG was bound to the CaM cavity in an inverse manner as compared to the ...
A soluble factor produced by HTU-34 cells is responsible for αvβ3 ligand-binding activity and recruitment to FCs. (A) Adhesion assay. Treatment of HTU-34 cel
Hi, When you say wrong postion, what does it mean? are the 2 ligands you are trying to refine being pushed away from each other? If that is the case first thing I would check is the ALTLOC comlumn of their pdb file entries. Make sure one is ALTLOC A and the other ALTLOC B. I have refined with ligands in four different positions before using phenix before and got satisfactory results... Hope this helps, -- Yuri Pompeu ...
The fact that over 30% of current pharmaceuticals target heptahelical G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) attests to their tractability as drug targets. While GPCR drug development has traditionally focused on conventional agonists and antagonists, the growing appreciation that GPCRs mediate physiologically relevant effects via both G protein and non-G protein effectors has prompted the search for ligands that can bias downstream signaling in favor of one or the other process. Biased ligands are novel entities with distinct signaling profiles dictated by ligand structure, and the potential prospect of biased ligands as better drugs has been pleonastically proclaimed. Indeed, preclinical proof-of-concept studies have demonstrated that both G protein and arrestin pathway-selective ligands can promote beneficial effects in vivo while simultaneously antagonizing deleterious ones. But along with opportunity comes added complexity and new challenges for drug discovery. If ligands can be biased, then ...
Carroll, F., Blough, B., Mascarella, S., Xu, H., Goodman, C. B., & Rothman, R. B. (1993). Synthesis and Ligand Binding at PCP Sites 1 and 2 for Hexahydro-2-substituted-1-methylindeno[1,2-b]pyrroles. Medicinal Chemistry Research, 3, 178 ...
The Rho GTPases are known regulators of the actin cytoskeleton and affect multiple cellular activities including cell morphology, polarity, migration, proliferation and apoptosis, phagocytosis, cytokinesis, adhesion, vesicular transport, transcription, and neurite extension and retraction. Like DOCK2, DOCK8 is likely to regulate the activity of GTPases and thus be involved in cytoskeletal changes associated with various cellular processes. DOCK8 is proposed to serve as an effector downstream of CD19 and PI3K to promote G protein signaling events critical for integrin polarization at the synapse and for the survival of marginal zone B cells and germinal center (GC) B cells. During a T cell-dependent humoral immune response, CD4+ T helper cell subsets including TFH, Th1 and Th2 cells migrate to the T cell/B cell borders in secondary lymphoid organs, and interact with cognate antigen-specific B cells through the pairing of T cell and B cell surface ligands and receptors such as CD40 with its ligand ...
Flt3-ligand (FMS related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand, flk-2 ligand) is involved in proliferation and differentiation of early hematopoietic cells. Flt3-ligand synergizes with other CSFs and interleukins to induce proliferation of early hematopoietic cells but does not stimulate growth or differentiation alone. Flt3-ligand binds to cells expressing the tyrosine kinase receptor Flt3. Multiple isoforms of Flt3 ligand have been identified but the predominant biologically active isoform is a transmembrane protein which can be proteolytically cleaved to generate a biologically active soluble form. ...
Low-affinity ligands can be efficiently optimized into high-affinity drug leads by structure based drug design when atomic-resolution structural information on the protein/ligand complexes is availabl
The problem with method #1 is that it is very labor intensive, and that any compound proposed may be difficult and/or expensive to acquire. The problem with approach #2 is that the compounds may still be difficult to acquire, although there are strategies to overcome this limitation. It can also be, relatively speaking, slow. The third approach, docking, is the one taken by DOCK and its graphical user interface, DOCK Blaster. It is particularly pragmatic when used to screen a database of compounds that can be acquired rapidly, such as those in ZINC, because the time from hypothesis to experimental test can be very short, and the project can progress rapidly. ...
Serotonin receptors (5-HTRs), especially the 5-HT1A subtype, have been the subject of intensive research for the past decade, due to their function in human physiology. Several structurally different classes of ligands are known to bind to the 5-HT1A receptor, but arylpiperazine derivatives are among the most important ligands. In the work, docking analyses were used to explain the binding affinities of a series of ligands with different N-1 substituent. All ligands had in common the arylpiperazine structure, while the N-1 subsistent was modified to investigate the influence of ligand structure on its binding affinity. The shape and size, as well as the rigidity of the subsistents were altered to investigate the possible effects on the formation of the receptor - ligand complex ...
Ligand binding affinities at G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) have historically been determined using a radioligand that competes for receptor binding sites against an unlabeled drug-like compound. But the potential hazards of open-source radioisotope handling, and the environmental impact of radioisotope disposal, make this a less desirable and costly technology. Therefore, new fluorescent based alternatives have been developed to replace radioligands.
Aspartate mutation distinguishes ETA but not ETB receptor subtype-selective ligand binding while abolishing phospholipase C activation in both receptors.: The e
Photoaffinity cross‐linking is a rapidly developing technology for studying biomolecular interactions, including protein ligand‐receptor binding
One of the major challenges in the field of system biology is to understand the interaction between a wide range of proteins and ligands. In the past, methods have been developed for predicting binding sites in a protein for a limited number of ligands.. ...
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Soluble ligands have growing interest as targets and constitute 10% of novel targets in clinical trials. Photograph: Matton Soluble ligands have...
Supplementary Materialscancers-12-01427-s001. we show that RL2 is usually targeted to mitochondria after internalization into the cells, where it can also be found in the dimeric form. The importance of TOM70 and RL2 conversation in RL2-induced reduction in ATP levels was validated by siRNA-induced downregulation of CEP33779 TOM70, resulting in the partial rescue of ATP production. Taken together, this study demonstrates that RL2CTOM70 conversation plays a key role in RL2-mediated cell death and targeting this pathway may provide new therapeutic options for treating breast malignancy. 0.05), ** (significant; 0.01), *** (significant; 0.005), **** (significant; 0.001). You will find two ways of apoptosis induction: extrinsic and intrinsic. The extrinsic apoptotic signaling is usually brought on by ligand binding to the death receptors (DRs), e.g., CD95 (APO-1/Fas) [13,14] CEP33779 or TRAIL-R1/2 [15]. The specific ligand binding to the receptor results in formation of the death inducing signaling ...
Structural and Dynamical Insight into PPARγ Antagonism: In silico Study of the Ligand-Receptor Interactions of non-Covalent Antagonists
ParDOCK is an all-atom energy based Monte Carlo protein ligand docking, implemented in a fully automated, parallel processing mode which predicts the binding mode of the ligand in receptor target site
A method is disclosed for coupling a ligand within a porous support. The method involves mixing ligand and porous support under conditions sufficient to suppress coupling conditions of the ligand to the porous support while enhancing the relative rate of diffusion, to the rate of reaction, of the ligand into and within the porous support, and then altering the conditions to enhance rapid coupling of the ligand within the porous support. The alteration from diffusion conditions to coupling conditions involves a change in the reaction solution of pH, ionic strength, temperature, coupling competitor, such that a relatively lower Thiele Modulus during diffusion conditions changes to a relatively higher Thiele Modulus during coupling conditions. Derivatized porous supports produced according to the method are also disclosed. The derivatized porous support has enhanced functional efficiency. Derivatized porous supports prepared from azlactone-functional porous supports are also disclosed ...
TFA Salt. Storage:. Store at -20°C. Store under desiccating conditions. The product can be stored for up to 12 months.. Note:. This product as supplied is intended for research use only, not for use in human, therapeutic or diagnostic applications without the expressed written authorization of United States Biological.. Documents:. MSDS ...
Users can interactively analyze protein-small ligand binding modes with statistically determined interaction patterns rather than relying on a priori knowledge of the users.
Bishwa I am using Phenix 1.0-1069 for refinement and coot 0.7-pre-1 for , visualization , and rebuilding. I used SMILES in coot to build the ligand and then merged , them , with PDB.I had to do this as a separate step for both chains and the .cif , file , so produced was not accepted for refinement. , Why? Can you send me the files directly? , , I used readyset to obtain the restrains for refinement using .pdb file, , even , though my refinement works, when i try to run real build refine in coot I , get , this error message: , It would be better to generate the restraints using the SMILES in eLBOW and then pass the restraints file to ReadySet!. Send me the file and we can fix them Nigel NB. Any files sent to me will be held in strictest confidence. , , Failed to match (to the dictionary) the following model atom names: , HB3 , O6 C10 C11 C12 O7 C13 O5 C8 C9 ...... , That would cause exploding atoms, so the refinement didnt start. , , Could someone help me with fixing this ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. ...
Ligands[edit]. Ligands containing a chiral 2-oxazoline ring are used in asymmetric catalysis due to their facile synthesis, ... Trisoxazolinylborate ligands. Polymers[edit]. 2-Oxazolines, such as 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline, can undergo living cationic ring- ... McManus, Helen A.; Guiry, Patrick J. (2004). "Recent Developments in the Application of Oxazoline-Containing Ligands in ... Hargaden, Gráinne C.; Guiry, Patrick J. (2009). "Recent Applications of Oxazoline-Containing Ligands in Asymmetric Catalysis". ...
Phosphine ligands are usually "spectator" rather than "actor" ligands. They generally do not participate in reactions, except ... also function as ligands. Such ligands are less basic and have small cone angles. These complexes are susceptible to ... 1973). Transition Metal Complexes of Phosphorus, Arsenic, and Antimony Ligands. J. Wiley. ISBN 0-470-58117-4. .. . ... Phosphine ligands are also π-acceptors. Their π-acidity arises from overlap of P-C σ* anti-bonding orbitals with filled metal ...
Ligand[edit]. The primary ligand for P-selectin is P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) which is expressed on almost all ... However, PSGL-1 is not specific for P-selectin, as it can also function as a ligand for both E- and L-selectin.[17] ... Ligands for P-selectin on eosinophils and neutrophils are similar sialylated, protease-sensitive, endo-beta-galactosidase- ... Vestweber D, Blanks JE (January 1999). "Mechanisms that regulate the function of the selectins and their ligands". Physiol. Rev ...
Binding for ligands other than oxygen[edit]. Besides the oxygen ligand, which binds to hemoglobin in a cooperative manner, ... hemoglobin ligands also include competitive inhibitors such as carbon monoxide (CO) and allosteric ligands such as carbon ... A sixth position can reversibly bind oxygen by a coordinate covalent bond,[39] completing the octahedral group of six ligands. ... and fungi all have hemoglobin-like proteins whose known and predicted roles include the reversible binding of gaseous ligands. ...
Depending on its subunit composition, its ligands are glutamate and glycine (or D-serine). However, the binding of the ligands ... The extracellular domain contains two globular structures: a modulatory domain and a ligand-binding domain. GluN1 subunits bind ... While the opening and closing of the ion channel is primarily gated by ligand binding, the current flow through the ion channel ... The allosteric site, which modulates receptor function when bound to a ligand, is not occupied. NMDARs require the binding of ...
Ligands[edit]. A number of ligands for FXR are known, of both natural and synthetic origin.[11][12][13] ... ligand-dependent nuclear receptor binding. • transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific ... Chenodeoxycholic acid and other bile acids are natural ligands for FXR. Similar to other nuclear receptors, when activated, FXR ... RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, ligand-activated sequence-specific DNA binding. • bile acid receptor activity ...
Ligands[edit]. Two of the primary active constituents responsible for the antidepressant and anxiolytic benefits of Hypericum ...
Ligands[edit]. GPER binds estradiol though not other endogenous estrogens, such as estrone or estriol, nor for other endogenous ...
Selective ligands[edit]. A number of selective ligands are available for NK3. NK3 receptor antagonists are being investigated ... Neurokinin B - endogenous peptide ligand, also interacts with other neurokinin receptors but has highest affinity for NK3 ... "Expression cloning of cDNA encoding a seven-helix receptor from human placenta with affinity for opioid ligands". Proceedings ...
The metal to ligand chemical bond is largely ionic. Ligands[edit]. Most organoscandium compounds have at least one ... 2 two allyl ligands are η3 coordinated and one allyl ligand is η1 coordinated. ... Chlorine can be replaced by a host of other ligands for example by an allyl group in reaction with allylmagnesium bromide: ScCp ... Cp2ScX compounds are dimers with X forming a bridging ligand. Dimerization is avoided in presence of coordinating solvent such ...
One of the ligands phenyl-groups can be replaced by propene, and the resulting diphenylpropylphosphine ligand can inhibit the ... Catalyst and ligands[edit]. The triphenylphosphine complexes are under reaction conditions potentially subject to hydrogenation ... Using chiral phosphine ligands, the hydroformylation can be tailored to favor one enantiomer.[11] Thus, for example, ... Bulky ligands exacerbate this steric hindrance. Hence, the mixed carbonyl/phosphine complexes offer a greater selectivity for ...
Many complexes feature coordination bonds between a metal and organic ligands. The organic ligands often bind the metal through ... However, if any of the ligands form a direct M-C bond, then complex is usually considered to be organometallic, e.g., [(C6H6)Ru ... For highly electropositive elements, such as lithium and sodium, the carbon ligand exhibits carbanionic character, but free ... refers to metal-containing compounds lacking direct metal-carbon bonds but which contain organic ligands. Metal β-diketonates, ...
... pyridine-based dopamine D4 receptor ligands: discovery of an inverse agonist radioligand for PET". Journal of Medicinal ... azines as selective D4-ligands. Induction of penile erection by 2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-ylmethyl]imidazo[1,2-a] ...
Ligands[edit]. Activating ligands[edit]. The following standard prostaglandins have the following relative affinities and ... Inhibiting ligands[edit]. The following compounds are selective receptor antagonists of and thereby inhibit the activation of ... Ligands that activate DP2 stimulate the in vitro chemotaxis (i.e. directed migration) of leukocytes active in mediating ... G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) such as DP2 are integral membrane proteins that, when bound by their cognate ligands (or, ...
Integrin ligands (collagens, fibrinogen, fibronectin, laminins, ICAM-1, ICAM-2, osteopontin, VCAM-1, vitronectin) ...
Selective Ligands[edit]. Several selective ligands for NK2 are now available, and although most of the compounds developed so ... Bhogal N, Donnelly D, Findlay JB (Nov 1994). "The ligand binding site of the neurokinin 2 receptor. Site-directed mutagenesis ...
Selective ligands[edit]. A range of selective ligands for the GHS-R receptor are now available and are being developed for ... One transcript, 1a, excises an intron and encodes the functional protein; this protein is the receptor for the ghrelin ligand ...
Organofluorine ligands in transition metal chemistry[edit]. Organofluorine ligands have long been featured in organometallic ... 5.7 Organofluorine ligands in transition metal chemistry *5.7.1 C-F bond activation ... The organofluorine compounds can serve as a "sigma-donor ligand," as illustrated by the titanium(III) derivative [(C5Me5)2Ti(FC ... In an area where coordination chemistry and materials science overlap, the fluorination of organic ligands is used to tune the ...
Ligands[edit]. Agonists[edit]. *α-MSH - nonselective peptide full agonist. *β-MSH - nonselective peptide full agonist ...
2008). "Novel High-Affinity and Selective Biaromatic 4-Substituted gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) Analogues as GHB Ligands: ... November 2003). "Selective gamma-hydroxybutyric acid receptor ligands increase extracellular glutamate in the hippocampus, but ...
Ligands[edit]. Antagonists. *A-315456[6]. *BMY 7378 (also α2C antagonist)[7] ...
... (abbreviated as en when a ligand) is the organic compound with the formula C2H4(NH2)2. This colorless liquid ... The salen ligands, some of which are used in catalysis, are derived from the condensation of salicylaldehydes and ... Related ligands[edit]. Related derivatives of ethylenediamine include tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA) and ... Ethylenediamine is a well-known bidentate chelating ligand for coordination compounds, with the two nitrogen atoms donating ...
Selective Ligands[edit]. The cholecystokinin B receptor responds to a number of ligands. ... Integrin ligands (collagens, fibrinogen, fibronectin, laminins, ICAM-1, ICAM-2, osteopontin, VCAM-1, vitronectin) ...
Ligands[edit]. Agonists[edit]. *Ergotamine (vasoconstrictor in migraine). *Oxymetazoline. *Sumatriptan (vasoconstrictor in ...
Ligands[edit]. Until comparatively recently, there were few pharmacological tools for the study of δ receptors. As a ... A showing of selective delta opioid ligands. Blue represents a common phenolic moiety, yellow a basic nitrogen, and red a ... Recent work indicates that exogenous ligands that activate the δ receptors mimic the phenomenon known as ischemic ... In the rat model, introduction of δ active ligands results in significant cardioprotection.[23] ...
Ligands[edit]. Many selective ligands for the CB2 receptor are now available.[48] ... Cannabinoid receptors and their ligands: beyond CB₁ and CB₂". Pharmacological Reviews. 62 (4): 588-631. doi:10.1124/pr. ... Feng W, Song ZH (Apr 2003). "Effects of D3.49A, R3.50A, and A6.34E mutations on ligand binding and activation of the ... Pertwee RG (Apr 2006). "The pharmacology of cannabinoid receptors and their ligands: an overview". International Journal of ...
Systems, receptors and ligands[edit]. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July 2019) ... 2009). Ligand-binding assays development, validation, and implementation in the drug development arena. Hoboken, N.J.: John ... The development of the ligand binding assay in 1945 allowed quantification of the binding affinity of drugs at chemical targets ... The major systems studied in pharmacology can be categorised by their ligands and include acetylcholine, adrenaline, glutamate ...
Not every ligand that binds to a receptor also activates that receptor. The following classes of ligands exist:. *(Full) ... Ligands[edit]. The ligands for receptors are as diverse as their receptors. Examples include:[11] ... Ligand-receptor complex. ]. {\displaystyle \left[\mathrm {Ligand} \right]\cdot \left[\mathrm {Receptor} \right]\;\;{\overset {K ... Ligand binding is an equilibrium process. Ligands bind to receptors and dissociate from them according to the law of mass ...
Complexes with simple ligands[edit]. TiCl4 is a Lewis acid as implicated by its tendency to hydrolyze. With the ether THF, TiCl ... TiCl4 reacts exothermically with donor solvents such as THF to give hexacoordinated adducts.[9] Bulkier ligands (L) give ... surrounded by four identical ligands. This configuration leads to highly symmetrical structures, hence the tetrahedral shape of ...
Ligands[edit]. Decay accelerating factor (DAF/CD55), a regulatory protein of the complement cascade, interacts with the first ... Mice lacking CD97 or its ligand CD55 have twice as many granulocytes as wild-type mice possibly due to enhanced granulopoiesis. ... The expression of CD97 on macrophage and the abundant presence of its ligand CD55 on fibroblast-like synovial cells suggest ... "Expression of the EGF-TM7 receptor CD97 and its ligand CD55 (DAF) in multiple sclerosis". Journal of Neuroimmunology. 132 (1-2 ...
This article is about ligands in biochemistry. For ligands in inorganic chemistry, see Ligand. For other uses, see Ligand ( ... Bivalent ligand[edit]. Bivalent ligands consist of two drug-like molecules (pharmacophores or ligands) connected by an inert ... High-affinity ligand binding implies that a relatively low concentration of a ligand is adequate to maximally occupy a ligand- ... In the example shown to the left, ligand-binding curves are shown for two ligands with different binding affinities. Ligand ...
4-1BB+Ligand at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... 4-1BBL (4-1BB ligand) is found on APCs (antigen presenting cells) and binds to 4-1BB. ... Retrieved from "" ...
EGF like ligands; Growth Factors Epidermal growth factor (EGF-)-like family members bind to and activate EGF receptor tyrosine ... Harris RC, Chung E, Coffey RJ (2003) EGF receptor ligands. Exp Cell Res 284:2-13CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Wu WK, Tse TT, Sung JJ, Li ZJ, Yu L, Cho CH (2009) Expression of ErbB receptors and their cognate ligands in gastric and colon ... Dong J, Wiley HS (2000) Trafficking and proteolytic release of epidermal growth factor receptor ligands are modulated by their ...
Overall, 800 ligand-target predictions of prospectively designed ligands were tested experimentally, of which 75% were ... They tested experimentally 800 ligand-target predictions of prospectively designed ligands; 75% were confirmed correct, and the ... Here we describe a new approach for the automated design of ligands against profiles of multiple drug targets. The method is ... An automated approach designing drug ligands to multi-target profiles (with a 75% prediction success rate) is experimentally ...
... chiral ligands, Buchwald, cataCXium®, and Dalphos ligands for applications such as Negishi, Suzuki, Stille, Heck, Sonogashira, ... Our diverse portfolio of phosphine ligands includes monodentate, bidentate, ... bidentate phosphine ligands and precursors, chiral ligands, Buchwald ligands, cataCXium® ligands, and DalPhos Ligands. ... Many bidenatate phoshine ligands and precursors have been designed to introduce a chiral ligand during synthesis. These ligands ...
An alkene ligand contains a π bond between carbon atoms, C=C, which can serve as an electron pair donor in a metal complex, as ... The alkene ligand bonds to the metal centre by both electron donation and acceptance, similar to the situation with carbon ... The allyl ligand, ―CH2―CH=CH2, can bind to a metal atom in either of two configurations: as an η1-ligand or an η3-ligand. ... Polyene ligands. Diene (―C=C―C=C―) and larger polyene ligands present the possibility of several points of attachment to a ...
... is concerned with the identification of ligands (drugs) that bind nucleic acids (NA) and provide users with sets of specific ... The nucleic acids and ligands database (NALD) is concerned with the identification of ligands (drugs) that bind nucleic acids ( ... classes and links to diseases may be in association with the ligands. These were calculated from entries of NA/Ligand complexes ... Bioinformatics Database Data mining Data integration Nucleic acids Binding motifs Ligands Drugs Diseases ...
Definition of addressin ligands. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Includes medical terms and definitions ...
ligand, pioglitazone, in rats," Redox Report, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 294-299, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar ... ligand, provides protection from dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice in association with inhibition of the NF-κB- ... ligand-induced apoptosis through a p53-dependent mechanism in human gastric cancer cells," Cancer Science, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. ... ligand, inhibits aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats," Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 15, no. 6, pp ...
Ligand "noninnocence" in coordination complexes vs. kinetic, mechanistic, and selectivity issues in electrochemical catalysis ...
Some ligands that share electrons with metals form very stable complexes. Some common bases that act as ligands are water and ... ligand lĭg´ənd [key], charged or uncharged molecule with one or more unshared pairs of electrons that can attach to a central ... Polyfunctional ligands, which bind to the metal ion with two or more pairs of electrons, are called chelates (see chelating ... These ligands are monofunctional, i.e., they are attached by one unshared pair of electrons during complexing. ...
... An important aspect of simple Crystal Field Theory is the orientation of the d-orbital lobes with respect ... If you know the author of Ligand Field Theory, please help us out by filling out the form below and clicking Send. ... Note that the lobes point towards either the centres of the faces (where the ligands would sit for an octahedral complex) or ... You just viewed Ligand Field Theory. Please take a moment to rate this material. ...
Therefore, iron-haem complexes are ligands in the biochemical sense for the globin; and the oxygen is a ligand in the chemical ... providing some of its ligands.. Haem molecules occupy four ligand positions around the central iron atom, in a plane. When ...
Landis Ligands. By: William Sommer and Daniel Weibel, Aldrich ChemFiles 2008, 8.2, 84. ... Two of the essential components for highly active and selective catalysts are the ligand and the metal. Professor Landis and co ... Utilizing this newly developed ligand, Thomas and coworkers synthesized a series of oxazolines and imidazoles.1 Reacting vinyl ... Professor Landis and coworkers developed a new family of ligands based on 2,5‑disubstituted phospholane addressing these issues ...
Synthesis and ligand-based reduction chemistry of boron difluoride complexes with redox-active formazanate ligands M.-C. Chang ... From the themed collection: Non-Innocent Ligands The article was first published on 23 Dec 2014. Chem. Commun., 2015,51, 1553- ... From the themed collection: Non-Innocent Ligands The article was first published on 22 Jul 2014. Chem. Commun., 2014,50, 14290- ... From the themed collection: Non-Innocent Ligands The article was first published on 27 May 2014. Chem. Commun., 2014,50, 11440- ...
Ligand Efficacy.. In the functional assay, 5 of the 6 ligands behaved as inverse agonists (Fig. 5); the activity of the sixth ... The combination of potent new ligands that resemble known antagonists and structures dissimilar to previously explored ligands ... for kinase-like ligands, 0.9% for LGIC-like ligands, and an even smaller proportion that resembles biogenic molecules such as ... using ligand probe charges in an electrostatic potential calculated by DelPhi (13, 21, 22)], corrected for ligand desolvation ( ...
These chelating ligands form catalytically active complexes with Pd and Pt and can efficiently be utilized in the ... Only recently, have sp2-hybridized phosphorus compounds been utilized as ligands for transition metals in catalysis. The ... Even polysubstituted alkenes can be converted which is not possible using classical lambda3-sigma3-phosphane ligands. ... Our research is aimed at the synthesis on development of novel chelating ligands that exhibit low-coordinate trivalent ...
Overall, 800 ligand-target predictions of prospectively designed ligands were tested experimentally, of which 75% were ... Automated design of ligands to polypharmacological profiles.. Besnard J1, Ruda GF, Setola V, Abecassis K, Rodriguiz RM, Huang ... a) Closed loop of automated ligand design algorithm by multi-objective evolutionary optimisation. (b) Multi-objective ... Here we describe a new approach for the automated design of ligands against profiles of multiple drug targets. The method is ...
... γ ligands include long-chain fatty acids, prostaglandins, and other eicosanoids [4]. Among the synthetic PPARγ ligands, the ... ligands as cell-cycle modulators," Cancer Treatment Reviews, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 545-554, 2004. View at Publisher · View at ... ligands are potent inhibitors of angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo," Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 274, no. 13, pp. ... ligand, inhibits growth of human ovarian cancer," Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1379-1386, 2007. View at ...
U.S. Cocaine receptor binding ligands. (U.S. Patent No. 5496953). ...
Novel compounds show high affinity for specific cocainereceptors in the brain, particularly dopamine transporter sites,and have the formula ##STR1## Wherein Y=CH.sub.2 R.sub.3, CO.sub.2R.sub.2 or ##STR2## R.sub.1 =hydrogen, C.sub.1-5 alkyl, R.sub.2=hydrogen, C.sub.1-6 alkyl, C.sub.3-8 cycloalkyl, C.sub.1-4 alkoxy,C.sub.1-6 alkynyl, halogen or amine, R.sub.3 =OH,
Intracellular receptors, ligand-gated ion channels, G protein-coupled receptors, and receptor tyrosine kinases. ... Intracellular receptors, ligand-gated ion channels, G protein-coupled receptors, and receptor tyrosine kinases. ...
... tripodal ligand topologically similar to the more common Tp ligands, but the two classes of ligands differ in several ways. ... They are examples of scorpionate ligands. Various ligands in this family are known, differing in what substituents are on the ... The TmR anion simulates the environment provided by three facial thiolate ligands but without the 3- charge of a facial ... In coordination chemistry, Tm is an abbreviation for anionic tridentate ligand based on three imidazole-2-thione groups bonded ...
Ligands can also influence the chemoselectivity of the catalyst. The Josiphos ligands, often called privileged ligands, are ... Xyliphos ligand The ligands are also used in non-enantioselective reactions. They have been good ligands in Pd-catalyzed ... Josiphos ligands were developed in the 1990s by Antonio Togni in studies on ferrocenyl ligands previously discovered by T. ... Diphosphine ligands were prepared with secondary phosphines, they are today known as Josiphos ligands family, which gets the ...
Ligands for L-selectin: homing, inflammation, and beyond.. Rosen SD1.. Author information. 1. Department of Anatomy and Program ... This review focuses on the ligands for L-selectin that are found on vascular endothelium, leukocytes, carcinoma cells, and at ... Emphasis will be given to the carbohydrate and sulfation modifications of the ligands, which enable recognition by L-selectin. ... The discovery of selectins and their ligands has validated the long-predicted hypothesis that carbohydrate-directed cell ...
Ligand Expo An RCSB PDB resource for searching, exploring, and downloading information and coordinates about the chemical ... GET as free ligands, exist in 10 entries. Examples include 1MWL, 1NJJ, 3TD1 ... An encyclopedia dedicated to a ligand oriented view that integrates different information about drug-likeness or binding ...
TA8 as free ligands, exist in 1 entries. Examples include 4A6R, Find related ligands: Stereoisomers Similar ligands Chemical ... Ligand Expo An RCSB PDB resource for searching, exploring, and downloading information and coordinates about the chemical ... An encyclopedia dedicated to a ligand oriented view that integrates different information about drug-likeness or binding ...
... and Welfare gave its approval to Ligand partner GlaxoSmithKlines ... San Diegos Ligand Pharmaceuticals (NASDAQ: LGND) says Japans ... San Diegos Ligand Pharmaceuticals (NASDAQ: ]) says Japans Ministry of Health, Labor, ... Ligand says eltrombopag is the first oral treatment that stimulates the production of blood platelets, considered essential to ... Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare gave its approval to Ligand partner GlaxoSmithKlines (NYSE: GSK) application for ...
Ligand Binding to GABARAP Binding Site and Affinity Mapping. Transient Binding of Peptide Ligands to Membrane Proteins. PART ... Aspects of Protein?Ligand Interactions That Can Be Addressed by NMR. Ligand-Induced Conformational Changes of a Cyclic ... LIGAND AND RECEPTOR CONFORMATIONAL ENERGIES. The Treatment of Ligand and Receptor Conformational Energy in Various Theoretical ... Druggability: Ligand Properties. Druggability: Ligand Binding. Druggability Prediction by Protein Class. Druggability ...
Experimental investigation of ligand-gated ion channels, with Forschungszentrum Jülich - FZJ - Helmholtz Association. Apply ... functional mechanisms of ligand activation and subtype-specific ligand interactions in P2X receptors. Our joint research group ... PhD Position: Experimental investigation of ligand-gated ion channels. Forschungszentrum Jülich - FZJ - Helmholtz Association. ... The Department of Molecular Pharmacology offers state-of-the-art methods to study ligand-gated ion channels by ...
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  • Ligand Pharmaceuticals Incorporated (NASDAQ: LGND) announces that its partner HanAll Biopharma successfully out-licensed antibody projects that were discovered by HanAll using Ligand's OmniAb ® antibody discovery. (
  • At an Analyst Day event held today in New York City, Ligand Pharmaceuticals Incorporated (NASDAQ: LGND) reviewed the recent progress of its business, including its revenue growth opportunities, its portfolio of partnered. (
  • Ligand Pharmaceuticals Incorporated (NASDAQ: LGND) today reported financial results for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017, and provided an operating forecast and program updates. (
  • Ligand Pharmaceuticals Incorporated (NASDAQ: LGND) will host an Analyst Day on Tuesday, November 14, 2017 from 4:00 p. (
  • Ligand Pharmaceuticals Incorporated (NASDAQ: LGND) announces that the company is scheduled to participate in the Stephens Fall Investment Conference in New York City. (
  • Ligand Pharmaceuticals Incorporated (NASDAQ: LGND) announced today that it plans to report third quarter 2017 financial results after market close on November 9, 2017 and to provide additional commentary during its Analyst. (
  • Ligand Pharmaceuticals Incorporated (NASDAQ: LGND) and Crystal Bioscience, Inc. (
  • Ligand Pharmaceuticals Incorporated (NASDAQ: LGND) today announced positive top-line results from a Phase 2 clinical study evaluating the efficacy and safety of LGD-6972, as an adjunct to diet and exercise, in subjects. (
  • Ligand Pharmaceuticals Incorporated (NASDAQ: LGND) announces that company executives are scheduled to participate in the following upcoming investor conferences: Citi's 12 th Annual Biotech Conference in. (
  • Ligand Pharmaceuticals Incorporated (NASDAQ: LGND) ("Ligand" or "the Company") announces the appointment of Nancy Ryan Gray, Ph. (
  • Ligand Pharmaceuticals Incorporated (NASDAQ: LGND) ("Ligand" or "the Company") announces that it will receive a $2 million payment from WuXi Biologics subsequent to their licensing of exclusive rights to the anti-PD-1. (
  • WASHINGTON (dpa-AFX) - Ligand Pharmaceuticals Inc (LGND) revealed earnings for its second quarter that rose from last year.The company's profit totaled $73.16 million, or $2.99 per share. (
  • Ligand Pharmaceuticals (NASDAQ:LGND) announces it has entered into a worldwide OmniAb partnership with iMetabolic Biopharma (iMBP), an early stage biopharma company located in Tempe, AZ. (
  • SAN DIEGO--( BUSINESS WIRE )-- Ligand Pharmaceuticals Incorporated (NASDAQ: LGND) announced today plans to report first quarter 2017 financial results on May 9, 2017. (
  • Follow Ligand on Twitter @Ligand_LGND. (
  • For earnings history and earnings-related data on Ligand Pharma (LGND) click here . (
  • It's becoming painfully predictable at this point, but the latest setback for GlaxoSmithKline (NYSE:GSK) and partner Ligand Pharmaceuticals (NASDAQ:LGND) still isn't ideal for either. (
  • Electron donor-and-acceptor character between the metal and the alkene ligand appear to be fairly evenly balanced in most ethylene complexes of the d metals. (
  • The resulting polyene complexes are usually more stable than the equivalent monohapto complex with individual ligands. (
  • Metal complexes of cod are often used as starting materials because the cod ligand can bind in various ways to the metal and the complexes are intermediate in stability. (
  • NALD thus annotates nucleic acids in complexes with ligands in terms of detailed binding interactions, binding motifs where binding occurs, binding properties, binding modes & classes and links to diseases may be in association with the ligands. (
  • These were calculated from entries of NA/Ligand complexes from the protein data bank (PDB) and also extracted by both automatic and manual means from scientific literature sources such as the PubMed web site (PMID) and publications (in hardcopy form). (
  • Some ligands that share electrons with metals form very stable complexes. (
  • Note that the lobes point towards either the centres of the faces (where the ligands would sit for an octahedral complex) or the edges (where the ligands sit in tetrahedral complexes). (
  • The metal-ligand bifunctional cooperation of protic N-heterocyclic carbene and pyrazole complexes bearing an NH unit at the position β to the metal is surveyed. (
  • Rhodium complexes displaying phosphinine ligands e.g. show and efficient catalytic activity with high turn over frequencies for the hydroformylation of alkenes. (
  • These chelating ligands form catalytically active complexes with Pd and Pt and can efficiently be utilized in the hydroamination of 1,3-dienes, the dehydrosilation of ketones, and the allylation of aniline or C-activated methylene compounds. (
  • In this highlight, we will focus on the recent development of CSs with oxazoline-containing ligands, including discrete coordination complexes and coordination polymers. (
  • Metal ions bound to strong-field ligands follow the Aufbau principle , whereas complexes bound to weak-field ligands follow Hund's rule . (
  • For octahedral complexes the electrons of the ligands fill all six bonding molecular orbitals, whereas any electrons from the metal cation occupy the nonbonding ( t 2 g ) and antibonding ( e g ) orbitals. (
  • Strong-field ligands, such as the cyanide ion, result in low-spin complexes, whereas weak-field ligands, such as the fluoride ion, result in high-spin complexes. (
  • The key feature linking all these complexes in metal-metal bonding is the presence of pi-donor ligands. (
  • Figure 3 - Free energy profiles (top) and binding poses (bottom) of the two ligands/CAG-RNA complexes. (
  • Oxidative Addition Complexes as Precatalysts for Cross-Coupling Reactions Requiring Extremely Bulky Biarylphosphine Ligands. (
  • These Pd(II) complexes are easily prepared and offer a convenient alternative to previously developed classes of precatalysts as they can be formed even with extremely large phosphine ligands, for which palladacycle-based precatalysts do not readily form. (
  • The identity and oxidation state of the metal and the number and identities of the other ligands play a role in establishing the sequence for a particular class of complexes. (
  • This thesis deals with the design of ligands for efficientasymmetric catalysis and studies of the conformation of theligands in the catalytically active complexes. (
  • Recent advancements in MS enable us to determine the molecular masses of protein-ligand complexes without disrupting the non-covalent interactions through the gentle desolvation of the complexes by increasing the vacuum pressure of a chamber in a mass spectrometer. (
  • [1] Coordination complexes featuring multiply bonded ligands are of both scholarly and practical interest. (
  • A number of backbones, designed specifically to generate exclusively bimetallic complexes have previously been developed around methanodibenzodioxocin and benzofurobenzofuran scaffolds, including a number of ligands that act as monophosphine donors to two different metal centers. (
  • A preliminary coordination chemistry study indicates that the tightly defined coordination environment provided by these rigid binucleating tetraphosphine ligands under study allowed bimetallic complexes of PdII, PtII to be prepared, in which each of the two chelating arms molecule coordinates to one metal. (
  • Un certain nombre de squelettes, spécialement conçus pour générer des complexes exclusivement bimétalliques, ont été développés autour d'échafaudages de méthanodibenzodioxocine et de benzofurobenzofurane, y compris un certain nombre de ligands qui agissent comme donneurs de monophosphine dans deux centres métalliques différents. (
  • Where the left side are weak field ligands and the right side are strong field ligands. (
  • In general, 'hard' metal ions prefer weak field ligands, whereas 'soft' metal ions prefer strong field ligands. (
  • The magnitude of Δ o is determined by the field-strength of the ligand: strong field ligands, by definition, increase Δ o more than weak field ligands. (
  • Ligands whose orbitals interact strongly with the metal cation's orbitals are called strong-field ligands. (
  • Ligands that produce a large Δ are called strong-field ligands and lie at the right end of the series. (
  • Phosphine ligands are the most significant class of ligands for cross-coupling because of the alterability of their electronic and steric properties. (
  • We offer an unprecedented portfolio of monodentate phosphine ligands and precursors, bidentate phosphine ligands and precursors, chiral ligands, Buchwald ligands, cataCXium ® ligands, and DalPhos Ligands. (
  • Monodentate phosphine ligands are compounds with only one phosphine atom available to interact with the metal. (
  • Bidentate phosphine ligands and precursors, also called diphosphines, are identified by the ligand having two phosphine atoms present connected by a side chain. (
  • It readily undergoes free radical addition to olefins to generate sterically hindered tertiary phosphine ligands that are in turn useful in homogeneous catalysis. (
  • CYTOP® 266 has been used to generate sterically hindered tertiary alkylphosphines which are, in turn, useful phosphine ligands for homogeneous catalysis. (
  • The work described in this thesis pertains to the formation of carbon-heteroatom bonds facilitated by palladium catalysts supported by bulky phosphine ligands. (
  • Structure-Activity Relationship of Phosphine Ligands for the Fluorination of Five-membered Heteroaromatic Compounds Palladium catalysts supported by bulky dialkyl triaryl monophosphine ligands have been shown to promote the coupling of metal fluorides with (hetero)aryl bromides and triflates in good yield. (
  • The nucleic acids and ligands database (NALD) is concerned with the identification of ligands (drugs) that bind nucleic acids (NA) and provide users with sets of specific information in relation to the binding existing between both molecules. (
  • Some common bases that act as ligands are water and ammonia molecules and halide, hydroxide, acetate, cyanide, thiocyanate, and nitrite anions . (
  • Haem molecules occupy four ligand positions around the central iron atom, in a plane. (
  • Scientists from the University of York have developed a new synthetic route that delivers significant quantities of two very important sparteine-based chiral ligands that could help in future development of drug molecules. (
  • Sparteine and the sparteine surrogate, developed in York in 2002, are chiral ligands with the potential to synthesise mirror-image 'enantiomeric' compounds that have been widely used in metal-mediated reactions to tackle complex synthetic problems and generate drug molecules. (
  • Ligands: The ions or molecules that forms coordination covalent bond with metal ions in a coordination compound. (
  • More particularly, the films are fabricated to present ligands at the film surface which are free to interact with specific target molecules thereby influencing the properties of the surface and allowing for the detection of changes in these properties. (
  • It would be desirable to synthesize molecular films using functionalized molecules containing complex molecules such as, for example, ligands specific for biological receptors or enzymatic targets. (
  • It would also be desirable if these ligands could covalently or non-covalently bind to molecules and to a linker optionally having an internal polymerizable group capable of cross-linking to form polymerized films. (
  • Interactions of the three hepatic OATPs with molecules/drugs will be identified by applying 'ligand-protein docking' of a large number of molecules, a method which computationally predicts the preferred orientation of a molecule when placed into a protein. (
  • The interactions of small molecules with proteins (protein-ligand interactions) mediate various biological phenomena including signal transduction and protein transcription and translation. (
  • Recent developments in FPR (Fpr) and ligand studies have greatly expanded the scope of these receptors and ligands in host homeostasis and disease conditions, therefore helping to establish these molecules as potential targets for therapeutic intervention. (
  • The binding of small ligands to biological molecules is central to most aspects of biological function. (
  • Ligand Pharmaceuticals Inc. (
  • Ligand Pharmaceuticals Inc. does not currently have any hardcopy reports on (
  • Ligand Pharmaceuticals has acquired Vernalis for $42.3m giving the former access to a portfolio of eight fully funded programmes, as. (
  • The post M&As this week: Ligand Pharmaceuticals. (
  • Ligand Pharmaceuticals said Wednesday that its acquisition of U.K.-based biotech Vernalis has closed. (
  • US biopharma Ligand Pharmaceuticals has announced its intention to buy UK biotech Vernalis for approximately $43 million. (
  • Xconomy has a lengthy profile on Ligand Pharmaceuticals, a San Diego-based developer founded in 1987. (
  • The first part provides a basic understanding of the factors governing protein-ligand interactions, followed by a comparison of key experimental methods (calorimetry, surface plasmon resonance, NMR) used in generating interaction data. (
  • In the frame of a research project funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG, , the PhD project will focus on ion permeation, functional mechanisms of ligand activation and subtype-specific ligand interactions in P2X receptors. (
  • Structural models for three hepatocellular organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1) will be generated, and hepatocellular OATP-ligand interactions identified by a systematic large-scale docking study. (
  • As discussed in a previous page , some ligands are capable of π bonding interactions, either by acting as a π acceptor ( [Cr(CO)] , for example) or a π donor ( [Cr(F)] 2+ , for example). (
  • Fas ligand-receptor interactions play an important role in the regulation of the immune system and the progression of cancer . (
  • DcR3 is a soluble receptor that has no signal transduction capabilities (hence a "decoy") and functions to prevent FasR -FasL interactions by competitively binding to membrane-bound Fas ligand and rendering them inactive [1] . (
  • Synthetic compounds such as drugs can also bind to target proteins, leading to the inhibition of protein-ligand interactions. (
  • This method is called MS under non-denaturing conditions or native MS and allows the unambiguous determination of protein-ligand interactions. (
  • Under a few assumptions, MS has also been applied to determine the dissociation constants for protein-ligand interactions. (
  • The structural information of a protein-ligand interaction, such as the location of the interaction and conformational change in a protein, can also be analyzed using hydrogen/deuterium exchange MS. In this paper, we briefly describe the history, principle, and recent applications of MS for the study of protein-ligand interactions. (
  • For late transition metals, strong pi-donors form anti-bonding interactions with the filled d-levels, with consequences for spin state, redox potentials, and ligand exchange rates. (
  • This new application note uses illustrates how in vitro data for serotonin receptors can be used to better understand receptor-ligand interactions. (
  • RNA-Ligand Interactions, Part A , its companion, VOLUME 317 focuses on structural biology methods. (
  • A ligand that can bind to a receptor, alter the function of the receptor, and trigger a physiological response is called an agonist for that receptor. (
  • In the example shown to the right, two different ligands bind to the same receptor binding site. (
  • Ligands that bind to a receptor but fail to activate the physiological response are receptor antagonists . (
  • The allyl ligand, ―CH 2 ―CH=CH 2 , can bind to a metal atom in either of two configurations: as an η 1 -ligand or an η 3 -ligand. (
  • NALD provides online access to these types of information while it focuses on ligands that bind nucleic acids with implications on diseases of high prevalence in Africa and in particular in Algeria and the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region such as HIV/AIDS, cancer, hepatitis, malaria and tuberculosis. (
  • Polyfunctional ligands, which bind to the metal ion with two or more pairs of electrons, are called chelates (see chelating agents ). (
  • none of them can reliably predict binding affinities, although many have proven successful at distinguishing low-likelihood ligands from those more likely to bind. (
  • When the binding substance is mixed with a liquid carrying at least second and third particles, the ligands bind the first and second particles together to form groups of bound particles. (
  • Metal ions preferentially bind certain ligands. (
  • Classic competitive ligands, which are amino acid derivatives, bind to the orthosteric binding site as endogenous glutamate. (
  • Over the last decade, a number of non-competitive mGluR ligands, which are structurally diverse and bind to mGluRs in the allosteric binding sites located in the seven strand transmembrane domain, have been identified. (
  • Microbeads can be used as surfaces to allow different ligands to bind to proteins. (
  • These ligands are monofunctional, i.e., they are attached by one unshared pair of electrons during complexing. (
  • An example is η 2 -diphenylethynehexacarbonyldicobalt, in which four of the six electrons in the triple bond of the ethyene ligand, R―C≡C―R, are shared with the two cobalt atoms (Ph represents the phenyl ligand, ―C 6 H 5 ). (
  • Others contain a trihapto (η 3 -) cyclopentadienyl ligand, which donates three electrons. (
  • The most common case, however, is when Cp is a pentahapto ligand contributing five electrons. (
  • ligand lĭg´ənd [ key ] , charged or uncharged molecule with one or more unshared pairs of electrons that can attach to a central metallic atom or ion to form an aggregate known as a complex ion (see chemical bond ). (
  • Ligands are classified in many ways, including: charge, size (bulk), the identity of the coordinating atom(s), and the number of electrons donated to the metal ( denticity or hapticity ). (
  • This is because the ligand and central metal are bonded to one another, and the ligand is providing both electrons to the bond (lone pair of electrons) instead of the metal and ligand each providing one electron. (
  • Binding of the metal with the ligands results in a set of molecular orbitals, where the metal can be identified with a new HOMO and LUMO (the orbitals defining the properties and reactivity of the resulting complex) and a certain ordering of the 5 d-orbitals (which may be filled, or partially filled with electrons). (
  • For transition metal ions with electron configurations d 0 through d 3 and d 8 through d 10 , only one configuration is possible, so the net spin of the electrons in the complex is the same for both strong-field and weak-field ligands. (
  • Ligands should have minimum one lone pair of electron, where it donates two electrons to the metal. (
  • Monodentate ligand is ligands which donate only one pair of electrons to form bond with metal. (
  • The essential feature of a coordination compound is the donation of a pair of electrons by the ligand to form a coordinate covalent bond with the metal. (
  • The relationship between ligand and binding partner is a function of charge, hydrophobicity, and molecular structure. (
  • The Department of Molecular Pharmacology offers state-of-the-art methods to study ligand-gated ion channels by electrophysiology and molecular biology techniques. (
  • The HOMO (Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital) can be mainly of ligands or metal character. (
  • According to the molecular orbital theory, the HOMO of the ligand should have an energy that overlaps with the LUMO (Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital) of the metal preferential. (
  • Such a theory is the so-called ligand field theory (LFT), which has its origin in the more general, but more complicated, theory of chemical bonding called the molecular orbital (MO) theory. (
  • In contrast, the surface ligands that dictate analogous "bonds" in nanoparticle-based crystals are molecular in nature ( 1 - 8 ) and are therefore sensitive to the presence of various chemical signals. (
  • To realize this goal, surface ligands must be capable of processing molecular binding events as inputs while producing changes in the nanoparticle bonding mode as outputs, all in a deterministic and reproducible manner. (
  • They also provide a molecular basis for the markedly different affinity of the two ligands for CAG repeats as observed experimentally. (
  • This application is a continuing application from the application entitled "SELF-ASSEMBLED MOLECULAR FILMS INCORPORATING A LIGAND" filed Nov. 26, 1990, Ser. (
  • Elucidating hepatic OATP-ligand interaction will therefore give insights into the molecular basis of how these transporters work and shed light on reasons for compound selectivity. (
  • A new ligand that covalently attaches to the surface of colloidal CdSe/ CdS nanorods and can simultaneously chelate a molecular metal center is described. (
  • Density functional theory calculations show that the coordination of the free ligand to a CdS surface causes the formation of two hybridized molecular states that lie in the band gap of CdS. (
  • Dong J, Wiley HS (2000) Trafficking and proteolytic release of epidermal growth factor receptor ligands are modulated by their membrane-anchoring domains. (
  • Harris RC, Chung E, Coffey RJ (2003) EGF receptor ligands. (
  • Development of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Ligands for Neuroi. (
  • Receptor ligands binding to mGluRs are also considered as potential therapeutic agents. (
  • Overall, 800 ligand-target predictions of prospectively designed ligands were tested experimentally, of which 75% were confirmed to be correct. (
  • For ligands in inorganic chemistry, see Ligand . (
  • In contrast to the definition of ligand in metalorganic and inorganic chemistry , in biochemistry it is ambiguous whether the ligand generally binds at a metal site, as is the case in hemoglobin . (
  • Relating protein pharmacology by ligand chemistry. (
  • The cyclopentadienyl ligand (C 5 H 5 , abbreviated Cp) has played a major role in the development of organometallic chemistry. (
  • More subtly, one might ask how strongly the hits are biased toward chemotypes previously explored by the extensive medicinal chemistry efforts against this and related targets, or whether the structure is capable of recognizing new chemotypes not explored by ligand-driven approaches. (
  • This article is about ligands in inorganic chemistry. (
  • In coordination chemistry , a ligand [help 1] is an ion or molecule ( functional group ) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex . (
  • Ligand selection is a critical consideration in many practical areas, including bioinorganic and medicinal chemistry , homogeneous catalysis , and environmental chemistry . (
  • The first to use the term "ligand" were Alfred Stock and Carl Somiesky, in relation to silicon chemistry. (
  • This volume focuses on the chemistry of the early transition elements in their lower and middle oxidation states, i.e., halide, sulfide, oxide, phosphate, alkoxide, and related o-donor ligands. (
  • In coordination chemistry, Tm is an abbreviation for anionic tridentate ligand based on three imidazole-2-thione groups bonded to a borohydride center. (
  • Mark D. Spicer, John Reglinski "Soft Scorpionate Ligands Based on Imidazole-2-thione Donors" European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry 2009, Issue 12, pp 1553-1574. (
  • chemistry) A ligand which is bound to more than one metal centre . (
  • In Chemistry, a metal-ligand multiple bond describes the interaction of certain ligands with a metal with a bond order greater than one. (
  • In coordination chemistry , a pi-donor ligand is a kind of ligand endowed with filled non-bonding orbitals that overlap with metal-based orbitals. (
  • Finally outline studies on the use of the tetraphosphine ligands as supports for hydroformylation chemistry were performed. (
  • Many bidenatate phoshine ligands and precursors have been designed to introduce a chiral ligand during synthesis. (
  • These ligands are very stable and able to form highly active and selective systems that allow for desired synthesis where other ligands have failed. (
  • Our research is aimed at the synthesis on development of novel chelating ligands that exhibit low-coordinate trivalent phosphorus moieties. (
  • Dr James Firth, lead chemist on the project, said: "Our approach to the family of sparteine chiral ligands allows synthesis of either mirror-image form on a gram-scale for the first time. (
  • We applied this principle to the design and synthesis of inorganic materials by preparing nanoparticles with reconfigurable surface ligands, where interparticle bonding can be programmed in response to specific chemical cues in a dynamic manner. (
  • The fourth chapter highlights a structurally interesting side-product that resulted during ligand synthesis. (
  • Chapter 1: Biaryl Monophosphine Ligands in Palladium-Catalyzed C-N Coupling: An Updated User's Guide Over the past three decades, Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions have become a mainstay of organic synthesis. (
  • The Josiphos ligands, often called privileged ligands, are important because of their ability to give high yields in enantioselective synthesis. (
  • The ligand was successfully applied to the synthesis of the herbicide (S)-metolachlor, the active ingredient in the most common herbicide in the United States. (
  • Figure 4: Scheme for general synthesis of the Josiphos ligands An important improvement since the first intent, and already pointed out in figure 4, has been using the N(CH3)2 group as the leaving group and not acetate. (
  • This work presents the synthesis of tetraphosphine ligands, wherein chelating arms are available to coordinate each of the two metal centers. (
  • He showed, among other things, that the formulas of many cobalt(III) and chromium(III) compounds can be understood if the metal has six ligands in an octahedral geometry. (
  • The magnitude of Δ t is smaller than for Δ o , because in a tetrahedral complex only 4 ligands influence the d-orbitals, whereas in an octahedral complex the d-orbitals are influenced by 6 ligands. (
  • The orbital splitting between the two sets of orbitals ( t 2 g and e g ) is designated as the orbital ligand field parameter , δ o (where o stands for octahedral). (
  • Two of the essential components for highly active and selective catalysts are the ligand and the metal. (
  • In this review we evaluate our data in comparison to the theoretical and experimental aspects of developing selective and sensitive imaging ligands for in vivo imaging. (
  • Selective targeting of ligand-targeted liposomes containing anticancer drugs or therapeutic genes to cell surface receptors expressed on cancer cells is a recognized strategy for improving the therapeutic effectiveness of conventional chemotherapeutics or gene therapeutics. (
  • The size of a ligand is indicated by its cone angle . (
  • The size of a ligand is significant, because the closer the ligand can approach the metal, the better the orbital overlap and consequently the larger Δ o . (
  • We remind investors that Ligand completed the acquisition of UK-based biotechnology company, Vernalis, for $43 million in October 2018. (
  • Buchwald ligands are bulky electron-rich dialkylbiaryl phospines and are known to improve reactivity in palladium catalysis. (
  • Ligands in a complex dictate the reactivity of the central atom, including ligand substitution rates, the reactivity of the ligands themselves, and redox . (
  • From problems I have been doing and google searches, I have found that H20 is a weak field ligand and NH3 is strong field. (
  • F- should be a weak field ligand, which would mean it would lead to a high spin complex. (
  • But why is it low spin if F- is a weak field ligand? (
  • Ammonia is a strong or weak field ligand? (
  • 2 With the presence of a palladium catalyst, these new ligands yielded outstanding conversions and enantioselectivities with a variety of substrates. (
  • Using 1,3‑diphenylallyl acetate and 2‑penten-4‑yl acetate as reactants, with dimethyl malonate as the nucleophile, Clark and Landis demonstrated that Diazaphos-PPE is surpassing other ligands with high yields and selectivities for both substrates ( Scheme 2 ). (
  • Ligand functionalized substrates, methods of making ligand functionalized substrates, and methods of using functionalized substrates are disclosed. (
  • The ligands carry chiral information and thus they are modified for individual substrates. (
  • The Eph family receptors and ligands. (
  • Receptors And Ligands For Cell Entry. (
  • In March 2019, Ligand sold all rights to blockbuster drug, Promacta, to privately-held Royalty Pharma for $827 million. (
  • Ligand Pharma sees FY2021 EPS of $6.00, versus the consensus of $6.09. (
  • Ligand Pharma sees FY2021 revenue of $291 million, versus the consensus of $289 million. (
  • The structure of the ligand directly correlates to the efficiency of the catalysts contained in the ligand. (
  • Buchwald Catalysts and Ligands are highly active and versatile palladium precatalysts and biarylphosphine ligands used in cross-coupling reactions for the formation of C-C, C-N, C-O, C-F, C-CF3, and C-S bonds. (
  • We are committed to providing unprecedented accessibility to chiral catalysts and ligands for a wide variety of C-H, C-C, C-N, and C-O bond-forming transformations. (
  • Those skilled in the art, constantly seek new or improved catalysts or ligands for such catalysts to lower costs, to improve reaction conditions, yield and rate of production, and to facilitate separation of reactants, products, and catalysts. (
  • Our calculations show that cholesterol presence, often neglected in X-ray studies of membrane proteins, affects the population of the ligand binding poses. (
  • Using Fluorescence Anisotropy for Ligand Binding Kinetics of Membrane Proteins. (
  • We have developed five ligands for PET imaging of metabotropic glutamate subgroup 5 receptors and investigated mGluR functions in animal models of different neurodegenerative disorders. (
  • Chemical reactions of a verdazyl radical-palladium complex reveal the verdazyl's functionality as a redox-active ligand and a "cooperative" (acido-basic) ligand. (
  • Here we describe a new approach for the automated design of ligands against profiles of multiple drug targets. (
  • Including a correct description of neuronal membranes may be very important for computer-aided design of ligands targeting hA2AR and possibly other neuronal GPCRs. (
  • We thus followed in a mouse model as well as in several clinical situations the variations in plasma Flt3 ligand concentration, after either homogeneous or heterogeneous irradiations. (
  • Only recently, have sp 2 -hybridized phosphorus compounds been utilized as ligands for transition metals in catalysis. (
  • Asymmetric Catalysis : Ligand Design and Conformational Studies. (
  • Their route uses common feedstock chemicals to make these chiral ligands on an unprecedented scale, moving away from the precarious use of naturally occurring compounds, and hence allowing supply issues to be addressed. (
  • A small number of ligands have been evaluated in patients, and while early tumor response is encouraging, the relapse rate is high and these compounds can cause adverse side effects. (
  • Ligand will be eligible to receive scaling interest in license economics based on its contribution and stage of development at the time of licensing related to the compounds. (
  • This book presents a systematic and comprehensive review of the information on chromatographic processes that involve the formation of coordination compounds, aiming not only to demonstrate the achievements that have been made in the theory of praxis of chromatography, but also to point out, as far as possible, the future of potential of ligand exchange chromatography. (
  • These ligands have been used in palladium catalyzed carbonylation and Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions as well as the preparation of chiral organic compounds. (
  • In the previous exercise a collection of ligands were placed in order from those producing the smallest to the largest d-orbital splitting in coordination compounds. (
  • 80% of their activity, indicating that sulfated compounds are the predominant VSN ligands in female mouse urine. (
  • In biochemistry and pharmacology , a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose. (
  • Measurably irreversible covalent bonding between a ligand and target molecule is atypical in biological systems. (
  • Electron-donating functional groups containing nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, phosphorous, or carbon may act as ligands in complex biological systems. (
  • A more profound attenuation of fibro-obliteration was seen when CXCR2-/- mice received cyclosporin A. This supports the notion that the CXCR2/CXCR2 ligand biological axis has a bimodal function during the course of BOS: early, it is important for neutrophil recruitment and later, during fibro-obliteration, it is important for vascular remodeling independent of neutrophil recruitment. (
  • Recent results indicated that the plasma Flt3 ligand concentration was increased in patients suffering from either acquired or induced aplasia, suggesting that Flt3 ligand might be useful as a biological indicator of bone marrow status. (
  • Nevertheless, the clinical use of Flt3 ligand as a biological indicator of bone marrow damage require the knowledge of the mechanisms regulating the variations in plasma Flt3 ligand concentration. (
  • Ligand did not receive any Promacta royalties in the third quarter of 2019 and will not receive any Promacta royalties going forward. (
  • As of September 30, 2019, Ligand had cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments of $1.1 billion. (
  • This ordering of ligands is almost invariable for all metal ions and is called spectrochemical series . (
  • This ordering of ligands is called a Spectrochemical Series . (
  • What factors determine the sequence of ligands in the Spectrochemical Series? (
  • Before examining the specific factors determining the Spectrochemical Series, it should be noted that the Spectrochemical series in not an absolute ordering of ligands. (
  • The order of ligands shown above represents a general trend, but do not be surprised if you find another source presenting a Spectrochemical Series with a somewhat different sequence of ligands. (
  • Pi-donor ligands are low in the spectrochemical series . (
  • The TmMe anion is a tridentate, tripodal ligand topologically similar to the more common Tp ligands, but the two classes of ligands differ in several ways. (
  • The interaction of most ligands with their binding sites can be characterized in terms of a binding affinity. (
  • Both novices and experts will find this an inspiring and often-consulted guide to the complexity of protein-ligand interaction modeling and analysis. (
  • With the content relevant for all drug classes and therapeutic fields, this is an inspiring and often-consulted guide to the complexity of protein-ligand interaction modeling and analysis for both novices and experts. (
  • As ligands, these bile acids and their conjugates modulated interaction of FXR with a peptide derived from steroid receptor coactivator 1. (
  • A strong σ bonding interaction requires a good energy match between the metal and the ligand. (
  • Their interaction is complementary to the behavior of pi-acceptor ligands . (
  • Protein Ligand Interaction Fingerprints. (
  • Different types of interaction have been presented between the ligands and the receptor so far. (
  • Different classifications approaches for the protein-ligand interaction fingerprints were also discussed in this chapter. (
  • GET as free ligands, exist in 10 entries . (
  • TA8 as free ligands, exist in 1 entries . (
  • For sparteine, these were then recombined to generate the complexity required in the target ligand. (
  • c. relating the detectable signal to the presence of said target ligand in said fluid sample. (
  • IPC No. U.S. Cocaine receptor binding ligands. (
  • Although there are many known ligands for main olfactory receptor neurons, our understanding of the natural ligands for VSNs is woefully incomplete. (
  • Myoglobin (blue) with its ligand heme (orange) bound. (
  • Metals and metalloids are bound to ligands in virtually all circumstances, although gaseous "naked" metal ions can be generated in a high vacuum. (
  • designed a series of gold colloids with DNA ligands that reversibly bound to or released neighboring particles via DNA strands that opened or closed hairpin loops. (
  • Soluble Fas ligand is generated by cleaving membrane-bound FasL at a conserved cleavage site by the external serine matrix metalloproteinase MMP-7. (
  • Metals bound to so-called triply bonded carbyne , imide , nitride ( nitrido ), and oxide ( oxo ) ligands are generally assigned to high oxidation states with low d electron counts. (
  • In the case of the ligand bound with iron, a two-step process emerges that places the hole on the iron, again at rates much faster than band gap recombination. (
  • In protein-ligand binding, the ligand is usually a molecule which produces a signal by binding to a site on a target protein . (
  • In DNA-ligand binding studies, the ligand can be a small molecule, ion, [1] or protein [2] which binds to the DNA double helix . (
  • Per this agreement, Ligand will apply Vernalis Design Platform ("VDP") for designing small molecule inhibitors for the undisclosed oncology target. (
  • I was told that thiol ligands could be a good alternative, but I try to avoid this as most of this molecule are not really pleasant to handle. (
  • Di-adamantylalkylphosphine, known as cataCXium ® A, is a bulky and electron-rich phosphine ligand used for Heck and Suzuki couplings, Buchwald-Hartwig amination of arylchlorides, and α-arylation reactions of ketones. (
  • An alkene ligand contains a π bond between carbon atoms, C=C, which can serve as an electron pair donor in a metal complex , as in the case of Zeise's salt ( see above Historical developments ). (
  • The alkene ligand bonds to the metal centre by both electron donation and acceptance, similar to the situation with carbon monoxide . (
  • The cyclobutadiene ligand is a four-electron donor. (
  • Cooperativity between cobalt and non-innocent ligands in electron transfer processes has been utilized for (electro)catalytic C-C bond formation reactions. (
  • In general, ligands are viewed as electron donors and the metals as electron acceptors. (
  • In contrast, for transition metal ions with electron configurations d 4 through d 7 (Fe 3+ is d 5 ), both high-spin and low-spin states are possible depending on the ligand involved. (
  • Metal atom accepts the electron pair from a ligand forming a coordination bond. (
  • The low d electron count allow for many bonds between ligands and the metal center. (
  • Imido ligands, also known as imides or nitrenes, most commonly form "linear six electron bonds" with metal centers. (
  • The bonding between metal and ligand generally involves formal donation of one or more of the ligand's electron pairs. (
  • ligands on cells for specific homing receptors on lymphocytes. (
  • Moreover, we showed that T lymphocytes are not the main regulator of plasma Flt3 ligand concentration as previously suggested, and that other cell types, possibly including bone marrow stromal cells, might be strongly implicated. (
  • FPR contribution to numerous pathologies is in part due to its capacity to interact with a plethora of structurally diverse chemotactic ligands. (
  • Ligand binding to a receptor protein alters the conformation by affecting the three-dimensional shape orientation. (
  • The method is demonstrated by the evolution of an approved acetylcholinesterase inhibitor drug into brain-penetrable ligands with either specific polypharmacology or exquisite selectivity profiles for G-protein-coupled receptors. (
  • Intracellular receptors, ligand-gated ion channels, G protein-coupled receptors, and receptor tyrosine kinases. (
  • 3. The system of claim 1 , wherein the ligands include at least one of the group consisting of: a protein, an antibody, a chemical composition, and mixtures thereof. (
  • 7. The system of claim 1 , wherein the ligands include at least one protein selected from the group consisting of: albumin and immunoglobulin. (
  • The Fas ligand or FasL is a type II transmembrane protein that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family. (
  • Fas ligand or FasL is a type II transmembrane protein. (
  • Fas ligand is a homotrimeric protein and signals through trimerization of FasR , which spans the membrane of the "target" cell. (
  • Determining ligand binding kinetics provides an indirect route to probe the functional capabilities of the binding pocket of a membrane protein receptor. (
  • Wang, J.M. Chemotactic Ligands that Activate G-Protein-Coupled Formylpeptide Receptors. (
  • Precise and trustable measurement of ligand-protein affinity for Structure-Based Virtual Screening (SB-VS) is therefore, an outstanding problem in docking studies. (
  • The number of protein-ligand complex structures from both in silico and experimental methods have highly increased during the past decade. (
  • High-affinity binding of ligands to receptors is often physiologically important when some of the binding energy can be used to cause a conformational change in the receptor, resulting in altered behavior of an associated ion channel or enzyme . (
  • We show that DNA-based hairpin ligands, which undergo well-defined conformational changes upon binding of effector oligonucleotides, can be used to alter the bonding properties of the nanoparticles to which they are anchored. (
  • The conformational change in the ligands due to thisinteraction may explain the different selectivities observed inthe catalytic reaction. (
  • The bulky di(1-adamantyl)phosphino [P(1-Ad) 2 ] fragment is common to the DalPhos ligand scaffold. (
  • These studies revealed that substitution at the 2" and 6" positions of the ligand scaffold has a dramatic impact on the reaction rate. (
  • Ligands play a key role in stabilizing and activating the central metal atom and are used in reactions, such as transition metal catalyzed cross-coupling. (
  • Diene (―C=C―C=C―) and larger polyene ligands present the possibility of several points of attachment to a metal atom. (
  • However, there are also organic species that can chelate a metal, providing some of its ligands. (
  • A particularly fruitful synthetic avenue has been the deployment of multi-dentate ancillary ligands bearing one or more substituents containing additional functionality, capable of weakly binding to the metal. (
  • Coordination supramolecules (CSs), constructed by assembly of metal ions/clusters (referred as nodes) and organic bridging ligands (referred as linkers), are a class of inorganic-organic hybrid materials. (
  • The nature of metal-ligand bonding can range from covalent to ionic . (
  • Furthermore, the metal-ligand bond order can range from one to three. (
  • Ligands whose orbitals interact only weakly with the metal cation's orbitals are called weak-field ligands. (
  • Polydentate ligand forms two or more coordination bond with metal ions to form a complex. (
  • Yield for nitritopentamminecobalt(III) Chloride was obtained to be = 1.9221 g(73.24 %) and yield for nitropentamminecobalt(III) Chloride = 0.76 g(76 %) Introduction Linkage isomers may arise when one or more of the ligands can coordinate to the metal ion in more than one way. (
  • The six ligand donor orbitals are grouped into two sets, one of which has appropriate symmetry for interacting with the metal d z 2 orbital and the other with appropriate symmetry for interacting with the metal d x 2 -y 2 orbital. (
  • The Lewis acid-base reaction between the metal and the ligand results in a set of low energy, fully occupied (because the original ligand donor orbitals were fully occupied) σ bonding orbitals that are primarily localized on the ligand and a set of high energy σ* orbitals that are primarily localized on the metal. (
  • Three of the metal orbitals (d xy , d xz , and d yz ) do not interact with the ligand orbitals and remain as nonbonding orbitals completely centered on the metal. (
  • The occupied ligand orbitals are lower in energy than the metal orbitals. (
  • As a cautionary note, the classification of a metal ligand bond as being "multiple" bond order is ambiguous and even arbitrary because bond order is a formalism. (
  • The term 'metal ligand multiple bond" is often reserved for ligands of the type CR n and NR n (n = 0, 1, 2) and OR n (n = 0, 1) where R is H or an organic substituent, or pseudohalide. (
  • A ligand described in ionic terms can bond to a metal through however many lone pairs it has available. (
  • The dithiocarbamate$-$bipyridine ligand system facilitates hole transfer through energetic overlap at the inorganic$-$organic interface and conjugation through the organic ligand to a chelated metal center. (
  • The reaction of a copper complex bearing iminosemiquinone ligands with a CF 3 + source provides an unprecedented Cu II -CF 3 complex through ligand-based oxidation. (
  • As a result of these studies, new ligands were proposed which may be better able to accelerate the fluorination reaction. (
  • Chapter 4: Discovery of a Sterically Encumbered Hexasubstituted Arene through the Pdmediated Dearomative Rearrangement of Biaryl Monophosphine Ligands A key feature of the Pd-catalyzed aromatic fluorination reaction is the presence of the aryl group at the 3' position of the ligand backbone. (
  • It is easily prepared by the reaction of molten methimazole (1-methylimidazole-2-thione) with sodium borohydride, giving the sodium salt of the ligand. (
  • They have been good ligands in Pd-catalyzed reaction of aryl chlorides and aryl vinyl tosylates with TON of 20,000 or higher. (
  • We believe that our double targeting ligands are the first PSMA ligands designed to make use of the blood pool as a 'safe zone' reservoir to protect sensitive organs and tissues from off-target effects of alpha irradiation and, simultaneously, to reduce kidney localization while maintaining excellent tumor targeting. (
  • In comparison to existing ligands proposed for targeted therapy of prostate cancer, RPS-027 has tumor-to-tissue ratios that predict a significant reduction in side effects during therapy. (
  • Some recent advances in the field of ligand-targeted liposomes for the treatment of cancer are summarized including: selection criteria for the receptors to be targeted, choice of targeting ligands and choice of encapsulated therapeutics. (
  • Shares of Allergan Ligand Retinoid Therapeutics Inc. jumped 14% Wednesday after lopsided positive results led the company to halt an international late-stage clinical trial studying its treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. (
  • This updated guidance reflects yesterday's announcement by Travere Therapeutics of positive pivotal Phase 3 data and potential NDA filing in 2021 for sparsentan, with a milestone payment due to Ligand upon NDA submission. (
  • Ligand needs Promacta approved to juice up its revenue. (
  • It has been shown that supporting ligands lacking substitution at this position can be modified through a dearomative rearrangement, which incorporates one catalytic equivalent of the aryl electrophile into the ligand backbone when very bulky biarylphosphines are used. (
  • An important aspect of simple Crystal Field Theory is the orientation of the d-orbital lobes with respect to the position of the surrounding ligands. (
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  • High-affinity ligand binding implies that a relatively low concentration of a ligand is adequate to maximally occupy a ligand-binding site and trigger a physiological response. (
  • Low-affinity binding (high K i level) implies that a relatively high concentration of a ligand is required before the binding site is maximally occupied and the maximum physiological response to the ligand is achieved. (
  • The results indicated that the concentration of Flt3 ligand in the blood reflects the bone marrow status, and that the follow-up of plasma Flt3 ligand concentration could give predictive information about the bone marrow function and the duration and severity of pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia. (
  • The Buchwald group has continued to develop and modify these ligands, leading to the creation of ligands that are tailored to specific transformations. (
  • Myoglobin (blå) med dets ligand heme (orange) bundet til sig. (