25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).25-Hydroxyvitamin D 2: 9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.Calcifediol: The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Vitamin D Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)Cholecalciferol: Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.Hydroxycholecalciferols: Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.Ergocalciferols: Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.Dihydroxycholecalciferols: Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D 3: A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhances the calcemic effect of CALCITRIOL.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.Vitamin D-Binding Protein: An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.Rickets: Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.Sunlight: Irradiation directly from the sun.Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Receptors, Calcitriol: Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Osteomalacia: Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Skin Pigmentation: Coloration of the skin.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Bone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Cholestenes: Steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched 8-carbon chain at C-17. Members include compounds with any degree of unsaturation; however, CHOLESTADIENES is available for derivatives containing two double bonds.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Hypoparathyroidism: A condition caused by a deficiency of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH). It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA and hyperphosphatemia. Hypocalcemia leads to TETANY. The acquired form is due to removal or injuries to the PARATHYROID GLANDS. The congenital form is due to mutations of genes, such as TBX1; (see DIGEORGE SYNDROME); CASR encoding CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTOR; or PTH encoding parathyroid hormone.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Dehydrocholesterols: Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.BostonHypercalcemia: Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 18.104.22.168.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Adrenodoxin: An iron-sulfur protein which serves as an electron carrier in enzymatic steroid hydroxylation reactions in adrenal cortex mitochondria. The electron transport system which catalyzes this reaction consists of adrenodoxin reductase, NADP, adrenodoxin, and cytochrome P-450.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.NebraskaUnited StatesDouble-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary: Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hyperparathyroidism: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Hypocalcemia: Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Mongolia: The country is bordered by RUSSIA on the north and CHINA on the west, south, and east. The capita is Ulaanbaatar.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Hyperparathyroidism, Primary: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE due to parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. It is characterized by the combination of HYPERCALCEMIA, phosphaturia, elevated renal 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis, and increased BONE RESORPTION.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Hip Fractures: Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).Parathyroid Glands: Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.Bone Diseases, MetabolicBone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 22.214.171.124 was formerly listed as EC 126.96.36.199 and EC 188.8.131.52.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Fat Substitutes: Compounds used in food or in food preparation to replace dietary fats. They may be carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based. Fat substitutes are usually lower in calories but provide the same texture as fats.Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-2: An LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEIN found in the neuroepithelium and in proximal tubular cells of the kidney. It is considered a multiligand receptor in that it binds to a variety of ligands with relatively high affinity and may function in mediating the uptake and lysosomal degradation of macromolecules such as: LIPOPROTEINS; ENDOPEPTIDASES; and PROTEASE INHIBITORS.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Renal Insufficiency, Chronic: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.FinlandHypophosphatemia, Familial: An inherited condition of abnormally low serum levels of PHOSPHATES (below 1 mg/liter) which can occur in a number of genetic diseases with defective reabsorption of inorganic phosphorus by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This leads to phosphaturia, HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA, and disturbances of cellular and organ functions such as those in X-LINKED HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS; OSTEOMALACIA; and FANCONI SYNDROME.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Vitamin K: A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Surgery Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers all departmental functions and the provision of surgical diagnostic and therapeutic services.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Calcitonin: A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Frail Elderly: Older adults or aged individuals who are lacking in general strength and are unusually susceptible to disease or to other infirmity.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Pregnancy, Twin: The condition of carrying TWINS simultaneously.Femur Neck: The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Clothing: Fabric or other material used to cover the body.Sunscreening Agents: Chemical or physical agents that protect the skin from sunburn and erythema by absorbing or blocking ultraviolet radiation.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Republic of Korea: The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal: Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Pacific Islands: The islands of the Pacific Ocean divided into MICRONESIA; MELANESIA; and POLYNESIA (including NEW ZEALAND). The collective name Oceania includes the aforenamed islands, adding AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND; and the Malay Archipelago (INDONESIA). (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p910, 880)Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.GeorgiaSwine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).NorwayFerredoxins: Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Malabsorption Syndromes: General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Meta-Analysis as Topic: A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Receptors, Steroid: Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.Vitamin K 1: A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).MassachusettsGenotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.PennsylvaniaChina: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Phagocytes: Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.TritiumBody Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Picornaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the PICORNAVIRIDAE.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
In the winter they receive high levels of UV radiation as reflection from the snow, and their relatively darker skin protects ... The strongly red appearance of lightly pigmented skin as a response to high UV radiation levels is caused by the increased ... Melanin is produced in specialized cells called melanocytes, which are found in the lowest level of the epidermis. Melanin is ... The distribution of indigenous light-skinned populations is highly correlated with the low ultraviolet radiation levels of the ...
Vitamin D-binding protein
121 (1-2): 471-7. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2010.03.073. PMID 20363324. Powe CE, Evans MK, Wenger J, Zonderman AB, Berg AH, Nalls M, ... 1 (2): 65-72. PMC 2510818 . PMID 18633461. Malik S, Fu L, Juras DJ, Karmali M, Wong BY, Gozdzik A, Cole DE (January-February ... 9 (2): 131-6. doi:10.1038/nsb754. PMID 11799400. Norman AW (August 2008). "From vitamin D to hormone D: fundamentals of the ... 88 (2): 491S-499S. PMID 18689389. Yamamoto N, Suyama H, Yamamoto N (July 2008). "Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer with Gc ...
Cannell, noticing discrepancies between his young patients' performance in school and their grade level, formed the nonprofit ... Grant, W.; Cannell, J. (2010). "Pregnant women are at increased risk for severe a influenza because they have low serum 25- ... hydroxyvitamin D levels". Critical Care Medicine. 38 (9): 1921; author reply 1921-2. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181e28603. PMID ... 29 (2): 138-147. PMID 11471779. http://www.vitamindcouncil.org/about-us/the-team-and-board/john-j-cannell-md-biography/ One ...
Bradford Hill criteria
2 (1): 11. doi:10.1186/1742-7622-2-11. PMC 1291382 . PMID 16269083. Howick J, Glasziou P, Aronson JK (2009). "The evolution of ... 6 (1): 2. doi:10.1186/1742-5573-6-2. PMC 2706236 . PMID 19534788. Archived from the original on 2012-09-08. Ward, AC (2009). " ... 4 (2): 152-57. doi:10.4161/derm.20449. PMC 3427194 . PMID 22928071. Aghajafari F, Nagulesapillai T, Ronksley PE, Tough SC, ... doi:10.1007/s11019-009-9182-2. PMID 19219564. Grant WB (2009). "How strong is the evidence that solar ultraviolet B and vitamin ...
D levels as ng/mL. Other countries often use nmol/L. Multiply ng/mL by 2.5 to convert to nmol/L. Increasing calcifediol levels ... A broad reference range of 20-150 nmol/L (8-60 ng/mL) has also been suggested, while other studies have defined levels below 80 ... A 2012 registry study of the population of Copenhagen, Denmark, found a correlation between both low and high serum levels and ... finding that those with the highest levels of calcifediol had a risk of colon cancer that was one-fifth of typical rates. ...
Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder
In addition, there is evidence at the tissue level of a downregulation of vitamin D receptor and of resistance to the actions ... and changes in circulating levels of hormones. These include parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) vitamin D; ... The conversion of 25(OH) vitamin D to 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D is impaired, reducing intestinal calcium absorption and increasing ... 34 (6): 612-25. doi:10.1016/j.semnephrol.2014.09.004. PMID 25498380. Bover J, Evenepoel P, Ureña-Torres P, Vervloet MG, ...
Research into centenarians
Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in familial longevity: the Leiden Longevity Study CMAJ November 5, 2012 First published November ... Research carried out in Italy suggests that healthy centenarians have high levels of vitamin A and vitamin E and that this ... Some research suggests that high levels of vitamin D may be associated with longevity. Other research has found that people ... serum levels of vitamin E. Researchers in Denmark have also found that centenarians exhibit a high activity of glutathione ...
Over a latitudinal gradient: Possible correlation with UV levels". Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology. 62 (1 ... A meta-analysis concluded that evidence usually favors cholecalciferol in raising levels in blood, although it stated more ... It is recommended that people on high doses have their blood calcium levels regularly checked. Normal doses are safe in ... 28 (2): 225-234. doi:10.1592/phco.28.2.225. PMID 18225968.. *^ Tripkovic, L; Lambert, H; Hart, K; Smith, CP; Bucca, G; Penson, ...
Talk:Vitamin D/Archive 5
D level, with levels 80 nmol/L or higher associated with a 72% risk reduction (95% confidence interval = 32% to 89%) compared ... Amling concluded that an ideal level for the general population would be 75 nmol/L because everyone above that level had strong ... Dissenting opinions on vitamin D levels' subsection that proponents of higher recomendations for vitamin D levels include " ... Another criticism levelled at the report has to do with the IOM's warning that too much vitamin D could cause harm. In the only ...
... the consensus is that supplementing levels is not beneficial. It is thought that tuberculosis may result in lower levels.[ ... over a latitudinal gradient: possible correlation with UV levels". Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology. 62 ( ... This is important for maintaining calcium levels and promoting bone health and development. As a medication, cholecalciferol ... Levels in blood are higher in frequent uses of tanning salons. ...
It is recommended that people on high doses have their blood calcium levels regularly checked. Normal doses are safe in ... A meta-analysis concluded that evidence usually favors cholecalciferol in raising levels in blood, although it stated more ... Over a latitudinal gradient: Possible correlation with UV levels". Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology. 62 (1 ... Vitamin D levels correlate positively with UV irridation. Fungus, from USDA nutrient database (per 100g) Mushrooms, portobello ...
維生素D缺乏症 - 維基百科，自由的百科
25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase
121 (1-2): 80-3. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2010.03.056. PMID 20304056. Liu CY, Wu MC, Chen F, Ter-Minassian M, Asomaning K, Zhai R, ... 25 (6): 947-70. doi:10.1210/er.2003-0030. PMID 15583024. Maver A, Medica I, Salobir B, Tercelj M, Peterlin B (2010). "Lack of ... 239 (2): 527-33. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.7508. PMID 9344864. Sigmundsdottir H, Pan J, Debes GF, Alt C, Habtezion A, Soler D, ... 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase (VD3 1A hydroxylase) also known as cytochrome p450 27B1 (CYP27B1) or simply 1-alpha- ...
Vitamin D toxicity
Suggested tolerable upper intake level. Based on risk assessment, a safe upper intake level of 250 µg (10,000 IU) per day ... Ogawa T, Ishida H, Akamatsu M, Matsuda N, Fujiu A, Ito K, Ando Y, Nitta K (January 2010). "Relation of oral 1alpha-hydroxy vitamin ... D levels that was significantly higher than official recommendations. These levels were described to be 75 nmol/L as " ... D levels to the levels typically found in Europeans. ...
Vitamin D and respiratory tract infections
A study published in the Archives of Internal Medicine found that people with the lowest blood vitamin D levels reported having ... to ensure healthy levels of vitamin D. Evidence both for and against an association of vitamin D and respiratory infections has ... Ginde AA, Mansbach JM, Camargo CA (February 2009). "Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and upper respiratory ... day for adults and 1,000 IU/day for every 25 pounds of body weight in children) and suggested that larger doses (2,000 IU/kg/ ...
over a latitudinal gradient: possible correlation with UV levels". J Photochem Photobiol B. Department of Plant physiology, ... This is important for maintaining calcium levels and promoting bone health and development. As a medication, cholecalciferol ... Levels in blood are higher in frequent uses of tanning salons. ... Individuals without regular sun exposure, the obese, and darker skinned individuals all have lower blood levels and require ...
Majör depresif bozukluk - Vikipedi
Habits of a Happy Brain: Retrain Your Brain to Boost Your Serotonin, Dopamine, Oxytocin, & Endorphin Levels (İngilizce) ... Ruhe, HG; Mason, NS; Schene, AH (2007). "Mood is indirectly related to serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine levels in humans ... PMC 4561509 $2. PMID 26063472.. *^ a b c Kessler, RC; Bromet, EJ (2013). "The epidemiology of depression across cultures". ... PMC 4561509 $2. PMID 26063472.. *^ a b Hersen, Michel; Rosqvist, Johan (2008). Handbook of Psychological Assessment, Case ...
When stratospheric ozone levels decrease, higher levels of UVB reach the Earth's surface. UV-driven phenolic formation ... Ozone levels stabilized by the mid-1990s and began to recover in the 2000s, as the shifting of the jet stream in the southern ... If the high levels of depletion seen in the ozone hole were to be common across the globe, the effects could be substantially ... Ground-level ozone is generally recognized to be a health risk, as ozone is toxic due to its strong oxidant properties. The ...
8 (2): e1000316. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000316. PMC 2826374 . PMID 20186267. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ... Flu vaccine works by boosting the body's immune system and takes about 2 weeks to become effective. People with cancer usually ... Ronald Bailey October 19, 2005 Lawrence K. Altman (January 15, 2006). "This Season's Flu Virus Is Resistant to 2 Standard Drugs ... Adit, G; Mansbach J; Camargo C (2009). "Association Between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level and Upper Respiratory Tract ...
... has a weaker impact on calcium metabolism and parathyroid hormone levels than calcitriol, however alfacalcidol has ... 6 (2): 169-173. 2009. PMC 2781231 . PMID 22461169. "Oral calcitriol versus oral alfacalcidol for the treatment of secondary ... "Biological effects of various regimes of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (calcidiol) administration on bone mineral metabolism in ... 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Alfacalcidol is an active vitamin D3 metabolite, and therefore does not require the second ...
High renin levels predispose to hypertension by causing sodium retention through the following mechanism: Increased renin → ... Resistant hypertension is defined as the failure to reduce blood pressure to the appropriate level after taking a three-drug ... This is one possible mechanism of explaining the observed link between hypertension and vitamin D levels in the blood plasma. ... Its main purpose is to regulate the levels of glucose in the body antagonistically with glucagon through negative feedback ...
Plant stanol ester
After correcting for cholesterol levels, only the reduction in the β-carotene level remained. It is important, however, that ... The relatively low natural levels of stanols in the diet are too low to have a significant effect on serum cholesterol levels.[ ... Plasma levels of fat-soluble vitamins and other vegetable-derived compounds have been studied following plant sterol ingestion ... However, no reduction in beta-carotene level was seen when plant sterols or plant stanols were consumed as part of a healthy ...
... gene is associated with susceptibility to type 1 diabetes and vitamin D levels in Germans". Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev. 23 (8): ... Vitamin D 25-hydroxylase also known as cytochrome P450 2R1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2R1 gene. Vitamin D ... of a proline for a leucine residue at codon 99 eliminates the enzyme activity and is associated with low circulating levels of ... The gene product which it encodes, vitamin D 25-hydroxylase, has therefore been proposed as the key enzyme in the conversion of ...
Hypocalcemia, a low level of calcium in the blood can result in tetany - uncontrolled muscle spasms. Dental problems can also ... Sufficient vitamin D levels can also be achieved through dietary supplementation and/or exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D3 ( ... These percentages should be regarded as relative vitamin D levels, and not as predicting evidence for development of rickets. ... Vitamin D ensures that serum phosphate and calcium levels are sufficient to facilitate the mineralization of bone. Congenital ...
Vitamin D deficiency
... while in the same year The Endocrine Society defined sufficient serum levels at 30 ng/ml and others have set the level as high ... Levels of 25(OH)D that are consistently above 200 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) (or 500 nanomoles per liter, nmol/L) are ... Vitamin D deficiency, or hypovitaminosis D is defined as a vitamin D level that is below normal. It most commonly occurs in ... To maintain blood levels of calcium, therapeutic vitamin D doses are sometimes administered (up to 100,000 IU or 2.5 mg daily) ...
Low levels of vitamin D are associated with two major forms of human Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): Crohn's disease and ... 135 (2): 310-6. doi:10.1093/jn/135.2.310. PMID 15671233.. *^ a b c d e f Norman AW (August 2008). "From vitamin D to hormone D ... 3 (1-2): 73-7. doi:10.1023/A:1015263514765. PMID 12014847.. *^ a b c d e f Holick MF (July 2007). "Vitamin D deficiency". The ... Pregnancy -- Low levels of vitamin D in pregnancy are associated with gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, and small (for ...
Sufficient vitamin D levels can also be achieved through dietary supplementation and/or exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D3 ( ... Serum calcium may show low levels of calcium, serum phosphorus may be low, and serum alkaline phosphatase may be high from ... 37 (2): 84-98. doi:10.1080/20469047.2016.1248170. PMID 27922335.. *^ a b c d e "Rickets - OrthoInfo - AAOS". September 2010. ... Hypocalcemia, a low level of calcium in the blood can result in tetany - uncontrolled muscle spasms. Dental problems can also ...
Kasutaja:Mariina/Kaltsiferoolid - Vikipeedia
Vitameer D2[muuda , muuda lähteteksti]. Pikemalt artiklis Ergokaltsiferool. Vitameer D3[muuda , muuda lähteteksti]. Pikemalt ... ingl k ,A. W. Knapp, K. H. Coward, The Vitamin D activity of Cacao Shell, Biochemical Journal, 1935, ... "Physiologia Plantarum 74 (2): 391-396. Cite uses deprecated parameters (juhend) *↑ Balch, Phyllis and Balch, James. ... 1α, 25(OH) 2D3 rakutuuma retseptoreid leidub loomadel (sh inimesel) paljudes kudedes nagu näiteks: nahk, silmad, aju, kilpnääre ...
Blood 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Levels and Incident Type 2 Diabetes | Diabetes Care
Adiposity in relation to vitamin D status and parathyroid hormone levels: a population-based study in older men and women. J ... Vitamin D insufficiency has been previously reported to range from levels of 40-75 nmol/L (16-30 ng/mL), and vitamin D ... The IOM report called for additional research to clarify the relation of vitamin D levels with nonskeletal outcomes (1,22). ... Assessment of possible threshold levels of 25(OH)D will greatly advance our understanding of the magnitude and shape of the ...
Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Adolescents: Race, Season, Adiposity, Physical Activity, and Fitness | Articles | Pediatrics
It has been proposed that the minimal optimal circulating vitamin D level should be increased from 25 to 50 nmol/L,19,20 ... Low levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D are associated with elevated parathyroid hormone in healthy adolescent females. Osteoporos ... Plasma levels of parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, calcitonin, and calcium in association with endurance exercise. Calcif Tissue ... All statistical tests used a significance level of 5% and were 2-tailed. Statistical analyses were performed by using SAS 9.1 ( ...
25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels and the risk of stroke: a prospective study and meta-analysis. - PubMed - NCBI
D levels were associated with increased risk of developing stroke outcomes in comparison to high levels: the pooled relative ... Dose-response relationship between blood levels of 25(OH)D and risk of stroke. The solid line represents point estimates of the ... These data provide evidence that low vitamin D levels are modestly associated with risk of stroke. Maintaining adequate vitamin ... D levels with low 25(OH)D levels. A, total stroke; B, ischemic stroke. Bars indicate 95% CIs and P values are P for ...
The effect of cholecystectomy on 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women | SpringerLink
Little is known on the potentially deleterious effect of cholecystectomy on vitamin D levels and... ... Little is known on the potentially deleterious effect of cholecystectomy on vitamin D levels and osteoporosis. We found that 25 ... hydroxyvitamin D levels and bone mineral density were lower in patients with prior cholecystectomy. ... Serum vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus levels were determined. Bone mineral density (BMD) was determined using dual-energy X- ...
Reduced Prediagnostic 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Women with Breast Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study | Cancer Epidemiology...
Cases had lower plasma 25OHD levels than controls. Compared with the lowest tertile of 25OHD levels, risk of breast cancer was ... As plasma 25OHD levels are the combined result of multiple indices known to influence vitamin D status, plasma levels of 25OHD ... are at a steady level for a longer time period. Studies are needed on whether a single measurement of a plasma 25OHD level is a ... a major assumption for a causal inverse relationship between 25OHD levels and risk of breast cancer is that 25OHD levels, in ...
Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels indicative of vitamin D sufficiency: implications for establishing a new effective...
D levels at or above this level, especially in pregnancy and lactation. ... Using these functional indicators, several studies have more accurately defined vitamin D deficiency as circulating levels of ... D levels based on a Gaussian distribution of these values is now considered to be a grossly inaccurate method of identifying ... D levels through the use of specific biomarkers that appropriately increase or decrease with changes in 25(OH)D levels; these ...
Directly measured free 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels show no evidence of vitamin D deficiency in young Swedish women with...
Fat mass is known to be inversely associated with vitamin D levels measured as serum levels of total, protein-bound 25- ... hydroxyvitamin D, but the importance of directly measured, free levels of 25(OH)D has not been determined in AN. The aim of ... Instead, we observed a trend toward higher vitamin D levels in AN subjects compared to controls. Measurement of free vitamin D ... Carlsson M, Nilsson I, Brudin L, Von SP, Wanby P (2017) Erythrocyte fatty acid composition does not influence levels of free, ...
No association of vitamin D intake or 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in childhood with risk of islet autoimmunity and type 1...
D levels throughout childhood were associated with the risk of IA or progression to type 1 diabetes in our population. ... D level was not associated with the risk of IA (adjusted HR 1.12; 95% CI 0.88, 1.43; p = 0.36), nor progression to diabetes in ... D levels throughout childhood were associated with the risk of IA or progression to type 1 diabetes in our population. ... DOI: 10.1007/s00125-011-2278-2 Abstract Aims/hypothesis: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between ...
25-hydroxyvitamin d | Natural Health 365
Genetic Prediction of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Calcium, and Parathyroid Hormone Levels in Relation to Development of Type 2...
For 1 SD increment of S-25OHD levels, the odds ratio (OR) of T2DM was 0.94 (95% CI 0.88-0.99; P = 0.029) in an analysis based ... Modest lifelong higher S-25OHD levels were associated with reduced odds of T2DM, but the association was only robust for SNPs ... Genetically predicted S-25OHD but not S-Ca and S-PTH levels were associated with T2DM in the primary analyses. ... Seven, six, and five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with S-25OHD, S-Ca, and S-PTH levels, respectively, were ...
Low Serum Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Association with Type 2 Diabetes in Indian Patients - Iranian Journal of Diabetes...
Chaudhuri J R, Mridula K R, Lingaiah A, Balaraju B, VCSBandaru S. Low Serum Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Association with ... Low Serum Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Association with Type 2 Diabetes in Indian Patients ... Volume 6, Issue 2 (volume 6, number2 2014) IJDO 2014, 6(2): 47-55 , Back to browse issues page ... Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study, we recruited 150 patients with type 2 diabetes and 150 age and sex matched ...
Association between Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Type 2 Diabetes in Korean Adults | Chonnam Medical Journal;: 73-77,...
This study evaluated the association between serum vitamin D levels and type 2 diabetes in Korean adults. This study included ... The subjects were divided into groups in whom the serum vitamin D level was severely deficient (. ... Adult , Blood Glucose , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fasting , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , ... Association between Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Type 2 Diabetes in Korean Adults / 전남의대학술지 ...
PDF] Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level Could Predict the Risk for Peritoneal Dialysis-Associated Peritonitis. | Semantic Scholar
D level tertiles were associated with a decreased risk for peritonitis with HRs of 0.54 (95% CI 0.31 - 0.94) and 0.39 (95% CI ... D level was 16.15 (12.13 - 21.16) nmol/L, which was closely associated with diabetic status, longer PD duration, malnutrition, ... Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) was measured at baseline and prior to peritonitis. The mean doses of oral active vitamin D ... Baseline serum 25(OH)D predicted the occurrence of peritonitis independently of active vitamin D supplementation with a hazard ...
The Relationship between Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D and Insulin Sensitivity and β-Cell Function in Newly Diagnosed Type 2...
In conclusion, serum 25-OHD is associated with insulin sensitivity and ,i,β,/i,-cell function for female newly diagnosed type 2 ... The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) and insulin sensitivity ... 395 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients were enrolled in this study. Venous blood samples were collected at 0 min, 30 min ... Patients were divided into three groups according to tertiles (T1, T2, and T3) of 25-OHD concentration. There was significant ...
Does an Inverse Correlation Exist between Vitamin D as Measured by 25-hydroxyvitamin D and PSA in Veterans with Prostate Cancer...
They found that mean vitamin D levels were lower in minority populations with African Americans having the lowest levels ... hydroxyvitamin D and PSA levels were obtained and processed in the Southeast Louisiana Veterans Healthcare System lab. Patients ... hydroxyvitamin D and colorectal cancer, but not in breast or prostate cancer. The authors did caution that levels were often ... We found low levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D to be prevalent in our study population. Most veterans diagnosed with prostate ...
Vitamin D Supplementation in Polymorphic Light Eruption - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Cytokine levels in serum [ Time Frame: At day 22 and 36; and at month 4-8 ]. *Chemotaxis of neutrophils [ Time Frame: At day 22 ... Level of regulatory T cells [ Time Frame: At day 22 and 36; and at month 4-8 (compared to baseline) ]. *Quantification of skin ... We will also study the effect of oral vitamin D3 on abnormalities i) of levels and function of regulatory T cells, ii) ... The quality of life in patients with PLE is often severely disturbed, as evidenced by high levels of anxiety and depression. ...
Vitamin D3 supplementation in patients with frequent respiratory tract infections: a randomised and double-blind intervention...
Vitamin D levels. Serum was collected at days 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months and levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 were measured. Values ... 0.05 level. This approach was incorrect, and the targeted power (at the p=0.05 level) should instead have been increased ... which was based on a significance level of p=0.02. In the power calculation, the significance level was reduced from 0.05 to ... Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels did not differ between the groups at baseline (table 1 ...
Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level and Kidney Function Decline in a Swiss General Adult Population | American Society of Nephrology
Plasma Vitamin D Level and Change in Albuminuria and eGFR According to Sodium Intake ... Deficient: 25(OH)D ,20 ng/ml. P Value. Mean annual change in eGFR±SD (ml/min per 1.73 m2). −0.57±1.78. −0.26±1.82. −0.46±1.70. ... Model 2a + adjusted for log ACR at baseline. 0.82 (0.70 to 0.96). 0.01. 1.16 (0.95 to 1.41). 0.15. 1.05 (0.86 to 1.29). 0.61. ... Model 2a + adjusted for log ACR and eGFR at baseline. 0.93 (0.79 to 1.09). 0.38. 0.97 (0.78 to 1.20). 0.78. 1.03 (0.84 to 1.26) ...
Associations of Sun Exposure with 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Levels in a Cohort of Hypertensive Patients: The...
Stefan Pilz,1,2 Katharina Kienreich,1 Daniel Stückler,1 Andreas Meinitzer,3 and Andreas Tomaschitz1 ... 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, ... Associations of Sun Exposure with 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Levels in a Cohort of Hypertensive Patients: The ... "Associations of Sun Exposure with 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Levels in a Cohort of Hypertensive Patients: The ...
504115: 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D (D2+D3 | LabCorp
The biological function of vitamin D is to maintain normal levels of calcium and phosphorus absorption. 25-Hydroxy vitamin D is ... 25-Hydroxy, Vitamin D-2. ng/mL. 49054-0. 504115. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D LCMS D2+D3. 500817. 25-Hydroxy, Vitamin D-3. ng/mL. 1989-3 ... 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D (D2+D3 Fractionated), LC/MS-MS. TEST: 504115 Test number copied ... 25-Hydroxy vitamin D is used to measure vitamin D status; it includes results for total 25-hydroxy vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxy ...
Genome-wide association study of circulating vitamin D levels. Hum Mol Genet2010;19:2739-45. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddq155 pmid: ... Furthermore, genetically determined changes in exposure levels are usually small and assumed to be uniform in the population, ... Observational studies find that women with lower levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are at greater risk of pre-eclampsia ... Lower serum vitamin D metabolite levels in relation to circulating cytokines/chemokines and metabolic hormones in pregnant ...
Nutrients | Free Full-Text | Efficiency of Vitamin D Supplementation in Healthy Adults is Associated with Body Mass Index and...
Two months of supplementation with cholecalciferol (1000 IU; 25 µg daily) resulted in significant increase in serum 25-OH-VitD ... levels in comparison with control group (pooled Δc 32.8 nmol/L; 95% CI: 23.0, 42.5, p , 0.0001). While we did not observe any ... We also determined that tested dosage was not sufficient to achieve recommended 25-OH-VitD levels in all subjects. ... The secondary objective was to identify other factors affecting increase in serum 25-OH-VitD. A randomized controlled ...
The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology: Genetic study casts further doubt that vitamin D prevents the development of type 2...
... has concluded there is no evidence of a causal link between a persons vitamin D levels, and whether they develop type 2 ... such as physical activity levels, that may be related both to vitamin D levels and to the risk of type 2 diabetes."* ... 1] Vitamin D levels were measured by circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. This is the best indicator of vitamin D status. ... Vitamin D insufficiency is defined by levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D of less than 50 nmol/L. *Quote direct from author and ...
... women with the lowest levels had a 66 per cent higher incidence of hypertension than those with the highest levels.(3). ... More evidence that being active extends life A recent study concluded that regardless of age, sex, or starting fitness level ... "The benefit of sunlight on vitamin D levels in the elderly is under appreciated," says Professor Ruschitzka. "Fifteen minutes ... A recent study concluded that regardless of age, sex, or starting fitness level, increased physical activity of any type ...
Serum Ferritin - Trip Database
s (...) -Ferritin levels were measured in serum samples taken before pregnancy attempt.None.s-Ferritin levels were correlated ... This study evaluate level of hemoglobin erythrocytes, hematocrit and serum ferritin levels in healthy subjects and ... Our aim is to assess the association between the level of serum ferritin and the incidence of CHD in a Mediterranean region.We ... We divided our cohort into four groups by the quartile points of serum ferritin level: G1 (≤55 ng/mL, n = 148), G2 (56-130 ng/ ...
Vitamin D levels are associated with expression of SLE, but not flare frequency. Int J Rheumatol 2014;2014:362834. ... Weighted PORs (95% CI) of ANA by serum vitamin D level in the U.S. population age 50+, NHANES 2001-2004 (N = 1,012) adjusted ... B, Weighted prevalence (95% CI) of ANA by race/ethnic-specific vitamin D levels in the U.S. population ages 50+, NHANES 2001- ... Higher dilutions may be useful to identify individuals with higher levels of ANA in clinical settings; however, research on ANA ...
25-Hydroxyvitamin D, IGF-1, and Metabolic Syndrome at 45 Years of Age | Diabetes
Juul A: Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I and its binding proteins in health and disease. Growth Horm IGF Res13 :113 ... IGF-1 was not significantly associated with metabolic syndrome among those with the lowest levels of 25(OH)D (P , 0.09), ... Inverse correlation between serum free IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels and blood pressure in patients affected with type 1 diabetes. ... Meta-analysis Research Group on the Diagnosis of Diabetes Using Glycated Hemoglobin Levels. JAMA276 :1246 -1252,1996. ...
NmolConcentrationsSupplementationCholecalciferolInverselyDeficiencyParathyroidAlkaline phosphataseType 2 diabetPhosphorusCalcitriolAssay25OHD2016DeficientMETHODSPatientsConcentration of 25Baseline SerumSignificantly lowerParticipantsIncrease in serumHigh 25Free 25Vitamin D levelTotal 25Relationship between SerumInverseForm of vitaminPostmenopausal womenBelow 20IntakeInvestigateHigherMetabolitesCONCLUSIONSRiskErgocalciferolDecreaseStudyAdultsExposureDiabetes mellitusSerum calciumLower1alphaAutoimmune diseasesBoneCohort
- or = 80 nmol or 32 microg/L. Recent studies reveal that current dietary recommendations for adults are not sufficient to maintain circulating 25(OH)D levels at or above this level, especially in pregnancy and lactation. (nih.gov)
- There were no differences between patients and controls in total or free S-25(OH)D levels (80 ± 31 vs 72 ± 18 nmol/L, and 6.5 ± 2.5 vs 5.6 ± 1.8 pg/ml, respectively), and no association to BMD was found. (springer.com)
- Vitamin D insufficiency is defined by levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D of less than 50 nmol/L. (eurekalert.org)
- 25 nmol/L compared with ≥75 nmol/L. No association was found for gestational hypertension. (bmj.com)
- RESULTS -IGF-1 concentrations increased with 25(OH)D up to ∼75-85 nmol/l but not thereafter. (diabetesjournals.org)
- There is no consensus on an adequate vitamin D level, but most experts recommend a level greater than 30 ng per mL (74.88 nmol per L) for optimal musculoskeletal and metabolic health. (aafp.org)
- 1 However, a report from the Institute of Medicine states that a level greater than 20 ng per mL (49.92 nmol per L) is sufficient. (aafp.org)
- An RCT of 32 women 66 to 97 years of age who were deficient in vitamin D (levels of less than 25 ng per mL [62.4 nmol per L]) compared a single dose of cholecalciferol (300,000 IU) with an equivalent single dose of ergocalciferol. (aafp.org)
- Severe deficiency has been defined as less than 10 ng/ml (25 nmol/l) [ 3 ]. (medsci.org)
- Future studies using standardized 25(OH)D data are needed to confirm these results, particularly amongst U.S. blacks with 25(OH)D concentrations above 75 nmol/L. (springer.com)
- RR, 25-108 nmol/L). (On later questioning, she said she had not taken vitamin D supplements. (mja.com.au)
- 75 nmol/L. We observed a 0.07 kg/m 2 /year increase in BMI and a 0.03 Z /year increase in BMI-for-age Z score per rs9939609 risk allele over follow-up ( P = 0.01). (diabetesjournals.org)
- 110 nmol/L 2 could be suboptimal. (mja.com.au)
- Vitamin D3 supplementation protected against moderate or severe exacerbation, but not upper respiratory infection, in patients with COPD with baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of less than 50 nmol/L. Our findings suggest that correction of vitamin D deficiency in patients with COPD reduces the risk of moderate or severe exacerbation. (unboundmedicine.com)
- 25 nmol/l, was independently associated with the progression of cognitive impairment. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Low vitamin D status, as indicated by circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, has become a common observation for the pediatric population in the United States. (aappublications.org)
- The aim of this study was to investigate vitamin D status, as assessed by serum concentrations of total and free serum 25(OH)D in patients with AN and healthy controls. (springer.com)
- The findings of the study, conducted by scientists at the University of Cambridge, challenge evidence from earlier observational studies which suggest that higher concentrations of circulating vitamin D might prevent type 2 diabetes. (eurekalert.org)
- According to Dr Forouhi, "Our findings suggest that interventions to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes by increasing concentrations of vitamin D are not currently justified. (eurekalert.org)
- 0.09), whereas higher 25(OH)D was associated with metabolic syndrome at all IGF-1 concentrations ( P ≤ 0.006). (diabetesjournals.org)
- however, for both factors, lower concentrations have been associated with disturbed glucose metabolism ( 3 - 8 ), high blood pressure ( 9 - 11 ), adverse lipid profiles ( 2 , 12 , 13 ), and cardiovascular disease ( 8 , 14 , 15 ) independently of body mass. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Previously reported associations between vitamin D status, as measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations, and cardiometabolic risk factors were largely limited by variability in 25(OH)D assay performance. (springer.com)
- We evaluated the overall and ethnic-specific associations between the newly standardized serum 25(OH)D concentrations and cardiometabolic risk in U.S. adults. (springer.com)
- Mole rats have an unusually impoverished vitamin D3 status with undetectable and low plasma concentrations of 25- hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, respectively. (bireme.br)
- Vieth R. Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety. (springer.com)
- A recent consensus concluded that to prevent fractures in older patients, the serum 25(OH)D concentrations should be higher than 30 ng/mL," Dr. Sophia Ish-Shalom and colleagues explain in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism for September. (massagemag.com)
- Previous GWAS of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations have identified four genome-wide significant loci ( GC, NADSYN1/DHCR7, CYP2R1, CYP24A1 ). (nature.com)
- The overall estimate of heritability of 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentrations attributable to GWAS common SNPs is 7.5%, with statistically significant loci explaining 38% of this total. (nature.com)
- 5 Various studies have also suggested the association between reduced 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations and an increased risk of atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, and coronary artery disease (CAD). (dovepress.com)
- Additionally, they found a significant inverse correlation between higher blood concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of fractures. (lww.com)
- In the proposed randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial the investigators attempt to study the effect of oral vitamin D3 supplementation (2 x 40.000 IE, given orally two weeks apart) on PLE symptoms. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- 25-Hydroxyvitamin D response to cholecalciferol supplementation in hemodialysis. (semanticscholar.org)
- While we did not observe any significant differences between the tested formulations, the efficiency of supplementation was associated with body mass index and baseline serum 25-OH-VitD level. (mdpi.com)
- The results of a meta-analysis of 35 short-term trials, however, do not offer much hope that vitamin D supplementation can be used to prevent type 2 diabetes. (eurekalert.org)
- RESULTS 25-OHD levels rapidly rose from 22 to nearly 70 ng/mL after vitamin D supplementation with a mean weekly dose of 88,865 IU. (diabetesjournals.org)
- CONCLUSIONS In individuals with prediabetes and hypovitaminosis D, doses of vitamin D supplementation designed to raise serum 25-OHD levels into the upper-normal range for 1 year had no effect on insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, or the development of diabetes compared with placebo administration. (diabetesjournals.org)
- To determine whether high doses of vitamin D supplementation for 1 year would affect the development of diabetes in minority subjects, we carried out a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial treating subjects with prediabetes and hypovitaminosis D with either vitamin D (designed to raise 25-OHD into the high-normal range) or placebo. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The hypercalcaemia resolved quickly - to the extent that, by Day 8, she had developed symptomatic hypocalcaemia requiring oral supplementation with calcium carbonate and calcitriol ( Box 2 ). (mja.com.au)
- Optimizing your vitamin D blood levels, whether by synthesis from sunshine or through daily supplementation, benefits just about every life function of your body. (naturalhealthperspective.com)
- Because sun exposure does pose significant health risks, and most Americans live outside of the regions where they can get adequate sun in winter, perhaps the best way to address this dilemma is by paying close attention to your blood levels of vitamin D and optimizing them through appropriate supplementation. (prohealth.com)
- 14 While vitamin D can be obtained through a few dietary sources such as fish, eggs, and dairy products, these foods fail to provide the daily levels required by most individuals, thus necessitating vitamin D supplementation. (prohealth.com)
- Limitations include a relatively small sample size, lack of data on comorbid conditions of the primary care group, lack of data on vitamin D measurement and lack of data on supplementation or treatment that may have affected vitamin D levels. (bmj.com)
- 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels during breast-feeding with or without maternal or infantile supplementation of vitamin D. (arctichealth.org)
- Current treatments include supplementation with calcium and active vitamin D, with goal albumin-corrected serum calcium level in the low-normal range of 8-9 mg/dl. (frontiersin.org)
- Bischoff-Ferrari and Dawson-Hughes ( 2 ) reported that supplementation with vitamin D 3 (cholecalciferol) at 700 to 800 international units (IU) per day, or occasionally with 100,000 IU every 4 months, with or without calcium, should facilitate a reduction in both hip and nonvertebral fractures. (lww.com)
- Both vitamin D 2 and D 3 are used for human nutritional supplementation, and pharmaceutical forms include calcitriol (1alpha, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol), doxercalciferol and calcipotriene . (wikidoc.org)
- Cholecalciferol produces higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels than ergocalciferol (vitamin D 2 ). (aafp.org)
- The liver changes cholecalciferol, or D-3, into 25(OH)D, the circulating form of vitamin D. Your kidneys changes the substrate 25(OH)D into 1,25(OH)2D, or the activated form of vitamin D. However, we now know that a wide variety of normal tissues, also, have the ability to make 1,25(OH)2D. (naturalhealthperspective.com)
- It is able to bind the various forms of vitamin D including ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), the 25-hydroxylated forms (calcifediol), and the active hormonal product, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol). (wikipedia.org)
- It is evident that ultraviolet radiation enables vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) formation in the epidermis, and this product is further converted into the active metabolites 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and 1,25-hydroxycholecalciferol, which exert several important effects on the skin. (termedia.pl)
- Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble prohormones , the two major forms of which are vitamin D 2 (or ergocalciferol ) and vitamin D 3 (or cholecalciferol ). (wikidoc.org)
- The two major forms are vitamin D 2 or ergocalciferol , and vitamin D 3 or cholecalciferol . (wikidoc.org)
- Accordingly, risk of breast cancer was inversely associated with 25OHD levels. (aacrjournals.org)
- Fat mass is known to be inversely associated with vitamin D levels measured as serum levels of total, protein-bound 25-hydroxyvitamin D, but the importance of directly measured, free levels of 25(OH)D has not been determined in AN. (springer.com)
- Both 25(OH)D and IGF-1 were inversely associated with metabolic syndrome. (diabetesjournals.org)
- CONCLUSIONS -Serum 25(OH)D is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome, whereas the inverse association with IGF-1 was found only among those without hypovitaminosis D. These results suggest that metabolic syndrome prevalence is the lowest when both 25(OH)D and IGF-1 are high. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Researchers found that serum 25-OHD levels are inversely linked to 3 things: the visual analogue scale (VAS) of pain (p=0.016), Beck score for depression (p=0.020), and lumbar spine BMD (p=0.012). (spineuniverse.com)
- From my experience working with individuals with psychosis and schizophrenia in both inpatient and outpatient settings, I have often found low vitamin D levels in this patient population where the severity of symptoms were inversely correlated to serum vitamin D levels. (greatplainslaboratory.com)
- In a prospective investigation with Colombian school children aged 5-12 years, circulating 25(OH)D was inversely associated with the development of adiposity over 29 months of follow-up ( 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- The research team found that serum 25-OHD levels is inversely associated with the visual analogue scale (VAS) of pain ( P =0.016), Beck score for depression ( P =0.020), and lumbar spine BMD ( P =0.012). (endocrineweb.com)
- Despite evidence suggesting that vitamin D deficiency may lead to elevated cardiovascular disease risk, results regarding the association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels with stroke risk are inconclusive. (nih.gov)
- In this study, we found a significant 25(OH) D deficiency in patients with vitiligo, suggesting that vitamin D deficiency may plays a role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. (who.int)
- Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is a common disorder worldwide and is indicated by low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. (ac.ir)
- Recent studies have suggested an association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency with diabetes mellitus. (ac.ir)
- Previous studies have suggested that a vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. (bvsalud.org)
- Some prospective studies suggested vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of type 2 diabetes [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
- With iron deficiency as the most common nutritional disorder in the world , limiting red meat may not be prudent advice. (nutrition.org)
- We hypothesized that middle-aged and older individuals with vitamin D deficiency would have a higher prevalence of ANA than those with vitamin D levels in the normal range. (aacrjournals.org)
- The global prevalence of vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) deficiency is estimated at 30-87% [ 1 ]. (medsci.org)
- In the last 40 years, observational studies have linked 25(OH)D deficiency to the development of chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease [ 4 ] and diabetes mellitus [ 5 ]. (medsci.org)
- Deficiency of 25(OH)D has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes although exact pathophysiological pathways remain unclear [ 5 ]. (medsci.org)
- We demonstrated that there was an inverse relationship between serum 25(OH)D less than 8.0 ng/mL and UACR in normoalbuminuric subjects, suggesting that severe vitamin D deficiency could cause an increase in UAE in subjects with normoalbuminuria. (biomedcentral.com)
- In this article, we examine the factors that contribute to the widespread prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, the latest studies supporting vitamin D's critical role in preventing disease, and how much supplemental vitamin D you need to achieve optimal blood levels. (prohealth.com)
- Research published in the Iranian Journal of Public Health in 2010 reported that over 70 percent of men ages 20-29 had some level of vitamin D deficiency. (bodybuilding.com)
- Additionally, vitamin D deficiency is relatively common in athletes and is associated with muscle weakness and atrophy, specifically Type 2 muscle fiber atrophy. (bodybuilding.com)
- 1 , 2 Some studies have suggested that vitamin D plays an important role in the mechanism of insulin release and in the maintenance of glucose tolerance and have also shown the association between vitamin D deficiency and Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). (dovepress.com)
- Our findings also raise important questions about how vitamin D deficiency is defined, and have been independently described as having profound implications for interpretation of vitamin D levels. (nih.gov)
-  Deficiency results in impaired bone mineralization, and leads to bone softening diseases, rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults, and possibly contributes to osteoporosis . (wikidoc.org)
- Genetic Prediction of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Calcium, and Parathyroid Hormone Levels in Relation to Development of Type 2 Diabetes: A Mendelian. (cdc.gov)
- Genetic Prediction of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Calcium, and Parathyroid Hormone Levels in Relation to Development of Type 2 Diabetes: A Mendelian Randomization Study. (cdc.gov)
- We conducted a Mendelian randomization study to investigate the associations of genetically predicted serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25OHD), calcium (S-Ca), and parathyroid hormone (S-PTH) levels with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). (cdc.gov)
- Marmosets (monkeys of the New World) are not hypercalcaemic, eventhough they exhibit much higher levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and parathyroid hormonethan that of rhesus monkeys and humans. (bireme.br)
- These deficits lead to compensatory hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone, which results in bone loss [2, (who.int)
- Parathyroid glands are very small glands of the endocrine system, normally weighing approximately 25 g, and typically located to the side and behind the thyroid gland. (frontiersin.org)
- The role of these glands normally is to regulate calcium levels in the blood by release of PTH by sensing low serum calcium level through calcium-sensing receptors (CaSRs) located on the parathyroid cells. (frontiersin.org)
- 3) chronic kidney disease patients with a wide range of parathyroid hormone levels to evaluate thresholds that define normal vs abnormal cutoff levels for BavD. (nih.gov)
- This is stimulated by a decrease in serum calcium, phosphate (PO 4 3− ) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. (drugbank.ca)
- All cases and controls were evaluated for fasting serum glucose, fasting insulin, serum cholesterol, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein (CRP), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. (ac.ir)
- When the disorder presents with fractures, bone pain, and reduced bone mineral density (BMD), it may masquerade as osteoporosis but in striking contrast to osteoporosis, osteomalacia usually has abnormal levels of serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, or alkaline phosphatase activity. (clinicaladvisor.com)
Type 2 diabet46
- OBJECTIVE To quantitatively assess the strength and shape of the association between blood 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and incident risk of type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Prospective observational studies that assessed the association between blood levels of 25(OH)D and risk of incident type 2 diabetes were included for meta-analysis. (diabetesjournals.org)
- RESULTS A total of 21 prospective studies involving 76,220 participants and 4,996 incident type 2 diabetes cases were included for meta-analysis. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Comparing the highest to the lowest category of 25(OH)D levels, the summary relative risk for type 2 diabetes was 0.62 (95% CI 0.54-0.70). (diabetesjournals.org)
- CONCLUSIONS Our meta-analysis showed an inverse and significant association between circulating 25(OH)D levels and risk of type 2 diabetes across a broad range of blood 25(OH)D levels in diverse populations. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Population studies have provided further support to the hypothesis that low vitamin D status, as assessed by circulating 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels, is associated with impaired β-cell function, insulin resistance, and impaired glucose intolerance and thereby may be associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes ( 4 - 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Recently, several prospective observational studies have reported a significant association between high circulating levels of 25(OH)D and lower incidence of type 2 diabetes ( 11 - 17 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Assessment of possible threshold levels of 25(OH)D will greatly advance our understanding of the magnitude and shape of the association of vitamin D with incidence of type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Chaudhuri J R, Mridula K R, Lingaiah A, Balaraju B, VCSBandaru S. Low Serum Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Association with Type 2 Diabetes in Indian Patients. (ac.ir)
- The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and type 2 diabetes in South Indian patients. (ac.ir)
- Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study, we recruited 150 patients with type 2 diabetes and 150 age and sex matched controls, Yashoda hospital, Hyderabad, India, from December 2011 to November 2013. (ac.ir)
- This study evaluated the association between serum vitamin D levels and type 2 diabetes in Korean adults. (bvsalud.org)
- Minimal studies have been conducted to investigate the phrenia and type 2 diabetes. (who.int)
- The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) and insulin sensitivity and β -cell function in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. (hindawi.com)
- 395 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients were enrolled in this study. (hindawi.com)
- In conclusion, serum 25-OHD is associated with insulin sensitivity and β -cell function for female newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients, and the association is ambiguous in males. (hindawi.com)
- Accumulated evidences indicated that abnormal vitamin D status is associated with the etiology of type 2 diabetes. (hindawi.com)
- Compared with subjects with normal glucose tolerance, patients with type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) have lower vitamin D levels [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
- However, the specific mechanisms by which vitamin D influences the risk of type 2 diabetes are not very clear. (hindawi.com)
- Insulin resistance and deteriorated β -cell function are the two major pathophysiologic aspects of type 2 diabetes. (hindawi.com)
- Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) and insulin sensitivity, β -cell function in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, using more predominant evaluation indicators of insulin resistance and β -cell function which were derived from oral glucose tolerance (OGTT). (hindawi.com)
- A large genetic study, published today in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology journal, has concluded there is no evidence of a causal link between a person's vitamin D levels , and whether they develop type 2 diabetes. (eurekalert.org)
- This evidence led to speculation that the development of type 2 diabetes is associated with vitamin D insufficiency. (eurekalert.org)
- The authors found no association between different gene variants that control vitamin D levels and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. (eurekalert.org)
- Moreover, the study also examined the link between vitamin D status and several physiological characteristics of type 2 diabetes, such as glucose and glycated haemoglobin, and also found no evidence of a causative link. (eurekalert.org)
- Observational studies that show a strong and consistent higher risk of type 2 diabetes with lower levels of vitamin D may do so because they have thus far not been able to adequately control for distorting or confounding factors, such as physical activity levels, that may be related both to vitamin D levels and to the risk of type 2 diabetes. (eurekalert.org)
- Our findings are in agreement with the results of randomised controlled trials, which provide a classic way to assess cause-effect relationships, and which have generally shown that type 2 diabetes was not prevented in individuals taking vitamin D supplements. (eurekalert.org)
- While our current findings do not provide support for a causal role of vitamin D in the development of type 2 diabetes, we are far from done with this topic. (eurekalert.org)
- Until then, we need to be cautious about vitamin D's potential role in the prevention of type 2 diabetes and stick to things that are proven to work - diet and exercise. (eurekalert.org)
- The sky is becoming rather clouded for vitamin D in the context of preventing type 2 diabetes. (eurekalert.org)
- African Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, American Indians, Alaska Natives, some Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and other Pacific Islanders are at particularly high risk for the development of type 2 diabetes ( 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Increasing evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a role in the development of chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (DM). (medsci.org)
- The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased in industrial countries and is expected to reach a world-wide prevalence of 4.4% by 2030 [ 9 ]. (medsci.org)
- Previous work also documents that the mean age of type 2 diabetes diagnosis has decreased in some settings from 52 to 46 years between 1988 and 2000 [ 10 ]. (medsci.org)
- Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of metabolically related symptoms such as obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and carbohydrate intolerance, and significantly increases type 2 diabetes mellitus risk. (jci.org)
- Determine the effects of dietary and supplemental vitamin D and related nutrients in the prevention and progression of musculoskeletal performance and dysfunction, glucose homeostasis and type 2 diabetes, and other chronic diseases. (usda.gov)
- In collaboration with external laboratories, this laboratory seeks to determine the impact of vitamin D on risk of developing type 2 diabetes. (usda.gov)
- Whether the change stems from obvious reasons, like losing weight because obesity has been the causal agent for developing type 2 diabetes , or per the advice of their physicians to cut out gluten and dairy following an autoimmune diagnosis, these steps are reactive versus proactive. (thepaleodiet.com)
- Clearly, we can take preventative measures to lower our risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes by leading an active lifestyle, veering away from the typical, highly refined Standard American Diet (SAD), and implementing a Paleo diet. (thepaleodiet.com)
- Type 2 diabetes can lead to some devastating long-term complications, including nerve damage, heart disease, eye damage and vision loss, and kidney failure. (bodybuilding.com)
- Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D may play a significant role in reducing the risk for type 2 diabetes-especially in those who are at an increased risk for this deadly disease. (bodybuilding.com)
- Several observational studies have shown improvements in beta cell function, insulin sensitivity, and whole-body inflammation with higher levels of vitamin D. A recent study calculated the risk of developing type 2 diabetes according to baseline vitamin D status and found those with the highest baseline levels had a 38 percent lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared to those with the lowest vitamin D levels. (bodybuilding.com)
- Metabolite profiling in identifying metabolic biomarkers in older people with late-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus. (uni-ulm.de)
- To examine the associations between vitamin D receptor polymorphisms ( FokI and TaqI ) and Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and its associated chronic complications in postmenopausal women. (dovepress.com)
- provide one answer by using patient electronic medical records (EMRs) and genotype data from Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York to characterize new subtypes of type 2 diabetes (T2D). (sciencemag.org)
- Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a heterogeneous complex disease affecting more than 29 million Americans alone with a rising prevalence trending toward steady increases in the coming decades. (sciencemag.org)
- Serum vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus levels were determined. (springer.com)
- The biological function of vitamin D is to maintain normal levels of calcium and phosphorus absorption. (labcorp.com)
- In premenopausal and postmenopausal women, serum levels of 25-OHD, phosphorus and calcium were stable across the age span. (who.int)
- In addition, there is no consensus concerning the relationship of age to serum calcium, phosphorus and PTH levels. (who.int)
- He concluded that PTH plays an important role in maintaining normal blood calcium and phosphorus levels in the body. (frontiersin.org)
- Vitamin D regulates the calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood by promoting their absorption from food in the intestines , and by promoting re-absorption of calcium in the kidneys . (wikidoc.org)
- Some forms of activated vitamin D like calcitriol, that are commonly used in the chronic kidney disease population, can cause increase absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the gut leading to high serum levels. (wikidoc.org)
- PTH plays an important role in mobilizing calcium from the skeleton where calcium is primarily stored and increasing calcium absorption from the intestine by increasing synthesis of calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D) from the kidney. (frontiersin.org)
- Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol). (wikidoc.org)
- Calcitriol or 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (abbreviated 1,25-(OH) 2 -D3) is the active form of vitamin D found in the body (vitamin D3). (drugbank.ca)
- This inverse association did not differ by sex, duration of follow-up, study sample size, diabetes diagnostic criteria, or 25(OH)D assay method. (diabetesjournals.org)
- It has been more than 3 decades since the first assay assessing circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in human subjects was performed and led to the definition of "normal" nutritional vitamin D status, i.e., vitamin D sufficiency. (nih.gov)
- This 25-hydroxy vitamin D assay and the alternative immunoassay test (Vitamin D, 25-Hydroxy ) are both CDC-certified for accuracy. (labcorp.com)
- The Diasorin (formerly Incstar) 25-OH- Vitamin D assay consists of a two-step procedure. (cdc.gov)
- In a cross-sectional study with a nested case-control analysis, we determined whether risk of breast cancer is associated with prediagnostic plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels and the effects of lifestyle characteristics known to influence vitamin D status on risk of breast cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
- Cases had lower plasma 25OHD levels than controls. (aacrjournals.org)
- Use of vitamin D supplements, sunbathing frequency, and fish intake was associated with 25OHD levels, but did not affect the risk of breast cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
- After being synthesized in the skin or absorbed from the intestine, vitamin D is metabolized in the liver to 25-hydroxyvitamin (25OHD). (aacrjournals.org)
- Until recently, 25OHD was considered to be a substrate for only the renal 1α-hydroxylase, whereby circulating 1,25(OH) 2 D was formed. (aacrjournals.org)
- However, the 1α-hydroxylase is now known to be expressed in several non-renal cell lines for which circulating levels of 25OHD serves as a substrate ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Accordingly, vitamin D status as determined by plasma 25OHD levels may be of importance to the function of different cells and may influence the risk of cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
- In a few studies, vitamin D status as determined by plasma 25OHD levels have been studied in relation to breast cancer risk. (aacrjournals.org)
- In some ( 9 , 10 ) but not all ( 11 , 12 ) studies, lower 25OHD levels have been found in women with known breast cancer compared with healthy controls. (aacrjournals.org)
- Only in few case-control studies, nested within established cohorts of women, has the risk of breast cancer been studied in relation to prediagnostic 25OHD levels. (aacrjournals.org)
- In an analysis from the Nurses' Health Study cohort, women with baseline 25OHD levels in the highest quintile had a borderline significantly reduced risk of breast cancer compared with women in the lowest quintile ( 13 ), whereas no associations between prediagnostic 25OHD levels and risk of developing breast cancer was found in an analysis from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial ( 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- We now report the results of a study initiated in 2003 specifically designed to assess whether breast cancer is associated with prediagnostic plasma 25OHD levels and whether different lifestyle characteristics known to influence vitamin D status affects the risk of breast cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
- Genetically predicted S-25OHD but not S-Ca and S-PTH levels were associated with T2DM in the primary analyses. (cdc.gov)
- Modest lifelong higher S-25OHD levels were associated with reduced odds of T2DM, but the association was only robust for SNPs in the vitamin D synthesis pathway. (cdc.gov)
- our aim was to evaluate: a) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3) levels in patients with OHF at hospital admission and 8 days post-admission, and b) the relationship between 25OHD levels and clinical outcomes. (isciii.es)
- 1.A. The impact of supplemental vitamin D on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels and short-term indicators of physical function. (usda.gov)
- https://nutrition.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/breastfeeding-feature-image.jpg 980 1280 Debbie Fetter https://nutrition.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/asn-logo-2.gif Debbie Fetter 2017-04-04 10:15:24 2017-04-23 20:49:13 Does Breastfeeding Make You Smarter? (nutrition.org)
- 2016 Aug 25;375(8):794-8. (cancerresearchuk.org)
- 10 ng/mL) had 2.99 (95% CI, 1.25-7.15) times the odds of ANA compared with having normal vitamin D levels (≥30 ng/mL), while deficient and insufficient individuals had twice the odds of ANA. (aacrjournals.org)
- The results of a vitamin D-3 lab test can indicate if an individual is deficient in vitamin D, has normal levels or has excessive levels of the vitamin, according to Hormone Health Network. (reference.com)
- In both groups (control and psoriatic) the level of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol was seriously deficient ( (termedia.pl)
- METHODS We collected 346 prevalent and incident PD patients from 2 hospitals. (semanticscholar.org)
- RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 1,551 subjects ≥40 years of age not known to have diabetes were screened with A1C levels. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Moreover, we will improve upon existing methods for measuring circulating total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D). (nih.gov)
- We found that 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and bone mineral density were lower in patients with prior cholecystectomy. (springer.com)
- In female AN patients ( n = 20), and healthy female controls ( n = 78), total 25(OH)D was measured by LC-MS/MS, and free 25(OH)D with ELISA. (springer.com)
- Medicine , Tripoli University, levels in vitiligo patients in comparison of normal controls. (who.int)
- The quality of life in patients with PLE is often severely disturbed, as evidenced by high levels of anxiety and depression. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Patients were divided into three groups according to tertiles (T1, T2, and T3) of 25-OHD concentration. (hindawi.com)
- 91 patients self-identified as African American (61 of these had low 25- hydroxyvitamin D values and 30 had normal values), 27 self-identified as White, (15 low 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 12 normal), and one self-identified as other who had 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the normal range. (omicsonline.org)
- 001). 4 A small cohort study of 17 patients showed a 50 percent increase in serum vitamin D levels (independent of dosage) when the supplement was taken with a fatty meal as opposed to on an empty stomach or with a small meal. (aafp.org)
- Fat digestion in patients with diabetes mellitus and low fecal elastase 1 levels have been studied by at least two different centers. (amazonaws.com)
- Over 85% of the 117 psychiatric patients had suboptimal vitamin D levels. (greatplainslaboratory.com)
- Of the 104 patients evaluated, 72% had insufficient vitamin D levels. (greatplainslaboratory.com)
- 2 Reasons for this include the recent emphasis on calcium therapy for osteoporosis, ready availability of OTC calcium preparations, and the use of calcium carbonate rather than aluminium (as a phosphate binder) in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. (mja.com.au)
- 25OHD3 levels were reduced in OHF patients at admission, and significantly decreased during the first 8 days post-admission. (isciii.es)
- The purpose of this study was to compare serum vitamin D levels in patients at a community oncology practice with non-cancer patients at a primary care practice. (bmj.com)
- 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels were ordered for screening in both cancer and non-cancer patients. (bmj.com)
- Conclusions Cancer patients were found to have low vitamin D levels relative to a similar cohort of non-cancer primary care patients from the same geographical region. (bmj.com)
- Providers caring for cancer patients should be aware of an increased incidence of hypovitaminosis D at the community level. (bmj.com)
- Low Plasma Level of Cathelicidin Antimicrobial Peptide (hCAP18) Predicts Increased Infectious Disease Mortality in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis. (omega-research.com)
- Background Human cathelicidin antimicrobial protein (hCAP18) is an antimicrobial and immunomodulatory peptide that has pleiotropic effects and is transcriptionally regulated by vitamin D. Because the administration of vitamin D analogues has been linked to decreased mortality among patients with end-stage renal disease, we hypothesized that low hCAP18 levels would identify those who are at increased risk of death attributable to infection while undergoing hemodialysis. (omega-research.com)
- Patients with eczema produce higher levels of a protein in the blood and in affected skin called interleukin-31 (IL-31), which is thought to be responsible for skin itching, also known as pruritus. (bad.org.uk)
- Patients were allocated to receive six 2-monthly oral doses of 3 mg vitamin D3 or placebo over 1 year in a 1:1 ratio using computer-generated permuted block randomisation. (unboundmedicine.com)
- The analysis with the Mann-Whitney U test revealed a statistically significant difference in 25-hydroxycholecalciferol level between healthy individuals and patients with psoriasis (p = 0.048). (termedia.pl)
- The quantity of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol is very important both in the general population and in patients with psoriasis, because these groups have a distinct metabolism. (termedia.pl)
- In a new case-control study, researchers evaluated serum vitamin D levels and bone mineral density (BMD) values in patients who have primary fibromyalgia (PFMS) and compared them to healthy women. (endocrineweb.com)
Concentration of 252
- The generalized additive model confirmed a non-linear relationship between serum 25(OH)D and UACR levels, and the threshold concentration of 25(OH)D was 8.0 ng/mL after multivariate adjustment. (biomedcentral.com)
- The concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D has been reported to be highly heritable, with heritability estimates of 50-80% from classical twin studies 9 , 10 . (nature.com)
- these samples were used to evaluate the participants' serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OHD) levels. (spineuniverse.com)
- Were findings measured upon accountability and how can we be sure participants didn't take the liberty of "cleaning up" their food log entries, energy levels, or sleep patterns? (thepaleodiet.com)
- The primary comparison of actual intake, however, showed a significant reduction in hip fractures among participants taking the highest levels of vitamin D, which was confirmed by internal validation analysis. (medscape.com)
- Among the participants with quantifiable levels of free and total NP (n=38), 85% (median, range: 38-112%) of the NP was present as free NP. (arctichealth.org)
- A significantly higher total consumption of fruits and vegetables was reported in questionnaires by participants with NP levels at or above LOD than among women with levels below LOD. (arctichealth.org)
- Researchers gathered venous blood samples from all the participants, and these samples were used to asses serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OHD) levels. (endocrineweb.com)
Increase in serum2
- Recently some studies suggested that free 25(OH)D levels might be a better predictor for clinical outcomes, including mortality. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
- Objective: To study the association between total and free 25(OH)D and 1.25(OH) 2 D with all-cause mortality in a prospective cohort of community-dwelling European men. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
- Free 25(OH)D and free 1.25(OH) 2 D were calculated from the total hormone and DBP concentration. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
- However, only low free 25(OH)D but not free 1.25(OH) 2 D levels predict all-cause mortality. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
Vitamin D level7
- Submit Date 2019-03-21 and duration of vitiligo were evaluated in relation to vitamin D level. (who.int)
- Their findings were published online in early February 2012 in the article "Serum vitamin D level and bone mineral density in premenopausal Egyptian women with fibromyalgia. (spineuniverse.com)
- Serum vitamin D level and bone mineral density in premenopausal Egyptian women with fibromyalgia [published online ahead of print February 4, (spineuniverse.com)
- She remained clinically asymptomatic before and after normalization of her vitamin D level and improvement in her bone density). (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Have you had a blood test (25-hydroxyvitamin D) to check your vitamin D level? (meassociation.org.uk)
- Bergler-Czop B, Brzezińska-Wcisło L. Serum vitamin D level - the effect on the clinical course of psoriasis. (termedia.pl)
- Collected blood samples enabled measurement of serum vitamin D level by assessment with the immunoenzyme technique. (termedia.pl)
- it includes results for total 25-hydroxy vitamin D 2 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D 3 . (labcorp.com)
- Background: Total 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and total 1.25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1.25(OH) 2 D) are associated with all-cause mortality. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
- Total 25(OH)D levels were measured by radioimmunoassay and recalibrated to NIST standard reference material. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
- Conclusions: Low total 25(OH)D levels and low total 1.25(OH) 2 D levels in community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly men have an increased future mortality risk. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
Relationship between Serum2
- We used a generalized additive model to examine the threshold level for relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and urinary-albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) levels. (biomedcentral.com)
- In the present study, we examined the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and UACR levels in a large number of subjects who underwent voluntary health screenings. (biomedcentral.com)
- Velde NV, Moparty K, Shi L, Sha H (2015) Does an Inverse Correlation Exist between Vitamin D as Measured by 25-hydroxyvitamin D and PSA in Veterans with Prostate Cancer. (omicsonline.org)
- CF Garland was the first to publish an article in the Lancet in 1989 showing an inverse association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and colorectal cancer [ 3 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- The inverse relation with multiple sclerosis risk was particularly strong for 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels measured before age 20 years. (nih.gov)
- reported an inverse relationship between 25-OHD and body mass index (BMI) . (who.int)
Form of vitamin3
- The hormonally active form of vitamin D is 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH) 2 D]. Binding of 1,25(OH) 2 D to the vitamin D receptor has been shown to increase differentiation and decrease proliferation in different cell types, including breast and breast cancer cells ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- 25-Hydroxy vitamin D is the storage form of vitamin D. Vitamin D assists in maintaining bone health by facilitating calcium absorption. (labcorp.com)
- The metabolically active form of vitamin D, 1,25-di-hydroxy vitamin D, which has a short life, is then synthesized in the kidney as needed from circulating 25-hydroxy vitamin D. The reference interval of greater than 30 ng/mL is a target value established by the Endocrine Society. (labcorp.com)
- Herein, we aimed to investigate the effects of cholecystectomy on vitamin D levels and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. (springer.com)
- In postmenopausal women, prior cholecystectomy is associated with lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and BMD. (springer.com)
- Most recently, laboratory tests of individuals with schizophrenia, psychosis, elective mutism, and bipolar disorders revealed consistent serum vitamin D levels below 20 ng/ml. (greatplainslaboratory.com)
- The current lower limit set on healthy vitamin D by the Endocrine Society for 25-hydroxyvitamin D is below 20 millimeters. (reference.com)
- Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels indicative of vitamin D sufficiency: implications for establishing a new effective dietary intake recommenda. (nih.gov)
- Vitamin D intake and plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were measured longitudinally. (nih.gov)
- Proportional hazards regression analyses of time to IA, or type 1 diabetes in IA-positive children, were conducted, with vitamin D intake and 25(OH)D as time-varying covariates. (nih.gov)
- Neither vitamin D intake nor 25(OH)D levels throughout childhood were associated with the risk of IA or progression to type 1 diabetes in our population. (nih.gov)
- Serum 25(OH)D was determined, anthropometric measurements taken and dietary vitamin D intake estimated (food-frequency questionnaire). (who.int)
- Significant relationships were found between serum 25(OH)D and gender, skin tone and vitamin D intake. (who.int)
- Vitamin D from sunshine on the skin or from dietary intake is converted predominantly by the liver into 25-hydroxy vitamin D, which has a long half-life and is stored in the adipose tissue. (labcorp.com)
- Before the advent of modern treatment for peptic ulcer disease (with H 2 -receptor antagonists, proton-pump inhibitors and antimicrobial therapy), excessive calcium intake related to over-the-counter (OTC) antacid preparations commonly caused hypercalcaemia. (mja.com.au)
- A series of nationally representative health and nutrition surveys (1988, 1999, 2006, 2012) have shown a "polarized model of nutrition transition" in Mexico 1 characterized by a rapid increase in nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, a reduction of infectious diseases 2 , excessive energy intake and reductions in physical activity 3 . (isciii.es)
- Scientific opinion on the tolerable upper intake level of vitamin D. EFSA J. 2012;10(7):2813. (springer.com)
- If sun exposure is limited because of northern latitude, darker skin, sun block or lifestyle choice, vitamin D levels can be maintained through the intake of supplements and foods that contain vitamin D (either naturally or fortified). (cmaj.ca)
- Therefore, to extend our previous findings and better understand the genetic architecture underlying serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, as well as test for interactions between dietary vitamin D intake and genetic factors, we conducted a large-scale GWAS meta-analysis on this important vitamin. (nature.com)
- July 4, 2012 - Those older than 65 years who take high doses of vitamin D lower their risk of suffering a fracture by from 14% to 30%, according to a pooled analysis that demonstrated fracture risk reduction only at the highest level of vitamin D intake. (medscape.com)
- After establishing homogeneity among the 11 individual trials for both end points overall, as well as at the actual vitamin D intake level, the research team pooled the individual participant-level data and used Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis to assess the incidence of hip fracture or any nonvertebral fracture. (medscape.com)
- Objective To use mendelian randomisation to investigate whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration has a causal effect on gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia. (bmj.com)
- The first aim of this study was to investigate possible sources of NP and BPA exposure from food, by analyzing the levels of NP and BPA from a Swedish food market basket, based on the Swedish per capita food consumption. (arctichealth.org)
- A second aim was to investigate blood serum levels of NP and BPA, as well as NP-ethoxylates, among young women in Sweden (n=100). (arctichealth.org)
- A spline regression model showed that higher 25(OH)D levels were monotonically associated with a lower diabetes risk. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Instead, we observed a trend toward higher vitamin D levels in AN subjects compared to controls. (springer.com)
- women with the lowest levels had a 66 per cent higher incidence of hypertension than those with the highest levels. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Furthermore, higher levels of 25-OHD are associated with lower rates of development of diabetes ( 9 - 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- The prevalence of food and respiratory allergy, but not skin allergy, increased with higher income levels. (amazonaws.com)
- Among Mexican boys and girls aged 6-12 years, higher percentages of body fat, as measured by bioimpedance, BMI, triceps skinfold, and waist circumference, were associated with decreased vitamin D levels ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Decreasing quartiles of 25(OH)D levels were associated with higher odds ratios for obesity and metabolic syndrome indicators among Korean children 9 years of age ( 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- risk is 2.1-2.7 times higher in women with the highest circulating oestrogen levels, a cohort study showed. (cancerresearchuk.org)
- Several observational studies have shown improvements in beta cell function, insulin sensitivity, and whole-body inflammation with higher levels of Vitamin D. (bodybuilding.com)
- Recent studies have shown people with increased CRP levels and normal cholesterol have a several-fold higher risk of heart problems. (fitlink.com)
- When excess blood sugar is present, the pancreas stimulates production of higher levels of insulin to move the excess sugar into your cells. (fitlink.com)
- Though rare, as mutations may occur at any time in any patient, the overall message of this review to clinicians may be: recent clinical studies strongly suggests that the normality of physiological functions might be a better indicator of the health status than the serum levels of vitamin D metabolites. (bireme.br)
- 3. Define the contributions of vitamin D absorption, metabolism, and genetic variation in regulating the circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and other metabolites. (usda.gov)
- The first procedure involves an extraction of 25-OH-D and other hydroxylated metabolites from serum with acetonitrile. (cdc.gov)
- 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels and the risk of stroke: a prospective study and meta-analysis. (nih.gov)
- These data provide evidence that low vitamin D levels are modestly associated with risk of stroke. (nih.gov)
- Dose-response relationship between blood levels of 25(OH)D and risk of stroke. (nih.gov)
- The solid line represents point estimates of the association between 25(OH)D levels and stroke risk, and the dotted lines are 95% CIs. (nih.gov)
- Background Low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 are associated with an increased risk of respiratory tract infections (RTIs). (bmj.com)
- Data from observational studies suggest that low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 are associated with an increased risk of respiratory tract infections. (bmj.com)
- PDF] Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level Could Predict the Risk for Peritoneal Dialysis-Associated Peritonitis. (semanticscholar.org)
- Dr Nita Forouhi, at the Medical Research Council (MRC) Epidemiology Unit at the University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, UK, and colleagues examined the link between diabetes risk and vitamin D by assessing the genes that control blood levels of vitamin D. (eurekalert.org)
- The one sample mendelian randomisation analysis using the total genetic risk score as an instrument did not provide strong evidence of a linear effect of 25-hydroxyvitamin D on the risk of gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia: odds ratio 0.90 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 1.03) and 1.19 (0.92 to 1.52) per 10% decrease, respectively. (bmj.com)
- 11 Several factors have been identified that increase the risk of obesity among refugees, including length of stay in the host country 12-14 , level of acculturation to U.S. lifestyles 15-17 , existing cultural beliefs and values 18 , and poor quality of housing. (cdc.gov)
- Based on previous findings regarding the association between vitamin D and albuminuria, we postulated that low vitamin D levels might be a potential risk factor for high-normal UAE. (biomedcentral.com)
- Epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that high levels of vitamin D, a potent immunomodulator, may decrease the risk of multiple sclerosis. (nih.gov)
- To examine whether levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are associated with risk of multiple sclerosis. (nih.gov)
- Among blacks and Hispanics (109 cases, 218 controls), who had lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels than whites, no significant associations between vitamin D and multiple sclerosis risk were found. (nih.gov)
- The results of our study suggest that high circulating levels of vitamin D are associated with a lower risk of multiple sclerosis. (nih.gov)
- Low vitamin D status is a significant risk factor for cardiometabolic disease in U.S. adults based on standardized serum 25(OH)D results, irrespective of ethnic background. (springer.com)
- Objectives Low serum vitamin D levels have been associated with risk for certain malignancies, but studies have not directly analysed levels between community oncology and primary care practices. (bmj.com)
- 2 However, those who are instructed to habitually minimise sun exposure following a diagnosis of skin cancer may also be at particular risk. (mja.com.au)
- Research suggests that sufficient vitamin D levels in adulthood may significantly reduce the risk for many types of cancer, including colon, breast, ovarian, and prostate. (bodybuilding.com)
- However, mortality risk was similar for across all free 1.25(OH) 2 D and DBP quintiles. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
- OBJECTIVE: To determine vitamin D levels among children 6 to 23 months old receiving services from Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) programs in Alaska.Study design During 2001 and 2002, we recruited 133 children receiving services at seven WIC clinics, administered a risk factor questionnaire, and collected blood. (arctichealth.org)
- TY - JOUR T1 - Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and the risk of mild cognitive impairment and dementia: the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA). (unboundmedicine.com)
- The minimum concentration of vitamin D in the blood and reduced risk of fractures was 74 nM of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Furthermore, the authors stated that the use of vitamin D 2 does not reduce fractures in older adults. (lww.com)
- Not only that, at least one study found treating people with normal LDL cholesterol and high CRP levels led to a reduction in their risk of heart attacks. (fitlink.com)
- 2 , 10 , - , 13 To date, only 1 study has investigated relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and physical activity in adolescents. (aappublications.org)
- We measured 25(OH)D levels among 464 women who developed ischemic stroke and an equal number of control subjects who were free of stroke through 2006 in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS). (nih.gov)
- In addition, the investigators were able to demonstrate in an intra-individual half-body trial that topical administration of an immunostimulatory 1,25-(OH)2-vitamin-D3 analogue calcipotriol reduced PLE symptoms in an experimental study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- We will also study the effect of oral vitamin D3 on abnormalities i) of levels and function of regulatory T cells, ii) chemotaxis of leucocytes, and iii) proinflammatory cytokines, i.e. alterations that have been previously linked to PLE pathogenesis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- This study seeks to determine if a correlation exists between vitamin D levels in the serum as measured by 25-hydroxyvitamin D and serum PSA in male veterans with prostate cancer. (omicsonline.org)
- Data for this study are from the 2001 to 2002 and 2003 to 2004 cycles when both serum vitamin D levels and ANA ( n = 3,041) were measured. (aacrjournals.org)
- Aim of the study was to explore the association of vitamin D levels with prevalent DM in a sample of predominantly healthy working adults older than 45 years. (medsci.org)
- The study included 2 groups-a case group and a control group. (spineuniverse.com)
- This study examined standardized 25(OH)D data from five cycles of the NHANES (2001-2010). (springer.com)
- our study population had low serum vitamin D levels at admission, with a mean [(standard error of the mean (SEM)] of 12.04 (1.03) ng/mL. (isciii.es)
- A growing number of scientists who study vitamin D levels in human populations now recommend annual blood tests to check vitamin D status. (prohealth.com)
- NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - A single 45,000-IU dose of vitamin D3 given every 4 weeks is as safe as smaller daily or weekly doses and is as effective in achieving protective levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, according to a study conducted in Israel. (massagemag.com)
- Our study sought to analyse vitamin D levels in large outpatient oncology and primary care centres. (bmj.com)
- We calculated incidence rates based on the number of confirmed cases over the product of the length of the study period (2 years) and the estimates of the population by age group. (cmaj.ca)
- 307. Braig S, Urschitz MS, Rothenbacher D , Genuneit J. Changes in children's sleep domains between 2 and 3 years of life - the Ulm SPATZ Health Study. (uni-ulm.de)
- 2 , 8 , 9 A direct relationship between physical activity levels and vitamin D metabolism has been recognized in adults, although the data are inconsistent. (aappublications.org)
- 2.A. Conduct a dose-finding trial of the musculoskeletal benefits of bicarbonate in older adults. (usda.gov)
- Life Extension recommends that adults check their blood levels and supplement with enough vitamin D3 to achieve optimal blood levels. (prohealth.com)
- Epidemiologic studies have suggested that sunlight exposure is linked to lower cancer risks [ 2 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- 2 Exposure to sunlight corrects some deficiencies, but adequate dosing depends on latitude, skin pigmentation, and age. (aafp.org)
- Vitamin D is synthesized in the skin in response to sunlight exposure, but few people achieve optimal levels this way, in part due to the limited ultraviolet light available during the winter months. (prohealth.com)
- Information about the exposure of humans to NP and BPA is still scarce, especially regarding levels in human blood. (arctichealth.org)
- 1 ) waist circumference measured at the umbilicus of ≥40 inches in men and ≥35 inches in women, 2 ) family history of diabetes in first-degree relatives, 3 ) hypertension (either being treated or newly diagnosed at screening of ≥140/90 mmHg), and 4 ) history of gestational diabetes mellitus. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Individuals with diabetes ( 1 - 6 ) and prediabetes ( 6 - 8 ) have lower serum 25-OH vitamin D (25-OHD) levels than those without either. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Racial/ethnic minorities have reduced serum 25-OHD levels, with African Americans having lower levels than Caucasians and Hispanic/Latino Americans having intermediate levels ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- These newborns were thus exposed to lower levels of UV rays in their prenatal and perinatal periods. (greatplainslaboratory.com)
- This locus was associated with lower BMI at the first years of life and earlier adiposity rebound, followed by subsequent greater BMI gain from the end of infancy through childhood ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are prevalent among overweight and obese children and adolescents aged 6-18 years, according to recent nationally representative analyses conducted in the U.S. ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- It takes even lower levels of this hormone to prevent the common cold, influenza, and other communicable diseases. (naturalhealthperspective.com)
- Also, as a general rule of thumb, Vitamin D levels are noted as being lower during non-Summer months. (organicnewsroom.com)
- Finally, don't forget to lower stress levels by participating in daily relaxation techniques and 3 hours of moderate exercise per week. (fitlink.com)
- Our GWAS with a 79,366 discovery sample and a 40,562 replication sample replicates four previous loci and identifies two new genetic loci for serum levels of 25-hydrovxyvitamin D. We further find evidence for a shared genetic basis between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and autoimmune diseases. (nature.com)
- Vitamin D is well-known for its essential role in calcium homeostasis and bone health ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Dual-energy Xray absorptiometry documented markedly elevated bone mineral density in the lumbar spine but normal density in the hip (Table 2). (fluoridealert.org)
- Researchers assessed serum vitamin D levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in women with primary fibromyalgia (PFMS), and they compared them to healthy women. (spineuniverse.com)
- 2. Determine the effects of dietary acid-base balance on bone and muscle metabolism and function. (usda.gov)
- 2, 3 The maintenance of growth and bone health is a complex process that can be influenced not only by drugs, but also by the nutritional status of the patient and the underlying disease process. (bmj.com)
- GC may also impair the attainment of peak bone mass and delay growth through alterations in gonadal function at the level of the pituitary and through direct effects on the gonads. (bmj.com)
- Knowledge of these relationships is vital to understanding changes in the levels of the bone mineral-regulating hormones and other related homeostatic variations. (who.int)
- It plays a role in the health development of lung tissue and respiratory function, supports bone health and energy levels, and now is understood to reduce asthma attacks by as much as half, in some cases. (organicnewsroom.com)
- Since vitamin D is important to bone health, maintaining adequate levels is important. (endocrineweb.com)