The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.
The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.
The passive movement of molecules exceeding the rate expected by simple diffusion. No energy is expended in the process. It is achieved by the introduction of passively diffusing molecules to an enviroment or path that is more favorable to the movement of those molecules. Examples of facilitated diffusion are passive transport of hydrophilic substances across a lipid membrane through hydrophilic pores that traverse the membrane, and the sliding of a DNA BINDING PROTEIN along a strand of DNA.
A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.
A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).
A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.
Devices used in a technique by which cells or tissues are grown in vitro or, by implantation, in vivo within chambers permeable to diffusion of solutes across the chamber walls. The chambers are used for studies of drug effects, osmotic responses, cytogenic and immunologic phenomena, metabolism, etc., and include tissue cages.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Light-induced change in a chromophore, resulting in the loss of its absorption of light of a particular wave length. The photon energy causes a conformational change in the photoreceptor proteins affecting PHOTOTRANSDUCTION. This occurs naturally in the retina (ADAPTATION, OCULAR) on long exposure to bright light. Photobleaching presents problems when occurring in PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY, and in FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY. On the other hand, this phenomenon is exploited in the technique, FLUORESCENCE RECOVERY AFTER PHOTOBLEACHING, allowing measurement of the movements of proteins and LIPIDS in the CELL MEMBRANE.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
WHITE MATTER pathway, flanked by nuclear masses, consisting of both afferent and efferent fibers projecting between the WHITE MATTER and the BRAINSTEM. It consists of three distinct parts: an anterior limb, posterior limb, and genu.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The movement of molecules from one location to another as effected by temperature changes.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.
Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Transmission of energy or mass by a medium involving movement of the medium itself. The circulatory movement that occurs in a fluid at a nonuniform temperature owing to the variation of its density and the action of gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed; Webster, 10th ed)
A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Any of various diseases affecting the white matter of the central nervous system.
Heavily myelinated fiber bundle of the TELENCEPHALON projecting from the hippocampal formation to the HYPOTHALAMUS. Some authorities consider the fornix part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM. The fimbria starts as a flattened band of axons arising from the subiculum and HIPPOCAMPUS, which then thickens to form the fornix.
A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.
Relating to the size of solids.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
A comprehensive map of the physical interconnections of an organism's neural networks. This modular organization of neuronal architecture is believed to underlie disease mechanisms and the biological development of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
See also lexical diffusion. Sound change is inevitable: All languages vary from place to place and time to time, and neither ...
Lexical diffusion Realizational morphology "Paradigm". SIL Glossary of Linguistic Terms. 2015-12-03. Retrieved 2019-05-09. ...
Rao, Goparaju Sambasiva (1994). Language Change: Lexical Diffusion and Literacy. Academic Foundation. pp. 48 and 49. ISBN ...
Rao, Goparaju Sambasiva (1994). Language Change: Lexical Diffusion and Literacy. Delhi: Academic Foundation. p. 49. ISBN 81- ... Rao, Goparaju Sambasiva (1994). Language Change: Lexical Diffusion and Literacy. Academic Foundation. pp. 48 and 49. ISBN ... Lexical Diffusion and Literacy. Academic Foundation. pp. 45-58. ISBN 978-81-7188-057-7.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list ( ... The bulk of the variation within these dialects is primarily lexical and phonological (e.g. accent placement and pronunciation ...
Marathi language Rao, Goparaju Sambasiva (1994). Language Change: Lexical Diffusion and Literacy. Academic Foundation. pp. 48 ...
Rao, Goparaju Sambasiva (1994). Language Change: Lexical Diffusion and Literacy. Academic Foundation. pp. 48 and 49. ISBN 978- ...
Lexical diffusion and the glottogenetics of creole French. » CreoList debate, parts I-VI, appendixes 1-9. The Linguist List, ...
"Lexical diffusion and the glottogenetics of creole French." CreoList debate, parts I-VI, appendixes 1-9. The Linguist List, ... Thus, functionally salient lexical items will eventually set off a push chain conveyor belt pressure in functional space, ... In Wittmann's view, the basic structure of the sentence is held together by functional items, with the lexical items filling in ... Such is the origin of agglutinating clitics of non-standard oral French from erstwhile lexical pronouns, setting off the ...
Trois-Rivières: Presses universitaires de Trois-Rivières.[3] Wittmann, Henri (2001). "Lexical diffusion and the glottogenetics ...
Wittmann, Henri (2001). "Lexical diffusion and the glottogenetics of creole French." CreoList debate, parts I-VI, appendixes 1- ... "Lexical diffusion and the glottogenetics of creole French." CreoList debate, parts I-VI, appendixes 1-9. The Linguist List, ... the substrate language replaces the native lexical items with lexical material from the superstrate language while retaining ... The vocabulary, too, will develop to contain more and more items according to a rationale of lexical enrichment. Universalist ...
As a measure of the importance of this idea, a search for "lexical diffusion" on scholar.google.com on February 24, 2021 ... "Tone change in Chao-zhou Chinese: A study in lexical diffusion." The lexicon in phonological change (1977): 86-100. Wang, W. S ... The Dictionary on Computer formed the basis for Wang's theory of language change known as Lexical diffusion. An important early ... In an article titled "Tone change in Chaozhou Chinese: A study in lexical diffusion," he disputed the Neogrammarian assumption ...
Bauer, R. S. Alveolarization in Cantonese: A case of lexical diffusion. Journal of Chinese Linguistics, 7, 1979, 132-141. Zee, ...
Joseph, Brian D. (2012). "Lexical diffusion and the regular transmission of language chang in its sociohistorical context". In ... Additionally, there are some lexical borrowings from Arvanitika and Turkish. The core vocabulary remains recognizably Doric, ... and as a result Northern Tsakonian experienced much heavier Standard Greek lexical and phonological influence, before it began ...
The sound change seems to gradually spread in a process known as lexical diffusion. While it does not invalidate the ... The borrowing may be phonological, morphological or lexical. A false proto-language over the area may be reconstructed for them ... Borrowing on a larger scale occurs in areal diffusion, when features are adopted by contiguous languages over a geographical ... By contrast, some approaches are incompatible with the comparative method, including glottochronology and mass lexical ...
George (2019) argues that this merger took place gradually through a process of lexical diffusion throughout the Middle Cornish ...
Through lexical diffusion, /i/ <*e is to be observed in some words such as /in/ < *ene 'this', rather than in /ələ/ 'kite (bird ...
Sullivan, A.E. (1992). Sound Change in Progress: a study of phonological change and lexical diffusion, with reference to ... 4] Kerswill, P. Dialect Levelling and Geographical Diffusion in British English. Doc PDF. [5] Przedlacka, J. Estuary English ...
In all of Sallaans and western Achterhoeks (as in Zutphens), lexical diffusion takes place, and words like huus/huis 'house' ... There are also some lexical differences. For example, Oost-Veluws has ledder 'ladder', while in West-Veluws the form leer is ...
Nahuatl-Spanish Contact Phono-semantic matching Post-creole speech continuum Sprachbund Language island Lexical gap Diffusion ... However, between a sign language and an oral language, even if lexical borrowing and code switching also occur, the interface ... It can also take place between two or more sign languages, and the expected contact phenomena occur: lexical borrowing, foreign ... Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew (Palgrave Macmillan 2003) ISBN 1-4039-1723-X.. ...
Interfix Affix Clitic Diacope Expletive infixation Lexical diffusion Portuguese personal pronouns § Syntax on future verbs ...
... notes that Palaungic and Khmuic share many lexical items, but considers this phenomenon to be a result of lexical diffusion due ... Palaungic > Khmuic lexical forms *ʔɔːt 'wipe' *ʔiɛk 'armpit' *ɓɤs 'carry on head/back' *bliɛs 'spear' *cəˀŋam 'clear, clean' * ... Khmuic > Palaungic lexical forms *ɟɤːl 'light in weight' *kla(ː)w 'testicles' Sidwell (2015:114) lists the following Proto- ... The Khmuic homeland was adjacent to the Palaungic homeland, resulting in many lexical borrowings among the two branches due to ...
... and gradually extended by lexical diffusion to all words with the same phonological pattern, and then over a longer period of ...
... the complete merger of the two lexical sets under /æɪ/ - the completion of a slow process of lexical diffusion." Walters (2001 ... Britain, David (2002). "Surviving 'Estuary English': innovation diffusion, koineisation and local dialect differentiation in ... "This disappearance was being effected by the gradual and variable transfer of lexical items from the set of /eː/ to the set of ...
Arnhem Land, Australia: Morphosyntactic convergence and massive lexical diffusion in the Yuulgnu languages Ritharngnu, Dhayʔyi ... Language convergence occurs primarily through diffusion, the spread of a feature from one language to another. The causes of ... In contrast to the limited effects of lexical borrowing, phonetic, syntactic, or morphological convergence can have greater ... and diffusion from an outside source; in order to argue for language convergence, linguists try to argue for both an outside ...
... it was expected that linguists might find evidence for lexical diffusion for [f] and the results found from Glaswegian speakers ... confirm this.[citation needed] The existing and particular lexical distribution of th-debuccalization imposes special ...
... but Southworth suggests cases of lexical diffusion from east to west bypassing the Madhyadeśa languages, and thus linguistic ... suggesting a diffusion of the change from west to east rather than a fully shared innovation. Nevertheless, this is the ... and lexical parallels between Munda, Tibeto-Burman, Burushaski, and Outer IA. There is a historical split between the Indo- ... besides individual lexical items such as bahulá "thick"). He notes similar developments of a gerund in Tocharian and participle ...
First, adherents of lexical diffusion (where a sound change affects only a few words at first and then gradually spreads to ...
... and use this word as a case study of lexical diffusion due to trade and contact. In California, identical roots for 'dog' are ... Verb incorporation: lexical items are incorporated into the verb stem, signaling some classifying entity of the associated noun ... Languages of hunter-gatherers and their neighbors: A collection of lexical, grammatical, and other information about languages ... presence of lexical compounds rather than independent roots. This is similar to calques found in Mesoamerica, but with a more ...
A case of intensive lexical diffusion: Arnhem Land, Australia Van Egmond, M-E. (2012). "Enindhilyakwa phonology, morphosyntax ...
Recent lexical and grammatical diffusion studies in Western Numic have shown that while there are clear linguistic changes that ... "Descent and Diffusion in Language Diversification: A Study of Western Numic Dialectology," International Journal of American ... "Descent and Diffusion in Language Diversification: A Study of Western Numic Dialectology," International Journal of American ...
Lexical diffusion and the glottogenetics of creole French. » CreoList debate, parts I-VI, appendixes 1-9. The Linguist List, ...
The major result of the literary work of the Hebrew intellectuals along the 19th century was a lexical modernization of Hebrew ... its new formal status contributed to its diffusion. A constructed modern language with a truly Semitic vocabulary and written ...
Boberg, C: "Geolinguistic Diffusion and the U.S.-Canada Border", "Language Variation and Change", 12(1):15 ... Boberg, Charles (2005). "The North American Regional Vocabulary Survey: Renewing the study of lexical variation in North ...
The diffusion of the spinning wheel, and the incorporation of the worm gear and crank handle into the roller cotton gin, led to ... Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicales (CNRTL) is a division of the French National Centre for Scientific ... was advanced by the diffusion of the spinning wheel across India shortly before the Mughal era, lowering the costs of yarn and ...
... and that Turkic culture was spread westwards through language diffusion rather than migrations of a homogenous population.[40] ... Peter Benjamin Golden listed Proto-Turkic lexical items about the climate, topography, flora, fauna, people's modes of ...
John R. Perry, "Lexical Areas and Semantic Fields of Arabic" in Éva Ágnes Csató, Eva Agnes Csato, Bo Isaksson, Carina Jahani, ... Linguistic convergence and areal diffusion: case studies from Iranian, Semitic and Turkic, Routledge, 2005. pg 97: "It is ...
"Lexical evidence relating Korean to Japanese." Language 12.2, 185-251.. *Nichols, Johanna. 1992. Linguistic Diversity in Space ... a pattern than is easily explainable by borrowing and diffusion rather than common descent", Asya Pereltsvaig, Languages of the ... According to many scholars it only comprises a small number of monosyllabic lexical roots, including the personal pronouns and ...
Coblin, W. South (1986), A Sinologist's Handlist of Sino-Tibetan Lexical Comparisons, Monumenta Serica monograph series, 18, ... Baron, Stephen P. (1973), The classifier-alone-plus-noun construction: a study in areal diffusion, University of California, ... Second, there is an impressive body of lexical cognates between the Chinese and Bodic languages, represented by the Kirantic ... In response, Matisoff notes that the existence of shared lexical material only serves to establish an absolute relationship ...
Penny cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, s.v. Albinos. Society for the Diffusion of Useful ... "Blond", with its continued gender-varied usage, is one of few adjectives in written English to retain separate lexical genders ...
... the experience in Spain and reflections regarding the diffusion of cultural heritage. Digithum, no. 14 (May, 2012), p. 94. ... "much research has been devoted to automatically building lexical resources, taxonomies, parallel corpora and structured ... the experience in Spain and reflections regarding the diffusion of cultural heritage",[21] written by five Spanish Wikimedians ...
Recent lexical innovationsEdit. Some recent Quebec French lexical innovations have spread, at least partially, to other ... notably as a result of the widespread diffusion of US films and series. ... Lexical item Quebec French grammar Metropolitan French grammar English gloss autobus (noun) autobus (f) (colloquial) autobus (m ... lexical items formerly common to both France and New France and that are today unique only to Quebec French; (This includes ...
The Tat language belongs to the Southwest group of Iranian languages and is close in its grammatical structure and lexical ... with the growing diffusion of Middle Persian). Its main ingredients were the appeal to a heroic past that was identified or ...
... in admixture studies that tried to quantify the extent of Neolithic diffusions. Such studies concluded that the main components ... has remained in continuous contact with neighboring western European languages with which it has come to share numerous lexical ... "Wave-of-Advance Models of the Diffusion of the Y Chromosome Haplogroup R1b1b2 in Europe" (PDF). PLoS ONE. Public Library of ...
Lexical comparison[edit]. Lord's Prayer[edit]. Asturian. Galician. Latin Pá nuesu que tas nel cielu, santificáu seya'l to nome ... Its use, teaching and diffusion in the media will be furthered, whilst its local dialects and voluntary apprenticeship will ...
Whether rongorongo is merely an example of trans-cultural diffusion, or a true indigenous Austronesian writing system (and one ... Hence, Blench considers the single-migration model to be inconsistent with both the archaeological and linguistic (lexical) ... it was instead a process of cultural diffusion and assimilation that brought linguistic and cultural changes (particularly rice ... "The origin and diffusion of betel chewing: a synthesis of evidence from South Asia, Southeast Asia and beyond". eJournal of ...
Thus, the patterns of technical diffusion in pot-making that are visible via archaeological findings also reveal patterns in ... "Pots, Words and the Bantu Problem: On Lexical Reconstruction and Early African History", Journal of African History Archived ...
"Indo-European Lexical Cognacy Database (IELex)". Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen.. ... "Indo-European demic diffusion model" (PDF) (2nd ed.). Badajoz: Universidad de Extremadura. Retrieved March 24, 2018 ... The roots of PIE are basic morphemes carrying a lexical meaning. By addition of suffixes, they form stems, and by addition of ... based on lexical calculations, arrives at a picture roughly replicating the general scholarly opinion and refuting the Indo- ...
Lexical categories (parts of speech) are defined in terms of the ways in which their members combine with other kinds of ... Actions: swimming, exercises, diffusions, explosions, flight, electrification, embezzlement, etc.. *Qualities: colors, lengths ... 2003, Lexical Categories: verbs, nouns, and adjectives. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.. Understanding nouns in the ... Linguists often prefer to define nouns (and other lexical categories) in terms of their formal properties. These include ...
The lexical hypothesis[edit]. Sir Francis was the first scientist to recognise what is now known as the lexical hypothesis.[41] ... therefore the means can hardly be diffusion through the blood. Nevertheless, when I first heard of Mr. Galton's experiments, I ... as well as the lexical hypothesis of personality. He devised a method for classifying fingerprints that proved useful in ...
"A Diffusion Model Account of the Lexical Decision Task". Psychological Review. 111 (1): 159-182. doi:10.1037/0033-295x.111.1. ... The lexical decision task (LDT) is a procedure used in many psychology and psycholinguistics experiments. The basic procedure ... Although versions of the task had been used by researchers for a number of years, the term lexical decision task was coined by ... Lexical decision tasks are often combined with other experimental techniques, such as priming, in which the subject is 'primed ...
Dravidian languages show extensive lexical (vocabulary) borrowing, but only a few traits of structural (either phonological or ... Demic diffusion, and Origins of Mehrgahr ... whereas Indo-Aryan shows more structural than lexical ...
... although I believe that some of the lexical evidence [...] will hold up in terms of borrowing/diffusion." ... Using a variant of mass lexical comparison, augmented by computational linguistic techniques, such as large-scale statistical ... and lexical evidence. Together, Chukokto-Kamchatkan and Nivkh ("Amuric") form a larger Chukokto-Kamchatkan-Amuric language ...
An estimated 90 to 95% of Afrikaans vocabulary is ultimately of Dutch origin,[19][20][21] and there are few lexical differences ... "Standardization and social networks - The emergence and diffusion of standard Afrikaans", Standardization - Studies from the ... Afrikaans acquired some lexical and syntactical borrowings from other languages such as Malay, Khoisan languages, Portuguese,[ ...
Aikhenvald, Alexandra (2001). "Introduction". In Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald; R.M.W. Dixon (eds.). Areal diffusion and genetic ... World Atlas of Language Structures: a large database of structural (phonological, grammatical, lexical) properties of languages ... One important source of language change is contact and resulting diffusion of linguistic traits between languages. Language ... or was a case of cultural diffusion. A similar debate exists for the Chinese script, which developed around 1200 BC. The pre- ...
Coblin, W. South (1986), A Sinologist's Handlist of Sino-Tibetan Lexical Comparisons, Monumenta Serica monograph series, 18, ... with the similarities attributed to diffusion across the Mainland Southeast Asia linguistic area, especially since Benedict ( ... A team of researchers led by Pan Wuyun and Jin Li proposed the following phylogenetic tree in 2019, based on lexical items:[79] ... Caveney, Geoffrey (2014). "SINO-TIBETAN ŋ- AND NA-DENE *kw- / *gw- / *xw-: 1 st PERSON PRONOUNS AND LEXICAL COGNATE SETS / 漢藏語的 ...
Menczer, F (2004). "Lexical and semantic clustering by web links". Journal of the American Society for Information Science and ... Includes data and tools to visualize Twitter trends, diffusion networks, and maps, to create movies, and a public API. ... and in particular the prediction of what memes will go viral based on the structure of early diffusion networks and how ...
Based on comparative lexical evidence, along with supporting archaeological evidence, Jolkesky (2017) proposes that the ... Nevertheless, Brown (2015) suggests that Oto-Manguean as Sprachbund (language diffusion area) is a reasonable alternative ... before vowels in Oto-Pame and Amuzgo The following lexical reconstructions of Proto-Oto-Manguean are from Kaufman (1983). The ... Surrey Lexical Splits Visualisations (Chichimec). University of Surrey. Chichimec verb paradigm visualisations . https:// ...
Word Frequency and Lexical Diffusion, New York: Palgrave MacMillan, ISBN 978-1-4039-3232-7. Phillips, Betty S. (2015), "Lexical ... Lexical diffusion is the hypothesis that a sound change is an abrupt change that spreads gradually across the words in a ... Lexical diffusion represents a change in the phonemes in a word (substitution, metathesis, elision, epenthesis). It is abrupt ... Paul Kiparsky argues that under a proper definition of analogy as optimization, lexical diffusion is a non-proportional type of ...
Assuming trans-cultural diffusion, MacKenzie (1923:54) suggests that the Chinese "horned-dragon, or horned-serpent" derives ... A Sinologist's Handlist of Sino-Tibetan Lexical Comparisons. Nettetal. Hawkes, David, tr. 1985. The Songs of the South: An ...
The following are Tai-Kadai and Austronesian lexical items showing the genetic connection between these two language families: ... 2012). "Patrilineal Perspective on the Austronesian Diffusion in Mainland Southeast Asia". PLOS ONE. 7 (5): e36437. Bibcode: ... did not provide full reconstructed forms for many of the proto-Tai-Kadai lexical items cited in the above tables The connection ...
Word Frequency and Lexical Diffusion, New York: Palgrave MacMillan, ISBN 978-1-4039-3232-7. Phillips, Betty S. (2015), "Lexical ... Lexical diffusion is the hypothesis that a sound change is an abrupt change that spreads gradually across the words in a ... Lexical diffusion represents a change in the phonemes in a word (substitution, metathesis, elision, epenthesis). It is abrupt ... Paul Kiparsky argues that under a proper definition of analogy as optimization, lexical diffusion is a non-proportional type of ...
Lexical loans and their diffusion in old english: of gospels, martyrs, and teachers ZORA Maintenance. Maintenance work on ... Download PDF Lexical loans and their diffusion in old english: of gospels, martyrs, and teachers. Item availability may ... Timofeeva, Olga (2017). Lexical loans and their diffusion in old english: of gospels, martyrs, and teachers. Studia ... This may suggest that a descriptive catalogue of lexical loans is the only approach applicable to the Old English material. ...
Chen Chung-yu (1989). Lexical Diffusion of a Tonal Change in Reduplicates and Its Implications. Journal of Chinese Linguistics ...
... by Madge 4.1 ... To understand this free Word frequency and lexical diffusion book, we are card environments and support it with data. Free ... free Word frequency and lexical diffusion Hans Schavernoch is standard-essential authors( and a annual tool of peoples for ... bears found the 2018 Perkins Prize from the International Society for the free Word frequency and lexical diffusion of ...
"A Diffusion Model Account of the Lexical Decision Task". Psychological Review. 111 (1): 159-182. doi:10.1037/0033-295x.111.1. ... The lexical decision task (LDT) is a procedure used in many psychology and psycholinguistics experiments. The basic procedure ... Although versions of the task had been used by researchers for a number of years, the term lexical decision task was coined by ... Lexical decision tasks are often combined with other experimental techniques, such as priming, in which the subject is primed ...
See also lexical diffusion. Sound change is inevitable: All languages vary from place to place and time to time, and neither ...
Facilitated Diffusion & Active Transport: Movement across the Cell Membrane, Facilitated diffusion , Membranes and transport , ... Biology , Khan Academy, Facilitated Transport, Facilitated Diffusion - Passive Transport ... Lexical diffusion. In historical linguistics, lexical diffusion is both a phenomenon and a theory. The phenomenon is that by ... Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion & Active Transport: Movement across the Cell Membrane. Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion & ...
The exploratory study investigated individual differences in implicit processing of emotional words in a lexical decision task ... Ratcliff, R., Gomez, P., & McKoon, G. (2004). A diffusion model account of the lexical decision task. Psychological Review, 111 ... Model-generated lexical activity predicts graded ERP amplitudes in lexical decision. Brain Research, 1073-1074, 431-439. doi: ... Diffusion model. The DM was designed following the assumptions made by Ratcliff et al. (2004) who only let the drift rate vary ...
"Lexical diffusion across an international border: Foreign /a/ words in Canadian English." 6th UK Language Variation and Change ... "Contact-induced lexical change in Canadian English: the nativization of foreign /a/." 13th Annual Conference of the ...
Data were analyzed using a hierarchical diffusion modelling approach which provides more information than standard response ... Taking into account incorrect and correct response times, their distributions and accuracy data, hierarchical diffusion ... Taking into account incorrect and correct response times, their distributions and accuracy data, hierarchical diffusion ... Data were analyzed using a hierarchical diffusion modelling approach which provides more information than standard response ...
Ratcliff, R., Gomez, P., and McKoon, G. (2004). A diffusion model account of the lexical decision task. Psychol. Rev. 111, 159- ... Ratcliff, R., and Rouder, J. N. (2000). A diffusion model account of masking in two-choice letter identification. J. Exp. ... Perea, M., Gandómez, P., and Fraga, I. (2010). Masked nonword repetition effects in yes/no and go/no-go lexical decision: a ... Ratcliff, R., and McKoon, G. (2008). The diffusion decision model. Neural Comput. 20, 873-922. doi: 10.1162/neco.2008.12-06-420 ...
Lexical measures for testing progress in Hebrew as Arab students L2. Dil ve Dilbilimi Çalışmaları Dergisi 16:3 ► pp. 1096 ff. ...
Lexical diffusion and the glottogenetics of creole French. » CreoList debate, parts I-VI, appendixes 1-9. The Linguist List, ...
Me say that? No way!: the social correlates of American lexical diffusion in New Zealand English. Te Reo 32: 17-60. ... Lexical shift in working class New Zealand English: variation in the use of lexical pairs. English World-Wide 14.2: 231-248. ... Lexical borrowing from Maori in New Zealand English. In Bruce Moore (ed.), Whos centric now? The present state of post- ... Three New Zealand lexical items. Te Reo 20: 83-94.. Smithyman, Kendrick. 1980. Review article: the Heinemann dictionaries. Te ...
This study examines the lexical and grammatical diffusion of TH-fronting amongst adolescents in London, where TH-fronting is ... Word frequency and context of use in the lexical diffusion of phonetically conditioned sound change. Language variation and ... Geolinguistics - diffusion of language. In Ammon, Ulrich, Dittmar, Norbert, Mattheier, Klaus & Trudgill, Peter (eds.), ... Lexical phonology and sound change: The case of the Scottish vowel length rule. Journal of Linguistics 27, 29-53. ...
5.Lexical Diffusion in the Early Stages of the Merry-Marry Merger. 6. Tone and affixation in Hausa. 7. "Speech fragment ... Gesture, Speech, and Lexical Access. 23. Predicting Human Brain Activity Associated with the Meanings of Nouns. 24. Memory ... Speaking Rate Affects the Perception of Duration as a Suprasegmental Lexical-stress Cue. 12. MedEx: a medication information ...
Word frequency and context of use in the lexical diffusion of phonetically conditioned sound change. Language Variation and ... The gaseous diffusion plant for separating U.235 is shaped in the form of a U and covers an area of several million square feet ... Schemas and lexical blends. In H. Cuyckens, T. Berg, R. Dirven & K. Panther (eds.), Motivation in language, 69-97. Amsterdam: ... It has been argued that episodic memory for words or lexical associations can be impaired by the previous retrieval of a ...
Instead, the dynamics are significantly related to diffusion and technology. Lexical diffusion occurs at many scales, both ... A study of word diffusion across IndoEuropean languages shows similar frequency-dependence of word replacement rates. ...
Evaluating Logistic Mixed-Effects Models of Corpus-Linguistic Data in Light of Lexical Diffusion ...
Joan Bybee, Word Frequency and Context of Use in the Lexical Diffusion of Phonetically Conditioned Sound Change, Language ... Semantic/Lexical Change. 80. Paul Kay and Luisa Maffi, Color Appearance and the Emergence and Evolution of Basic Color ... Diffusion of Innovations. 84. Witold Manczak, Bartolis "Second Norm", Historical Dialectology, ed. Jacek Fisiak (Mouton de ... 7. William Labov, Transmission and Diffusion, Language, 2007, 83, 344-87.. 8. Jacqueline Haring Russom, An Examination of ...
Ratcliff, R., Thapar, A., Gomez, P., & McKoon, G. (2004). A diffusion model analysis of the effects of aging in the lexical- ... Previous studies applying diffusion models to childrens performance in numerosity discrimination, lexical decision and ... 2012) successfully fitted diffusion models to data obtained in numerosity discrimination and lexical decision tasks in children ... Representation of the decision-making process in the diffusion model. Noisy diffusion process originating from a starting point ...
Distinct loci of lexical and semantic access deficits in aphasia: Evidence from voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping and ... diffusion tensor imaging  Harvey, Denise Y.; Schnur, Tatiana T. (2015) Naming pictures and matching words to pictures ...
Speed of lexical decision correlates with diffusion anisotropy in left parietal and frontal white matter: evidence from ... Isotropic resolution diffusion tensor imaging with whole brain acquisition in clinically acceptable time. Hum Brain Mapp. 2002; ... MR diffusion tensor spectroscopy and imaging. Biophys J. 1994;66:259-267. [PubMed] ... White matter changes are associated with learning in people, but the extent to which these changes detected by diffusion tensor ...
Ratcliff, Roger, Pablo Gomez, and Gail McKoon (2004). A diffusion model account of the lexical decision task. Psychological ... Vitevitch, Michael S. (2003). The influence of sublexical and lexical representations in the processing of spoken words in ... Specifically, similarity to existing lexical items appears to exert an independent influence on judgments from purely ... in onset as well as the number of existing lexical items that have /h/ in onset. Critically, there is evidence that the ...
Lexical Areas and Semantic Fields of Arabic Loanwords in Persian and Beyond 6. Central Asian Arabic; The Irano-Arabic Dynamics ... Linguistic Convergence and Areal Diffusion Case Studies from Iranian, Semitic and Turkic By Éva Ágnes Csató. , Bo Isaksson. , ... Linguistic Convergence and Areal Diffusion: Case Studies from Iranian, Semitic and Turkic. ISBN , Quantity: ...
The Development of Periphrastic do in English: A Case of Lexical Diffusion in Syntax Author(s): Mieko Ogura ... Inhibited sound change: An evolutionary approach to lexical competition Author(s): Juliette Blevins and Andrew Wedel ...
2008) The diffusion decision model: theory and data for two-choice decision tasks. Neural Comput 20:873-922, doi:10.1162/neco. ... Lexical-decision accuracy was not predictable from phase coherence, power, or ERP amplitude. Accuracy of lexical decision could ... presumably to support lexical selection when lexical access is difficult (Fiebach et al., 2002). Importantly, our data suggest ... 1976) Lexical storage and retrieval of polymorphemic and polysyllabic words. J Verbal Learn Verbal Behav 15:607-620, doi: ...
Pagel M, Atkinson QD, Meade A (2007) Frequency of word-use predicts rates of lexical evolution throughout Indo-European history ... These diffusions are visible in general usage, and so we are not suggesting that climate science itself is a fashion. We ... To test whether these words can be fitted with the simple Bass diffusion model, we estimated , , plus either for the ... In comparing the Bass diffusion model to the word data, we acknowledge that the parameter does not necessarily have to be " ...
lexical diffusion gets stored rated by the books to use the Finnish fatherhood of the mindfulness in English while as knowing ... We are lexical, but we ca nearly present the use that you view trying for. Thus multi-faceted will require. You suggest ... elementary levels to Lexical Semantics. New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Yoshimura, Kimihiro 1998 The dove Visit Webpage in English ... This view the 322nd fighter is lexical idioms for Using interview of satisfactory context people. Your landmark usage will back ...
  • Previous research has shown that the WPR can be accounted for in the Ratcliff diffusion model by assuming that the same ability parameter-drift rate-mediates performance in both elementary tasks and higher-level cognitive tasks. (springer.com)
  • This project will examine who among Late Talkers are at risk for Specific Language Impairment (SLI) based on real-time measures of cognitive and lexical processing. (grantome.com)
  • 2007). Therefore, using the lexical and cognitive processing deficits in SLI to inform the study of lexical and cognitive processing in infants may prove more successful in identifying LTs at greatest risk for SLI. (grantome.com)
  • Studies 1 - 3 will examine directly whether lexical and cognitive processing in late talking infants (N = 50) and typically developing infants (N = 30) differs for novel word learning, word segmentation, and real word recognition. (grantome.com)
  • Using a newly proposed dimensional approach, this project examines the cognitive and lexical processing mechanisms that may underlie individual differences in word learning and vocabulary in infants to better identify those LTs at risk for SLI. (grantome.com)
  • My research foucses primarily on the cognitive neuroscience of aging: the investigation of age-related changes in perception, attention, and memory, using both behavioral measures and neuroimaging techniques, including positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). (duke.edu)
  • Diffusion tensor image segmentation of the cerebrum provides a single measure of cerebral small vessel disease severity related to cognitive change. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here we apply a diffusion tensor image (DTI) segmentation technique (DSEG) to describe SVD related changes in a single unitary score across the whole cerebrum, to investigate its relationship with cognitive change over a three-year period. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here, we used hierarchical Bayesian diffusion models to decompose performance in a perceptual task into separate processing components, testing age-related differences in model parameters and links to neural data. (springer.com)
  • By decomposing performance into distinct components and relating them to neural markers, diffusion models have the potential to identify the reasons why children with developmental conditions perform differently to typically developing children and to uncover processing differences inapparent in the response time and accuracy data alone. (springer.com)
  • The current human electroencephalography (EEG) study examined the influence of neural oscillatory phase on a lexical-decision task performed for stimuli embedded in noise. (jneurosci.org)
  • Neural phase angles were compared for correct versus incorrect lexical decisions using a phase bifurcation index (BI), which quantifies differences in mean phase angles and phase concentrations between correct and incorrect trials. (jneurosci.org)
  • Neural phase angles in the alpha frequency range (8-12 Hz) over right anterior sensors were approximately antiphase in a prestimulus time window, and thus successfully distinguished between correct and incorrect lexical decisions. (jneurosci.org)
  • We simultaneously recorded the electroencephalogram and hypothesized that a dependence of lexical-decision accuracy on low-frequency neural oscillatory phase should be observed. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we were interested in the role of alpha (8-12 Hz) and theta (3-7 Hz) neural phase for lexical decision performance. (jneurosci.org)
  • Damasio H , Grabowski TJ , Tranel D , Hichwa RD and Damasio AR (1996) A neural basis for lexical retrieval. (els.net)
  • 15. Joan Bybee, 'Word Frequency and Context of Use in the Lexical Diffusion of Phonetically Conditioned Sound Change', Language Variation and Change , 2002, 14, 261-90. (routledge.com)
  • 2009 ) Lexical variation and change in Taiwan Sign Language. (jbe-platform.com)
  • Based on earlier findings that the presence of word comprehension impairment (a deficit in the meaning of words, or lexical semantics) in acute stroke was strongly associated with the presence of hypoperfusion or infarct in Wernicke's area, we tested the hypothesis that the severity of word comprehension impairment was correlated with the magnitude of delay in perfusion of Wernicke's area on magnetic resonance perfusion-weighted imaging. (nih.gov)
  • 5. Lexical Areas and Semantic Fields of Arabic Loanwords in Persian and Beyond 6. (routledge.com)
  • 1) Lexical gaps:The result of analyzing the semantic fields between Chinese and English shows that 'lexical gaps' will happen in different lexical levels. (moluch.ru)
  • This study examines the lexical and grammatical diffusion of TH-fronting amongst adolescents in London, where TH-fronting is well established, and Edinburgh, where it is a relatively new phenomenon. (cambridge.org)
  • Here, we infer the rates of change in lexical and grammatical data from 81 languages of the Pacific. (pnas.org)
  • In this study, we use a Dirichlet process mixture model to infer the rates of change in lexical and grammatical data from 81 Austronesian languages. (pnas.org)
  • However, there is a core of grammatical and lexical features that are highly stable. (pnas.org)
  • Fractional anisotropy (FA) is a useful measure of connectivity in the brain that can be derived from the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) dataset. (ajnr.org)
  • The fractional anisotropy (FA) metric provides a simple and robust means to assess the degree of anisotropic diffusion occurring within a region. (ajnr.org)
  • Michael Fortescue (2011) [3] suggests that Chukokto-Kamchatkan and Nivkh (Gilyak) are related to each other on the basis of morphological, typological, and lexical evidence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies employing primed lexical decision tasks have revealed morphological facilitation effects in children and young adults. (umontreal.ca)
  • free Word frequency and lexical diffusion Hans Schavernoch is standard-essential authors( and a annual tool of peoples for privacy and mitigation) and was Welcome digital norms on his Shipping' industry of analogue' socialism. (lickskilletfilms.org)
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  • Our free Word frequency and lexical populations both seconds and existing specific coding interests here so as a democracy and marine j. (lickskilletfilms.org)
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  • A study of word diffusion across IndoEuropean languages shows similar frequency-dependence of word replacement rates. (cognitionandculture.net)
  • The effects of neighborhood frequency in reading and lexical decision. (uv.es)
  • Methods: Forty subjects underwent DWI, MRPI, and standardized tests for lexical deficits or hemispatial neglect within 24 hours of stroke onset or progression. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions: MRPI shows regions of hypoperfused cortex associated with lexical deficits or hemispatial neglect, even when DWI shows no infarct or only small subcortical infarct. (elsevier.com)
  • Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an MR imaging technique that exploits the exquisite sensitivity of MR imaging to diffusion processes in solution 1 , 2 to measure microscopic tissue orientation characteristics in vivo. (ajnr.org)
  • Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed in 17 patients with TLE and 17 healthy controls. (neurology.org)
  • Furthermore, we provide initial evidence that diffusion tensor imaging tractography may provide clinically unique information for predicting neuropsychological status in patients with epilepsy. (neurology.org)
  • Using diffusion tensor imaging, we show that psychopathy is associated with reduced structural integrity in the right uncinate fasciculus, the primary white matter connection between vmPFC and anterior temporal lobe. (jneurosci.org)
  • Mori S and Zhang J (2006) Principles of diffusion tensor imaging and its applications to basic neuroscience research. (els.net)
  • Lexical decision tasks are often combined with other experimental techniques, such as priming , in which the subject is 'primed' with a certain stimulus before the actual lexical decision task has to be performed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods and procedures: A series of 100 patients with acute, left hemisphere ischaemic stroke were evaluated within 24 hours of onset or worsening of symptoms, and 3 days later, using PWI, DWI, and a battery of lexical tasks, including spoken word/picture verification. (elsevier.com)
  • Discourse-based lexical anticipation : the nature and contextual basis of predictions in language comprehension Otten, M. (docplayer.nl)
  • 1 UvA-DARE (Digital Academic Repository) Discourse-based lexical anticipation : the nature and contextual basis of predictions in language comprehension Otten, M. Link to publication Citation for published version (APA): Otten, M. (2008). (docplayer.nl)
  • The lexical decision task ( LDT ) is a procedure used in many psychology and psycholinguistics experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although versions of the task had been used by researchers for a number of years, the term lexical decision task was coined by David E. Meyer and Roger W. Schvaneveldt , who brought the task to prominence in a series of studies on semantic memory and word recognition in the early 1970s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exploratory study investigated individual differences in implicit processing of emotional words in a lexical decision task. (springer.com)
  • Parallel to low-level discrimination studies, we made the lexical decision task "near-threshold" by embedding speech in individually titrated levels of white noise, which increased the difficulty of the task and, purposefully, the amount of errors. (jneurosci.org)
  • This study examined the differences in processing between typical and dyslexic readers in a lexical decision task in different modalities (visual, auditory, and cross modality). (scirp.org)
  • Here, we fit Ratcliff's diffusion model to accuracy data and reaction-time distributions from one numerical and one verbal two-choice perceptual-decision task to deconstruct these performance measures into the rate of evidence accumulation (i.e., drift rate), response criterion setting (i.e., boundary separation), and peripheral aspects of performance (i.e., nondecision time). (mit.edu)
  • The data comes from 17 participants performing a lexical decision task in which they have to decide if a presented string is a word or non-word. (singmann.org)
  • The density constraint also occurs with unmasked, visible primes in the lexical decision task. (uv.es)
  • Is the go/no-go lexical decision task an alternative to the yes/no lexical decision task? (uv.es)
  • Masked priming effects with syllabic neighbors in the lexical decision task. (uv.es)
  • Influence of neighborhood size and exposure duration on visual-word recognition: Evidence with the yes/no and the go/no-go lexical decision task. (uv.es)
  • Previous neuroimaging evidence has supported a dissociation in language comprehension in which parts of the MTG are involved in the retrieval of lexical syntactic information and the IFG is involved in unification operations that maintain, select, and integrate multiple sources of information over time. (mpi.nl)
  • Lexical-syntactic retrieval was manipulated by using sentences with and without a temporarily word-class (noun/verb) ambiguity (e.g., run). (mpi.nl)
  • Data were analyzed using a hierarchical diffusion modeling approach, which provides more information than standard response time/accuracy analyses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Taking into account incorrect and correct response times, their distributions and accuracy data, hierarchical diffusion modeling allowed us to differentiate between age-related changes in decision threshold, non-decision time and the speed of information uptake. (frontiersin.org)
  • Some changes spread by contagious diffusion, but many spread by hierarchical diffusion, jumping first between cities before spreading to the country at large. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Eighty patients were prospectively studied within 24 hours of onset or progression of acute left hemisphere stroke symptoms, with diffusion-weighted imaging, perfusion-weighted imaging, and detailed language tests. (nih.gov)
  • Our objective was to evaluate this hypothesis using advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques of perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). (elsevier.com)
  • Lexical diffusion is the hypothesis that a sound change is an abrupt change that spreads gradually across the words in a language to which it is applicable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, a hypothesis was formulated that if the molecular weight affects the rate of diffusion of substances, then a higher molecular weight would slow down the rate of diffusion. (studymode.com)
  • The validity of the hypothesis formulated can be determined using a medium in which diffusion is observable and measurable. (studymode.com)
  • Testing the hypothesis relating to the effect of molecular weight to the diffusion rate , agar plate set-up was used to observe the diffusion of different substances. (studymode.com)
  • Lexical diffusion occurs at many scales, both within relatively small groups and across nations. (cognitionandculture.net)
  • How quickly diffusion occurs is dependent on several factors, such as temperature, particle size, and the concentration difference on either side of the membrane. (studymode.com)
  • Speech in space and time: Contact, change and diffusion in medieval Norway (Doctoral thesis). (cam.ac.uk)
  • Diffusion is a critical biological process in which molecules and compounds tend to spread out evenly in solutions (both liquid and gaseous). (synonym.com)
  • The time dependence of the statistical distribution in space is given by the diffusion equation . (princeton.edu)
  • It has our epidemiologic thinking to understand you to the Lexical International Conference on Diffusion in Solids and Liquids, DSL 2016 which will part originated in SPLIT( Croatia) from 26-30 June, 2016 at the Radisson Blu Resort Split. (wag-study-abroad.com)
  • Atomic diffusion , in solids. (princeton.edu)
  • In this work, we used the diffusion decision model and multi-electrode EEG signals to study the impact of neuronal activity during the preparatory period on the following decision process in an attention task. (mit.edu)
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  • During fMRI we applied the NEREC protocol (2) to map lexical production. (mysciencework.com)
  • Understanding how channel proteins and carrier proteins can facilitate diffusion across a cell membrane (passive transport). (wn.com)
  • Importance of Cell Membrane for Homeostasis 0:41 Cell Membrane Structure 1:07 Simple Diffusion 1:45 What does it mean to "go with the concentration gradient? (wn.com)
  • Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a cell membrane. (princeton.edu)
  • They present a revised model that distinguishes between the initial "actuation" of a sound change by language contact or internal factors, and its "implementation" by lexical diffusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zima, Petr, in: Lexical and Structural Diffusion : Interplay of Internal and External Factors of Language Development in the West African Sahel. (slavistik-portal.de)
  • 5, p.94]The sharp disparity of politics, economy, religion and belief, value, cultural tradition and customs etc. between Chinese nations and native English-speaking western nations when reflected in language, will arise gaps of lexical expression. (moluch.ru)
  • Difference of living experience, difference of life value and difference of language and culture will usually be the three reasons for "lexical gaps" [9, p.51]. (moluch.ru)
  • The lexical gap means cultural information carried by SL words cannot find their equivalence or counterparts in the TL (target language). (moluch.ru)
  • Michael Slattery( 1987- 2006): brought a finite download diffusion, atomic ordering, and mass transport: selected topics in geochemistry of the module for Alternative popular apps signaling language and person expression. (sierrasignsaz.com)
  • The database based on Word Net is a lexical database for the English Language. (synonym.com)
  • building historical chronologies from language evidence and periodizing the lexical documents of cultural practice and knowledge were the brief of chapter 2. (jhu.edu)
  • Incorporating Dollaghan's proposal to examine children's language abilities from a dimensional perspective, all data will then be converted to Z-scores and individual participants'Z-scores will be rank ordered to determine whether there is a subset of infants who consistently fall on the low end of the distribution across multiple measures of speed and accuracy of lexical processing, statistical word learning (Studies 1-3) and vocabulary knowledge (Studies 4 &5). (grantome.com)
  • Any language, under appropriate circumstances, borrows lexical material from other languages, usually absorbing the exotic items or translating them into native equivalents. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Wang accounted for such irregularities by positing a form of lexical diffusion: we hold that words change their pronunciations by discrete, perceptible increments (i.e. phonetically abrupt), but severally at a time (i.e. lexically gradual) rather than always in a homogeneous block. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lexical diffusion represents a change in the phonemes in a word (substitution, metathesis, elision, epenthesis). (wikipedia.org)
  • This paper, however, aims at an inferential analysis of several loans from Latin and Greek in the religious and educational domain based on contemporary approaches to linguistic innovation, diffusion and change, and the wider cultural context that would have ensured their currency and dissemination - social networks provided by medieval schools and monasteries, and the ecclesiastical community at large. (uzh.ch)
  • Using a select body of educated loans, it argues that strong ties within monastic communities would generally have prevented contact-induced lexical change from spreading outside the monasteries. (uzh.ch)
  • Yet the role of individual innovators with both clerical and non-clerical ties and early adopters with elementary Latin proficiency (parish priests) in diffusion of change should not be underestimated. (uzh.ch)
  • What are the Different Types of Diffusion Transports Across a Membrane? (synonym.com)
  • Even in the presence of the barrier, cells can use two types of diffusion to accomplish membrane transport: active and facilitated. (synonym.com)
  • Watch the complete lecture in the member's area at https://www.DrNajeebLectures.com Facilitated diffusion (also known as facilitated transport or passive-mediated transport) is the process of spontaneous passive transport (as opposed to active transport) of molecules or ions across a biological membrane via specific transmembrane integral proteins. (wn.com)
  • Diffusion is a passive way for molecules to enter or exit a cell, requiring no energy. (synonym.com)
  • In molecular diffusion , the moving entities are small molecules which are self propelled by thermal energy and do not require a concentration gradient to spread out through random motion. (princeton.edu)
  • Diffusion is this thermal motion of all (liquid and gas) molecules at temperatures above absolute zero . (princeton.edu)
  • While Brownian motion of large molecules is observable under a microscope, small-molecule diffusion can only be probed in carefully controlled experimental conditions. (princeton.edu)
  • Diffusion is the movement of molecules, atoms or ions of a substance across a membrane from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration in a medium. (studymode.com)
  • 2006). According to Sherman and Sherman (1989), the different rates of diffusion of a substance is due to the inherent heat energy of the molecules proportional dependent to temperature, electrical charges and arrangement of atoms or molecules, pressure, and molecular weight. (studymode.com)
  • Diffusion is a process where molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. (studymode.com)
  • Parallel distributed processing and lexical-semantic effects in visual word recognition: are a few stages necessary? (deepdyve.com)
  • Representing this public usage through extraordinary new data on word frequencies in books published up to the year 2008, we show that a classic two-parameter social-diffusion model closely fits the comings and goings of many keywords over generational or longer time scales. (plos.org)
  • Bentley RA, Garnett P, O'Brien MJ, Brock WA (2012) Word Diffusion and Climate Science. (plos.org)
  • A second essential angle of approach to deriving history from lexical evidence is through inference from the histories of word borrowing. (jhu.edu)
  • Word borrowing is perhaps the single most important category of lexical evidence because from it we uncover the histories of societies in the time spans that lie between the nodal periods of the linguistic chronology. (jhu.edu)
  • All of the diffusion called pitied to understand choices who watched completed aimed fouling lexical Patients earlier. (tcpleven90.com)
  • One of the most prominent models is the diffusion decision model (DDM) proposed by Ratcliff ( 1978 ). (mit.edu)
  • Higher alcohol use was also associated with differences in corpus callosum microstructure and faster decline in lexical fluency. (bmj.com)
  • Estimating diffusion model parameters revealed that the drift rate (rate of information accumulation) captures unique variance of processing differences between happy and fear-related words, with highest drift rates observed for happy words. (springer.com)
  • Parameters of diffusion tensor sequence for MR-DTI acquisition were: voxel size: 2 x 2 x 2 mm, 128 x 126 slices of 2 mm thickness and no gap, TE = 67.2 ms, TR = 14000ms, EPI factor = 63, field of view = 256 mm, b value = 1500sec / mm2. (mysciencework.com)
  • Here we aim to test four qualitative predictions concerning the WPR and its diffusion model explanation in terms of drift rate. (springer.com)
  • A graphical illustration of the Wiener diffusion model for two-choice reaction times. (singmann.org)
  • package (which provides the PDF, CDF, and RNG for the full 7-parameter diffusion model). (singmann.org)
  • Conversely, the learned knowledge from social media can be fed into computational epidemic model to improve the efficiency and accuracy of disease diffusion modeling. (psu.edu)
  • We suggest that correct lexical decisions depend both on successful sensory processing, which is made possible by the alignment of stimulus onset with an optimal alpha phase, as well as integration and weighting of decisional information, which is coupled to alpha phase immediately following the critical manipulation that differentiated words from pseudowords. (jneurosci.org)
  • Facilitated Diffusion - Passive Transport This is a teaser video. (wn.com)
  • Water and some dissolved solutes move via passive diffusion through the plasma membrane. (studymode.com)
  • This may suggest that a descriptive catalogue of lexical loans is the only approach applicable to the Old English material. (uzh.ch)
  • The extensive experimental results demonstrated that our approach can effectively characterize the spatiotem-poral disease diffusion, outperforming competing methods by a substantial margin on multiple metrics. (psu.edu)
  • As an example, even though lexical choice is usually more accurate with Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) systems than with their rule-based counterparts, the text they produce tends to be less fluent. (merlot.org)
  • Deze experimenten laten bovendien zien dat deze voorspellingen heel gedetailleerd zijn: mensen anticiperen naast de betekenis van een verwacht woord (hoofdstuk 2, experiment 1A) ook specifieke lexicale eigenschappen zoals het woordgeslacht van het verwachte woord (hoofdstuk 2 (experiment 1B), 3 en 4). (docplayer.nl)
  • DICOM raw data for MR-DTI was converted to NIFTI (dcm2niix toolbox) before concatenation and pre-processing with Diffusionist software (2,3) running on Linux and based on FSL (FMRIB Software Library v5.0, Oxford UK (4,5) and FMRIB Diffusion Toolbox (FDT). (mysciencework.com)
  • It assumes that in each trial evidence is accumulated in a noisy (diffusion) process by a single accumulator. (singmann.org)
  • The main purpose of the study is to determine the effect of molecular weight on the rate of diffusion. (studymode.com)
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  • Strikingly, lexical decision accuracy was not predicted by either event-related potentials (ERPs) or oscillatory power measures. (jneurosci.org)
  • Objective: To evaluate diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and MR perfusion imaging (MRPI) as tools for identifying regions of infarct and hypoperfusion associated with aphasia and neglect in hyperacute stroke. (elsevier.com)
  • Under normal conditions, molecular diffusion is relevant only on length scales between nanometer and millimeter. (princeton.edu)
  • Chen Q. Review on Transliteration as a Medium for the Diffusion of Chinese Culture // Молодой ученый. (moluch.ru)
  • The concept of diffusion is tied to that of mass transfer driven by a concentration gradient, but diffusion can still occur when there is no concentration gradient (but there will be no net flux ). (princeton.edu)
  • Associative and semantic priming effects occur at very short SOAs in lexical decision and naming. (uv.es)