The L-isomer of Ofloxacin.
A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
'Azā compounds' are a class of organic molecules containing at least one nitrogen atom in a five-membered ring, often found in naturally occurring substances and pharmaceuticals, with the name derived from the Arabic word "azZa" meaning 'strong' referring to the ring's aromatic stability.
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
Quinolines are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds consisting of a two-nitrogened benzene ring fused to a pyridine ring, which have been synthesized and used as building blocks for various medicinal drugs, particularly antibiotics and antimalarials.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
Naphthyridines are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds containing a naphthyridine nucleus, which is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon made up of two benzene rings fused to a pyridine ring, and they have been studied for their potential pharmacological properties, including as antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer agents.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.
A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Topoisomerase IV binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting 2 parC and 2 parE subunits. Topoisomerase IV is a decatenating enzyme that resolves interlinked daughter chromosomes following DNA replication.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Compounds based on ERYTHROMYCIN with the 3-cladinose replaced by a ketone. They bind the 23S part of 70S bacterial RIBOSOMES.
Gram-negative aerobic cocci of low virulence that colonize the nasopharynx and occasionally cause MENINGITIS; BACTEREMIA; EMPYEMA; PERICARDITIS; and PNEUMONIA.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A fixed-ratio combination of amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate.
Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.

Comparison of efficacies of oral levofloxacin and oral ciprofloxacin in a rabbit model of a staphylococcal abscess. (1/601)

Oral levofloxacin was compared to oral ciprofloxacin in a Staphylococcus aureus subcutaneous abscess model in rabbits. Rabbits were surgically prepared with subcutaneous wiffle balls (43 mm in diameter) and allowed to recover for 4 to 6 weeks. Rabbits were infected by direct injection into the capsule with S. aureus ATCC 29213 (5 x 10(5) CFU) and were allowed to remain infected for 8 days before the initiation of anti-infective treatment. Efficacy was determined by assessing the bacterial load within the capsule over a 10-day treatment period. In single-dose pharmacokinetic studies in infected rabbits, similar area under the concentration-time curve/MIC ratios were obtained in the plasma and abscess fluid for levofloxacin at 45 mg/kg of body weight and ciprofloxacin at 200 mg/kg of body weight. Similar efficacies were seen with levofloxacin at 45 mg/kg/day and ciprofloxacin 400 mg/kg/day by day 10. In this model, levofloxacin was significantly more efficacious than ciprofloxacin (P < 0.01).  (+info)

Pharmacodynamic comparisons of levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin against Streptococcus pneumoniae in an in vitro model of infection. (2/601)

The increasing frequency of penicillin-resistant pneumococcus continues to be of concern throughout the world. Newer fluoroquinolone antibiotics, such as levofloxacin, have shown enhanced in vitro activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, the bactericidal characteristics and pharmacodynamic profiles of levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin against four isolates of S. pneumoniae were compared by using an in vitro model of infection. Standard antibiotic dosing regimens which simulated the pharmacokinetic profile observed in humans were used. Control and treatment models were sampled for bacterial CFU per milliliter over the duration of each 24- or 48-h experiment. In addition, treatment models were sampled for MIC determinations and drug concentration. Regrowth of all isolates as well as an increase in MICs throughout the study period was observed in the ciprofloxacin experiments. A limited amount of regrowth was noted during levofloxacin therapy for one isolate; however, no change in MIC was detected for any isolate. Ampicillin showed rapid and sustained bactericidal activity against all isolates. In this study, ratios of effective fluoroquinolone area under the concentration-time curve (AUC):MIC values ranged from 30 to 55. Levofloxacin, owing to its larger AUC0-24 values, has excellent and sustained activity against different pneumococcal strains superior to that of ciprofloxacin.  (+info)

In vitro activities of ketolides HMR 3647 [correction of HRM 3647] and HMR 3004 [correction of HRM 3004], levofloxacin, and other quinolones and macrolides against Neisseria spp. and Moraxella catarrhalis. (3/601)

In vitro activities of the ketolides HMR 3647 [corrected] and HMR 3004 [corrected] against pathogenic Neisseria gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis, saprophytic Neisseria isolates, and Moraxella catarrhalis were determined. The comparison of ketolide activities with those of the other macrolides shows a much better activity in the majority of species, with macrolide MICs at which 90% of the isolates are inhibited between 8- and 10-fold higher.  (+info)

The antibacterial efficacy of levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa assessed by combining antibiotic exposure and bacterial susceptibility. (4/601)

Ciprofloxacin has a four-fold greater in-vitro activity than levofloxacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but levofloxacin has a four-fold higher area under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC) for an equivalent dose. It has been proposed that the AUC/MIC ratio is a general predictor of antibacterial efficacy for quinolones. Using an in-vitro kill curve technique, performed in quadruplicate, with nine antibiotic concentrations and three strains of P. aeruginosa with varying quinolone susceptibility, we constructed sigmoidal dose-response curves for AUC(0-6.5)/MIC and area under the bacterial kill curve (AUBKC) or AUC(0-24)/MIC and log change in viable count at 24 h (delta24). For levofloxacin the log AUC(0-6.5)/MIC ratio to produce 50% of the maximal effect was 0.74 +/- 0.13 (r2 = 0.9435) for levofloxacin and 0.82 +/- 0.06 (r2 = 0.7935) for ciprofloxacin. The log AUC(0-24)/MIC ratio to produce 50% maximal effect was 1.58 +/- 0.13 (r2 = 0.7788) for levofloxacin and 1.37 +/- 0.12 (r2 = 0.7207) for ciprofloxacin. An AUC(0-24)/MIC ratio of 125 produced 85.4% of the maximal response with levofloxacin and 81.5% with ciprofloxacin. These data suggest that levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin have equivalent activity against P. aeruginosa at equivalent AUC/MIC ratios.  (+info)

Primary Shewanella alga septicemia in a patient on hemodialysis. (5/601)

We report the first Japanese case of primary septicemia with Shewanella alga and also describe the bacteriological characteristics of and results of antibiotic susceptibility tests of the isolate. S. alga was repeatedly isolated, at times simultaneously with Escherichia coli, from the blood of a 64-year-old female undergoing hemodialysis. The isolated organism was determined to be S. alga based on recently published identification criteria, such as hemolysis on sheep blood agar, no acid production from carbohydrates, and growth on agar containing 6. 5% NaCl. Results of antibiotic susceptibility tests demonstrated that the isolate was sensitive to levofloxacin and cefpirome (MICs, 128, 64, and 8 microg/ml, respectively). Although the role of S. alga as a human pathogen has not been fully determined, accumulating data suggest that this organism may be a potential pathogen, especially in compromised hosts.  (+info)

Use of a genetic approach to evaluate the consequences of inhibition of efflux pumps in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (6/601)

Drug efflux pumps in Pseudomonas aeruginosa were evaluated as potential targets for antibacterial therapy. The potential effects of pump inhibition on susceptibility to fluoroquinolone antibiotics were studied with isogenic strains that overexpress or lack individual efflux pumps and that have various combinations of efflux- and target-mediated mutations. Deletions in three efflux pump operons were constructed. As expected, deletion of the MexAB-OprM efflux pump decreased resistance to fluoroquinolones in the wild-type P. aeruginosa (16-fold reduction for levofloxacin [LVX]) or in the strain that overexpressed mexAB-oprM operon (64-fold reduction for LVX). In addition to that, resistance to LVX was significantly reduced even for the strains carrying target mutations (64-fold for strains for which LVX MICs were >4 microg/ml). We also studied the frequencies of emergence of LVX-resistant variants from different deletion mutants and the wild-type strain. Deletion of individual pumps or pairs of the pumps did not significantly affect the frequency of emergence of resistant variants (at 4x the MIC for the wild-type strain) compared to that for the wild type (10(-6) to 10(-7)). In the case of the strain with a triple deletion, the frequency of spontaneous mutants was undetectable (<10(-11)). In summary, inhibition of drug efflux pumps would (i) significantly decrease the level of intrinsic resistance, (ii) reverse acquired resistance, and (iii) result in a decreased frequency of emergence of P. aeruginosa strains highly resistant to fluoroquinolones in clinical settings.  (+info)

Levofloxacin versus cefuroxime axetil in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis: results of a randomized, double-blind study. (7/601)

A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, three-arm parallel design, multicentre study was conducted among adult patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB) in order to compare the efficacy and safety of two different doses of levofloxacin with cefuroxime axetil. A total of 832 patients were randomized to receive oral levofloxacin (250 mg od or 500 mg od) or oral cefuroxime axetil (250 mg bd) for 7-10 days. The primary efficacy analysis was based on the clinical response in patients with bacteriologically confirmed AECB, determined 5-14 days after the end of therapy (per-protocol population). Of 839 patients enrolled (at 71 centres in 14 countries), seven were not treated, giving an intention-to-treat (ITT) population of 832. In total, 281 patients received levofloxacin 250 mg, 280 received levofloxacin 500 mg and 271 received cefuroxime axetil. The cure rates in the ITT population were: levofloxacin 250 mg, 70% (196/281); levofloxacin 500 mg, 70% (195/280); cefuroxime axetil, 61% (166/271); those in the per-protocol population were: 78% (121/156), 79% (108/137) and 66% (88/134), respectively. Both doses of levofloxacin were at least as effective as cefuroxime axetil and were active against the main pathogens of clinical relevance (Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis). All three treatment regimens were equally well tolerated. In conclusion, the results show that levofloxacin (250 mg and 500 mg) od is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of AECB in adult patients.  (+info)

Pharmacodynamics of levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae. (8/601)

An in-vitro pharmacokinetic model was used to compare the pharmacodynamics of levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin against four penicillin-susceptible and four penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Logarithmic-phase cultures were exposed to the peak concentrations of levofloxacin or ciprofloxacin observed in human serum after 500 mg and 750 mg oral doses, human elimination pharmacokinetics were simulated, and viable bacterial counts were measured at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 and 36 h. Levofloxacin was rapidly and significantly bactericidal against all eight strains evaluated, with eradication of six strains occurring despite area under the inhibitory curve over 24 h (AUIC24) values of only 32-64 SIT(-1) x h (serum inhibitory titre over time). The pharmacodynamics of ciprofloxacin were more variable and the rate of bacterial killing was consistently slower than observed with levofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin eradicated five strains despite having an AUIC24 of only 44 SIT(-1) x h. These data suggest that the increased potency of levofloxacin and more favourable pharmacokinetics compared with ciprofloxacin provide enhanced pharmacodynamic activity against S. pneumoniae. Furthermore, these data suggest that the minimum AUIC required for clinical efficacy against and eradication of S. pneumoniae with levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin may be well below the 125 SIT(-1) x h identified by other studies.  (+info)

Levofloxacin is an antibiotic medication that belongs to the fluoroquinolone class. It works by interfering with the bacterial DNA replication, transcription, and repair processes, leading to bacterial cell death. Levofloxacin is used to treat a variety of infections caused by susceptible bacteria, including respiratory, skin, urinary tract, and gastrointestinal infections. It is available in various forms, such as tablets, oral solution, and injection, for different routes of administration.

The medical definition of Levofloxacin can be stated as:

Levofloxacin is a synthetic antibacterial drug with the chemical name (-)-(S)-9-fluoro-2,3-dihydro-3-methoxy-10-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-9-oxoanthracene-1-carboxylic acid l-alanyl-l-proline methylester monohydrate. It is the levo isomer of ofloxacin and is used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections by inhibiting bacterial DNA gyrase, thereby preventing DNA replication and transcription. Levofloxacin is available as tablets, oral solution, and injection for oral and parenteral administration.

Ofloxacin is an antibacterial drug, specifically a fluoroquinolone. It works by inhibiting the bacterial DNA gyrase, which is essential for the bacteria to replicate. This results in the death of the bacteria and helps to stop the infection. Ofloxacin is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and sexually transmitted diseases. It is available in various forms, such as tablets, capsules, and eye drops. As with any medication, it should be used only under the direction of a healthcare professional, and its use may be associated with certain risks and side effects.

Anti-infective agents are a class of medications that are used to treat infections caused by various microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. These agents work by either killing the microorganism or inhibiting its growth, thereby helping to control the infection and alleviate symptoms.

There are several types of anti-infective agents, including:

1. Antibiotics: These are medications that are used to treat bacterial infections. They work by either killing bacteria (bactericidal) or inhibiting their growth (bacteriostatic).
2. Antivirals: These are medications that are used to treat viral infections. They work by interfering with the replication of the virus, preventing it from spreading and causing further damage.
3. Antifungals: These are medications that are used to treat fungal infections. They work by disrupting the cell membrane of the fungus, killing it or inhibiting its growth.
4. Antiparasitics: These are medications that are used to treat parasitic infections. They work by either killing the parasite or inhibiting its growth and reproduction.

It is important to note that anti-infective agents are not effective against all types of infections, and it is essential to use them appropriately to avoid the development of drug-resistant strains of microorganisms.

'Aza compounds' is a general term used in chemistry to describe organic compounds containing a nitrogen atom (denoted by the symbol 'N' or 'aza') that has replaced a carbon atom in a hydrocarbon structure. The term 'aza' comes from the Greek word for nitrogen, 'azote.'

In medicinal chemistry and pharmacology, aza compounds are of particular interest because the presence of the nitrogen atom can significantly affect the chemical and biological properties of the compound. For example, aza compounds may exhibit enhanced bioavailability, metabolic stability, or receptor binding affinity compared to their non-aza counterparts.

Some common examples of aza compounds in medicine include:

1. Aza-aromatic compounds: These are aromatic compounds that contain one or more nitrogen atoms in the ring structure. Examples include pyridine, quinoline, and isoquinoline derivatives, which have been used as anti-malarial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer agents.
2. Aza-heterocyclic compounds: These are non-aromatic compounds that contain one or more nitrogen atoms in a cyclic structure. Examples include azepine, diazepine, and triazole derivatives, which have been used as anxiolytic, anti-viral, and anti-fungal agents.
3. Aza-peptides: These are peptide compounds that contain one or more nitrogen atoms in the backbone structure. Examples include azapeptides and azabicyclopeptides, which have been used as enzyme inhibitors and neuroprotective agents.
4. Aza-sugars: These are sugar derivatives that contain one or more nitrogen atoms in the ring structure. Examples include azasugars and iminosugars, which have been used as glycosidase inhibitors and anti-viral agents.

Overall, aza compounds represent an important class of medicinal agents with diverse chemical structures and biological activities.

Fluoroquinolones are a class of antibiotics that are widely used to treat various types of bacterial infections. They work by interfering with the bacteria's ability to replicate its DNA, which ultimately leads to the death of the bacterial cells. Fluoroquinolones are known for their broad-spectrum activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Some common fluoroquinolones include ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and ofloxacin. These antibiotics are often used to treat respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and gastrointestinal infections, among others.

While fluoroquinolones are generally well-tolerated, they can cause serious side effects in some people, including tendonitis, nerve damage, and changes in mood or behavior. As with all antibiotics, it's important to use fluoroquinolones only when necessary and under the guidance of a healthcare provider.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Ciprofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic that is used to treat various types of bacterial infections, including respiratory, urinary, and skin infections. It works by inhibiting the bacterial DNA gyrase, which is an enzyme necessary for bacterial replication and transcription. This leads to bacterial cell death. Ciprofloxacin is available in oral and injectable forms and is usually prescribed to be taken twice a day. Common side effects include nausea, diarrhea, and headache. It may also cause serious adverse reactions such as tendinitis, tendon rupture, peripheral neuropathy, and central nervous system effects. It is important to note that ciprofloxacin should not be used in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to fluoroquinolones and should be used with caution in patients with a history of seizures, brain injury, or other neurological conditions.

Quinolines are a class of organic compounds that consist of a bicyclic structure made up of a benzene ring fused to a piperidine ring. They have a wide range of applications, but they are perhaps best known for their use in the synthesis of various medications, including antibiotics and antimalarial drugs.

Quinolone antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, work by inhibiting the bacterial enzymes involved in DNA replication and repair. They are commonly used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and skin infections.

Quinoline-based antimalarial drugs, such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, work by inhibiting the parasite's ability to digest hemoglobin in the red blood cells. They are commonly used to prevent and treat malaria.

It is important to note that quinolines have been associated with serious side effects, including tendinitis and tendon rupture, nerve damage, and abnormal heart rhythms. As with any medication, it is important to use quinolines only under the supervision of a healthcare provider, and to follow their instructions carefully.

Quinolones are a class of antibacterial agents that are widely used in medicine to treat various types of infections caused by susceptible bacteria. These synthetic drugs contain a chemical structure related to quinoline and have broad-spectrum activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Quinolones work by inhibiting the bacterial DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV enzymes, which are essential for bacterial DNA replication, transcription, and repair.

The first quinolone antibiotic was nalidixic acid, discovered in 1962. Since then, several generations of quinolones have been developed, with each generation having improved antibacterial activity and a broader spectrum of action compared to the previous one. The various generations of quinolones include:

1. First-generation quinolones (e.g., nalidixic acid): Primarily used for treating urinary tract infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria.
2. Second-generation quinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin): These drugs have improved activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and are used to treat a wider range of infections, including respiratory, gastrointestinal, and skin infections.
3. Third-generation quinolones (e.g., levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, grepafloxacin): These drugs have enhanced activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including some anaerobes and atypical organisms like Legionella and Mycoplasma species.
4. Fourth-generation quinolones (e.g., moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin): These drugs have the broadest spectrum of activity, including enhanced activity against Gram-positive bacteria, anaerobes, and some methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains.

Quinolones are generally well-tolerated, but like all medications, they can have side effects. Common adverse reactions include gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), headache, and dizziness. Serious side effects, such as tendinitis, tendon rupture, peripheral neuropathy, and QT interval prolongation, are less common but can occur, particularly in older patients or those with underlying medical conditions. The use of quinolones should be avoided or used cautiously in these populations.

Quinolone resistance has become an increasing concern due to the widespread use of these antibiotics. Bacteria can develop resistance through various mechanisms, including chromosomal mutations and the acquisition of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes. The overuse and misuse of quinolones contribute to the emergence and spread of resistant strains, which can limit treatment options for severe infections caused by these bacteria. Therefore, it is essential to use quinolones judiciously and only when clinically indicated, to help preserve their effectiveness and prevent further resistance development.

Naphthyridines are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds that contain a naphthyridine core structure, which is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon made up of two benzene rings fused to a tetrahydropyridine ring. They have a variety of pharmacological activities and are used in the development of various therapeutic agents, including antibiotics, antivirals, and anticancer drugs.

In medical terms, naphthyridines do not have a specific clinical definition or application, but they are rather a chemical class that is utilized in the design and synthesis of drugs with potential therapeutic benefits. The unique structure and properties of naphthyridines make them attractive candidates for drug development, particularly in areas where new treatments are needed to overcome drug resistance or improve efficacy.

It's worth noting that while naphthyridines have shown promise in preclinical studies, further research is needed to fully understand their safety and effectiveness in humans before they can be approved as therapeutic agents.

Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as the pneumococcus, is a gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic bacterium frequently found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy individuals. It is a leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia and can also cause other infectious diseases such as otitis media (ear infection), sinusitis, meningitis, and bacteremia (bloodstream infection). The bacteria are encapsulated, and there are over 90 serotypes based on variations in the capsular polysaccharide. Some serotypes are more virulent or invasive than others, and the polysaccharide composition is crucial for vaccine development. S. pneumoniae infection can be treated with antibiotics, but the emergence of drug-resistant strains has become a significant global health concern.

Bacterial drug resistance is a type of antimicrobial resistance that occurs when bacteria evolve the ability to survive and reproduce in the presence of drugs (such as antibiotics) that would normally kill them or inhibit their growth. This can happen due to various mechanisms, including genetic mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes from other bacteria.

As a result, bacterial infections may become more difficult to treat, requiring higher doses of medication, alternative drugs, or longer treatment courses. In some cases, drug-resistant infections can lead to serious health complications, increased healthcare costs, and higher mortality rates.

Examples of bacterial drug resistance include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Preventing the spread of bacterial drug resistance is crucial for maintaining effective treatments for infectious diseases.

DNA gyrase is a type II topoisomerase enzyme that plays a crucial role in the negative supercoiling and relaxation of DNA in bacteria. It functions by introducing transient double-stranded breaks into the DNA helix, allowing the strands to pass through one another and thereby reducing positive supercoils or introducing negative supercoils as required for proper DNA function, replication, and transcription.

DNA gyrase is composed of two subunits, GyrA and GyrB, which form a heterotetrameric structure (AB-BA) in the functional enzyme. The enzyme's activity is targeted by several antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones and novobiocin, making it an essential target for antibacterial drug development.

In summary, DNA gyrase is a bacterial topoisomerase responsible for maintaining the correct supercoiling of DNA during replication and transcription, which can be inhibited by specific antibiotics to combat bacterial infections.

DNA Topoisomerase IV is a type of enzyme that plays a crucial role in the relaxation and manipulation of supercoiled DNA during processes such as replication, transcription, and chromosome segregation. It functions by temporarily cleaving and rejoining the DNA strands to allow for the unlinking and separation of DNA molecules. This enzyme primarily targets double-stranded DNA and is especially important in bacteria, where it helps to resolve the topological challenges that arise during DNA replication and segregation of daughter chromosomes during cell division. Inhibition of DNA Topoisomerase IV has been explored as a strategy for developing antibacterial drugs, as this enzyme is essential for bacterial survival and is not found in humans.

The term "Area Under Curve" (AUC) is commonly used in the medical field, particularly in the analysis of diagnostic tests or pharmacokinetic studies. The AUC refers to the mathematical calculation of the area between a curve and the x-axis in a graph, typically representing a concentration-time profile.

In the context of diagnostic tests, the AUC is used to evaluate the performance of a test by measuring the entire two-dimensional area underneath the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, which plots the true positive rate (sensitivity) against the false positive rate (1-specificity) at various threshold settings. The AUC ranges from 0 to 1, where a higher AUC indicates better test performance:

* An AUC of 0.5 suggests that the test is no better than chance.
* An AUC between 0.7 and 0.8 implies moderate accuracy.
* An AUC between 0.8 and 0.9 indicates high accuracy.
* An AUC greater than 0.9 signifies very high accuracy.

In pharmacokinetic studies, the AUC is used to assess drug exposure over time by calculating the area under a plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-t) or AUC(0-\∞)) following drug administration. This value can help determine dosing regimens and evaluate potential drug interactions:

* AUC(0-t): Represents the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the last measurable concentration (t).
* AUC(0-\∞): Refers to the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity, which estimates total drug exposure.

Azithromycin is a widely used antibiotic drug that belongs to the class of macrolides. It works by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis, which leads to the death of susceptible bacteria. This medication is active against a broad range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, atypical bacteria, and some parasites.

Azithromycin is commonly prescribed to treat various bacterial infections, such as:

1. Respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinusitis
2. Skin and soft tissue infections
3. Sexually transmitted diseases, like chlamydia
4. Otitis media (middle ear infection)
5. Traveler's diarrhea

The drug is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, suspension, and intravenous solutions. The typical dosage for adults ranges from 250 mg to 500 mg per day, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Like other antibiotics, azithromycin should be used judiciously to prevent antibiotic resistance. It is essential to complete the full course of treatment as prescribed by a healthcare professional, even if symptoms improve before finishing the medication.

Bacterial pneumonia is a type of lung infection that's caused by bacteria. It can affect people of any age, but it's more common in older adults, young children, and people with certain health conditions or weakened immune systems. The symptoms of bacterial pneumonia can vary, but they often include cough, chest pain, fever, chills, and difficulty breathing.

The most common type of bacteria that causes pneumonia is Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). Other types of bacteria that can cause pneumonia include Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

Bacterial pneumonia is usually treated with antibiotics, which are medications that kill bacteria. The specific type of antibiotic used will depend on the type of bacteria causing the infection. It's important to take all of the prescribed medication as directed, even if you start feeling better, to ensure that the infection is completely cleared and to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance.

In severe cases of bacterial pneumonia, hospitalization may be necessary for close monitoring and treatment with intravenous antibiotics and other supportive care.

A "colony count" is a method used to estimate the number of viable microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, in a sample. In this technique, a known volume of the sample is spread onto the surface of a solid nutrient medium in a petri dish and then incubated under conditions that allow the microorganisms to grow and form visible colonies. Each colony that grows on the plate represents an individual cell (or small cluster of cells) from the original sample that was able to divide and grow under the given conditions. By counting the number of colonies that form, researchers can make a rough estimate of the concentration of microorganisms in the original sample.

The term "microbial" simply refers to microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Therefore, a "colony count, microbial" is a general term that encompasses the use of colony counting techniques to estimate the number of any type of microorganism in a sample.

Colony counts are used in various fields, including medical research, food safety testing, and environmental monitoring, to assess the levels of contamination or the effectiveness of disinfection procedures. However, it is important to note that colony counts may not always provide an accurate measure of the total number of microorganisms present in a sample, as some cells may be injured or unable to grow under the conditions used for counting. Additionally, some microorganisms may form clusters or chains that can appear as single colonies, leading to an overestimation of the true cell count.

Cefuroxime is a type of antibiotic known as a cephalosporin, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, which is necessary for its survival. Without a functional cell wall, the bacteria are unable to grow and multiply, and are eventually destroyed by the body's immune system.

Cefuroxime is effective against many different types of bacteria, including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. It is often used to treat respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and bone and joint infections.

Like all antibiotics, cefuroxime should be used only under the direction of a healthcare provider, and it is important to take the full course of treatment as prescribed, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished. Misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of drug-resistant bacteria, which are more difficult to treat and can pose a serious threat to public health.

Staphylococcus aureus is a type of gram-positive, round (coccal) bacterium that is commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals and humans. It is a facultative anaerobe, which means it can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen.

Staphylococcus aureus is known to cause a wide range of infections, from mild skin infections such as pimples, impetigo, and furuncles (boils) to more severe and potentially life-threatening infections such as pneumonia, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and sepsis. It can also cause food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome.

The bacterium is often resistant to multiple antibiotics, including methicillin, which has led to the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains that are difficult to treat. Proper hand hygiene and infection control practices are critical in preventing the spread of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA.

Macrolides are a class of antibiotics derived from natural products obtained from various species of Streptomyces bacteria. They have a large ring structure consisting of 12, 14, or 15 atoms, to which one or more sugar molecules are attached. Macrolides inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit, thereby preventing peptide bond formation. Common examples of macrolides include erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin. They are primarily used to treat respiratory, skin, and soft tissue infections caused by susceptible gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Rifampin is an antibiotic medication that belongs to the class of drugs known as rifamycins. It works by inhibiting bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, thereby preventing bacterial growth and multiplication. Rifampin is used to treat a variety of infections caused by bacteria, including tuberculosis, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Legionella pneumophila. It is also used to prevent meningococcal disease in people who have been exposed to the bacteria.

Rifampin is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and injectable solutions. The medication is usually taken two to four times a day, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated. Rifampin may be given alone or in combination with other antibiotics.

It is important to note that rifampin can interact with several other medications, including oral contraceptives, anticoagulants, and anti-seizure drugs, among others. Therefore, it is essential to inform your healthcare provider about all the medications you are taking before starting treatment with rifampin.

Rifampin may cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, headache, and changes in the color of urine, tears, sweat, and saliva to a reddish-orange color. These side effects are usually mild and go away on their own. However, if they persist or become bothersome, it is important to consult your healthcare provider.

In summary, rifampin is an antibiotic medication used to treat various bacterial infections and prevent meningococcal disease. It works by inhibiting bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, preventing bacterial growth and multiplication. Rifampin may interact with several other medications, and it can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, headache, and changes in the color of body fluids.

Microbial drug resistance is a significant medical issue that refers to the ability of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand or survive exposure to drugs or medications designed to kill them or limit their growth. This phenomenon has become a major global health concern, particularly in the context of bacterial infections, where it is also known as antibiotic resistance.

Drug resistance arises due to genetic changes in microorganisms that enable them to modify or bypass the effects of antimicrobial agents. These genetic alterations can be caused by mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer. The resistant microbes then replicate and multiply, forming populations that are increasingly difficult to eradicate with conventional treatments.

The consequences of drug-resistant infections include increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and the potential for widespread outbreaks. Factors contributing to the emergence and spread of microbial drug resistance include the overuse or misuse of antimicrobials, poor infection control practices, and inadequate surveillance systems.

To address this challenge, it is crucial to promote prudent antibiotic use, strengthen infection prevention and control measures, develop new antimicrobial agents, and invest in research to better understand the mechanisms underlying drug resistance.

Combination drug therapy is a treatment approach that involves the use of multiple medications with different mechanisms of action to achieve better therapeutic outcomes. This approach is often used in the management of complex medical conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases. The goal of combination drug therapy is to improve efficacy, reduce the risk of drug resistance, decrease the likelihood of adverse effects, and enhance the overall quality of life for patients.

In combining drugs, healthcare providers aim to target various pathways involved in the disease process, which may help to:

1. Increase the effectiveness of treatment by attacking the disease from multiple angles.
2. Decrease the dosage of individual medications, reducing the risk and severity of side effects.
3. Slow down or prevent the development of drug resistance, a common problem in chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS and cancer.
4. Improve patient compliance by simplifying dosing schedules and reducing pill burden.

Examples of combination drug therapy include:

1. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV treatment, which typically involves three or more drugs from different classes to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
2. Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where multiple cytotoxic agents are used to target various stages of the cell cycle and reduce the likelihood of tumor cells developing resistance.
3. Cardiovascular disease management, which may involve combining medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, and statins to control blood pressure, heart rate, fluid balance, and cholesterol levels.
4. Treatment of tuberculosis, which often involves a combination of several antibiotics to target different aspects of the bacterial life cycle and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

When prescribing combination drug therapy, healthcare providers must carefully consider factors such as potential drug interactions, dosing schedules, adverse effects, and contraindications to ensure safe and effective treatment. Regular monitoring of patients is essential to assess treatment response, manage side effects, and adjust the treatment plan as needed.

Pneumococcal infections are illnesses caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as pneumococcus. This bacterium can infect different parts of the body, including the lungs (pneumonia), blood (bacteremia or sepsis), and the covering of the brain and spinal cord (meningitis). Pneumococcal infections can also cause ear infections and sinus infections. The bacteria spread through close contact with an infected person, who may spread the bacteria by coughing or sneezing. People with weakened immune systems, children under 2 years of age, adults over 65, and those with certain medical conditions are at increased risk for developing pneumococcal infections.

Antitubercular antibiotics are a class of medications specifically used to treat tuberculosis (TB) and other mycobacterial infections. Tuberculosis is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which can affect various organs, primarily the lungs.

There are several antitubercular antibiotics available, with different mechanisms of action that target the unique cell wall structure and metabolism of mycobacteria. Some commonly prescribed antitubercular antibiotics include:

1. Isoniazid (INH): This is a first-line medication for treating TB. It inhibits the synthesis of mycolic acids, a crucial component of the mycobacterial cell wall. Isoniazid can be bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on the concentration and duration of treatment.
2. Rifampin (RIF): Also known as rifampicin, this antibiotic inhibits bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, preventing the transcription of genetic information into mRNA. It is a potent bactericidal agent against mycobacteria and is often used in combination with other antitubercular drugs.
3. Ethambutol (EMB): This antibiotic inhibits the synthesis of arabinogalactan and mycolic acids, both essential components of the mycobacterial cell wall. Ethambutol is primarily bacteriostatic but can be bactericidal at higher concentrations.
4. Pyrazinamide (PZA): This medication is active against dormant or slow-growing mycobacteria, making it an essential component of TB treatment regimens. Its mechanism of action involves the inhibition of fatty acid synthesis and the disruption of bacterial membrane potential.
5. Streptomycin: An aminoglycoside antibiotic that binds to the 30S ribosomal subunit, inhibiting protein synthesis in mycobacteria. It is primarily used as a second-line treatment for drug-resistant TB.
6. Fluoroquinolones: These are a class of antibiotics that inhibit DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, essential enzymes involved in bacterial DNA replication. Examples include ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and levofloxacin, which can be used as second-line treatments for drug-resistant TB.

These antitubercular drugs are often used in combination to prevent the development of drug resistance and improve treatment outcomes. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a standardized regimen consisting of isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide for the initial two months, followed by isoniazid and rifampicin for an additional four to seven months. However, treatment regimens may vary depending on the patient's clinical presentation, drug susceptibility patterns, and local guidelines.

Gram-negative bacterial infections refer to illnesses or diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria, which are a group of bacteria that do not retain crystal violet dye during the Gram staining procedure used in microbiology. This characteristic is due to the structure of their cell walls, which contain a thin layer of peptidoglycan and an outer membrane composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), proteins, and phospholipids.

The LPS component of the outer membrane is responsible for the endotoxic properties of Gram-negative bacteria, which can lead to severe inflammatory responses in the host. Common Gram-negative bacterial pathogens include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Proteus mirabilis, among others.

Gram-negative bacterial infections can cause a wide range of clinical syndromes, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, meningitis, and soft tissue infections. The severity of these infections can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the patient's immune status, the site of infection, and the virulence of the bacterial strain.

Effective antibiotic therapy is crucial for treating Gram-negative bacterial infections, but the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains has become a significant global health concern. Therefore, accurate diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial stewardship are essential to ensure optimal patient outcomes and prevent further spread of resistance.

Ketolides are a class of antibiotics, which are chemically modified versions of macrolide antibiotics. They have an extended spectrum of activity and improved stability against bacterial resistance mechanisms compared to older macrolides. Ketolides inhibit protein synthesis in bacteria by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit.

The main ketolide antibiotics include telithromycin, cethromycin, and solithromycin. They are primarily used for treating respiratory tract infections caused by susceptible strains of bacteria, including drug-resistant pneumococci and atypical pathogens like Legionella pneumophila, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Chlamydia pneumoniae.

It is important to note that ketolides have potential side effects, such as gastrointestinal disturbances, liver enzyme elevations, and cardiac arrhythmias, which should be considered when prescribing them.

In the context of pharmacology, "half-life" refers to the time it takes for the concentration or amount of a drug in the body to be reduced by half during its elimination phase. This is typically influenced by factors such as metabolism and excretion rates of the drug. It's a key factor in determining dosage intervals and therapeutic effectiveness of medications, as well as potential side effects or toxicity risks.

Penicillin resistance is the ability of certain bacteria to withstand the antibacterial effects of penicillin, a type of antibiotic. This occurs when these bacteria have developed mechanisms that prevent penicillin from binding to and inhibiting the function of their cell wall biosynthesis proteins, particularly the enzyme transpeptidase.

One common mechanism of penicillin resistance is the production of beta-lactamases, enzymes that can hydrolyze and inactivate the beta-lactam ring structure present in penicillin and other related antibiotics. Another mechanism involves alterations in the bacterial cell wall that prevent penicillin from binding to its target proteins.

Penicillin resistance is a significant concern in clinical settings, as it can limit treatment options for bacterial infections and may necessitate the use of more potent or toxic antibiotics. It is important to note that misuse or overuse of antibiotics can contribute to the development and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including those resistant to penicillin.

Multiple bacterial drug resistance (MDR) is a medical term that refers to the resistance of multiple strains of bacteria to several antibiotics or antimicrobial agents. This means that these bacteria have developed mechanisms that enable them to survive and multiply despite being exposed to drugs that were previously effective in treating infections caused by them.

MDR is a significant public health concern because it limits the treatment options available for bacterial infections, making them more difficult and expensive to treat. In some cases, MDR bacteria may cause severe or life-threatening infections that are resistant to all available antibiotics, leaving doctors with few or no effective therapeutic options.

MDR can arise due to various mechanisms, including the production of enzymes that inactivate antibiotics, changes in bacterial cell membrane permeability that prevent antibiotics from entering the bacteria, and the development of efflux pumps that expel antibiotics out of the bacteria. The misuse or overuse of antibiotics is a significant contributor to the emergence and spread of MDR bacteria.

Preventing and controlling the spread of MDR bacteria requires a multifaceted approach, including the judicious use of antibiotics, infection control measures, surveillance, and research into new antimicrobial agents.

The Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination is an antibiotic medication used to treat various infections caused by bacteria. This combination therapy combines the antibiotic amoxicillin with potassium clavulanate, which is a beta-lactamase inhibitor. The addition of potassium clavulanate helps protect amoxicillin from being broken down by certain types of bacteria that produce beta-lactamases, thus increasing the effectiveness of the antibiotic against a broader range of bacterial infections.

Amoxicillin is a type of penicillin antibiotic that works by inhibiting the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall, ultimately leading to bacterial death. However, some bacteria have developed enzymes called beta-lactamases, which can break down and inactivate certain antibiotics like amoxicillin. Potassium clavulanate is added to the combination to inhibit these beta-lactamase enzymes, allowing amoxicillin to maintain its effectiveness against a wider range of bacteria.

This combination medication is used to treat various infections, including skin and soft tissue infections, respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and dental infections. It's essential to follow the prescribed dosage and duration as directed by a healthcare professional to ensure effective treatment and prevent antibiotic resistance.

Common brand names for this combination include Augmentin and Amoxiclav.

Community-acquired infections are those that are acquired outside of a healthcare setting, such as in one's own home or community. These infections are typically contracted through close contact with an infected person, contaminated food or water, or animals. Examples of community-acquired infections include the common cold, flu, strep throat, and many types of viral and bacterial gastrointestinal infections.

These infections are different from healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), which are infections that patients acquire while they are receiving treatment for another condition in a healthcare setting, such as a hospital or long-term care facility. HAIs can be caused by a variety of factors, including contact with contaminated surfaces or equipment, invasive medical procedures, and the use of certain medications.

It is important to note that community-acquired infections can also occur in healthcare settings if proper infection control measures are not in place. Healthcare providers must take steps to prevent the spread of these infections, such as washing their hands regularly, using personal protective equipment (PPE), and implementing isolation precautions for patients with known or suspected infectious diseases.

Gram-negative bacteria are a type of bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining method, a standard technique used in microbiology to classify and identify different types of bacteria based on their structural differences. This method was developed by Hans Christian Gram in 1884.

The primary characteristic distinguishing Gram-negative bacteria from Gram-positive bacteria is the composition and structure of their cell walls:

1. Cell wall: Gram-negative bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan layer, making it more susceptible to damage and less rigid compared to Gram-positive bacteria.
2. Outer membrane: They possess an additional outer membrane that contains lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are endotoxins that can trigger strong immune responses in humans and animals. The outer membrane also contains proteins, known as porins, which form channels for the passage of molecules into and out of the cell.
3. Periplasm: Between the inner and outer membranes lies a compartment called the periplasm, where various enzymes and other molecules are located.

Some examples of Gram-negative bacteria include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., and Neisseria meningitidis. These bacteria are often associated with various infections, such as urinary tract infections, pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. Due to their complex cell wall structure, Gram-negative bacteria can be more resistant to certain antibiotics, making them a significant concern in healthcare settings.

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|p style=text-align: justify;|Levaquin is used for:|br /|Treating infections caused by certain bacteria. It may also be used to prevent or slow anthrax after exposure. Levaquin is a quinolone antibiotic. It works by killing sensitive bacteria.|br /|Do NOT use Levaquin if:|br /|• you are allergic to any ingredient in Levaquin or to any other quinolone antibiotic (eg, ciprofloxacin)|br /|• you have a certain type of irregular heartbeat (QT prolongation, long QT syndrome) or low blood potassium levels|br /|• you are taking cisapride or certain antiarrhythmics (eg, amiodarone, procainamide, quinidine, sotalol)|br /|Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.|br /|Before using Levaquin:|br /|Some medical conditions may interact with Levaquin . Tell your health care provider if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:|br /|• if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding|br /|•
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Generic Levaquin (Levofloxacin). Levaquin is antibiotic to treat severe or life-threatening bronchitis, pneumonia, chlamydia, ...
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Timed kill kinetic studies of levofloxacin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin against Moraxella catarrhalis.. Timed kill kinetic ... studies of levofloxacin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin against Moraxella catarrhalis. by Barrett MS and Jones RN published in ...
INT was updated with a new value for Levofloxacin: from --- to R ... MIC was updated with a new value for Levofloxacin: from --- to >8 ... MIC was updated with a new value for Levofloxacin: from --- to >8 ... MIC was updated with a new value for Levofloxacin: from --- to >8 ...
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G-CSF: granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; MEPM: meropenem; AMPC: amoxicillin; CVA: clavulanate; LVFX: levofloxacin; and BT ...
  • Levofloxacin, sold under the brand name Levaquin among others, is an antibiotic medication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FDA has approved some generic version of Johnson & Johnson's Levaquin (levofloxacin), an antibiotic used to treat mild, moderate and severe bacterial infections for adult patients. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Levofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones have also been widely used for the treatment of uncomplicated community-acquired respiratory and urinary tract infections, indications for which major medical societies generally recommend the use of older, narrower spectrum drugs to avoid fluoroquinolone resistance development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levofloxacin is a fluoroquinolones. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The good news is that fluoroquinolones (the class of drugs levofloxacin belongs to) do not stay in your system too long after the very last dose - Levaquin's half-life is 8 hours. (happy-pills.net)
  • ABSTRACT Susceptibility of 88 clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates, 116 Haemophilus influenzae isolates and 80 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates to 6 fluoroquinolones--ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, trovafloxacin, grepafloxacin and gemifloxacin--were determined. (who.int)
  • In analyzes of ofloxacin in water both ofloxacin and levofloxacin are measured. (janusinfo.se)
  • susceptibility to ofloxacin and levofloxacin was 97.7% and 98.9% respectively. (who.int)
  • Taking levofloxacin may worsen muscle weakness in people with myasthenia gravis (a disorder of the nervous system that causes muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Levofloxacin may also worsen muscle weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Levofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic of the fluoroquinolone drug class. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levofloxacin is also used as antibiotic eye drops to prevent bacterial infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usage of levofloxacin eye drops, along with an antibiotic injection of cefuroxime or penicillin during cataract surgery, has been found to lower the chance of developing endophthalmitis, compared to eye drops or injections alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levofloxacin is an oral antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections such as pneumonia, bronchitis, sinus, skin infections, prostate infections, and kidney infections. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • Levofloxacin 500mg is an oral antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections such as pneumonia, bronchitis, sinus, skin infections, prostate infections, and kidney infections. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • The MICs of levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, and gemifloxacin of the levofloxacin-resistant isolates identified by broth microdilution were further determined by Etest (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France). (cdc.gov)
  • Timed kill kinetic studies of levofloxacin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin against Moraxella catarrhalis. (jmilabs.com)
  • Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the manufacturer's patient information sheet (Medication Guide) when you begin treatment with levofloxacin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If your physician has instructed or directed you to take Levofloxacin medication in a regular schedule and you have missed a dose of this medicine, take it as soon as you remember. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • Before you take a medication for a particular ailment, you should inform the health expert about intake of any other medications including non-prescription medications, over-the-counter medicines that may increase the effect of Levofloxacin, and dietary supplements like vitamins, minerals and herbal, so that the doctor can warn you of any possible drug interactions. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • Levofloxacin can interact with blood thinners, diabetes medication, and oral steroid medication. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • Levofloxacin is an antibacterial medication used for treating infections causing pneumonia and bronchitis. (happy-pills.net)
  • If you see someone medication a veterinarian can, levofloxacin to harm others into. (levofquin.top)
  • If you have myasthenia gravis and your doctor tells you that you should take levofloxacin, call your doctor immediately if you experience muscle weakness or difficulty breathing during your treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Clinical and molecular investigations of 182 levofloxacin-resistant isolates revealed that the increase was mainly the result of the spread of several clones in the elderly population in different regions. (cdc.gov)
  • Levofloxacin-resistant H. influenzae isolates were not detected in the TSAR collection before 2002 but emerged in 2004, and prevalence increased rapidly. (cdc.gov)
  • Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed on levofloxacin-resistant isolates following published protocols ( 12 , 13 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In 2004, levofloxacin-resistant isolates were detected in 6 hospitals (2 in the south and 4 in the central region), but by 2010, isolates were detected in 19 hospitals in all 4 regions of Taiwan. (cdc.gov)
  • 32 μg/mL for the 182 levofloxacin-resistant isolates detected by broth microdilution. (cdc.gov)
  • Levofloxacin is used for the treatment of pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and abdominal infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levofloxacin is used to treat certain infections such as pneumonia, and kidney, prostate (a male reproductive gland), and skin infections. (medlineplus.gov)
  • LEVOFLO-750 contains the molecule of Levofloxacin tablet which is used to treat a variety of infections that happened due to bacteria such as Pneumonia, sinus infection, worsening of chronic bronchitis, skin infections, chronic prostate infection, urinary tract infections, pyelonephritis (kidney infection), inhalational anthrax, and plague. (texasusa.in)
  • Note: use of levofloxacin for these indications should be avoided due to FDA warnings (black box warnings) regarding serious side effects and potentially permanent (tendinitis and tendon rupture, peripheral neuropathy and CNS side effects). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • What is the recommended dosage of Levofloxacin? (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • The dosage of Levofloxacin prescribed to each patient will vary. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • Jiang Fan came to the small ball Total Pure Cbd Gummies 300mg Reviews that was cbd oil dosage for women still emitting a can u take cbd gummies with levofloxacin faint red mist. (koranbumn.com)
  • No known factors levofloxacin sinus infection dosage in the psychological environment of a child have been shown to cause autism. (swimmingtechnology.com)
  • It could be something else you're taking, or some other levofloxacin dosage for ear infection illness. (swimmingtechnology.com)
  • This can occur after the first dose of levofloxacin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What if you miss a dose of Levofloxacin? (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • Levofloxacin tablets are prescribed to be used in the dose and duration as advised by the doctor. (texasusa.in)
  • Special care should be taken in people with kidney problems while taking this Levofloxacin tablet as they cause some serious organ damage if taken in the wrong dose. (texasusa.in)
  • As of 2007 the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) and the American Thoracic Society recommended levofloxacin and other respiratory fluoroquinolines as first line treatment for community acquired pneumonia when co-morbidities such as heart, lung, or liver disease are present or when in-patient treatment is required. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levofloxacin also plays an important role in recommended treatment regimens for ventilator-associated and healthcare-associated pneumonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taking levofloxacin increases the risk that you will develop tendinitis (swelling of a fibrous tissue that connects a bone to a muscle) or have a tendon rupture (tearing of a fibrous tissue that connects a bone to a muscle) during your treatment or for up to several months afterward. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Data are lacking on the prevailing pneumococcal axone and levofloxacin was done fol owing the method serotypes in the Philippines, including their resistance to described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Insti- specific antimicrobials. (who.int)
  • We conducted a study to delineate the clinical and molecular characteristics of emerging levofloxacin-resistant H. influenzae in Taiwan. (cdc.gov)
  • If you suspect an overdose of Levofloxacin, seek medical attention immediately. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • of family history of mental health problems, any diagnoses you have rescieved or suspect (why levofloxacin 750 mg for strep throat do you. (swimmingtechnology.com)
  • In injection, levofloxacin you have got driving, you should ask your veterinarian to. (levofquin.top)
  • Taking levofloxacin may affect your brain or nervous system and cause serious side effects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If they do occur, the side effects of Levofloxacin are most likely to be minor and temporary. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • It is pertinent to note that side effects of Levofloxacin cannot be anticipated. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • If any side effects of Levofloxacin develop or change in intensity, the doctor should be informed as soon as possible. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • The mild side effect of Levofloxacin tablets also includes headache, dizziness, nausea, and constipation. (texasusa.in)
  • This damage may occur soon after you begin taking levofloxacin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Levofloxacin is also used to prevent anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on purpose as part of a bioterror attack) in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air, and treat and prevent plague (a serious infection that may be spread on purpose as part of a bioterror attack. (medlineplus.gov)
  • AST for penicillin, erythromycin, co-trimoxazole, ceftriaxone and levofloxacin was done following the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute recommendations. (who.int)
  • The American Urological Association recommends levofloxacin as a first-line treatment to prevent bacterial prostatitis when the prostate is biopsied. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you experience any of the following symptoms of tendon rupture, stop taking levofloxacin and get emergency medical treatment: hearing or feeling a snap or pop in a tendon area, bruising after an injury to a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When people who suffer from OCD are able to allow themselves to participate in behavioral treatment, it is usually highly effective: para q sirve levofloxacin 500 mg. (swimmingtechnology.com)
  • Levofloxacin was patented in 1985 and approved for medical use in the United States in 1996. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sites levofloxacin as factors and high environmental. (levofquin.top)
  • Red panax ginseng extract ginseng research (levofloxacin 500 mg aurobindo) testosterone diet pfizer viagra men s health testosterone level genaric viagra purchase viagra online otc viagra panax ginseng extractum. (swimmingtechnology.com)
  • The company's primary goal is to deliver high-quality, best-priced products to its customers, we have made a good reputation in the market as the top suppliers and manufacturer of Levofloxacin tablets and other quality products at affordable rates. (texasusa.in)
  • Second-line treatments include levofloxacin-containing triple therapy and bismuth quadruple therapy. (nih.gov)
  • Talk to your doctor about the risks of taking levofloxacin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Do concur with your doctor and follow his directions completely when you are taking Levofloxacin. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • We have very well designed infrastructure for Third Party Manufacturing facilities of all kinds of pharmaceutical products, we also offer PCD Pharma Franchise for Levofloxacin tablets in all parts of the nation. (texasusa.in)