25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).25-Hydroxyvitamin D 2: 9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.Calcifediol: The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Vitamin D Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)Cholecalciferol: Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.Hydroxycholecalciferols: Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.Ergocalciferols: Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.Dihydroxycholecalciferols: Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D 3: A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhances the calcemic effect of CALCITRIOL.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.Vitamin D-Binding Protein: An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.Rickets: Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.Sunlight: Irradiation directly from the sun.Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Receptors, Calcitriol: Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Osteomalacia: Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Skin Pigmentation: Coloration of the skin.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Bone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Cholestenes: Steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched 8-carbon chain at C-17. Members include compounds with any degree of unsaturation; however, CHOLESTADIENES is available for derivatives containing two double bonds.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Hypoparathyroidism: A condition caused by a deficiency of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH). It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA and hyperphosphatemia. Hypocalcemia leads to TETANY. The acquired form is due to removal or injuries to the PARATHYROID GLANDS. The congenital form is due to mutations of genes, such as TBX1; (see DIGEORGE SYNDROME); CASR encoding CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTOR; or PTH encoding parathyroid hormone.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Dehydrocholesterols: Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.BostonHypercalcemia: Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Adrenodoxin: An iron-sulfur protein which serves as an electron carrier in enzymatic steroid hydroxylation reactions in adrenal cortex mitochondria. The electron transport system which catalyzes this reaction consists of adrenodoxin reductase, NADP, adrenodoxin, and cytochrome P-450.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.NebraskaUnited StatesDouble-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary: Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hyperparathyroidism: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Hypocalcemia: Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Mongolia: The country is bordered by RUSSIA on the north and CHINA on the west, south, and east. The capita is Ulaanbaatar.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Hyperparathyroidism, Primary: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE due to parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. It is characterized by the combination of HYPERCALCEMIA, phosphaturia, elevated renal 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis, and increased BONE RESORPTION.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Hip Fractures: Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).Parathyroid Glands: Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.Bone Diseases, MetabolicBone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Fat Substitutes: Compounds used in food or in food preparation to replace dietary fats. They may be carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based. Fat substitutes are usually lower in calories but provide the same texture as fats.Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-2: An LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEIN found in the neuroepithelium and in proximal tubular cells of the kidney. It is considered a multiligand receptor in that it binds to a variety of ligands with relatively high affinity and may function in mediating the uptake and lysosomal degradation of macromolecules such as: LIPOPROTEINS; ENDOPEPTIDASES; and PROTEASE INHIBITORS.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Renal Insufficiency, Chronic: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.FinlandHypophosphatemia, Familial: An inherited condition of abnormally low serum levels of PHOSPHATES (below 1 mg/liter) which can occur in a number of genetic diseases with defective reabsorption of inorganic phosphorus by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This leads to phosphaturia, HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA, and disturbances of cellular and organ functions such as those in X-LINKED HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS; OSTEOMALACIA; and FANCONI SYNDROME.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Vitamin K: A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Surgery Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers all departmental functions and the provision of surgical diagnostic and therapeutic services.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Calcitonin: A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Frail Elderly: Older adults or aged individuals who are lacking in general strength and are unusually susceptible to disease or to other infirmity.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Pregnancy, Twin: The condition of carrying TWINS simultaneously.Femur Neck: The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Clothing: Fabric or other material used to cover the body.Sunscreening Agents: Chemical or physical agents that protect the skin from sunburn and erythema by absorbing or blocking ultraviolet radiation.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Republic of Korea: The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal: Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Pacific Islands: The islands of the Pacific Ocean divided into MICRONESIA; MELANESIA; and POLYNESIA (including NEW ZEALAND). The collective name Oceania includes the aforenamed islands, adding AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND; and the Malay Archipelago (INDONESIA). (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p910, 880)Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.GeorgiaSwine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).NorwayFerredoxins: Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Malabsorption Syndromes: General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Meta-Analysis as Topic: A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Receptors, Steroid: Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.Vitamin K 1: A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).MassachusettsGenotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.PennsylvaniaChina: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Phagocytes: Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.TritiumBody Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Picornaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the PICORNAVIRIDAE.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
  • OBJECTIVE To quantitatively assess the strength and shape of the association between blood 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and incident risk of type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Prospective observational studies that assessed the association between blood levels of 25(OH)D and risk of incident type 2 diabetes were included for meta-analysis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • RESULTS A total of 21 prospective studies involving 76,220 participants and 4,996 incident type 2 diabetes cases were included for meta-analysis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Comparing the highest to the lowest category of 25(OH)D levels, the summary relative risk for type 2 diabetes was 0.62 (95% CI 0.54-0.70). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS Our meta-analysis showed an inverse and significant association between circulating 25(OH)D levels and risk of type 2 diabetes across a broad range of blood 25(OH)D levels in diverse populations. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Population studies have provided further support to the hypothesis that low vitamin D status, as assessed by circulating 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels, is associated with impaired β-cell function, insulin resistance, and impaired glucose intolerance and thereby may be associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes ( 4 - 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Recently, several prospective observational studies have reported a significant association between high circulating levels of 25(OH)D and lower incidence of type 2 diabetes ( 11 - 17 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Assessment of possible threshold levels of 25(OH)D will greatly advance our understanding of the magnitude and shape of the association of vitamin D with incidence of type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Chaudhuri J R, Mridula K R, Lingaiah A, Balaraju B, VCSBandaru S. Low Serum Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Association with Type 2 Diabetes in Indian Patients. (ac.ir)
  • The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and type 2 diabetes in South Indian patients. (ac.ir)
  • Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study, we recruited 150 patients with type 2 diabetes and 150 age and sex matched controls, Yashoda hospital, Hyderabad, India, from December 2011 to November 2013. (ac.ir)
  • This study evaluated the association between serum vitamin D levels and type 2 diabetes in Korean adults. (bvsalud.org)
  • Minimal studies have been conducted to investigate the phrenia and type 2 diabetes. (who.int)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) and insulin sensitivity and β -cell function in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. (hindawi.com)
  • 395 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients were enrolled in this study. (hindawi.com)
  • In conclusion, serum 25-OHD is associated with insulin sensitivity and β -cell function for female newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients, and the association is ambiguous in males. (hindawi.com)
  • Accumulated evidences indicated that abnormal vitamin D status is associated with the etiology of type 2 diabetes. (hindawi.com)
  • Compared with subjects with normal glucose tolerance, patients with type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) have lower vitamin D levels [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • However, the specific mechanisms by which vitamin D influences the risk of type 2 diabetes are not very clear. (hindawi.com)
  • Insulin resistance and deteriorated β -cell function are the two major pathophysiologic aspects of type 2 diabetes. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) and insulin sensitivity, β -cell function in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, using more predominant evaluation indicators of insulin resistance and β -cell function which were derived from oral glucose tolerance (OGTT). (hindawi.com)
  • A large genetic study, published today in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology journal, has concluded there is no evidence of a causal link between a person's vitamin D levels , and whether they develop type 2 diabetes. (eurekalert.org)
  • This evidence led to speculation that the development of type 2 diabetes is associated with vitamin D insufficiency. (eurekalert.org)
  • The authors found no association between different gene variants that control vitamin D levels and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Moreover, the study also examined the link between vitamin D status and several physiological characteristics of type 2 diabetes, such as glucose and glycated haemoglobin, and also found no evidence of a causative link. (eurekalert.org)
  • Observational studies that show a strong and consistent higher risk of type 2 diabetes with lower levels of vitamin D may do so because they have thus far not been able to adequately control for distorting or confounding factors, such as physical activity levels, that may be related both to vitamin D levels and to the risk of type 2 diabetes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our findings are in agreement with the results of randomised controlled trials, which provide a classic way to assess cause-effect relationships, and which have generally shown that type 2 diabetes was not prevented in individuals taking vitamin D supplements. (eurekalert.org)
  • While our current findings do not provide support for a causal role of vitamin D in the development of type 2 diabetes, we are far from done with this topic. (eurekalert.org)
  • Until then, we need to be cautious about vitamin D's potential role in the prevention of type 2 diabetes and stick to things that are proven to work - diet and exercise. (eurekalert.org)
  • The sky is becoming rather clouded for vitamin D in the context of preventing type 2 diabetes. (eurekalert.org)
  • African Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, American Indians, Alaska Natives, some Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and other Pacific Islanders are at particularly high risk for the development of type 2 diabetes ( 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Increasing evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a role in the development of chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (DM). (medsci.org)
  • The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased in industrial countries and is expected to reach a world-wide prevalence of 4.4% by 2030 [ 9 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Previous work also documents that the mean age of type 2 diabetes diagnosis has decreased in some settings from 52 to 46 years between 1988 and 2000 [ 10 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of metabolically related symptoms such as obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and carbohydrate intolerance, and significantly increases type 2 diabetes mellitus risk. (jci.org)
  • Determine the effects of dietary and supplemental vitamin D and related nutrients in the prevention and progression of musculoskeletal performance and dysfunction, glucose homeostasis and type 2 diabetes, and other chronic diseases. (usda.gov)
  • In collaboration with external laboratories, this laboratory seeks to determine the impact of vitamin D on risk of developing type 2 diabetes. (usda.gov)
  • Whether the change stems from obvious reasons, like losing weight because obesity has been the causal agent for developing type 2 diabetes , or per the advice of their physicians to cut out gluten and dairy following an autoimmune diagnosis, these steps are reactive versus proactive. (thepaleodiet.com)
  • Clearly, we can take preventative measures to lower our risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes by leading an active lifestyle, veering away from the typical, highly refined Standard American Diet (SAD), and implementing a Paleo diet. (thepaleodiet.com)
  • Type 2 diabetes can lead to some devastating long-term complications, including nerve damage, heart disease, eye damage and vision loss, and kidney failure. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D may play a significant role in reducing the risk for type 2 diabetes-especially in those who are at an increased risk for this deadly disease. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Several observational studies have shown improvements in beta cell function, insulin sensitivity, and whole-body inflammation with higher levels of vitamin D. A recent study calculated the risk of developing type 2 diabetes according to baseline vitamin D status and found those with the highest baseline levels had a 38 percent lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared to those with the lowest vitamin D levels. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Metabolite profiling in identifying metabolic biomarkers in older people with late-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus. (uni-ulm.de)
  • To examine the associations between vitamin D receptor polymorphisms ( FokI and TaqI ) and Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and its associated chronic complications in postmenopausal women. (dovepress.com)
  • provide one answer by using patient electronic medical records (EMRs) and genotype data from Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York to characterize new subtypes of type 2 diabetes (T2D). (sciencemag.org)
  • Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a heterogeneous complex disease affecting more than 29 million Americans alone with a rising prevalence trending toward steady increases in the coming decades. (sciencemag.org)
  • https://nutrition.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/breastfeeding-feature-image.jpg 980 1280 Debbie Fetter https://nutrition.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/asn-logo-2.gif Debbie Fetter 2017-04-04 10:15:24 2017-04-23 20:49:13 Does Breastfeeding Make You Smarter? (nutrition.org)
  • 2016 Aug 25;375(8):794-8. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • The secondary objective was to identify other factors affecting increase in serum 25-OH-VitD. (mdpi.com)
  • The monthly dose produced an initial transient increase in serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D after the first, but not the second dose. (massagemag.com)
  • The hormonally active form of vitamin D is 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH) 2 D]. Binding of 1,25(OH) 2 D to the vitamin D receptor has been shown to increase differentiation and decrease proliferation in different cell types, including breast and breast cancer cells ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 25-Hydroxy vitamin D is the storage form of vitamin D. Vitamin D assists in maintaining bone health by facilitating calcium absorption. (labcorp.com)
  • The metabolically active form of vitamin D, 1,25-di-hydroxy vitamin D, which has a short life, is then synthesized in the kidney as needed from circulating 25-hydroxy vitamin D. The reference interval of greater than 30 ng/mL is a target value established by the Endocrine Society. (labcorp.com)
  • Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels indicative of vitamin D sufficiency: implications for establishing a new effective dietary intake recommenda. (nih.gov)
  • Vitamin D intake and plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were measured longitudinally. (nih.gov)
  • Proportional hazards regression analyses of time to IA, or type 1 diabetes in IA-positive children, were conducted, with vitamin D intake and 25(OH)D as time-varying covariates. (nih.gov)
  • Neither vitamin D intake nor 25(OH)D levels throughout childhood were associated with the risk of IA or progression to type 1 diabetes in our population. (nih.gov)
  • Serum 25(OH)D was determined, anthropometric measurements taken and dietary vitamin D intake estimated (food-frequency questionnaire). (who.int)
  • Significant relationships were found between serum 25(OH)D and gender, skin tone and vitamin D intake. (who.int)
  • Vitamin D from sunshine on the skin or from dietary intake is converted predominantly by the liver into 25-hydroxy vitamin D, which has a long half-life and is stored in the adipose tissue. (labcorp.com)
  • Before the advent of modern treatment for peptic ulcer disease (with H 2 -receptor antagonists, proton-pump inhibitors and antimicrobial therapy), excessive calcium intake related to over-the-counter (OTC) antacid preparations commonly caused hypercalcaemia. (mja.com.au)
  • A series of nationally representative health and nutrition surveys (1988, 1999, 2006, 2012) have shown a "polarized model of nutrition transition" in Mexico 1 characterized by a rapid increase in nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, a reduction of infectious diseases 2 , excessive energy intake and reductions in physical activity 3 . (isciii.es)
  • Scientific opinion on the tolerable upper intake level of vitamin D. EFSA J. 2012;10(7):2813. (springer.com)
  • If sun exposure is limited because of northern latitude, darker skin, sun block or lifestyle choice, vitamin D levels can be maintained through the intake of supplements and foods that contain vitamin D (either naturally or fortified). (cmaj.ca)
  • Therefore, to extend our previous findings and better understand the genetic architecture underlying serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, as well as test for interactions between dietary vitamin D intake and genetic factors, we conducted a large-scale GWAS meta-analysis on this important vitamin. (nature.com)
  • July 4, 2012 - Those older than 65 years who take high doses of vitamin D lower their risk of suffering a fracture by from 14% to 30%, according to a pooled analysis that demonstrated fracture risk reduction only at the highest level of vitamin D intake. (medscape.com)
  • After establishing homogeneity among the 11 individual trials for both end points overall, as well as at the actual vitamin D intake level, the research team pooled the individual participant-level data and used Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis to assess the incidence of hip fracture or any nonvertebral fracture. (medscape.com)
  • Conclusions In individuals initiating chronic hemodialysis, low baseline levels of hCAP18, a vitamin D-regulated antimicrobial protein, are independently associated with an increased risk of death attributable to infection. (omega-research.com)
  • In consequence, it activates a vicious circle that impairs homeostasis of the skin and results in a progressive decrease in the level of vitamin D in the whole human body. (termedia.pl)
  • 1 ) waist circumference measured at the umbilicus of ≥40 inches in men and ≥35 inches in women, 2 ) family history of diabetes in first-degree relatives, 3 ) hypertension (either being treated or newly diagnosed at screening of ≥140/90 mmHg), and 4 ) history of gestational diabetes mellitus. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D3-3-bromoacetate regulates AKT/mTOR signaling cascades: a therapeutic agent for psoriasis. (termedia.pl)
  • Vitamin D is well-known for its essential role in calcium homeostasis and bone health ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Dual-energy Xray absorptiometry documented markedly elevated bone mineral density in the lumbar spine but normal density in the hip (Table 2). (fluoridealert.org)
  • Researchers assessed serum vitamin D levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in women with primary fibromyalgia (PFMS), and they compared them to healthy women. (spineuniverse.com)
  • 2. Determine the effects of dietary acid-base balance on bone and muscle metabolism and function. (usda.gov)
  • 2, 3 The maintenance of growth and bone health is a complex process that can be influenced not only by drugs, but also by the nutritional status of the patient and the underlying disease process. (bmj.com)
  • GC may also impair the attainment of peak bone mass and delay growth through alterations in gonadal function at the level of the pituitary and through direct effects on the gonads. (bmj.com)
  • Knowledge of these relationships is vital to understanding changes in the levels of the bone mineral-regulating hormones and other related homeostatic variations. (who.int)
  • It plays a role in the health development of lung tissue and respiratory function, supports bone health and energy levels, and now is understood to reduce asthma attacks by as much as half, in some cases. (organicnewsroom.com)
  • Since vitamin D is important to bone health, maintaining adequate levels is important. (endocrineweb.com)