Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Waist Circumference: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.Intra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Waist-Hip Ratio: The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Subcutaneous Fat: Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.Skinfold Thickness: The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Obesity, Abdominal: A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.Body Fat Distribution: Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.Viscera: Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Subcutaneous Fat, Abdominal: Fatty tissue under the SKIN in the region of the ABDOMEN.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Body Constitution: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Hyperphagia: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.TriglyceridesCohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Adipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Puberty: A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Receptors, Leptin: Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 4: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in BRAIN. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH; BETA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Pediatric Obesity: BODY MASS INDEX in children (ages 2-12) and in adolescents (ages 13-18) that is grossly above the recommended cut-off for a specific age and sex. For infants less than 2 years of age, obesity is determined based on standard weight-for-length percentile measures.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Mice, Inbred C57BLRegression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Electric Impedance: The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.Western World: A historical and cultural entity dispersed across the wide geographical area of Europe, as opposed to the East, Asia, and Africa. The term was used by scholars through the late medieval period. Thereafter, with the impact of colonialism and the transmission of cultures, Western World was sometimes expanded to include the Americas. (Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Republic of BelarusBlood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Agouti-Related Protein: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Adipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin: A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Glucose Clamp Technique: Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
  • METHODS: Plasma ghrelin levels were measured in overnight fasting plasma samples from 36 female patients with anorexia nervosa (age: 25.0+/-1.2 years, BMI: 15.2+/-0.2 kg/m(2)) before and after weight gain following psychotherapeutic treatment intervention in a psychosomatic institution. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Both measured and self-reported data were used to examine adiposity (including body mass index (BMI), abdominal obesity, waist-to-hip ratio and fat mass) and food frequency questionnaires were used to assess diet quality. (mdpi.com)
  • High plasma apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels have been shown to be associated with hypertension, central obesity, and insulin resistance in cross-sectional research. (e-enm.org)
  • Background Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4/A-FABP/aP2) is secreted from adipocytes in association with catecholamine-induced lipolysis, and elevated serum FABP4 level is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Inflammatory marker levels have long been associated with obesity status in adult populations, but relevant data are scarce in children, especially in diverse races. (edu.au)
  • The aim of this study was thus to examine the association between overall and central obesity and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in Cypriot children of Greek ancestry. (edu.au)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Obesity is associated with increased hs-CRP levels in 6-12 year-old children, a finding that supports the inflammation-obesity hypothesis at an early stage of life. (edu.au)
  • Obesity is associated with elevated plasma leptin levels, but some studies have suggested that insulin sensitivity is an additional determinant of circulating leptin concentrations. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The relationships among obesity, metabolic syndrome, ED, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and serum total and free testosterone levels are complex and often confusing to the physician. (nature.com)
  • low serum SHBG levels in obesity contribute to the low serum total testosterone. (nature.com)
  • Obesity is associated with low total testosterone levels that can be explained at least partially by lower sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in obese men. (nature.com)
  • Given the relationships among dietary fiber, gut health and chronic disease risk, a study was undertaken in a preclinical mouse model for obesity to examine how commonly consumed pulses, i.e., chickpea, common bean, dry pea and lentil, would impact gut microbes, intestinal function, and adiposity. (mdpi.com)
  • Thompson, H.J. Pulse Crop Effects on Gut Microbial Populations, Intestinal Function, and Adiposity in a Mouse Model of Diet-Induced Obesity. (mdpi.com)
  • Low levels of energy expenditure and aerobic fitness have been hypothesized to be risk factors for obesity. (aappublications.org)
  • Decreasing levels of physical activity in the school day, combined with living in communities where resources are limited or built environments are not conducive to unsupervised outdoor play, is often identified as a contributing factor to the obesity epidemic among children and adolescents (3-6). (cdc.gov)
  • Levels of obesity were high in all groups, but the children from the most income deprived and least income deprived areas were less likely to be obese than those in the middle. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The media generally reported the research accurately, with most highlighting that the results challenge the currently held view (based on previous evidence) that obesity levels rise in line with higher levels of deprivation in a relatively linear fashion. (www.nhs.uk)
  • A cross-sectional study is a good way of establishing obesity levels at a particular point in time. (www.nhs.uk)
  • For example, if obesity is found to be linked to different levels of deprivation, local health promotion resources can be targeted proportionately at the groups most in need. (www.nhs.uk)
  • It was also set up to monitor obesity levels in the city. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Overweight, obesity, and adiposity are commonly used terms. (nap.edu)
  • TUESDAY, Aug. 18, 2020 (HealthDay News) -- Bariatric surgery is associated with a reduction in mortality, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is effective for blood pressure (BP) control in patients with hypertension and obesity, according to two studies published online Aug. 18 in the Annals of Internal Medicine . (healthday.com)
  • Associations between sports participation, adiposity and obesity-relat" by Stewart A. Vella, Dylan P. Cliff et al. (edu.au)
  • Excess maternal circulating nutrients, as in maternal obesity and gestational diabetes, have been associated with fetal overgrowth (macrosomia) and greater adiposity at birth (Catalano et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The primary objective of the proposed study is to investigate the effect of glucose levels in pregnancy on skinfold thickness (adiposity) in infancy as a marker of future obesity and diabetes in offspring. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Objectives As a secondary analysis of the BEACHeS study, we hypothesised there would be sex differences in Pakistani and Bangladeshi school children when examining adiposity and their response to an obesity intervention. (bmj.com)
  • Serum CRP levels increased with age, were higher in women than in men, and were positively related to obesity and hyperglycemia. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although high levels of leptin (corresponding to obesity condition) alone had no effect on Leydig cells' steroidogenic genes expression, it downregulated cAMP-dependent activations of the cholesterol transporter Star and of the rate-limiting steroidogenic enzyme Cyp11a1. (deepdyve.com)
  • As such, defining obesity based on population-specific percentiles rather than using cut-off points derived from other geographical settings with contrasting levels of socio-economic development becomes imperative. (uwi.edu)
  • Increased adiposity (obesity) raises serum resistin levels, which in turn directly correlate to insulin resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although considerable research exists examining these relationships, few studies have applied a socioecological approach to simultaneously examine both micro- and macro-level factors in young children while objectively assessing adiposity via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). (elsevier.com)
  • In both sexes, the most significant increase in adiposity levels occurred among the eutrophic group, followed by the overweight group and obese group. (celafiscs.org.br)
  • The program was designed to address the declining levels of school-based physical education across the school district, where only 20% of middle school students were receiving daily physical education and more than 40% of middle school youth were considered overweight or obese (16). (cdc.gov)
  • Despite policies and action plans put in place by countries at a global level, overweight continues to be a pressing public health issue and one of the key drivers of non-communicable diseases in OECD countries and beyond. (oecd-ilibrary.org)
  • The differences in mean leptin levels between underweight and overweight males (P = 0.006), as well as between healthy-weight and overweight males (P = 0.011) were statistically significant. (wellnessresources.com)
  • OBJECTIVE -To investigate the association between stature-related measurements (height, leg length, and leg length-to-height ratio) and adiposity, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We, therefore, analyzed data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) ( 23 ) to test the hypothesis that shorter height and leg length, and lower leg length-to-height ratio, are independently associated with greater likelihood of adiposity, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance in the general U.S. adult population. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The epidemic can be sustained and augmented through transgenerational transmission of adiposity and glucose intolerance in women. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We investigated if maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain (GWG) and newborn adiposity, were associated with fetal autonomic nervous development as indicated by fetal heart rate variability (HRV) and newborn behavior. (ku.edu)
  • Further studies are needed to elucidate the impact of maternal and fetal/newborn adiposity on fetal neurodevelopment. (ku.edu)
  • If this relation is causal, it may be mediated through factors associated with maternal adiposity, such as fetal development, pregnancy complications or infant adiposity. (bmj.com)
  • Infant adiposity gain was associated with persistent wheeze, but not significantly. (bmj.com)
  • Adjusting for infant adiposity gain or BMI at 3 or 6 years did not reduce the association between maternal adiposity and transient wheeze. (bmj.com)
  • 6 Therefore, although it has been proven that among persons with diabetes who have lower A1C levels there are fewer deaths, heart attacks, and microvascular complications, there is not yet conclusive evidence that lowering A1C levels through exercise leads to a corresponding risk reduction in patient-oriented outcomes (a benefit that has been demonstrated for tight control of blood pressure and lipid levels in patients with diabetes). (aafp.org)
  • Adiposity, lipid levels, and brief endurance training in nonobese adolescent males. (health.gov)
  • Growth patterns throughout infancy, in particular small birth size for gestational age and rapid postnatal weight gain have been associated with cardiovascular risk factors in both children and young adults, including abnormal lipid levels and elevated BP. (ahajournals.org)
  • We measured triceps, biceps, subscapular and supra-iliac skinfolds and the sum of skinfolds was used for analysis representing overall neonatal adiposity. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although adiposity is a recognized risk factor for vitamin D deficiency, the inverse relationship between adiposity and vitamin D status has been not well established in the pediatric population, particularly among adolescents. (aappublications.org)
  • CONTEXT: Recently, studies using a social ecological perspective have identified important micro- and macro-level risk factors for excessive adiposity in youth. (elsevier.com)
  • If the latter is true these adiposity-related risk factors changes might mediate the association of childhood SEP with adult CHD. (nature.com)
  • Sarcopenia, or low levels of skeletal muscle mass, is a highly prevalent though largely unrecognized risk factor for overall mortality in women with stage II and III nonmetastastic breast cancer , an observational study suggests. (medscape.com)
  • Conversely, the risk for death was increased regardless of the level of total adiposity among patients with sarcopenia compared with patients with no sarcopenia and low total adiposity levels. (medscape.com)
  • Objective To evaluate the strength and validity of the evidence for the association between adiposity and risk of developing or dying from cancer. (bmj.com)
  • 4 In the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study, a 1 percent lower A1C level was associated with a 21 percent lower risk of death related to diabetes, a 14 percent lower risk of myocardial infarction, and a 37 percent lower risk of microvascular complications. (aafp.org)
  • Conclusion A lower neck shaft angle is a risk factor for, and adiposity is associated with, GTPS in women. (bmj.com)
  • Our results suggest that even in a very lean population (average BMI = 21.9), abdominal adiposity may be associated with an increased risk of clinical prostate cancer, pointing to a role of hormones in prostate cancer etiology. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Two male study groups were enrolled to characterize adiposity or hypertriglyceridemia showing that these men were at baseline risk for hypertension . (scirp.org)
  • Vasan, R.S. (2005) Rela-tive importance of borderline and elevated levels of coronary heart disease risk factors. (scirp.org)
  • Aggregation of cardiometabolic risk factors is already observed at young ages, with a nonlinear association with enhancement of adiposity. (intechopen.com)
  • Among the men with the highest levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the blood, there was a 72% reduction in the risk of sudden cardiac death when compared to the men with the lowest levels of these substances in their blood (Albert et al. (lifeextension.com)
  • Are definitions of adiposity appropriate for identification of CVD risk in South Asian populations? (reading.ac.uk)
  • Men and women whose diet score, physical activity level, smoking status, and alcohol use were all in the low-risk group had ORs for diabetes of 0.61 (CI, 0.56 to 0.66) and 0.43 (CI, 0.34 to 0.55), respectively. (annals.org)
  • For the physical activity rates, the total energy expenditure (TEE), the habitual physical activity level (HPAL), the physical activity level (PAL) and the activity energy expenditure (AEE) were calculated through the Bouchard questionnaire and the basal metabolic rate (BMR) was determined through the Schofield-HW equation. (scielo.br)
  • Resting, total, or activity-related energy expenditure did not predict increasing adiposity. (aappublications.org)
  • Analyzed variables were: body mass (kg), height (cm) and adiposity levels (mm). (celafiscs.org.br)
  • However, it is unclear whether apoB levels predict future hypertension independent of body composition and insulin sensitivity. (e-enm.org)
  • Two research papers published online today in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition showed two parts of the relationship between body weight and vitamin D levels. (dsm.com)
  • Thus in the population, of healthy and fit older adults, an increase in body fat suggesting good appetite might relate to higher levels of cognitive function. (hindawi.com)
  • First, despite evidence that exercise reduces adiposity in patients with type 2 diabetes, exercise should not be recommended as a primary means for weight loss (particularly short-term weight loss) because of the lack of a short-term net reduction in body mass index. (aafp.org)
  • Baseline levels of abdominal, gynoid and total body fat were measured by DXA. (diva-portal.org)
  • A commonly used body composition model organizes the body to five levels of increasing complexity: from atomic to molecular, cellular, tissue-system, and whole body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • At the atomic level, the body is made up of chemical elements essential for life. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Two alternate groupings of these components used to describe body composition at the molecular level are the division of the body into a fluid and a dry component. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The whole body level of organization involves physical characteristics, such as body size and shape. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Compared with ob / ob mice, double-null animals had increased basal body temperature, improved response to cold exposure, lower plasma glucocorticoid levels, improved glucose tolerance, and reduced expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1). (pnas.org)
  • Participants 1090 pupils (aged 5-7 years old) from school year 1 and 2 were allocated at school level to receive an intervention. (bmj.com)
  • A systematic review of studies in contemporary populations of children from high-income countries found that most studies show socioeconomic differentials in adiposity, with those from more deprived socioeconomic backgrounds being more adipose. (nature.com)
  • Dyslipidemia is characterized by elevated levels of triglycerides, apolipoprotein B (apoB), and small low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles and by reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 [ 7 ]. (e-enm.org)
  • CRP levels were measured using a high-sensitivity (hs) immunoassay. (edu.au)
  • they should be concerned about a woman's muscle level as it is as important a prognosticator as high adiposity for survival," Caan emphasized. (medscape.com)
  • Konty KJ, Larkin M, Saha S, Wyka K. Individual-Level Fitness ant impact on child absenteeism over time, particularly in high- and Absenteeism in New York City Middle School Youths, need subgroups. (cdc.gov)
  • Third, reductions in A1C levels were noted across a wide range of activity levels-from low-intensity, once-weekly qigong to high-intensity progressive resistance training. (aafp.org)
  • 4 , 5 Among Canadian children and youth, it is estimated that 4% have high or borderline blood pressure (BP) 6 and 35% have unfavorable levels of total cholesterol. (ahajournals.org)
  • Mean leptin levels were more than twice as high in females than in males of corresponding weight status, especially among females of healthy weight who exhibited levels that were 5.7 times higher. (wellnessresources.com)
  • Extracellular-superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is a secretory glycoprotein located in blood vessel walls at high levels and may be important in the antioxidant capability of vascular walls. (semanticscholar.org)
  • High-fructose diet decreases catalase mRNA levels in rat tissues. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Thus, as a result of high leptin levels interacting with its receptor and modulating the activity of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway, the activity of transcription factors important for steroidogenic genes expressions may be inhibited in Leydig cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • Our results suggest that STAT transcriptional activity is downregulated by high levels of leptin, leading to reduced cAMP-dependent steroidogenic genes (Star and Cyp11a1) expressions in MA-10 Leydig cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • Similar to other studies, although with varying degrees, the present study confirms that log10 SF4:BMI at conventional cut-off points has a relatively high sensitivity and specificity in detecting excess adiposity, and therefore could be used to identify the excess adiposity in South African children. (uwi.edu)
  • 5 However, this study did not demonstrate that therapies targeted to reduce A1C levels improved patient-oriented outcomes. (aafp.org)
  • ED is a common symptom in patients with type 2 diabetes who also have low testosterone levels. (nature.com)
  • A 65-year-old woman with new-onset type 2 diabetes and an A1C level of 8 percent wants to know if she can control her diabetes without taking medications or insulin. (aafp.org)