Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.
Summarizing techniques used to describe the pattern of mortality and survival in populations. These methods can be applied to the study not only of death, but also of any defined endpoint such as the onset of disease or the occurrence of disease complications.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
All deaths reported in a given population.
A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
Value of all final goods and services produced in a country in one year.
Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.
Readiness to think or respond in a predetermined way when confronted with a problem or stimulus situation.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The units based on political theory and chosen by countries under which their governmental power is organized and administered to their citizens.
Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.
Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.
Used for general articles concerning statistics of births, deaths, marriages, etc.
A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The intrinsic moral worth ascribed to a living being. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
An infant during the first month after birth.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Housing arrangements for the elderly or aged, intended to foster independent living. The housing may take the form of group homes or small apartments. It is available to the economically self-supporting but the concept includes housing for the elderly with some physical limitations. The concept should be differentiated from HOMES FOR THE AGED which is restricted to long-term geriatric facilities providing supervised medical and nursing services.
"Eastern Europe," in a geomedical context, often refers to a region including countries that were once part of the Soviet Union or influenced by its culture and healthcare system, such as Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and sometimes including countries in the Balkan Peninsula and Baltic states."
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The geographical area of Asia comprising KAZAKHSTAN; KYRGYZSTAN; TAJIKISTAN; TURKMENISTAN; and UZBEKISTAN. The desert region of Kara Kum (Qara Qum) is largely in Turkmenistan and the desert region of Kyzyl Kum (Kizil Kum or Qizil Qum), is in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p233, 590, 636)
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is not a medical term or concept, but a regional organization that consists of post-Soviet states, and therefore, it does not have a medical definition.
Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but 'Europe' is a geographical continent and not a medical term; therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Deaths that occur before LIFE EXPECTANCY is reached within a given population.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
## I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Japan" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in Asia, known as Nihon-koku or Nippon-koku in Japanese, and is renowned for its unique culture, advanced technology, and rich history. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
##### There is no medical definition for "East Germany" as it is a geopolitical term referring to the former German Democratic Republic (GDR), which existed from 1949 to 1990 and was not a medical or healthcare-related concept. However, I can provide some historical context: East Germany was a socialist state in Central Europe that was established after World War II and was governed by the Soviet Union until its peaceful reunification with West Germany in 1990. The GDR had its own healthcare system, which was based on the principles of socialized medicine and provided universal access to medical care for its citizens.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
West Germany refers to the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), which was the democratic and economically prosperous part of Germany that existed from 1949 to 1990, consisting of the states in the American, British, and French zones of occupation after World War II, and reunified with East Germany in 1990 to form a unified Federal Republic of Germany.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).
The killing of one person by another.
The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Great Britain is not a medical term, but a geographical name for the largest island in the British Isles, which comprises England, Scotland, and Wales, forming the major part of the United Kingdom.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Demographic and epidemiologic changes that have occurred in the last five decades in many developing countries and that are characterized by major growth in the number and proportion of middle-aged and elderly persons and in the frequency of the diseases that occur in these age groups. The health transition is the result of efforts to improve maternal and child health via primary care and outreach services and such efforts have been responsible for a decrease in the birth rate; reduced maternal mortality; improved preventive services; reduced infant mortality, and the increased life expectancy that defines the transition. (From Ann Intern Med 1992 Mar 15;116(6):499-504)
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
Respiratory Tract Neoplasms are defined as abnormal growths or tumors that develop within the respiratory system, including the nose, sinuses, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, and lungs, which can be benign or malignant, with the potential to cause significant morbidity and mortality.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Lithuania" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. It is a country located in northeastern Europe, bordered by Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Poland to the south, and the Baltic Sea to the west. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them!
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.

The expiry date of man: a synthesis of evolutionary biology and public health. (1/1743)

In industrialised countries, mortality and morbidity are dominated by age related chronic degenerative diseases. The health and health care needs of future populations will be heavily determined by these conditions of old age. Two opposite scenarios of future morbidity exist: morbidity might decrease ("compress"), because life span is limited, and the incidence of disease is postponed. Or morbidity might increase ("expand"), because death is delayed more than disease incidence. Optimality theory in evolutionary biology explains senescence as a by product of an optimised life history. The theory clarifies how senescence is timed by the competing needs for reproduction and survival, and why this leads to a generalised deterioration of many functions at many levels. As death and disease are not independent, future morbidity will depend on duration and severity of the process of senescence, partly determined by health care, palliating the disease severity but increasing the disease duration by postponing death. Even if morbidity might be compressed, health care needs will surely expand.  (+info)

Prediction of life expectancy in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. A retrospective nationwide survey from 1980-1990. (2/1743)

Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is a progressive disease of unknown etiology usually followed by death within 5 years after diagnosis. Although heart-lung or lung transplantation is now offered to patients with advanced PPH, adequate criteria assessing an accurate prediction of life expectancy in PPH has been difficult to establish. The aims of this study were to identify the characteristic features associated with a poor prognosis in patients with PPH, and to attempt to establish an individual prognostic index that predicts with great accuracy survival or death of PPH after one year, thereby helping to define criteria for patient selection for transplantation. In 1991, a retrospective nation-wide survey on PPH was conducted in Japan, and the clinical and cardiorespiratory variables of 223 PPH cases (female; 144, male; 79) in the period from 1980-1990 were obtained. The mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PPA) was 57.5+/-17.2 mm Hg (mean+/-SD), and the overall median survival time was 32.5 months since the first diagnostic catheterization. The characteristic features of 61 patients who died within one year of catheterization (Nonsurvivors group) were compared to 141 patients who survived one year or more from the time of catheterization (Survivors group). Among several clinical and cardiorespiratory variables, heart rate, PPA, right atrial pressure (PRA), stroke volume index (SI), pulmonary vascular resistance, and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) were significantly different between the two groups. As the independent factors, PPA, PRA, SI, and PaCO2 were selected for the multiple logistic analysis. Using a 0.7 probability cut-point to separate Nonsurvivors from Survivors, 84.6% of Nonsurvivors and Survivors could be correctly predicted from this logistic regression equation. Predictive equations like the present preliminary one can be used in the future to better assess life expectancy in patients with PPH in whom transplantation will be considered.  (+info)

Lack of inhibitory effects of the Ju-myo protein on development of glutathione S-transferase placental form-positive foci in the male F344 rat liver. (3/1743)

The effects of the 77 kDa Ju-myo protein, isolated from Drosophila melanogaster, on the development of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci in the male F344 rat liver were evaluated using a medium-term bioassay system. No modifying potential was evident in terms of the numbers or areas of GST-P positive foci. Ju-myo protein did not exert any influence on cell proliferation, as reflected by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) or spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SAT) activity and BrdU labeling. These results demonstrated that Ju-myo protein is unlikely to have inhibitory or promoting effects on rat liver carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Impact of market value on human mate choice decisions. (4/1743)

Mate choice strategies are a process of negotiation in which individuals make bids that are constrained by their status in the market place. Humans provide an unusual perspective on this because we can measure their explicitly expressed preferences before they are forced to make any choices. We use advertisements placed in newspaper personal columns to examine, first, the extent to which evolutionary considerations affect the level of competition (or market value) during the reproductively active period of people's lives and, second, the extent to which market value influences individual's willingness to make strong demands of prospective mates. We show that female market value is determined principally by women's fecundity (and, to a lesser extent, reproductive value), while male market value is determined by men's earning potential and the risk of future pairbond termination (the conjoint probability that the male will either die or divorce his partner during the next 20 years). We then show that these selection preferences strongly influence the levels of demands that men and women make of prospective partners (although older males tend to overestimate their market value).  (+info)

Light on population health status. (5/1743)

A new approach to illustrating and analysing health status is presented which allows comparisons of various aspects of health in a population at different times and in different populations during given periods. Both quantitative and qualitative elements can be represented, the impact of interventions can be monitored, and the extent to which objectives are achieved can be assessed. The practical application of the approach is demonstrated with reference to the health profiles to Tunisia in 1966 and 1994.  (+info)

Health expectancy indicators. (6/1743)

An outline is presented of progress in the development of health expectancy indicators, which are growing in importance as a means of assessing the health status of populations and determining public health priorities.  (+info)

Survival of healthy older people. (7/1743)

The purpose of this study was to discover any relationships which might exist between measurable variables recorded when a healthy group of men and women, aged 70 years and over, were examined and their subsequent survival time. It was found that height, body weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, haemoglobin, hand grip power, cardiothoracic ratio, and pulse rate are of no predictive value in the estimation of survival time. Survival is not influenced by marital status or occupational class. For both sexes the degree of kyphosis and age are useful predictive criteria in respect of survival time. However, much research work requires to be done to explain why many people die at the time they do.  (+info)

Does over-the-counter nicotine replacement therapy improve smokers' life expectancy? (8/1743)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the public health benefits of making nicotine replacement therapy available without prescription, in terms of number of quitters and life expectancy. DESIGN: A decision-analytic model was developed to compare the policy of over-the-counter (OTC) availability of nicotine replacement therapy with that of prescription ([symbol: see text]) availability for the adult smoking population in the United States. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Long-term (six-month) quit rates, life expectancy, and smoking attributable mortality (SAM) rates. RESULTS: OTC availability of nicotine replacement therapy would result in 91,151 additional successful quitters over a six-month period, and a cumulative total of approximately 1.7 million additional quitters over 25 years. All-cause SAM would decrease by 348 deaths per year and 2940 deaths per year at six months and five years, respectively. Relative to [symbol: see text] nicotine replacement therapy availability, OTC availability would result in an average gain in life expectancy across the entire adult smoking population of 0.196 years per smoker. In sensitivity analyses, the benefits of OTC availability were evident across a wide range of changes in baseline parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with [symbol: see text] availability of nicotine replacement therapy, OTC availability would result in more successful quitters, fewer smoking-attributable deaths, and increased life expectancy for current smokers.  (+info)

Life expectancy is a statistical measure that indicates the average amount of time a person is expected to live, based on their current age and other demographic factors such as sex, health status, and geographical location. It is often calculated using data from population studies and represents the number of years of life remaining at a given age, assuming that current mortality rates continue to apply.

For example, if the life expectancy at birth in a particular population is 80 years, it means that on average, newborns in that population are expected to live to be 80 years old. However, it's important to note that life expectancy is a statistical measure and does not predict the exact lifespan of any individual person.

Life tables are statistical tools used in actuarial science, demography, and public health to estimate the mortality rate and survival rates of a population. They provide a data-driven representation of the probability that individuals of a certain age will die before their next birthday (the death rate) or live to a particular age (the survival rate).

Life tables are constructed using data on the number of deaths and the size of the population in specific age groups over a given period. These tables typically include several columns representing different variables, such as:

1. Age group or interval: The age range for which the data is being presented (e.g., 0-1 year, 1-5 years, 5-10 years, etc.).
2. Number of people in the population: The size of the population within each age group.
3. Number of deaths: The number of individuals who died during the study period within each age group.
4. Death rate: The probability that an individual in a given age group will die before their next birthday. It is calculated as the number of deaths divided by the size of the population for that age group.
5. Survival rate: The probability that an individual in a given age group will survive to a specific age or older. It is calculated using the death rates from earlier age groups.
6. Life expectancy: The average number of years a person is expected to live, based on their current age and mortality rates for each subsequent age group.

Life tables are essential in various fields, including insurance, pension planning, social security administration, and healthcare policy development. They help researchers and policymakers understand the health status and demographic trends of populations, allowing them to make informed decisions about resource allocation, program development, and public health interventions.

Quality of Life (QOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that usually includes an individual's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. It reflects the impact of disease and treatment on a patient's overall well-being and ability to function in daily life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." It is a subjective concept, meaning it can vary greatly from person to person.

In healthcare, QOL is often used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and other research studies to assess the impact of interventions or treatments on overall patient well-being.

Mortality, in medical terms, refers to the state or condition of being mortal; the quality or fact of being subject to death. It is often used in reference to the mortality rate, which is the number of deaths in a specific population, divided by the size of that population, per a given time period. This can be used as a measure of the risk of death among a population.

Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) is a measure of health outcomes that combines both the quality and quantity of life lived in a single metric. It is often used in economic evaluations of healthcare interventions to estimate their value for money. QALYs are calculated by multiplying the number of years of life gained by a weighting factor that reflects the quality of life experienced during those years, typically on a scale from 0 (representing death) to 1 (representing perfect health). For example, if a healthcare intervention extends a person's life by an additional five years but they experience only 80% of full health during that time, the QALY gain would be 4 (5 x 0.8). This measure allows for comparisons to be made between different interventions and their impact on both length and quality of life.

The "cause of death" is a medical determination of the disease, injury, or event that directly results in a person's death. This information is typically documented on a death certificate and may be used for public health surveillance, research, and legal purposes. The cause of death is usually determined by a physician based on their clinical judgment and any available medical evidence, such as laboratory test results, autopsy findings, or eyewitness accounts. In some cases, the cause of death may be uncertain or unknown, and the death may be classified as "natural," "accidental," "homicide," or "suicide" based on the available information.

Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a systematic process used to compare the costs and benefits of different options to determine which one provides the greatest net benefit. In a medical context, CBA can be used to evaluate the value of medical interventions, treatments, or policies by estimating and monetizing all the relevant costs and benefits associated with each option.

The costs included in a CBA may include direct costs such as the cost of the intervention or treatment itself, as well as indirect costs such as lost productivity or time away from work. Benefits may include improved health outcomes, reduced morbidity or mortality, and increased quality of life.

Once all the relevant costs and benefits have been identified and quantified, they are typically expressed in monetary terms to allow for a direct comparison. The option with the highest net benefit (i.e., the difference between total benefits and total costs) is considered the most cost-effective.

It's important to note that CBA has some limitations and can be subject to various biases and assumptions, so it should be used in conjunction with other evaluation methods to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the value of medical interventions or policies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Markov Chains" is a term from the field of mathematics and probability theory, not medicine. Markov Chains are mathematical systems that undergo transitions from one state to another according to certain probabilistic rules. They are named after Russian mathematician Andrey Markov. These chains are used in various fields, including computer science, physics, economics, and engineering, but not commonly in medical definitions or contexts.

Longevity, in a medical context, refers to the condition of living for a long period of time. It is often used to describe individuals who have reached a advanced age, such as 85 years or older, and is sometimes associated with the study of aging and factors that contribute to a longer lifespan.

It's important to note that longevity can be influenced by various genetic and environmental factors, including family history, lifestyle choices, and access to quality healthcare. Some researchers are also studying the potential impact of certain medical interventions, such as stem cell therapies and caloric restriction, on lifespan and healthy aging.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Gross Domestic Product" (GDP) is an economic term, not a medical one. GDP is the total monetary or market value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country's borders in a specific time period. It serves as a comprehensive measure of a nation’s overall economic activity.

If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I would be happy to help!

Decision support techniques are methods used to help individuals or groups make informed and effective decisions in a medical context. These techniques can involve various approaches, such as:

1. **Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS):** Computerized systems that provide clinicians with patient-specific information and evidence-based recommendations to assist in decision-making. CDSS can be integrated into electronic health records (EHRs) or standalone applications.

2. **Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM):** A systematic approach to clinical decision-making that involves the integration of best available research evidence, clinician expertise, and patient values and preferences. EBM emphasizes the importance of using high-quality scientific studies to inform medical decisions.

3. **Diagnostic Reasoning:** The process of formulating a diagnosis based on history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. Diagnostic reasoning techniques may include pattern recognition, hypothetico-deductive reasoning, or a combination of both.

4. **Predictive Modeling:** The use of statistical models to predict patient outcomes based on historical data and clinical variables. These models can help clinicians identify high-risk patients and inform treatment decisions.

5. **Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA):** An economic evaluation technique that compares the costs and benefits of different medical interventions to determine which option provides the most value for money. CEA can assist decision-makers in allocating resources efficiently.

6. **Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA):** A structured approach to decision-making that involves identifying, evaluating, and comparing multiple criteria or objectives. MCDA can help clinicians and patients make complex decisions by accounting for various factors, such as efficacy, safety, cost, and patient preferences.

7. **Shared Decision-Making (SDM):** A collaborative approach to decision-making that involves the clinician and patient working together to choose the best course of action based on the available evidence, clinical expertise, and patient values and preferences. SDM aims to empower patients to participate actively in their care.

These techniques can be used individually or in combination to support medical decision-making and improve patient outcomes.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

"Sex distribution" is a term used to describe the number of males and females in a study population or sample. It can be presented as a simple count, a percentage, or a ratio. This information is often used in research to identify any differences in health outcomes, disease prevalence, or response to treatment between males and females. Additionally, understanding sex distribution can help researchers ensure that their studies are representative of the general population and can inform the design of future studies.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "disabled persons" are those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which may hinder their participation in society on an equal basis with others. The term "disability" is not meant to be understood as a 'personal tragedy' but rather as a complex interaction between the features of a person's body and mind, the activities they wish to perform and the physical and social barriers they encounter in their environment.

It's important to note that the term 'disabled persons' has been largely replaced by 'people with disabilities' or 'persons with disabilities' in many contexts, as it is considered more respectful and empowering to put the person first, rather than focusing on their disability. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) uses the term "persons with disabilities" throughout its text.

"Age distribution" is a term used to describe the number of individuals within a population or sample that fall into different age categories. It is often presented in the form of a graph, table, or chart, and can provide important information about the demographic structure of a population.

The age distribution of a population can be influenced by a variety of factors, including birth rates, mortality rates, migration patterns, and aging. Public health officials and researchers use age distribution data to inform policies and programs related to healthcare, social services, and other areas that affect the well-being of populations.

For example, an age distribution graph might show a larger number of individuals in the younger age categories, indicating a population with a high birth rate. Alternatively, it might show a larger number of individuals in the older age categories, indicating a population with a high life expectancy or an aging population. Understanding the age distribution of a population can help policymakers plan for future needs and allocate resources more effectively.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Political Systems" is not a term used in medical definitions. Political systems refer to the institutions, procedures, and mechanisms through which a society makes decisions on political matters. Examples include democracies, monarchies, and dictatorships. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health sciences, I'd be happy to help!

Developed countries, also known as high-income countries or industrialized nations, are sovereign states that have advanced economies and highly developed infrastructure. These countries typically have high levels of industrialization, urbanization, and technological development, along with a high standard of living and access to quality healthcare, education, and social services.

The World Bank defines developed countries as those with a gross national income (GNI) per capita of $12,695 or more in 2020. Examples of developed countries include the United States, Canada, Germany, France, Japan, Australia, and many others in Western Europe and Asia.

It's important to note that the term "developed" is relative and can change over time as a country's economy and infrastructure advance or decline. Additionally, there are significant disparities within developed countries, with some regions or populations experiencing poverty, inequality, and lack of access to basic needs and services.

Health status is a term used to describe the overall condition of an individual's health, including physical, mental, and social well-being. It is often assessed through various measures such as medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and self-reported health assessments. Health status can be used to identify health disparities, track changes in population health over time, and evaluate the effectiveness of healthcare interventions.

Health status indicators are measures used to assess and monitor the health and well-being of a population. They provide information about various aspects of health, such as mortality rates, morbidity rates, prevalence of chronic diseases, lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, and access to healthcare services. These indicators can be used to identify trends and disparities in health outcomes, inform policy decisions, allocate resources, and evaluate the effectiveness of public health interventions. Examples of health status indicators include life expectancy, infant mortality rate, prevalence of diabetes, smoking rates, and access to primary care.

Health status disparities refer to differences in the health outcomes that are observed between different populations. These populations can be defined by various sociodemographic factors such as race, ethnicity, sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, age, disability, income, education level, and geographic location. Health status disparities can manifest as differences in rates of illness, disease prevalence or incidence, morbidity, mortality, access to healthcare services, and quality of care received. These disparities are often the result of systemic inequities and social determinants of health that negatively impact certain populations, leading to worse health outcomes compared to other groups. It is important to note that health status disparities are preventable and can be addressed through targeted public health interventions and policies aimed at reducing health inequities.

"Vital statistics" is a term used in public health and medical contexts to refer to the statistical data collected on births, deaths, marriages, divorces, and other key life events. These statistics are considered important for monitoring population trends, planning public health programs and policies, and conducting demographic and epidemiological research.

The specific data collected as part of vital statistics may vary by country or region, but typically includes information such as the date and place of the event, the age, sex, race/ethnicity, and other demographic characteristics of the individuals involved, as well as any relevant medical information (such as cause of death or birth weight).

Vital statistics are often collected and maintained by government agencies, such as health departments or statistical offices, and are used to inform a wide range of public health and policy decisions.

I am not aware of a specific medical definition for "democracy" as it is a political science term. However, democracy generally refers to a system of government in which power is vested in the people, who rule either directly or through freely elected representatives. It is based on the principles of equality, freedom, and the rule of law.

In the context of healthcare, the concept of democracy may refer to the idea of patient-centered care, where patients are actively involved in decision-making about their own health and healthcare. This approach recognizes the importance of individual autonomy, informed consent, and shared decision-making between patients and healthcare providers. It also emphasizes the need for transparency, accountability, and responsiveness in healthcare systems and organizations.

Therefore, while "democracy" may not have a specific medical definition, its principles are relevant to the provision of high-quality, ethical, and compassionate healthcare.

Survival analysis is a branch of statistics that deals with the analysis of time to event data. It is used to estimate the time it takes for a certain event of interest to occur, such as death, disease recurrence, or treatment failure. The event of interest is called the "failure" event, and survival analysis estimates the probability of not experiencing the failure event until a certain point in time, also known as the "survival" probability.

Survival analysis can provide important information about the effectiveness of treatments, the prognosis of patients, and the identification of risk factors associated with the event of interest. It can handle censored data, which is common in medical research where some participants may drop out or be lost to follow-up before the event of interest occurs.

Survival analysis typically involves estimating the survival function, which describes the probability of surviving beyond a certain time point, as well as hazard functions, which describe the instantaneous rate of failure at a given time point. Other important concepts in survival analysis include median survival times, restricted mean survival times, and various statistical tests to compare survival curves between groups.

There is no universally accepted medical definition for "Value of Life" as it is a concept that encompasses both medical, ethical, and philosophical considerations. However, in the context of healthcare, the value of life may refer to the benefits, outcomes, or improvements in quality of life that are gained through medical interventions or treatments. This can include extending lifespan, improving functional ability, relieving symptoms, and enhancing overall well-being.

Ultimately, the value of life is subjective and depends on individual and societal values, beliefs, and preferences. Healthcare providers must consider these factors when making treatment decisions and engaging in end-of-life care discussions with patients and their families. It's important to note that the medical community does not assign a monetary value to human life.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

Economics is a social science that studies how individuals, businesses, governments, and societies make choices on allocating resources to satisfy their unlimited wants. It primarily focuses on the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

In healthcare, economics is often referred to as "health economics," which applies economic theory and methods to analyze health care markets, evaluate alternative health policies, and optimize resource allocation in the healthcare sector. Health economists study issues such as the cost-effectiveness of medical treatments, the impact of health insurance on access to care, and the efficiency of different healthcare delivery systems.

Understanding economics is crucial for making informed decisions about healthcare policy, resource allocation, and patient care. By analyzing data and applying economic principles, healthcare professionals can help ensure that resources are used efficiently and effectively to improve health outcomes and reduce costs.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

I couldn't find a specific medical definition for "Housing for the Elderly," as it is more related to social services and public health. However, I can provide you with some information about this concept.

Housing for the elderly refers to residential options designed specifically for older adults, often with age restrictions (e.g., 55 and over). These housing facilities aim to create living environments that cater to the unique needs and preferences of seniors. They may include features such as:

1. Accessibility accommodations: Modifications like grab bars, handrails, and wheelchair ramps to ensure safe and easy mobility for residents with limited mobility or visual impairments.
2. Social activities and amenities: Common areas for socializing, recreational facilities (e.g., fitness centers, libraries), organized events, and group outings that promote social interaction and a sense of community among residents.
3. Support services: Some housing options may offer support services like meals, housekeeping, transportation, or assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs) to help seniors maintain their independence and quality of life.
4. Safety features: Emergency call systems, fire safety equipment, and secure entries are common safety measures in elderly housing facilities.
5. Privacy: Individual living units that provide privacy and autonomy for residents while still offering access to shared spaces and social opportunities.

Housing for the elderly can be divided into several categories based on the level of care and support provided:

1. Independent Living Communities (ILCs): Also known as retirement communities or senior apartments, these facilities offer private living units with minimal support services. Residents must be able to manage their daily activities independently.
2. Assisted Living Facilities (ALFs): These housing options provide a higher level of care and support for seniors who need help with ADLs, such as bathing, dressing, or medication management. Staff is available 24/7 to assist residents as needed.
3. Continuing Care Retirement Communities (CCRCs): Also known as life plan communities, CCRCs offer a range of care options within one campus, allowing residents to transition from independent living to assisted living or skilled nursing care as their needs change over time.
4. Subsidized Housing: Affordable housing options for low-income seniors, often funded through government programs like the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). These facilities may offer supportive services to help residents maintain their independence.

Eastern Europe is a geographical and political region of the European continent. The exact definition of Eastern Europe varies, but it generally includes the countries in Central and Eastern Europe that were part of the Soviet Union or aligned with the Soviet Union during the Cold War. These countries include:

* Belarus
* Bulgaria
* Czech Republic
* Hungary
* Moldova
* Poland
* Romania
* Russia (European portion)
* Slovakia
* Ukraine

Some definitions of Eastern Europe also include the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania), which were part of the Soviet Union but are now independent countries. Other definitions may also include Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia, and Slovenia, which were part of the Eastern Bloc but not part of the Soviet Union.

It is important to note that the term "Eastern Europe" can be seen as problematic and outdated, as it is often associated with negative stereotypes and historical connotations from the Cold War era. Many people prefer to use more specific terms, such as "Central Europe," "Eastern Bloc," or "Soviet Union," to describe the region.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Central Asia is a geographical region in Asia that stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east, and from Russia in the north to Afghanistan in the south. It includes the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.

The medical definition of Central Asia may refer to the epidemiology, healthcare systems, or health issues specific to this region. For example, Central Asia has a high prevalence of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, hepatitis, and HIV/AIDS, due to various factors including poverty, lack of access to healthcare, and mobility of populations. In addition, non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes are also becoming more prevalent in Central Asia, partly due to lifestyle changes such as unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, and tobacco use.

Overall, the medical definition of Central Asia encompasses the unique health challenges and healthcare systems that exist within this geographical region.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

A census is a official count or survey of a population, typically conducted by a governmental authority to gather information about the demographics, economic characteristics, and other important data about the people living within its borders. In the medical context, censuses may refer to counts or surveys of specific populations, such as patients in a hospital or residents of a particular geographic area, to gather health-related data. This information can be used to inform public health policy, allocate resources, and plan for future healthcare needs.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Defining "life" is a complex question that has been debated by philosophers, scientists, and theologians for centuries. From a biological or medical perspective, life can be defined as a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as growth, reproduction, and response to stimuli, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased (death), or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) defines life as "the condition that distinguishes animals and plants from inorganic matter, including the capacity for growth, reproduction, functional activity, and continual change preceding death."

It's important to note that there is no one universally accepted definition of life, and different fields and disciplines may have slightly different definitions or criteria.

Medical survival rate is a statistical measure used to determine the percentage of patients who are still alive for a specific period of time after their diagnosis or treatment for a certain condition or disease. It is often expressed as a five-year survival rate, which refers to the proportion of people who are alive five years after their diagnosis. Survival rates can be affected by many factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, the effectiveness of treatment, and other health conditions that the patient may have. It is important to note that survival rates are statistical estimates and do not necessarily predict an individual patient's prognosis.

Economic models in the context of healthcare and medicine are theoretical frameworks used to analyze and predict the economic impact and cost-effectiveness of healthcare interventions, treatments, or policies. These models utilize clinical and epidemiological data, as well as information on resource use and costs, to estimate outcomes such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), and budget impacts. The purpose of economic models is to inform decision-making and allocate resources in an efficient and evidence-based manner. Examples of economic models include decision tree analysis, Markov models, and simulation models.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is not a medical term, but rather a political and geographical term. It refers to a regional organization that was established in 1991, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The CIS comprises 10 post-Soviet states: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.

Therefore, there is no medical definition associated with the term "Commonwealth of Independent States." However, it is important to note that public health and healthcare systems in CIS countries have undergone significant changes since the collapse of the Soviet Union, with varying degrees of success and challenges.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "income" is not a medical term. Income is an economic term that refers to the inflow of monetary resources or earnings that an individual or household receives from various sources, such as employment, investments, or government benefits. It is typically used in financial and economic contexts rather than medical ones. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Educational status refers to the level or stage of education that a person has reached. It can be used to describe an individual's educational background, achievements, and qualifications. Educational status can be categorized in various ways, including by level (e.g., elementary school, high school, college, graduate school), years of schooling completed, or type of degree earned (e.g., bachelor's, master's, doctoral).

In medical settings, educational status may be used as a demographic variable to describe the characteristics of a patient population or to identify potential disparities in health outcomes based on education level. Research has shown that higher levels of education are often associated with better health outcomes, including lower rates of chronic diseases and improved mental health. Therefore, understanding a patient's educational status can help healthcare providers tailor their care and education strategies to meet the unique needs and challenges of each individual.

Health care costs refer to the expenses incurred for medical services, treatments, procedures, and products that are used to maintain or restore an individual's health. These costs can be categorized into several types:

1. Direct costs: These include payments made for doctor visits, hospital stays, medications, diagnostic tests, surgeries, and other medical treatments and services. Direct costs can be further divided into two subcategories:
* Out-of-pocket costs: Expenses paid directly by patients, such as co-payments, deductibles, coinsurance, and any uncovered medical services or products.
* Third-party payer costs: Expenses covered by insurance companies, government programs (like Medicare, Medicaid), or other entities that pay for health care services on behalf of patients.
2. Indirect costs: These are the expenses incurred as a result of illness or injury that indirectly impact an individual's ability to work and earn a living. Examples include lost productivity, absenteeism, reduced earning capacity, and disability benefits.
3. Non-medical costs: These are expenses related to caregiving, transportation, home modifications, assistive devices, and other non-medical services required for managing health conditions or disabilities.

Health care costs can vary significantly depending on factors such as the type of medical service, geographic location, insurance coverage, and individual health status. Understanding these costs is essential for patients, healthcare providers, policymakers, and researchers to make informed decisions about treatment options, resource allocation, and health system design.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Europe" is a geographical and political designation, rather than a medical one. It refers to the continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Europe is made up of approximately 50 countries, depending on how one defines a "country."

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help answer them!

Health surveys are research studies that collect data from a sample population to describe the current health status, health behaviors, and healthcare utilization of a particular group or community. These surveys may include questions about various aspects of health such as physical health, mental health, chronic conditions, lifestyle habits, access to healthcare services, and demographic information. The data collected from health surveys can be used to monitor trends in health over time, identify disparities in health outcomes, develop and evaluate public health programs and policies, and inform resource allocation decisions. Examples of national health surveys include the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).

Smoking is not a medical condition, but it's a significant health risk behavior. Here is the definition from a public health perspective:

Smoking is the act of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning tobacco that is commonly consumed through cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. The smoke contains over 7,000 chemicals, including nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, and numerous toxic and carcinogenic substances. These toxins contribute to a wide range of diseases and health conditions, such as lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and various other cancers, as well as adverse reproductive outcomes and negative impacts on the developing fetus during pregnancy. Smoking is highly addictive due to the nicotine content, which makes quitting smoking a significant challenge for many individuals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "social class" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a sociological concept that refers to the grouping of individuals in a society based on their shared economic and social positions. This can include factors such as income, education, occupation, and wealth.

However, social class can have an impact on health outcomes and access to healthcare. For example, people in lower socioeconomic groups are more likely to experience chronic diseases, mental health disorders, and have limited access to quality healthcare services compared to those in higher socioeconomic groups. This relationship is often referred to as the "social determinants of health."

Premature mortality is an unfortunate event where an individual's life ends before they reach the statistically expected lifespan for their birth cohort and geographical location. This can be due to various factors such as genetic predisposition, lifestyle choices, environmental conditions or inadequate healthcare access. It often refers to deaths from diseases or injuries that could have been prevented or postponed with appropriate interventions.

This concept is crucial in public health as it helps identify populations at risk and prioritize resources towards preventive measures and treatments. The World Health Organization (WHO) uses this metric extensively while comparing health outcomes between different countries and regions, aiming to reduce premature mortality rates worldwide.

'Alcohol drinking' refers to the consumption of alcoholic beverages, which contain ethanol (ethyl alcohol) as the active ingredient. Ethanol is a central nervous system depressant that can cause euphoria, disinhibition, and sedation when consumed in small to moderate amounts. However, excessive drinking can lead to alcohol intoxication, with symptoms ranging from slurred speech and impaired coordination to coma and death.

Alcohol is metabolized in the liver by enzymes such as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). The breakdown of ethanol produces acetaldehyde, a toxic compound that can cause damage to various organs in the body. Chronic alcohol drinking can lead to a range of health problems, including liver disease, pancreatitis, cardiovascular disease, neurological disorders, and increased risk of cancer.

Moderate drinking is generally defined as up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men, where a standard drink contains about 14 grams (0.6 ounces) of pure alcohol. However, it's important to note that there are no safe levels of alcohol consumption, and any level of drinking carries some risk to health.

Medical mass screening, also known as population screening, is a public health service that aims to identify and detect asymptomatic individuals in a given population who have or are at risk of a specific disease. The goal is to provide early treatment, reduce morbidity and mortality, and prevent the spread of diseases within the community.

A mass screening program typically involves offering a simple, quick, and non-invasive test to a large number of people in a defined population, regardless of their risk factors or symptoms. Those who test positive are then referred for further diagnostic tests and appropriate medical interventions. Examples of mass screening programs include mammography for breast cancer detection, PSA (prostate-specific antigen) testing for prostate cancer, and fecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer.

It is important to note that mass screening programs should be evidence-based, cost-effective, and ethically sound, with clear benefits outweighing potential harms. They should also consider factors such as the prevalence of the disease in the population, the accuracy and reliability of the screening test, and the availability and effectiveness of treatment options.

Aging is a complex, progressive and inevitable process of bodily changes over time, characterized by the accumulation of cellular damage and degenerative changes that eventually lead to increased vulnerability to disease and death. It involves various biological, genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that contribute to the decline in physical and mental functions. The medical field studies aging through the discipline of gerontology, which aims to understand the underlying mechanisms of aging and develop interventions to promote healthy aging and extend the human healthspan.

"Forecasting" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a general term used in various fields, including finance, economics, and meteorology, to describe the process of making predictions or estimates about future events or trends based on historical data, trends, and other relevant factors. In healthcare and public health, forecasting may be used to predict the spread of diseases, identify potential shortages of resources such as hospital beds or medical equipment, or plan for future health care needs. However, there is no medical definition for "forecasting" itself.

Activities of Daily Living (ADL) are routine self-care activities that individuals usually do every day without assistance. These activities are widely used as a measure to determine the functional status and independence of a person, particularly in the elderly or those with disabilities or chronic illnesses. The basic ADLs include:

1. Personal hygiene: Bathing, washing hands and face, brushing teeth, grooming, and using the toilet.
2. Dressing: Selecting appropriate clothes and dressing oneself.
3. Eating: Preparing and consuming food, either independently or with assistive devices.
4. Mobility: Moving in and out of bed, chairs, or wheelchairs, walking independently or using mobility aids.
5. Transferring: Moving from one place to another, such as getting in and out of a car, bath, or bed.

There are also more complex Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) that assess an individual's ability to manage their own life and live independently. These include managing finances, shopping for groceries, using the telephone, taking medications as prescribed, preparing meals, and housekeeping tasks.

"World Health" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, it is often used in the context of global health, which can be defined as:

"The area of study, research and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide. It emphasizes trans-national health issues, determinants, and solutions; involves many disciplines within and beyond the health sciences and engages stakeholders from across sectors and societies." (World Health Organization)

Therefore, "world health" could refer to the overall health status and health challenges faced by populations around the world. It encompasses a broad range of factors that affect the health of individuals and communities, including social, economic, environmental, and political determinants. The World Health Organization (WHO) plays a key role in monitoring and promoting global health, setting international standards and guidelines, and coordinating responses to global health emergencies.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Netherlands" is not a medical term. It is a country located in Western Europe, known for its artistic heritage, elaborate canal system, and legalized marijuana and prostitution. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Japan" is not a medical term. Japan is the name of a country, officially known as Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku in Japanese, and is located in East Asia. It is an island nation in the Pacific Ocean with a population of about 126 million people.

If you have any medical questions or terms that you would like me to define, please let me know!

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

Infant Mortality is the death of a baby before their first birthday. The infant mortality rate is typically expressed as the number of deaths per 1,000 live births. This is a key indicator of the overall health of a population and is often used to measure the well-being of children in a society.

Infant mortality can be further categorized into neonatal mortality (death within the first 28 days of life) and postneonatal mortality (death after 28 days of life but before one year). The main causes of infant mortality vary by country and region, but generally include premature birth, low birth weight, congenital anomalies, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and infectious diseases.

Reducing infant mortality is a major public health goal for many countries, and efforts to improve maternal and child health, access to quality healthcare, and socioeconomic conditions are crucial in achieving this goal.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Germany, East" is not a medical term or concept. It refers to a historical and geographical region that was known as the German Democratic Republic (GDR), existing from 1949 to 1990. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health sciences, I'd be happy to help with those!

The German Democratic Republic, colloquially known as East Germany, was a socialist state established in the Soviet occupation zone of Germany after World War II. It existed from 1949 to 1990, when it was dissolved and merged with the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) following the Peaceful Revolution. The term "East Germany" is often used to refer to this region during that time period in historical or geographical contexts, but it does not have any relevance to medical definitions or healthcare.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a class of diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels. They are the leading cause of death globally, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The term "cardiovascular disease" refers to a group of conditions that include:

1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): This is the most common type of heart disease and occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of cholesterol, fat, and other substances in the walls of the arteries. This can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, or a heart attack.
2. Heart failure: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs. It can be caused by various conditions, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and cardiomyopathy.
3. Stroke: A stroke occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is interrupted or reduced, often due to a clot or a ruptured blood vessel. This can cause brain damage or death.
4. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): This occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the limbs become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain, numbness, or weakness in the legs or arms.
5. Rheumatic heart disease: This is a complication of untreated strep throat and can cause damage to the heart valves, leading to heart failure or other complications.
6. Congenital heart defects: These are structural problems with the heart that are present at birth. They can range from mild to severe and may require medical intervention.
7. Cardiomyopathy: This is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood efficiently. It can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, and certain medications.
8. Heart arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms that can cause the heart to beat too fast, too slow, or irregularly. They can lead to symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, or fainting.
9. Valvular heart disease: This occurs when one or more of the heart valves become damaged or diseased, leading to problems with blood flow through the heart.
10. Aortic aneurysm and dissection: These are conditions that affect the aorta, the largest artery in the body. An aneurysm is a bulge in the aorta, while a dissection is a tear in the inner layer of the aorta. Both can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

It's important to note that many of these conditions can be managed or treated with medical interventions such as medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes. If you have any concerns about your heart health, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider.

"West Germany" is not a medical term. It is a geopolitical term that refers to the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) which existed from 1949 to 1990. The FRG was established in the western part of defeated Nazi Germany and was supported by the Western Allies (the United States, the United Kingdom, and France) after World War II.

In medical contexts, references to "West Germany" might appear in older studies or publications that compare health outcomes, disease prevalence, or healthcare systems between different regions or countries, including East and West Germany before reunification in 1990. However, it is essential to understand that such distinctions are historical and do not have current medical relevance.

Statistical models are mathematical representations that describe the relationship between variables in a given dataset. They are used to analyze and interpret data in order to make predictions or test hypotheses about a population. In the context of medicine, statistical models can be used for various purposes such as:

1. Disease risk prediction: By analyzing demographic, clinical, and genetic data using statistical models, researchers can identify factors that contribute to an individual's risk of developing certain diseases. This information can then be used to develop personalized prevention strategies or early detection methods.

2. Clinical trial design and analysis: Statistical models are essential tools for designing and analyzing clinical trials. They help determine sample size, allocate participants to treatment groups, and assess the effectiveness and safety of interventions.

3. Epidemiological studies: Researchers use statistical models to investigate the distribution and determinants of health-related events in populations. This includes studying patterns of disease transmission, evaluating public health interventions, and estimating the burden of diseases.

4. Health services research: Statistical models are employed to analyze healthcare utilization, costs, and outcomes. This helps inform decisions about resource allocation, policy development, and quality improvement initiatives.

5. Biostatistics and bioinformatics: In these fields, statistical models are used to analyze large-scale molecular data (e.g., genomics, proteomics) to understand biological processes and identify potential therapeutic targets.

In summary, statistical models in medicine provide a framework for understanding complex relationships between variables and making informed decisions based on data-driven insights.

A decision tree is a graphical representation of possible solutions to a decision based on certain conditions. It is a predictive modeling tool commonly used in statistics, data mining, and machine learning. In the medical field, decision trees can be used for clinical decision-making and predicting patient outcomes based on various factors such as symptoms, test results, or demographic information.

In a decision tree, each internal node represents a feature or attribute, and each branch represents a possible value or outcome of that feature. The leaves of the tree represent the final decisions or predictions. Decision trees are constructed by recursively partitioning the data into subsets based on the most significant attributes until a stopping criterion is met.

Decision trees can be used for both classification and regression tasks, making them versatile tools in medical research and practice. They can help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care, identify high-risk patients, and develop personalized treatment plans. However, it's important to note that decision trees are only as good as the data they are trained on, and their accuracy may be affected by biases or limitations in the data.

Homicide is a legal term used to describe the taking of another human life. It is not a medical diagnosis, but rather a legal concept that may result in criminal charges. In medical terms, it might be referred to as "unnatural death" or "violent death." The term itself does not carry a connotation of guilt or innocence; it simply describes the factual occurrence of one person causing the death of another.

The legal definition of homicide varies by jurisdiction and can encompass a range of criminal charges, from manslaughter to murder, depending on the circumstances and intent behind the act.

Morbidity, in medical terms, refers to the state or condition of being diseased or unhealthy. It is used to describe the incidence or prevalence of a particular disease or health condition within a population, or the presence of multiple diseases or health conditions in an individual. Morbidity can also refer to the complications or symptoms associated with a disease or injury. In clinical settings, morbidity may be used to assess a patient's overall health status and their response to treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "life style" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to the way an individual or group lives, including their habits, behaviors, and preferences in areas such as diet, exercise, recreation, and stress management. Some lifestyle factors can have a significant impact on health outcomes and risk for certain diseases. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical meaning.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Great Britain" is not a medical concept or condition. It is a geographical and political term referring to the largest island in the British Isles, on which the majority of England, Scotland, and Wales are located. It's also used to refer to the political union of these three countries, which is called the United Kingdom. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.

The birth rate is the number of live births that occur in a population during a specific period, usually calculated as the number of live births per 1,000 people per year. It is an important demographic indicator used to measure the growth or decline of a population over time. A higher birth rate indicates a younger population and faster population growth, while a lower birth rate suggests an older population and slower growth.

The birth rate can be affected by various factors, including socioeconomic conditions, cultural attitudes towards childbearing, access to healthcare services, and government policies related to family planning and reproductive health. It is also influenced by the age structure of the population, as women in their reproductive years (typically ages 15-49) are more likely to give birth.

It's worth noting that while the birth rate is an important indicator of population growth, it does not provide a complete picture of fertility rates or demographic trends. Other measures, such as the total fertility rate (TFR), which estimates the average number of children a woman would have during her reproductive years, are also used to analyze fertility patterns and population dynamics.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

A "health transition" is not a term that has a single, widely accepted medical definition. However, in the context of healthcare and patient care, it often refers to the process of shifting an individual's care from one setting or provider to another. This can occur when a patient is discharged from the hospital to home care, moves from pediatric to adult healthcare services, or transitions between different specialists or levels of care.

The goal of a health transition is to ensure that the patient receives continuous and coordinated care, with clear communication between providers and a smooth handoff of responsibility for the patient's care. A successful health transition can help to improve outcomes, reduce the risk of readmissions, and enhance patient satisfaction.

"Cost of Illness" is a medical-economic concept that refers to the total societal cost associated with a specific disease or health condition. It includes both direct and indirect costs. Direct costs are those that can be directly attributed to the illness, such as medical expenses for diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, and medications. Indirect costs include productivity losses due to morbidity (reduced efficiency while working) and mortality (lost earnings due to death). Other indirect costs may encompass expenses related to caregiving or special education needs. The Cost of Illness is often used in health policy decision-making, resource allocation, and evaluating the economic impact of diseases on society.

Respiratory tract neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur in the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, and lungs. These growths can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Malignant neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade nearby tissues, spread to other parts of the body, and interfere with normal respiratory function, leading to serious health consequences.

Respiratory tract neoplasms can have various causes, including genetic factors, exposure to environmental carcinogens such as tobacco smoke, asbestos, and radon, and certain viral infections. Symptoms of respiratory tract neoplasms may include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest pain, hoarseness, or blood in the sputum. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or PET scans, as well as biopsies to determine the type and extent of the tumor. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Lithuania" is not a medical term. It is a country in Northern Europe, the southernmost of the three Baltic states. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

The term "developing countries" is a socio-economic classification used to describe nations that are in the process of industrialization and modernization. This term is often used interchangeably with "low and middle-income countries" or "Global South." The World Bank defines developing countries as those with a gross national income (GNI) per capita of less than US $12,695.

In the context of healthcare, developing countries face unique challenges including limited access to quality medical care, lack of resources and infrastructure, high burden of infectious diseases, and a shortage of trained healthcare professionals. These factors contribute to significant disparities in health outcomes between developing and developed nations.

Decision-making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. In a medical context, decision-making refers to the process by which healthcare professionals and patients make choices about medical tests, treatments, or management options based on a thorough evaluation of available information, including the patient's preferences, values, and circumstances.

The decision-making process in medicine typically involves several steps:

1. Identifying the problem or issue that requires a decision.
2. Gathering relevant information about the patient's medical history, current condition, diagnostic test results, treatment options, and potential outcomes.
3. Considering the benefits, risks, and uncertainties associated with each option.
4. Evaluating the patient's preferences, values, and goals.
5. Selecting the most appropriate course of action based on a careful weighing of the available evidence and the patient's individual needs and circumstances.
6. Communicating the decision to the patient and ensuring that they understand the rationale behind it, as well as any potential risks or benefits.
7. Monitoring the outcomes of the decision and adjusting the course of action as needed based on ongoing evaluation and feedback.

Effective decision-making in medicine requires a thorough understanding of medical evidence, clinical expertise, and patient preferences. It also involves careful consideration of ethical principles, such as respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice. Ultimately, the goal of decision-making in healthcare is to promote the best possible outcomes for patients while minimizing harm and respecting their individual needs and values.

"Drug costs" refer to the amount of money that must be paid to acquire and use a particular medication. These costs can include the following:

1. The actual purchase price of the drug, which may vary depending on factors such as the dosage form, strength, and quantity of the medication, as well as whether it is obtained through a retail pharmacy, mail-order service, or other distribution channel.
2. Any additional fees or charges associated with obtaining the drug, such as shipping and handling costs, insurance copayments or coinsurance amounts, and deductibles.
3. The cost of any necessary medical services or supplies that are required to administer the drug, such as syringes, needles, or alcohol swabs for injectable medications, or nebulizers for inhaled drugs.
4. The cost of monitoring and managing any potential side effects or complications associated with the use of the drug, which may include additional medical appointments, laboratory tests, or other diagnostic procedures.

It is important to note that drug costs can vary widely depending on a variety of factors, including the patient's insurance coverage, the pharmacy where the drug is obtained, and any discounts or rebates that may be available. Patients are encouraged to shop around for the best prices and to explore all available options for reducing their out-of-pocket costs, such as using generic medications or participating in manufacturer savings programs.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection is a viral illness that progressively attacks and weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to other infections and diseases. The virus primarily infects CD4+ T cells, a type of white blood cell essential for fighting off infections. Over time, as the number of these immune cells declines, the body becomes increasingly vulnerable to opportunistic infections and cancers.

HIV infection has three stages:

1. Acute HIV infection: This is the initial stage that occurs within 2-4 weeks after exposure to the virus. During this period, individuals may experience flu-like symptoms such as fever, fatigue, rash, swollen glands, and muscle aches. The virus replicates rapidly, and the viral load in the body is very high.
2. Chronic HIV infection (Clinical latency): This stage follows the acute infection and can last several years if left untreated. Although individuals may not show any symptoms during this phase, the virus continues to replicate at low levels, and the immune system gradually weakens. The viral load remains relatively stable, but the number of CD4+ T cells declines over time.
3. AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome): This is the most advanced stage of HIV infection, characterized by a severely damaged immune system and numerous opportunistic infections or cancers. At this stage, the CD4+ T cell count drops below 200 cells/mm3 of blood.

It's important to note that with proper antiretroviral therapy (ART), individuals with HIV infection can effectively manage the virus, maintain a healthy immune system, and significantly reduce the risk of transmission to others. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for improving long-term health outcomes and reducing the spread of HIV.

Demography is the statistical study of populations, particularly in terms of size, distribution, and characteristics such as age, race, gender, and occupation. In medical contexts, demography is often used to analyze health-related data and trends within specific populations. This can include studying the prevalence of certain diseases or conditions, identifying disparities in healthcare access and outcomes, and evaluating the effectiveness of public health interventions. Demographic data can also be used to inform policy decisions and allocate resources to address population health needs.

Health Priorities are key areas of focus in healthcare that receive the greatest attention, resources, and efforts due to their significant impact on overall population health. These priorities are typically determined by evaluating various health issues and factors such as prevalence, severity, mortality rates, and social determinants of health. By addressing health priorities, healthcare systems and public health organizations aim to improve community health, reduce health disparities, and enhance the quality of life for individuals. Examples of health priorities may include chronic diseases (such as diabetes or heart disease), mental health, infectious diseases, maternal and child health, injury prevention, and health promotion through healthy lifestyles.

A registry in the context of medicine is a collection or database of standardized information about individuals who share a certain condition or attribute, such as a disease, treatment, exposure, or demographic group. These registries are used for various purposes, including:

* Monitoring and tracking the natural history of diseases and conditions
* Evaluating the safety and effectiveness of medical treatments and interventions
* Conducting research and generating hypotheses for further study
* Providing information to patients, clinicians, and researchers
* Informing public health policy and decision-making

Registries can be established for a wide range of purposes, including disease-specific registries (such as cancer or diabetes registries), procedure-specific registries (such as joint replacement or cardiac surgery registries), and population-based registries (such as birth defects or cancer registries). Data collected in registries may include demographic information, clinical data, laboratory results, treatment details, and outcomes.

Registries can be maintained by a variety of organizations, including hospitals, clinics, academic medical centers, professional societies, government agencies, and industry. Participation in registries is often voluntary, although some registries may require informed consent from participants. Data collected in registries are typically de-identified to protect the privacy of individuals.

I apologize, but "Canada" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in North America, known for its vast wilderness, multicultural cities, and significant natural resources. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terms, I would be happy to help answer those!

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... is a measure of how many years of education a child of school-entering age would receive during their ... "School Life Expectancy". Retrieved 21 July 2009. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, ...
... (HLE) is calculated by multiplying life expectancy by a happiness index. The first uses life expectancy ... The HDI measures average achievements based on three dimensions: life-span, as measured by life expectancy at birth; education ... life expectancy index) + 1/3 (education index) + 1/3 (GDP index). One can see that highly developed nations can have high life ... "Happy Life-Expectancy, A Comprehensive Measure of Quality-of Life in Nations", which appeared in the journal Social Indicators ...
"Good Health Boosts Sexual Life Expectancy". WebMD Health News. Calculate your sexually active life expectancy (All articles ... "Study examines sexually active life expectancy". Chicago Tribune. Gerlin, Andrea (March 10, 2010). "Sex Life Ends at 70 as ... "Population gender differences in the effects of obesity on later life sexuality and sexually active life expectancy". ... Sexually active life expectancy is the average number of years remaining for a person to be sexually active. This population- ...
"Life expectancy and Healthy life expectancy, data by country". World Health Organization. 4 December 2022. "Life expectancy and ... Life expectancy trends interactive graph Life expectancy interactive world map Global Life Expectancy (Infographic),LiveScience ... of countries by past life expectancy List of European countries by life expectancy List of European regions by life expectancy ... territories by life expectancy List of federal subjects of Russia by life expectancy List of world regions by life expectancy ...
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Prefectures by life expectancy at birth according to Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. The total life expectancy ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Life expectancy charts for Japan. List of Asian countries by life expectancy "平成27年都道府県別 ... "Average Life Expectancy: Male". "Average Life Expectancy: Male". (Articles with short description, Short description is ... This is a list of Japanese prefectures by life expectancy. ...
Life expectancy in the world on average Comparison of life expectancy in countries with different income Life expectancy and ... "Life expectancy at birth, male". The World Bank Group. 29 June 2023. Retrieved 6 July 2023. "Life expectancy at birth, female ... "Life expectancy and Healthy life expectancy, data by WHO region". World Health Organization. 7 December 2020. "WHO: Countries ... HALE in regions of WHO in 2019 Elaboration by gender List of countries by life expectancy "Life expectancy at birth, total". ...
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statistical table 'Healthy Life Years' "Life expectancy and Healthy life expectancy, data by country". World Health ... "Life expectancy at birth, total". The World Bank Group. 22 December 2022. Retrieved 27 May 2023. "Life expectancy at birth, ... List of countries by life expectancy List of Asian countries by life expectancy Demographics of Turkey "Data Portal for ... for 2019 life expectancy in Turkey was 78.6 years (76.4 years for male and 80.7 years for female). And healthy life expectancy ...
The life expectancy is shown as the average of males and females. * indicates "Health in COUNTRY or TERRITORY" links. "Life ... Life expectancy equals the average number of years a person born in a given country is expected to live if mortality rates at ... Life expectancy https://www.worldlifeexpectancy.com/history-of-life-expectancy (Articles with short description, Short ... This is a list of countries showing past life expectancy, ranging from 1950 to 2015 in five-year periods, as estimated by the ...
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List of Chinese cities by life expectancy List of Asian countries by life expectancy "Life expectancy - Subnational HDI - ... in order of their life expectancy in 2021. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Life expectancy charts for China. ... "Life expectancy at birth, total (years) - Hong Kong SAR, China, Macao SAR, China , Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 28 June ... List of Chinese cities by life expectancy (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, ...
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... congressional districts by life expectancy List of North American countries by life expectancy "Life Expectancy at birth, both ... The life expectancy of most of the longest-lived counties equaled or exceeded that increase. The life expectancy of most of the ... List of U.S. states and territories by life expectancy List of U.S. counties with shortest life expectancy List of U.S. states ... the gap between the counties with the longest life expectancy and the shortest is widening. The average life expectancy of the ...
List of countries by life expectancy List of European countries by life expectancy List of Asian countries by life expectancy ... Life expectancy in Russia since 1896, according to estimation of "Our World in Data" Life expectancy in the North Caucasus Life ... Life expectancy and healthy life expectancy in Russia on the background of other countries of the world in 2019 Life expectancy ... Life expectancy in Russia is 70.06 years, according to official data for 2021. Russia's historical maximum life expectancy was ...
Understanding Life Tables. National life expectancy estimates are calculated using period (current) life tables. Life tables ... United States Life Tables, 2019 [PDF - 1 MB] (3/22/2022). *U.S. State Life Tables, 2019 (2/10/2022) *2019 State Life Expectancy ... Did you know that life expectancy varies by neighborhood?. Estimates for Life Expectancy at birth are now available nationwide ... Life expectancy tells us the average number of years of life a person who has attained a given age can expect to live. ...
One must compare the life expectancy of the period after childhood to estimate also the life expectancy of an adult. Life ... equity Life extension Life table Lindy effect List of countries by life expectancy List of countries by past life expectancy ... Life Expectancy-Visualizations of how life expectancy around the world has changed historically (by Max Roser). Includes life ... Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the estimate of the span of a life. The most commonly used measure is life ...
Source for information on life-expectancy: A Dictionary of Sociology dictionary. ... The measure is calculated from a life-table, and since it is expressed as an average for persons of that age and sex in a ... life-expectancy The number of further years of life a person can expect at a given age. ... Life Expectancy , Life expectancy (or the expectation of life) is the average length of life remaining to be lived by a ...
... all of which can affect their quality of life and potentially their life expectancy. ... PsA does not usually affect life expectancy, but a person with PsA may have a higher risk of other conditions, such as ... In this article, we look at the outlook for people with PsA, its effect on their quality of life, and the solutions available. ... For a person with PsA, early diagnosis and treatment are key to staying mobile and continuing to enjoy a good quality of life. ...
Life expectancy depends on a number of factors, such as how many relapses youve had, the length of time since your last ... Its possible to live for many years after a relapse in multiple myeloma, but life expectancy depends on many factors. ... This article will discuss the life expectancy for people with multiple myeloma after relapse. ...
Many factors are involved when working out an individuals life expectancy.. One of the strongest predictors of life expectancy ... In this article, we explain how doctors work out the life expectancy for people with COPD and ways to improve a persons ... Predictive tests such as GOLD, BODE, and other scales are only a doctors best estimate of life expectancy. Many people live ... People with a higher GOLD grade have a lower life expectancy than those whose grade is a lower number. ...
When autocomplete results are available use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. ...
GOP Policies Are Shortening American Lives. A new study suggests that state disparities in life expectancy come down to the ... Opinion , The Real Reason Why American Lives Are Getting Shorter. U.S. life expectancy has lagged relative to other ... Shootings are taking almost twice as much of a toll on the life expectancy of black Americans as on that of white Americans, a ... U.S. Life Expectancy Dropped 1.5 Years In 2020, Mainly Due To COVID-19. ...
... was 23 Years. Discover more data with NationMaster! ... Australia - Female Life Expectancy at 65 Years - 1960 to 2019. Since 2014, Australia Female Life Expectancy at 65 rose 0.4% ... How does Australia rank in Female Life Expectancy at 65?. #. 39 Countries. Years. Last. YoY. 5‑years CAGR. ... With 22.6 Years in 2019, the country was ranked number 7 among other countries in Female Life Expectancy at 65. Australia is ...
... life expectancy rose in 2018 for the first time in four years amid a decline in drug overdose deaths. ... Life expectancy in the United States has increased for the first time in four years, according to new federal figures, ... "We dont know if this is the start of a new trend of increases in life expectancy and a continued decline in deaths due to ... But Georgia ranked 42nd among the states and the District of Columbia in 2016 with a life expectancy for its residents at 74.8 ...
Average life expectancy will increase globally by 2030, both at birth and at the age of 65, according to a new study. ... CNN) -- Average life expectancy will increase globally by 2030, both at birth and at the age of 65, according to a new study. ... Life expectancy among men born in South Korea in 2030 is therefore predicted to be 84.1 years, according to the study, ... The lowest life expectancy projections overall were for women in Macedonia and men in Serbia, according to the study. ...
... was 2 Years. Discover more data with NationMaster! ... Total Tertiary Education School Life Expectancy Years - 1975 to 2014. Since 2009, Egypt Total Tertiary Education School Life ... How does Egypt rank in Total Tertiary Education School Life Expectancy?. #. 93 Countries. Years. Last. YoY. 5‑years CAGR. ... With 1.58 Years in 2014, the country was number 56 among other countries in Total Tertiary Education School Life Expectancy. ...
There somehow seems to be a link between peoples life expectancy and the number of children they have: People with children ... How children influence the life expectancy of their parents. Does having children make us live longer? The numbers say yes, but ... There somehow seems to be a link between peoples life expectancy and the number of children they have: People with children ... Those passing the test successfully are likely to have a life expectancy that is comparatively high right from the start. ...
Life expectancy updated. Life expectancy updated. We have added data for 2011 to life expectancy. These data are for now based ...
... explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives. ... In contrast, counties in central Colorado had the highest life expectancy.. Some of the biggest gains in life expectancy during ... the average life expectancy was about 79.1 years, up 5.3 years from 1980, the study found. For men, life expectancy climbed ... Many counties where life expectancy dropped the most are in Kentucky.. One limitation of the study is that there might be ...
It is difficult for Sony or any other manufacturer to quote the life expectancy for a product. Certain variables, such as the ... play a part in the life expectancy of a product. ...
It is difficult for Sony or any other manufacturer to quote the life expectancy for a product. Certain variables, such as the ... play a part in the life expectancy of a product. ...
In a country-by-country comparison in 2005 of life expectancy among Israeli Jews and Arabs to life expectancy in OECD countries ... Despite the substantial increase in life expectancy among Israeli Arabs, and the fact that their life expectancies are already ... the gains in Israeli life expectancy have far outpaced those of other countries, Chernichovsky wrote. Life expectancy in the US ... Life Expectancy 311. (photo credit: Taub Center for Social Policy Studies in Israel). ...
... the life expectancy of women at birth in Mexico remained nearly unchanged at around 74.86 years. ... In 2021, the life expectancy of women at birth in Mexico remained nearly unchanged at around 74.86 years. Life expectancy at ... www.statista.com/statistics/263735/life-expectancy-of-women-in-mexico/. World Bank, Mexico: Life expectancy of women at birth ... Mexico: Life expectancy of women at birth from 2011 to 2021 table column chart ...
... With medical advances and improved lifestyles, life expectancies in the U.S. have been on the rise ...
Homeless peoples life expectancy half of average in B.C.. A new report by Vancouvers Megaphone Magazine also finds ... A new report released by a Vancouver-area street magazine says the life expectancy of a homeless person is about half that of ... Homeless peoples life expectancy half of average in B.C. , CBC News Loaded ... while the life expectancy of the average British Columbian is around 82 years old. ...
... life expectancy, education, and population size from a nondeveloped environment to sustained growth. Individuals optimally ... "Human Capital Formation, Life Expectancy and the Process of Economic Development," IZA Discussion Papers 585, Institute of ... "Human capital formation, life expectancy, and the process of development," Munich Reprints in Economics 20083, University of ... "Human Capital Formation, Life Expectancy, and the Process of Development," American Economic Review, American Economic ...
Life expectancy at birth, total (years) - Madagascar from The World Bank: Data ... Life expectancy at birth, total (years) - Madagascar. ( 1 ) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects: ... 2022 Revision, or derived from male and female life expectancy at birth from sources such as: ( 2 ) Census reports and other ...
... life expectancy has gradually increased; this is thanks to medical advancements. Because of scientific and medical ... human life expectancy has increased much more dramatically in the last 100 to 150 years. The average life expectancy in the ... This allows more patients access to life-saving surgeries and has greatly increased human life expectancy over time. ... Through the course of human history, life expectancy has gradually increased; this is thanks to medical advancements. Because ...
Treatment outcomes & life expectancy. Life expectancy now considerably exceeds the average in some people with HIV in the US. 6 ... Treatment outcomes & life expectancy. Yes, the same life expectancy as HIV-negative people, but far fewer years in good health ... How is life expectancy calculated?. Life expectancy is the average number of years that a person can expect to live. ... Treatment outcomes & life expectancy. Life expectancy now near-normal in people with CD4 counts over 350 a year after starting ...
... youll learn about average life expectancy in JapanVisit JapanesePod101 and learn Japanese fast with real lessons by real ... "Average life expectancy" means "the average lifespan" of a child. In other words, "average life expectancy" shows how many ... The average life expectancy just after World War II, was in the 50s, so it has increased by nearly 30 years during this 70 year ... Life expectancy for both men and women exceeded the age of 80 and reached the highest record ever, though the position for the ...
... life expectancy has increased by 10 years in the past two decades, dramatically overtaking the national average. ... While life expectancy in many parts of the United States is dropping, it has increased by 10 years in Manhattan since 1987. ... Manhattanites can now expect to live to the ripe old age of 82, and the average life expectancy across all five New York City ... Even with New Yorks success, the IHME team found life expectancy in the country as a whole lengthened just 1.7 years per ...
The instrumented changes in life expectancy have a large effect on population; a 1% increase in life expectancy leads to an ... We document that predicted mortality has a large and robust effect on changes in life expectancy starting in 1940, but no ... Consequently, there is no evidence that the large exogenous increase in life expectancy led to a significant increase in per ... Using these data, we construct an instrument for changes in life expectancy, referred to as predicted mortality, which is based ...
The graphic clearly shows the extended life expectancy at birth from 1987-1991, compared to the life expectancy at birth in ... This graphic shows life expectancy at birth in 1980 and 1987-91 in Europe and former USSR. ... Life expectancy at birth in 1980 and 1987-1991. This graphic shows life expectancy at birth in 1980 and 1987-91 in Europe and ... The graphic clearly shows the extended life expectancy at birth from 1987-1991, compared to the life expectancy at birth in ...
  • As of 2016, the overall worldwide life expectancy had reached the highest level that has been measured in modern times. (wikipedia.org)
  • But Georgia ranked 42nd among the states and the District of Columbia in 2016 with a life expectancy for its residents at 74.8 years, according to the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington in Seattle. (ajc.com)
  • The decrease was only by 0.1 year from 2016, but experts say life expectancy usually increases over the years. (scrippsnews.com)
  • Results For every one-dollar increase in cigarette tax per pack (in 2016 dollars), county life expectancy increased by 1 year (95% CI 0.60 to 1.40 years) over the long run, with the first 6-month increase in life expectancy taking 10 years to materialise. (who.int)
  • In 2016, life expectancy varied across the states, ranking highest in Hawaii (81.3 years), and lowest in Mississippi (74.7 years). (medscape.com)
  • Despite the substantial increase in life expectancy among Israeli Arabs, and the fact that their life expectancies are already longer than those in the neighboring countries, the US and Denmark, they are still below the OECD average and all other advanced Western countries. (jpost.com)
  • Consequently, there is no evidence that the large exogenous increase in life expectancy led to a significant increase in per capita economic growth. (repec.org)
  • The U.S. reduction in 2020 life expectancy is projected to exceed that of most other high-income countries, indicating that the United States - which already had a life expectancy below that of all other high income developed nations prior to the pandemic - will see its life expectancy fall even farther behind its peers," the researchers write. (wypr.org)
  • Life expectancy at birth in the United States declined nearly a year from 2020 to 2021, according to new provisional data from the CDC's National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). (cdc.gov)
  • The 0.9 year drop in life expectancy in 2021, along with a 1.8 year drop in 2020, was the biggest two-year decline in life expectancy since 1921-1923. (cdc.gov)
  • Non-Hispanic white people in the United States had the second biggest decline in life expectancy in 2021 - one full year from 77.4 in 2020 to 76.4 in 2021. (cdc.gov)
  • After a large (4.0 year) drop in life expectancy from 2019 to 2020, Hispanic people in the U.S. had a slight decline in 2021 of 0.2 years to 77.6 years. (cdc.gov)
  • Life expectancy at birth for women in the United States dropped 0.8 years from 79.9 years in 2020 to 79.1 in 2021, while life expectancy for men dropped one full year, from 74.2 years in 2020 to 73.2 in 2021. (cdc.gov)
  • The report shows the disparity in life expectancy between men and women grew in 2021 from 5.7 years in 2020 to 5.9 years in 2021. (cdc.gov)
  • An estimated 16% of the decline in life expectancy from 2020 to 2021 can be attributed to increases in deaths from accidents/unintentional injuries. (cdc.gov)
  • This dataset contains healthy life expectancy (HLE) and disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) results at birth and at age 65. (data.gov.uk)
  • Brazzaville - Healthy life expectancy in the African region has increased on average by 10 years per person between 2000 and 2019, a World Health Organization (WHO) assessment reports. (who.int)
  • The Tracking Universal Health Coverage in the WHO African Region 2022 report shows that healthy life expectancy-or the number of years an individual is in a good state of health-increased to 56 years in 2019, compared with 46 in 2000. (who.int)
  • While still well below the global average of 64, over the same period, global healthy life expectancy increased by only five years. (who.int)
  • Improvements in the provision of essential health services, gains in reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health, as well as progress in the fight against infectious diseases-thanks to the rapid scale-up of HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria control measures from 2005-helped to extend healthy life expectancy. (who.int)
  • The sharp rise in healthy life expectancy during the past two decades is a testament to the region's drive for improved health and well-being of the population. (who.int)
  • Progress in healthy life expectancy could also be undermined by the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic unless robust catch-up plans are instituted. (who.int)
  • The study evaluated 333 diseases and 84 risk factors, measuring factors such as healthy life expectancy (HALE), years of life lost (YLL), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). (medscape.com)
  • Health expectancy : first workshop of the International Healthy Life Expectancy Network (REVES / editors, Jean-Marie Robine, Madeleine Blanchet, John Ed Dowd. (who.int)
  • Period life tables estimate how many more years a group of people who are currently at a particular age - any age from birth to 100 or more - can expect to live if the mortality patterns in a given year remain the same over the rest of their lives. (cdc.gov)
  • Estimates for Life Expectancy at birth are now available nationwide for virtually every community in America. (cdc.gov)
  • Death Rates and Life Expectancy at Birth - This dataset of U.S. mortality trends since 1900 highlights the differences in Age-adjusted death rates and life expectancy at birth by race and sex. (cdc.gov)
  • The most commonly used measure is life expectancy at birth (LEB), which can be defined in two ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cohort LEB is the mean length of life of a birth cohort (in this case, all individuals born in a given year) and can be computed only for cohorts born so long ago that all their members have died. (wikipedia.org)
  • Period LEB is the mean length of life of a hypothetical cohort assumed to be exposed, from birth through death, to the mortality rates observed at a given year. (wikipedia.org)
  • A theoretical study shows that the maximum life expectancy at birth is limited by the human life characteristic value δ, which is around 104 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since, in all societies, mortality rates between birth and the first birthday tend to be particularly high, life-expectancies at birth are usually considerably lower than life-expectancies at year one. (encyclopedia.com)
  • As one would expect from variations in mortality rates between countries, life-expectancies also vary considerably, being around 30 to 40 years at birth in certain developing countries, and reaching 75 and over for women in the major Western industrialized societies. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Life-expectancy at birth is a widely used indicator of health standards and social and economic living standards. (encyclopedia.com)
  • CNN) -- Average life expectancy will increase globally by 2030, both at birth and at the age of 65, according to a new study. (newschannel5.com)
  • The average for women at birth will exceed 85 years in many countries, but South Korea is projected to lead the way with a life expectancy of 90.8 years. (newschannel5.com)
  • In 2015, global average life expectancy at birth was 71.4 years, according to the World Health Organization. (newschannel5.com)
  • Among predictions for high-income countries, the lowest life expectancy at birth is likely to be in the US, with an average of 83.3 years for women and 79.5 years for men -- similar to Mexico and Croatia. (newschannel5.com)
  • Life expectancy at birth is a very popular overall measure of national health and the public health indicator used in the UN Human Development Index. (jpost.com)
  • In 2021, the life expectancy of women at birth in Mexico remained nearly unchanged at around 74.86 years. (statista.com)
  • Life expectancy at birth refers to the number of years that the average newborn can expect to live, providing that mortality patterns at the time of their birth do not change thereafter. (statista.com)
  • Find more statistics on other topics about Mexico with key insights such as crude birth rate , death rate , and life expectancy of men at birth . (statista.com)
  • World Population Prospects: 2022 Revision, or derived from male and female life expectancy at birth from sources such as: ( 2 ) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, ( 3 ) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, ( 4 ) United Nations Statistical Division. (worldbank.org)
  • This graphic shows life expectancy at birth in 1980 and 1987-91 in Europe and former USSR. (grida.no)
  • The graphic clearly shows the extended life expectancy at birth from 1987-1991, compared to the life expectancy at birth in 1980. (grida.no)
  • 1) Life expectancy at 65 has not gone up nearly as much as life expectancy at birth. (theincidentaleconomist.com)
  • That decline - 77.0 to 76.1 years - took U.S. life expectancy at birth to its lowest level since 1996. (cdc.gov)
  • AIAN people had a life expectancy at birth of 65.2 years in 2021 - equal to the life expectancy of the total U.S. population in 1944. (cdc.gov)
  • Life expectancy at birth in 2021 was the lowest for both groups since 1995. (cdc.gov)
  • This statistic shows the average life expectancy at birth in Colombia from 2011 to 2021, by gender. (statista.com)
  • In 2021, life expectancy at birth for women in Colombia was about 76.11 years, while life expectancy at birth for men was about 69.4 years on average. (statista.com)
  • Poland life expectancy at birth, both genders. (multpl.com)
  • As mentioned above, the life expectancy of Zambians at birth has now dropped to 30 years. (socialwatch.org)
  • Life expectancy at birth reflects the overall mortality level of a population. (who.int)
  • Life expectancy at birth is derived from life tables and is based on gender- and age-specific death rates. (who.int)
  • Life expectancy at birth values from the United Nations correspond to mid-year estimates, consistent with the corresponding United Nations fertility medium-variant quinquennial population projections. (who.int)
  • Rankings are from the highest to lowest female life expectancy at birth, as published in Health, United States, 2005 (HUS 2005). (cdc.gov)
  • Life expectancy at birth represents the average number of years that a group of infants would live if the infants were to experience throughout life the age-specific death rates present at birth. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2001, life expectancy (LE) at birth ranged from a low of 59.1 years for Russian males to a high of 84.9 years for Japanese females. (cdc.gov)
  • A new study suggests that state disparities in life expectancy come down to the conservative-liberal divide. (huffpost.com)
  • There somehow seems to be a link between people's life expectancy and the number of children they have: People with children generally live longer than those without. (mpg.de)
  • Homeless people's life expectancy half of average in B.C. (cbc.ca)
  • To examine changes in life expectancy over time, researchers looked at death certificates from each county in the country. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Using these data, we construct an instrument for changes in life expectancy, referred to as predicted mortality, which is based on the pre-intervention distribution of mortality from various diseases around the world and dates of global interventions. (repec.org)
  • We document that predicted mortality has a large and robust effect on changes in life expectancy starting in 1940, but no effect on changes in life expectancy before the interventions. (repec.org)
  • Your current CD4 count and viral load have a much greater influence on your life expectancy than if you had a low CD4 count and high viral load in the past, so finding the right treatment for you and staying on it can improve your life expectancy over time. (aidsmap.com)
  • Fourth, you should also avoid exposure to secondhand smoke and other hazardous fumes and dust to improve your life expectancy. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The report shows non-Hispanic American Indian-Alaskan Native people (AIAN) had the biggest drop in life expectancy in 2021 - 1.9 years. (cdc.gov)
  • AIAN life expectancy has declined 6.6 years from 2019 to 2021. (cdc.gov)
  • Life expectancy for non-Hispanic Asian people also dropped slightly in 2021 - 0.1 years - to 83.5 years, the highest life expectancy of any race/ethnic group included in this analysis. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2017, overall life expectancy for Americans was 78.6-years-old. (scrippsnews.com)
  • Since 2014, Australia Female Life Expectancy at 65 rose 0.4% year on year. (nationmaster.com)
  • With 22.6 Years in 2019, the country was ranked number 7 among other countries in Female Life Expectancy at 65. (nationmaster.com)
  • The lowest life expectancy projections overall were for women in Macedonia and men in Serbia, according to the study. (newschannel5.com)
  • Several counties in South and North Dakota, typically with Native American reservations, had the lowest life expectancy, the study found. (scientificamerican.com)
  • We don't know if this is the start of a new trend of increases in life expectancy and a continued decline in deaths due to overdoses, but it is positive," said Elizabeth Arias, a demographer for the National Center for Health Statistics, which released the report Thursday. (ajc.com)
  • Meanwhile, countries like Japan, long revered for their longevity, are expected to see just small increases in life expectancy. (newschannel5.com)
  • T-DM1 is the first therapy in second-line for metastatic or advanced breast cancer that increases life expectancy, this means that it is applicable in patients receiving treatment but still have a persisting tumor. (news-medical.net)
  • Increases in BMI have cut life expectancy at age 40 by 0.9 years, and resulted in up to 186,000 preventable deaths in the year 2011. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Here, we test the hypothesis that increases in state cigarette excise taxes are positively associated with long-run increases in population-level life expectancy. (who.int)
  • The declines in life expectancy since 2019 are largely driven by the pandemic. (cdc.gov)
  • The coronavirus pandemic appears to have shortened the average life expectancy in the United States, according to new research, and the impact is most dire for racial and ethnic minorities. (wypr.org)
  • Califf, a cardiologist by training, told Brow that what's concerned him for a long time since before the pandemic was the 'reduction of life expectancy from common diseases like heart disease,' for which a lot of information was available on preventing bad outcomes. (axios.com)
  • Life expectancy in the US grew by four years since 1980, and in the rest of the OECD it grew by six years. (jpost.com)
  • Nationwide in 2014, the average life expectancy was about 79.1 years, up 5.3 years from 1980, the study found. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Zambia's average life expectancy, which was 52 years in 1980, has dropped to an all time low of 30 years! (socialwatch.org)
  • For example, many people in Africa who have a low life expectancy do not have access to clean and sufficient food and drinking water, decreasing the chances of long-term survival. (worldatlas.com)
  • At its core, it means that more people are living healthier, longer lives, with fewer threats of infectious diseases and with better access to care and disease prevention services," said Dr Matshidiso Moeti, WHO Regional Director for Africa. (who.int)
  • Life expectancy in Africa : a cross-national study / Kwame P. Gbesemete. (who.int)
  • The nationwide boost in life expectancy came as rates for most of the top 10 leading causes of death fell, including heart disease, cancer and "unintentional injuries," such as drug overdoses and car crashes. (ajc.com)
  • Injecting drug use - life expectancy is shorter for people with HIV who inject drugs, due to drug overdoses and bacterial infections. (aidsmap.com)
  • Drug overdoses and suicides have become so pervasive in America that life expectancy has decreased in a way the country hasn't seen since World War II. (scrippsnews.com)
  • In populations with high infant mortality rates, LEB is highly sensitive to the rate of death in the first few years of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • A different measure, such as life expectancy at age 5 (e5), can be used to exclude the effect of infant mortality to provide a simple measure of overall mortality rates other than in early childhood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pre-modern societies had universally higher mortality rates and lower life expectancies at every age for both males and females. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also possible to derive life-expectancies for different sub-groups of populations, for example different social classes, providing mortality rates are known. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Estimated under-5 mortality rates and adult mortality rates, or from under-5 mortality rates only, using a modified logit model to which a global standard (defined as the average of all the 1,800 life tables) is applied. (who.int)
  • Life expectancy estimates from the National Center for Health Statistics provide a reliable snapshot of population health and mortality in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • National life expectancy estimates are calculated using period (current) life tables. (cdc.gov)
  • Unless otherwise stated, it represents estimates of the life expectancies of the world population as a whole. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because calculation of life-expectancy estimates varies by country, comparisons should be made with caution. (cdc.gov)
  • Certain life-expectancy estimates were revised and differ from those published in HUS 2005. (cdc.gov)
  • No matter what the cause of death, the life expectancy disparity is something many say needs to change. (cbsnews.com)
  • Many people live longer, while others may have shorter expectancies. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Reuters Health) - Even as life expectancy is rising in many places across the U.S., there are some places where lifespans are getting shorter and geographical inequalities are becoming more pronounced, a new study suggests. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Nearly 80% of older Americans are now living with multiple chronic medical conditions, and the more ailments people have after retirement age, the shorter their life expectancy, a new US study shows. (pharmatimes.com)
  • Califf acknowledged to CNN's Pamela Brow that there's 'no way to quantify' his belief that misinformation is the leading cause of death in the U.S., but pointed to 'an erosion' of life expectancy ' that's on average five years shorter than other high-income countries. (axios.com)
  • Life expectancy in the United States has increased for the first time in four years, according to new federal figures, prompting cautious optimism among public health officials in Georgia and across the nation following an alarming spike in drug overdose deaths. (ajc.com)
  • While life expectancy reflects information about health outcomes over entire lifetimes, infant mortality focuses on one narrow and acute aspect of health care: the survival of infants during the first year of life. (jpost.com)
  • For both of these geographies, the drastically different life expectancies are likely the result of a combination of risk factors, socioeconomics and access and quality of health care in those areas," said senior study author Dr. Christopher Murray, director of the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington in Seattle. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The report, from a group that supports homeless people in Vancouver and Victoria, says homelessness is a life-threatening health hazard and steps need to be taken to prevent deaths related to housing insecurity. (cbc.ca)
  • There are many contributors to low life expectancy, but the root of it all is poor health. (worldatlas.com)
  • From the information provided above, it is evident that low life expectancy arises primarily due to poor maintenance of health. (worldatlas.com)
  • Life expectancy in the US is rising more slowly than in other parts of the developed world, and this is widely blamed on the obesity epidemic and its related health conditions. (pharmatimes.com)
  • If the health cost of air pollution is immense, why is Singapore's life expectancy only 0.2 years above highly polluted Hong Kong? (economicpolicyjournal.com)
  • There are now many Web-based calculators that can give you an idea of your life expectancy based on your current age, gender, family health history, smoking and drinking habits, exercise patterns, stress level, and other important lifestyle choices. (elderlawanswers.com)
  • And the differences in both health and life expectancy between states were substantial. (medscape.com)
  • Differences in health outcomes and drivers of morbidity and mortality at the state level indicate the need for greater investment in preventive and medical care across the life course," they write. (medscape.com)
  • Since then, the gains in Israeli life expectancy have far outpaced those of other countries, Chernichovsky wrote. (jpost.com)
  • Some of the biggest gains in life expectancy during the study were seen in counties in central Colorado, Alaska and in metropolitan areas around San Francisco and New York. (scientificamerican.com)
  • With medical advances and improved lifestyles, life expectancies in the U.S. have been on the rise. (calcxml.com)
  • Because of scientific and medical advances, human life expectancy has increased much more dramatically in the last 100 to 150 years. (listverse.com)
  • Eventually, there may be a tipping point, when the medical advances that have boosted life expectancy for so long can no longer keep pace with the many illnesses that people are collecting as they age, they warn, reporting their findings in the August issue of the journal Medical Care. (pharmatimes.com)
  • The individuals or populations with low-life expectancies tend to be unhealthy and often afflicted by chronic diseases and malnutrition. (worldatlas.com)
  • That would widen the gap in life expectancy between black and white populations from 3.6 years to more than five years, "thereby eliminating progress made in reducing this differential since 2006," researchers write. (wypr.org)
  • The huge decline in life expectancy for Latinos is especially shocking given that Latinos have lower rates than the white and Black populations of most chronic conditions that are risk factors for COVID-19," Noreen Goldman , a professor of demography and public affairs at the Princeton School of Public and International Affairs, said in a statement. (wypr.org)
  • I work in healthcare technology and two populations can have similar life spans but vastly different qualities of life (ie dementia, copd, ) due to lifestyle diet environmental factors. (economicpolicyjournal.com)
  • Life expectancy, longevity, and maximum lifespan are not synonymous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Life expectancy for both men and women exceeded the age of 80 and reached the highest record ever, though the position for the world's highest longevity was taken by Hong Kong and both Japanese men and women came in second. (japanesepod101.com)
  • Healthy lifestyle in late-life, longevity genes, and life expectancy among older adults: a 20-year, population-based, prospective cohort study. (bvsalud.org)
  • Experts agree that advances in modern oncology are based on personalized treatment that extends the hope and expectation of life. (news-medical.net)
  • Excluding child mortality, the average life expectancy during the 12th-19th centuries was approximately 55 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Data shows there's almost a six-year difference in average life expectancy. (huffpost.com)
  • The average life expectancy in the United States in 1900 was 49 years, and in 1800 it was even less (estimated to be between 30 and 40 years). (listverse.com)
  • Japan is currently considered one of the countries with the highest average life expectancy in the world. (japanesepod101.com)
  • Average life expectancy" means "the average lifespan" of a child. (japanesepod101.com)
  • In other words, "average life expectancy" shows how many years a newborn baby is expected to live. (japanesepod101.com)
  • The average life expectancy just after World War II, was in the 50s, so it has increased by nearly 30 years during this 70 year period. (japanesepod101.com)
  • Manhattanites can now expect to live to the ripe old age of 82, and the average life expectancy across all five New York City boroughs is 80.6 years. (livescience.com)
  • As we just saw, there have been those Pitbulls that have defied the odds and lived well beyond the average life expectancy. (petinsurancereview.com)
  • This article will discuss the life expectancy for people with multiple myeloma after relapse. (healthline.com)
  • In this article, we look at the outlook for people with PsA, its effect on their quality of life, and the solutions available. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Some people with mild symptoms find their symptoms do not worsen over time and they can continue to function in their daily life. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In this article, we explain how doctors work out the life expectancy for people with COPD and ways to improve a person's outlook. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There is no single life expectancy for people with COPD. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • People with a higher GOLD grade have a lower life expectancy than those whose grade is a lower number. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • For example, when the two researchers adjust for respondents' educational attainment and occupation in the analysis, mortality among biological parents markedly approaches that of childless people (see Fig. 1), the mortality advantage disappears for biological fathers and mothers with one child, and biological parents with five or more children even have a lower life expectancy than the childless. (mpg.de)
  • The research team calculated life expectancy using data on the age at which people die across a population. (newschannel5.com)
  • In our 35th year we're asking people to donate £35 - that's just £1 for every year we've been providing life-changing information. (aidsmap.com)
  • HIV-positive people are living increasingly long lives. (aidsmap.com)
  • A number of factors can affect the life expectancy of people living with HIV. (aidsmap.com)
  • People with a high CD4 count and undetectable viral load have much higher life expectancies than those with low CD4 counts and high viral loads. (aidsmap.com)
  • Lifestyle - life expectancy is longer for people who have a balanced diet , are physically active , maintain a healthy weight , avoid excess alcohol or drug use, and remain socially connected . (aidsmap.com)
  • But we have very little experience of people living with HIV in their seventies or eighties, so we know less about the impact HIV may have later in life. (aidsmap.com)
  • Its last report about life expectancy showed that on average, people around the world are increasingly living longer. (scrippsnews.com)
  • 3) Life expectancy at 65 has gone up much more for people in the top half of earners than in the bottom half. (theincidentaleconomist.com)
  • The issue to look at is what quality of life and chronic diseases people have after 65. (economicpolicyjournal.com)
  • Unhealthier lifestyles among men, including higher rates of smoking and alcohol consumption, have long meant a greater life expectancy for women, say the researchers. (newschannel5.com)
  • The numbers come from researchers at the University of Washington's Institute for Heath Metrics and Evaluation, who recently estimated the life expectancies in all 3,147 independent American cities and counties each year from 1987 through 2009. (livescience.com)
  • The IHME researchers determined that more than 60 percent of the increase in New Yorkers' life expectancy since 2000 can be attributed to reductions in heart disease, cancer, diabetes and stroke. (livescience.com)
  • The deaths caused by COVID-19 have reduced overall life expectancy by 1.13 years, according to the analysis by researchers at the University of Southern California and Princeton University. (wypr.org)
  • That would be the largest single-year decline in life expectancy in the past 40 years and cut U.S. life expectancy to 77.48 years - the lowest it's been since 2003, the researchers say. (wypr.org)
  • In many instances, life expectancy varied considerably according to class and gender. (wikipedia.org)
  • That's three years beyond the national average, and a striking turnaround since the city's low point in 1990, when life expectancy there trailed the U.S. average by three years. (livescience.com)
  • Methods We studied age-standardised life expectancy among all US counties from 1996 to 2012 by sex, in relation to state cigarette excise tax rates by year, controlling for other demographic, socioeconomic and county-specific features. (who.int)
  • For instance, in a society with a life expectancy of 30, it may nevertheless be common to have a 40-year remaining timespan at age 5 (but perhaps not a 60-year one). (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 2009, Egypt Total Tertiary Education School Life Expectancy was up 1.1% year on year. (nationmaster.com)
  • Life expectancy has a much smaller effect on total GDP both initially and over a 40-year horizon, however. (repec.org)
  • Also keep in mind that the Chinese smoke at a very high rate, which could easily take a year off their life expectancy, even with no air pollution. (economicpolicyjournal.com)
  • Life expectancy for 65-year-old men who have emphysema (the most likely age group) and who currently smoke depends on how far their emphysema has progressed. (howstuffworks.com)
  • 2) When mortality data from civil registration for the latest year are not available, the life tables are projected from available years from 1985 onwards. (who.int)
  • We have added data for 2011 to life expectancy. (gapminder.org)
  • While the global average of life expectancy is increasing, new data from the CDC shows Americans are dying younger. (scrippsnews.com)
  • Procedures used to estimate WHO life tables for Member States vary depending on the data available to assess child and adult mortality. (who.int)
  • 3) When no useable data from civil registration are available, the latest life table analyses of the UN Population Division were used. (who.int)
  • Life expectancy as an integrating concept for social and demographic data : a summary of six country studies / by Henry Lucas. (who.int)
  • But let's take a few minutes to look at the data and to really remember what this means in terms of how it is impacting our communities and our lives. (cdc.gov)
  • To carry out the search, the Life expectancy descriptors Future plans were used, Hope, patient terminal, coming from the portal EBSCO Host by MEDLINE with full text, INDEX Corporation and MEDLINE complete and the portal of CAPES the bases Science Direct, Sciello, Web of Science and Psyc INFO. (bvsalud.org)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Life Expectancy. (who.int)
  • U.S. life expectancy has lagged relative to other economically comparable countries. (huffpost.com)
  • With 1.58 Years in 2014, the country was number 56 among other countries in Total Tertiary Education School Life Expectancy. (nationmaster.com)
  • They still have relatively high rates of young and middle-age mortality," Ezzati told CNN, referring to the countries with lower life expectancies. (newschannel5.com)
  • Over the last 30 years, the life expectancy of Jewish Israelis has increased significantly and is longer on average than in the OECD countries. (jpost.com)
  • In a country-by-country comparison in 2005 of life expectancy among Israeli Jews and Arabs to life expectancy in OECD countries and in neighboring countries in the Middle East, Israeli Jews are shown to live longer than the residents of all but four countries in the world. (jpost.com)
  • Even with New York's success, the IHME team found life expectancy in the country as a whole lengthened just 1.7 years per decade, a slower pace of progress than in the world's most long-lived countries. (livescience.com)
  • Here's a list of life expectancy of some countries. (economicpolicyjournal.com)
  • Life expectancy tells us the average number of years of life a person who has attained a given age can expect to live. (cdc.gov)
  • The bottom line is that our life expectancy is increasingly being shaped by where we live within the U.S.," said Jennifer Karas Montez, a sociology researcher at Syracuse University in New York who wasn't involved in the study. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Life expectancy is the average number of years that a person can expect to live. (aidsmap.com)
  • We can see this as humans thinking about life and death and asking about "how to live life. (japanesepod101.com)
  • This article will dive into the average lifespan of a Pitbull, factors that impact how long they live, and what you can do to ensure your pup lives a long and healthy life. (petinsurancereview.com)
  • So how can you ensure your pup will live a long and healthy life? (petinsurancereview.com)
  • Proper diet and nutrition and incredibly important for helping your Pitbull live the longest and healthiest life possible! (petinsurancereview.com)
  • Counties along the lower half of the Mississippi and in eastern Kentucky and southwestern West Virginia also had very low life expectancy compared with the rest of the country. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In contrast, counties in central Colorado had the highest life expectancy. (scientificamerican.com)
  • But there was little, if any, improvement in life expectancy in some southern counties in states stretching from Oklahoma to West Virginia. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Many counties where life expectancy dropped the most are in Kentucky. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Conclusions Results suggest that increasing cigarette excise tax rates translates to consequential population-level improvements in life expectancy, with larger effects in low-income counties. (who.int)
  • Did you know that life expectancy varies by neighborhood? (cdc.gov)
  • And while life expectancy is reduced by 1.8 years on average with each additional chronic condition, the impact grows as the diseases add up. (pharmatimes.com)
  • It is becoming very clear that preventing the development of additional chronic conditions in the elderly could be only way to continue to improve life expectancy," she says. (pharmatimes.com)
  • Second, if you have other chronic conditions, such as HIV or connective tissue disorders in addition to emphysema, your life expectancy will be reduced. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Understanding how disease forms and spreads has been an absolute cornerstone to medical and scientific advancements and has positively impacted human life expectancy. (listverse.com)
  • Because life expectancy is an average, a particular person may die many years before or after the expected survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • Life tables are used to measure mortality, survivorship, and the life expectancy of a population at varying ages. (cdc.gov)
  • National-level life tables are released annually, as well as every 10 years (decennially) around the U.S. population census. (cdc.gov)
  • Aggregate population measures-such as the proportion of the population in various age groups-are also used alongside individual-based measures-such as formal life expectancy-when analyzing population structure and dynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The measure is calculated from a life-table , and since it is expressed as an average for persons of that age and sex in a country, depends upon prevailing (current) levels of mortality at different ages within the population or sub-population to which the individual belongs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • We provide a unified theory of the transition in income, life expectancy, education, and population size from a nondeveloped environment to sustained growth. (repec.org)
  • In Europe, French women and Swiss women are predicted to have the highest life expectancy, with averages of 88.6 and 84 years respectively. (newschannel5.com)
  • Mathematically, life expectancy is denoted e x {\displaystyle e_{x}} and is the mean number of years of life remaining at a given age x {\displaystyle x} , with a particular mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • life-expectancy The number of further years of life a person can expect at a given age. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Added years of life in Asia : current situation and future challenges. (who.int)
  • We additionally examine whether the relationship between cigarette taxes and life expectancy was mediated by changes to county smoking prevalence and varied by the sex, income and rural/urban composition of a county. (who.int)
  • For men, life expectancy climbed from 70 years to 76.7 years, while for women it increased from 77.5 years to 81.5 years. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Let's explore ten medical advancements that increased life expectancy. (listverse.com)
  • Shootings are taking almost twice as much of a toll on the life expectancy of black Americans as on that of white Americans, a new study finds. (huffpost.com)
  • The study looked at statistics between 2006 and 2013 and found that the average age at death of a homeless person is between 40 and 49 years old, while the life expectancy of the average British Columbian is around 82 years old. (cbc.ca)
  • This study aimed to systematically review the literature on expectations of life and perspective of future in cancer patients. (bvsalud.org)