Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Pharmacopoeias as Topic: Authoritative treatises on drugs and preparations, their description, formulation, analytic composition, physical constants, main chemical properties used in identification, standards for strength, purity, and dosage, chemical tests for determining identity and purity, etc. They are usually published under governmental jurisdiction (e.g., USP, the United States Pharmacopoeia; BP, British Pharmacopoeia; P. Helv., the Swiss Pharmacopoeia). They differ from FORMULARIES in that they are far more complete: formularies tend to be mere listings of formulas and prescriptions.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Video-Assisted Surgery: Endoscopic surgical procedures performed with visualization via video transmission. When real-time video is combined interactively with prior CT scans or MRI images, this is called image-guided surgery (see SURGERY, COMPUTER-ASSISTED).Vapor Pressure: The contribution to barometric PRESSURE of gaseous substance in equilibrium with its solid or liquid phase.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Sarraceniaceae: A plant family of the order Nepenthales.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Skiing: A snow sport which uses skis to glide over the snow. It does not include water-skiing.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Galliformes: An order of heavy-bodied, largely terrestrial BIRDS including pheasants, TURKEYS, grouse, QUAIL, and CHICKENS.Head Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of heads from impact, penetration from falling and flying objects, and from limited electric shock and burn.Neck Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.Lifting: Moving or bringing something from a lower level to a higher one. The concept encompasses biomechanic stresses resulting from work done in transferring objects from one plane to another as well as the effects of varying techniques of patient handling and transfer.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Metaphor: The application of a concept to that which it is not literally the same but which suggests a resemblance and comparison. Medical metaphors were widespread in ancient literature; the description of a sick body was often used by ancient writers to define a critical condition of the State, in which one corrupt part can ruin the entire system. (From Med Secoli Arte Sci, 1990;2(3):abstract 331)Sapindaceae: The soapberry plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members contain SAPONINS.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Diet, Gluten-Free: A diet which is devoid of GLUTENS from WHEAT; BARLEY; RYE; and other wheat-related varieties. The diet is designed to reduce exposure to those proteins in gluten that trigger INFLAMMATION of the small intestinal mucosa in patients with CELIAC DISEASE.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Libya: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt, Tunisia, and Algeria, having southern border with Chad, Niger, and Sudan. Its capital is Tripoli.SyriaCuba: An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies, south of Florida. With the adjacent islands it forms the Republic of Cuba. Its capital is Havana. It was discovered by Columbus on his first voyage in 1492 and conquered by Spain in 1511. It has a varied history under Spain, Great Britain, and the United States but has been independent since 1902. The name Cuba is said to be an Indian name of unknown origin but the language that gave the name is extinct, so the etymology is a conjecture. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p302 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p132)Liability, Legal: Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.Legislation, Medical: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Malpractice: Failure of a professional person, a physician or lawyer, to render proper services through reprehensible ignorance or negligence or through criminal intent, especially when injury or loss follows. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Sudan: A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.Braces: Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.Scoliosis: An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)Back: The rear surface of an upright primate from the shoulders to the hip, or the dorsal surface of tetrapods.Pasteurellosis, Pneumonic: Bovine respiratory disease found in animals that have been shipped or exposed to CATTLE recently transported. The major agent responsible for the disease is MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA and less commonly, PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA or HAEMOPHILUS SOMNUS. All three agents are normal inhabitants of the bovine nasal pharyngeal mucosa but not the LUNG. They are considered opportunistic pathogens following STRESS, PHYSIOLOGICAL and/or a viral infection. The resulting bacterial fibrinous BRONCHOPNEUMONIA is often fatal.Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Embryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.Genes, gag: DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Plumbaginaceae: A plant family of the order Plumbaginales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida of shrubs and herbs. Some members contain ANTHOCYANINS and naphthaquinones.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Mortuary Practice: Activities associated with the disposition of the dead. It excludes cultural practices such as funeral rites.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Weight Perception: Recognition and discrimination of the heaviness of a lifted object.Data Compression: Information application based on a variety of coding methods to minimize the amount of data to be stored, retrieved, or transmitted. Data compression can be applied to various forms of data, such as images and signals. It is used to reduce costs and increase efficiency in the maintenance of large volumes of data.Spinal Cord Compression: Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Rhytidoplasty: Plastic surgery performed, usually by excision of skin, for the elimination of wrinkles from the skin.

Mechanisms for age-related changes of fingertip forces during precision gripping and lifting in adults. (1/202)

We investigated changes across the adult life span of the fingertip forces used to grip and lift objects and their possible causes. Grip force, relative safety margin (grip force exceeding the minimum to avoid slip, as a fraction of slip force), and skin slipperiness increased beginning at age 50 years. Skin slipperiness explained relative safety margin increases until age 60 years. Hence, after age 60 years, additional factors must elevate grip force. We argue that one factor is impaired cutaneous afferent encoding of skin-object frictional properties on the basis of three findings. First, only subjects 60 years and older increased their relative safety margins when the friction of the gripped surfaces was varied randomly versus experiments that varied only object weight. Skin slipperiness did not account for this behavior. Second, these older subjects scaled the initial portion of their force trajectories for the slippery surface during experiments when friction was varied. Third, their grip force adjustments to new surfaces were delayed approximately 100 msec as compared with young subjects. Previous research has demonstrated that friction is signaled locally by fast-adapting afferents (FA I afferents), which decrease in number during old age. By contrast, adjustments triggered by object set-down, an event encoded by FA II afferents throughout the hand and wrist, were not delayed in our old subjects. Other findings included that anticipatory control of fingertip forces using memory of object weight was unimpaired in old age. Finally, old and young adults modulated their fingertip forces with equal smoothness and with similar relative intertrial variability.  (+info)

Is there a rational basis for post-surgical lifting restrictions? 1. Current understanding. (2/202)

Lifting restrictions postoperatively are quite common, but there appears to be little scientific basis for them. Lifting restrictions are inhibitory in terms of return to work and may be a factor in chronicity. The mean functional spinal motion unit stiffness changes with in vitro or computer-simulated discectomies, facetectomies and laminectomies were reviewed from the literature. We modified the NIOSH lifting equation to include another multiplier related to stiffness change post surgery. The new recommended lifts were computed for different lifting conditions seen in industry. The reduction of rotational stiffness ranged from 21% to 41% for a discectomy, 1% to 59% for a facetectomy and 4% to 16% for a partial laminectomy. The recommended lifts based on our modified equation were adjusted accordingly. There is no rational basis for current lifting restrictions. The risk to the spine is a function of many other variables as well as weight (i.e., distance of weight from body). The adjusted NIOSH guidelines provide a reasonable way to estimate weight restrictions and accommodations such as lifting aids. Such restrictions should be as liberal as possible so as to facilitate, not prevent, return to work. Patients need more advice regarding lifting activities and clinicians should be more knowledgeable about the working conditions and constraints of a given workplace to effectively match the solution to the patient's condition.  (+info)

Is there a rational basis for post-surgical lifting restrictions? 2. Possible scientific approach. (3/202)

Lifting restrictions postoperatively are quite common but there appears to be little scientific basis for them. Lifting restricitions are inhibitory in terms of return to work and may be a factor in chronicity. The mean changes in functional spinal motion unit (FSU) stiffness with in vitro or computer-simulated discectomies, facetectomies and laminectomies were reviewed from the literature. We modified the NIOSH lifting equation to include another multiplier related to stiffness change post surgery. The new recommended lifts were computed for different lifting conditions seen in industry. The reduction of rotational stiffness ranged from 21% to 41% for a discectomy, 1% to 59% for a facetectomy and 4% to 16% for a partial laminectomy. The recommended lifts based on our modified equation were adjusted accordingly. There is no rational basis for current lifting resctrictions. The risk to the spine is a function of many other variables as well as weight (i.e., distance of weight from body). The adjusted NIOSH guidelines provide a reasonable way to estimate weight restrictions and accomodations such as lifting aids. Such resitrictions should be as liberal as possible so as to facilitate, not prevent, return to work. Patients need more advice regarding lifting activities and clinicians should be more knowledgeable about the working conditions and constraints of a given workplace to effectively match the solution to the patient's condition.  (+info)

Association of low back pain with self-reported risk factors among patients seeking physical therapy services. (4/202)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study investigated the magnitude of association between low back pain (LBP) and self-reported factors thought to increase the risk of LBP. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Questionnaires were completed by 150 patients who were receiving physical therapy for LBP and by 138 patients who were being treated for other reasons. The solicited information was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the LBP-risk factor association. RESULTS: Low back pain was positively associated with smoking status, pregnancy, industrial vibration exposure, and time spent in a car (odds ratios > or = 2.21). Daily lifting, body mass index, activity level, and time sitting or standing showed at most a weak positive association with LBP. Comparisons with estimated associations from other studies were made. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: Data from this study support a statistically significant association between LBP and some factors found in other research to increase the risk of LBP. Study findings may have implications for targeting at-risk groups for back care education or intervention programs.  (+info)

Smoking, heavy physical work and low back pain: a four-year prospective study. (5/202)

Data from a community-based four-year prospective study were used to test the hypothesis that heavy physical work is a stronger predictor of low back pain in smokers than in non-smokers. Of 708 working responders without low back pain during the entire year prior to 1990, 562 (79%) completed a questionnaire four years later in 1994. A job involving heavy lifting and much standing in 1990 was a strong predictor of low back pain in smokers four years later [odds ratio (OR) = 5.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.93-15.84, p < 0.01) after having adjusted for other job characteristics, demographic factors, emotional symptoms, physical exercise and musculoskeletal pain elsewhere. In non-smokers, having a job with heavy lifting and much standing was not associated with low back pain. One explanation may be that smoking leads to reduced perfusion and malnutrition of tissues in or around the spine and causes these tissues to respond inefficiently to mechanical stress.  (+info)

Risk factors for back injury in 31,076 retail merchandise store workers. (6/202)

Risk factors for work-associated strain or sprain back injuries were investigated in a cohort of 31,076 material handlers from 260 retail merchandise stores in the United States. The workers studied were those with significant material-handling responsibilities--daily lifting and movement of merchandise. Workers in jobs with the greatest physical work requirements had an injury rate of 3.64 per 100 person-years versus 1.82 in workers with lesser work requirements. The unadjusted injury rate for males was 3.67 per 100 person-years compared with 2.34 per 100 person-years for females, but the excess for males was confounded by higher physical work requirements for men in the stocker/receiver job category. The injury rate ratio for short versus long duration of employment was 3.53 (95% confidence interval: 2.90, 4.30); for medium versus long duration of employment, it was 1.38 (95% confidence interval: 1.18, 1.62). The elevated rate ratios were maintained when the data were stratified by subsets with different rates of turnover. The results suggest that workers with the greatest physical work requirements and those with the shortest duration of employment are at the highest risk of back injuries. However, selection forces causing worker turnover within this cohort of active workers are not well characterized and have the potential to bias the measures for time-related factors such as duration of employment.  (+info)

Comparison of four peak spinal loading exposure measurement methods and their association with low-back pain. (7/202)

OBJECTIVES: This paper examines the performance of 4 different methods of estimating peak spinal loading and their relationship with the reporting of low-back pain. METHODS: The data used for this comparison was a subset of subjects from a case-referent study of low-back-pain reporting in the automotive industry, in which 130 random referents and 105 cases (or job-matched proxies) were studied. The peak load on the lumbar spine was determined using a biomechanical model with model inputs coming from a detailed self-report questionnaire, a task-based check list, a video digitization method, and a posture and load sampling technique. RESULTS: The methods were directly comparable through a common metric of newtons or newton meters of spinal loading in compression, shear, or moment modes. All the methods showed significant and substantial associations with low-back pain in all modes (odds ratios 1.6-2.3). The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) showed strong similarities between the checklist and video digitized techniques (ICC 0.84-0.91), moderate similarities between these techniques and the work sampling method (ICC 0.49-0.52), and poor correlations (ICC 0.16-0.40) between the self-report questionnaire and the observer recorded measures. CONCLUSIONS: While all the methods detected significant odds ratios, they cannot all be used interchangeably for risk assessment at the individual level. Peak spinal compression, moment, and shear are important risk factors for low-back pain reporting, no matter which measurement method is used. Questionnaires can be used for large-scale studies. At the individual level a task-based checklist provides biomechanical model inputs at lower cost and equal performance compared with the criterion video digitization system.  (+info)

Retrospective versus original information on physical and psychosocial exposure at work. (8/202)

OBJECTIVES: Retrospective exposure assessments are often performed in epidemiologic studies. The presence of an eventual misclassification, both nondifferential and differential, is debated but can rarely be investigated. The aim of this study was to compare self-reported information on the same physical and psychosocial work exposures with 25 years' difference. METHODS: In 1969-1970 a survey of randomly chosen men and women in Stockholm county, concerning, among other things, work exposures, was undertaken. During 1993-1994, 280 subjects participated in a reexamination, regarding psychosocial and physical factors at work and musculoskeletal disorders. The questions were all formulated in the same way as in 1969-1970. RESULTS: When self-reported information on work exposures, collected with a 25-year interval, was compared, acceptable, although not high, agreement was found for 3 out of 4 physical factors and for 4 out of 10 physical environmental factors. Questions measuring psychosocial load had somewhat lower agreement. Current exposure status influenced the memory of past exposures. Study subjects who reported low-back disorders at the reexamination tended to show a better agreement in their assessments of retrospective exposures than those without current symptoms. When relative risks from original and retrospective data were calculated, hardly any influence on the estimates due to that differential misclassification could be found. For persons with and without neck or shoulder symptoms no apparent differences in assessments were found. CONCLUSIONS: Retrospective assessments of exposures at the workplace showed misclassifications to a certain degree. However, the influence of the misclassifications on the risk estimates was limited.  (+info)

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