Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.Alcoholic Beverages: Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.Alcoholic Intoxication: An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Benzyl Alcohols: Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.Benzyl Alcohol: A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Alcohol Deterrents: Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.Polyvinyl Alcohol: A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.Temperance: Habitual moderation in the indulgence of a natural appetite, especially but not exclusively the consumption of alcohol.Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium: An acute organic mental disorder induced by cessation or reduction in chronic alcohol consumption. Clinical characteristics include CONFUSION; DELUSIONS; vivid HALLUCINATIONS; TREMOR; agitation; insomnia; and signs of autonomic hyperactivity (e.g., elevated blood pressure and heart rate, dilated pupils, and diaphoresis). This condition may occasionally be fatal. It was formerly called delirium tremens. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1175)Binge Drinking: Drinking an excessive amount of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES in a short period of time.Propanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).Beer: An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Amino Alcohols: Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.1-Propanol: A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.tert-Butyl AlcoholUniversities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System: Acute and chronic neurologic disorders associated with the various neurologic effects of ETHANOL. Primary sites of injury include the brain and peripheral nerves.Alcohol-Induced Disorders: Disorders stemming from the misuse and abuse of alcohol.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Butanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).Phenylethyl Alcohol: An antimicrobial, antiseptic, and disinfectant that is used also as an aromatic essence and preservative in pharmaceutics and perfumery.Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.United StatesPentanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).2-Propanol: An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.Hexanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Alcohol Withdrawal Seizures: A condition where seizures occur in association with ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) without other identifiable causes. Seizures usually occur within the first 6-48 hours after the cessation of alcohol intake, but may occur during periods of alcohol intoxication. Single generalized tonic-clonic motor seizures are the most common subtype, however, STATUS EPILEPTICUS may occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1174)Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Sugar Alcohols: Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.RussiaNational Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts research focused on improving the treatment and prevention of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems to reduce the health, social, and economic consequences of this disease. NIAAA, NIMH, and NIDA were created as coequal institutes within the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration in 1974. It was established within the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH in 1992.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Naltrexone: Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.Marijuana Abuse: The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Marijuana Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.Cardiomyopathy, Alcoholic: Disease of CARDIAC MUSCLE resulting from chronic excessive alcohol consumption. Myocardial damage can be caused by: (1) a toxic effect of alcohol; (2) malnutrition in alcoholics such as THIAMINE DEFICIENCY; or (3) toxic effect of additives in alcoholic beverages such as COBALT. This disease is usually manifested by DYSPNEA and palpitations with CARDIOMEGALY and congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Energy Drinks: Beverages consumed as stimulants and tonics. They usually contain a combination of CAFFEINE with other substances such as herbal supplements; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; and sugar or sugar derivatives.Psychotherapy, Brief: Any form of psychotherapy designed to produce therapeutic change within a minimal amount of time, generally not more than 20 sessions.Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Psychoses, Alcoholic: A group of mental disorders associated with organic brain damage and caused by poisoning from alcohol.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Benzyl CompoundsPrenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Alcoholics: Persons who have a history of physical or psychological dependence on ETHANOL.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Flushing: A transient reddening of the face that may be due to fever, certain drugs, exertion, stress, or a disease process.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Social Conformity: Behavioral or attitudinal compliance with recognized social patterns or standards.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.1-Butanol: A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.Alcoholics Anonymous: An organization of self-proclaimed alcoholics who meet frequently to reinforce their practice of abstinence.BenzaldehydesPsychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Motion Pictures as Topic: The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.KetonesPancreatitis, Alcoholic: Acute or chronic INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS due to excessive ALCOHOL DRINKING. Alcoholic pancreatitis usually presents as an acute episode but it is a chronic progressive disease in alcoholics.Harm Reduction: The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.EstersInterview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Substance Abuse Treatment Centers: Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.Social Problems: Situations affecting a significant number of people, that are believed to be sources of difficulty or threaten the stability of the community, and that require programs of amelioration.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1: An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Pharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Social Control, Informal: Those forms of control which are exerted in less concrete and tangible ways, as through folkways, mores, conventions, and public sentiment.Cholestanols: Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Waxes: A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)Law Enforcement: Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Disulfiram: A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)JapanMass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Republic of BelarusSubstrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.FinlandChi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.CaliforniaCocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Octanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases: Reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of sugar alcohols to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2. and EC 1.1.99.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
... four-level building constructed in 1895. There is a triangle of museums downtown, with the Terre Haute Children's Museum and ... largely due to the role of corn in making alcoholic beverages and food items. ... and has evolved into a group of paid professional musicians who complete auditions to demonstrate their skill level. A series ...
The politics and management of the city is dominated by the Workers' Party of Korea, as they are in the national level. The ... In 2018, there were many high quality restaurants in Pyongyang with Korean and international food, and imported alcoholic beverages ... compulsory literature and experimental data for state-level use in a digital format.[83] ...
The addition of yeast to the bread explains the air pockets commonly found in bread.[9] Owing to its high levels of gluten ( ... The yeast most commonly used for leavening bread is Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the same species used for brewing alcoholic beverages ... Hunter, Gary; Carey, Patrick; Tinton, Terry; Walpole, Steven (2007). Professional Chef: Level 2 Diploma. Cengage Learning EMEA ...
Level of Response to Alcohol and Brain Response during Visual Working Memory. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. 692-700. Belcastro ... The results were that young people who report having needed more alcohol to feel the effects showed higher levels of brain ... This study looked at the neural correlated of the low level of response to alcohol using functional magnetic resonance imaging ... Another study conducted in 2004 examined the level of response to alcohol and brain response during visual working memory. ...
Has a weakness for alcohol. Swivel-eye Smith - a level-headed cowboy with crossed eyes. Crazy Mouth Nick Dury - a transplanted ...
p. 52: "... right-wing 'camp' on a comic strip level." And "... the planes enjoy a more active sex life than the humans ..." ... and a shot of a policeman consuming an alcoholic beverage in a café. Paramount president Adolph Zukor agreed to suppress the ...
Her blood alcohol level was 0.17. After pleading guilty, she was fined, and her driver's license was suspended for 90 days. ... White was arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol after she stopped at a toll booth and failed to proceed when the ...
Editing levels of ApoB mRNA have been shown to vary in response to changes in diet. exposure to alcohol and hormone levels. ... Mice overexpressing mApoB have increased levels of LDL "bad cholesterol" and decreased levels of HDL "good cholesterol". Mice ... High levels of ApoB are related to heart disease. Hypobetalipoproteinemia is a genetic disorder that can be caused by a ... It is well established that ApoB100 levels are associated with coronary heart disease, and are even a better predictor of it ...
His blood-alcohol level was 0.11. The legal limit in North Carolina is 0.08. Redick was released on a $1,000 bond shortly after ... On June 13, 2006, Redick was arrested and charged with driving under the influence of alcohol in Durham County, North Carolina ...
Toxicology reports have stated that Alm had a blood alcohol-level of .14, over the .10 legal limit. Lynch's blood-alcohol level ... According to the report by Joseph A. Jachimczyk, Chief Medical Examiner for Harris County, the barbiturate level was within ...
... alcohol by volume. The name "second distillation" indicates its level of purity. It is a clear, potent spirit and takes six ... "Red Star - Alcohol for the masses -". Alessandrodetoni.com. Retrieved 29 July 2017. [1][permanent dead link] "A Guide to ... also known as Chinese white liquor is a Chinese alcoholic beverage. It is a type of baijiu made from sorghum. The most famous ... Chinese Alcohol". Lostlaowai.com. Retrieved 2012-08-22. Liquor portal Drink portal. ...
He died of alcohol poisoning. Let It Scream (1991) Encino Man OST (1992) Takin' It To The Next Level (1993; unreleased) S'cool ...
Ator NA (2000). "Zaleplon and triazolam: drug discrimination, plasma levels, and self-administration in baboons". Drug Alcohol ... It should not be used while in pregnancy or lactation, and in patients with a history of alcohol or drug abuse, psychotic ... The combination of alcohol and zaleplon can result in fatal respiratory depression and asphyxiation from vomiting.[citation ... Neither zaleplon, nor any nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic class medication should be combined with alcohol, as both modulate GABAA ...
At the parish level a parish is called församling.[27] A more archaic term for a parish in Swedish is socken, which was used ... alcoholic beverages are sold in Sweden by a government monopoly). This escalated to a point where its ministers even were ... Anders Wejryd, Archbishop (2012). 2011 Review and financial summary for the Church of Sweden, national level (First ed.). ...
This is what ecologists call the first trophic level.[69] The modern forms of the major staple foods, such as hemp, teff, maize ... Most alcoholic beverages come from fermentation of carbohydrate-rich plant products such as barley (beer), rice (sake) and ... At each of these levels, a botanist may be concerned with the classification (taxonomy), phylogeny and evolution, structure ( ... Ozone depletion can expose plants to higher levels of ultraviolet radiation-B (UV-B), resulting in lower growth rates.[112] ...
They also poured alcohol down her throat. Test results showed she had an almost fatal blood alcohol level. A local resident ... The prosecutor said in his opening statement that head trauma and her 0.35 blood alcohol level interfered with her memory of ... She stated she had never consumed alcohol previously, and that she did not drink from a bottle of brandy the men had with them ... who were drinking alcohol in a dark courtyard on campus. The female victim drank an undetermined amount of brandy by choice, ...
Alcohol is distilled at the household level. It is made out of fruits like grapes, apple, pear etc. grown locally and of barley ... Taking of alcoholic drinks in their day-to-day life and also on the ceremonial or festive occasions is quite common among them ...
... s of low alcohol levels are widely available, mostly brands imported from Sweden; carbonated soft drinks with no alcoholic ... alcoholic cider is an alcoholic fermentation of apple juice that does not contain more than 13% absolute alcohol by volume (ABV ... Malnick, Edward (29 March 2014). "Hidden levels of sugar in alcohol revealed". The Telegraph. Retrieved 20 July 2014. ... The other type, alcoholic sidra, is a sparkling cider typically sold in Champagne-style bottles with an alcohol content ...
... may also lead to a rise of phenobarbitone blood levels. Alcohol must not be consumed during treatment. Vomiting, ... The addition of sulthiame to phenytoin therapy has shown to be followed by a rise in the serum levels of phenytoin. ... After discovering sultiame's ability to raise the blood levels of phenytoin, it was assumed that sultiame would only act in ...
Malnick, Edward (29 March 2014). "Hidden levels of sugar in alcohol revealed". The Telegraph. Retrieved 20 July 2014. Thring, ... In March 2014, two lower-alcohol flavours were added: Bulmers Cider Five Fruit Harvest and Bulmers Cider Indian Summer, number- ...
These levels accommodate differences in fitness. An unfit individual may require a level 10 effort to walk briskly uphill, ... Limiting consumption of butter, cheese, mayonnaise, alcoholic beverages, and high fat salad dressings. ... Body for Life uses a "wave" pattern, periodically building up from level 5 to level 9 or 10 during an exercise session. This ... Weights for each set should be chosen so that the specified number of repetitions can be achieved at the specified level of ...
Poulos, C. X.; Le, A. D.; Parker, J. L. (1995). "Impulsivity predicts individual susceptibility to high levels of alcohol self ... in E. Gottheil, K. Druley, T. Skodola, H. Waxman (eds.),Etiology Aspects of Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Springfield, Ill.: Charles ... although some studies have reported that high-rate discounters are more likely to consume alcohol and cocaine than lower-rate ... Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 56 (1): 25-32. doi:10.1016/S0376-8716(99)00010-1. PMID 10462089. ...
Cowey, A., Dean, P., & Weiskrantz, L. (1998). Ettlinger at Bay: can visual agnosia be explained by low-level visual impairments ... with the one of people with damages resulting from alcohol abuse. George Ettlinger was one of the few who actively combined ... Alcohol and Alcoholism Supplement. 2: 281-9. PMID 8974348. Milner, A. D. (1998). Introduction: Comparative Neuropsychology. ...
Driving under the influence of alcohol or narcotics. 10 points. 10 points. Driving with a blood alcohol level beyond the set ...
Thiazides work best for renal leak hypercalciuria (high urine calcium levels), a condition in which high urinary calcium levels ... There are no conclusive data demonstrating a cause-and-effect relationship between alcoholic beverage consumption and kidney ... Serum uric acid level at or below 6 mg/100 ml) is often a therapeutic goal. Hyperuricemia is not necessary for the formation of ... The drug is also used in people with gout or hyperuricemia (high serum uric acid levels).[83] Dosage is adjusted to maintain a ...
... refers to the bodily responses to the functional effects of ethanol in alcoholic beverages. This includes direct tolerance, speed of recovery from insobriety and resistance to the development of alcoholism. Alcohol tolerance is increased by regular drinking. This reduced sensitivity requires that higher quantities of alcohol be consumed in order to achieve the same effects as before tolerance was established. Alcohol tolerance may lead to (or be a sign of) alcohol dependency. Heavy alcohol consumption over a period of years can lead to "reverse tolerance". A liver can be damaged by chronic alcohol use, leading to a buildup of fat and scar tissue. The reduced ability of such a liver to metabolize or break down ...
Alcohol in pregnancy is the use of alcohol (also known formally as ethanol) during gestation. This also includes the time period between conception and awareness of the pregnancy. Alcohol use not only can result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), but it can result in one or many other disorders and conditions. Not all women who consume alcohol during pregnancy will have a baby with all of the features and characteristics of FASP. Alcohol use during pregnancy also can cause spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, low birthweight, and prematurity. Not all infants exposed to alcohol in utero will have defects related to the alcohol consumption. Alcohol use during pregnancy can also result in the inability to ...
... deals with the effects of the consumption of alcohol on sexual behavior. The effects of alcohol are balanced between its suppressive effects on sexual physiology, which will decrease sexual activity, and its suppression of psychological inhibitions, which may increase the desire for sex. Alcohol is a depressant. After consumption, alcohol causes the body's systems to slow down. Often, feelings of drunkenness are associated with elation and happiness but other feelings of anger or depression can arise. Balance, judgment, and coordination are also negatively affected. One of the most significant short term side effects of alcohol is reduced inhibition. Reduced inhibitions can lead to an increase in sexual behavior. Men's sexual behaviors can be affected dramatically by alcohol. Both chronic and acute ...
The short-term effects of alcohol (also known formally as ethanol) consumption-due to drinking beer, wine, distilled spirits or other alcoholic beverages-range from a decrease in anxiety and motor skills and euphoria at lower doses to intoxication (drunkenness), stupor, unconsciousness, anterograde amnesia (memory "blackouts"), and central nervous system depression at higher doses. Cell membranes are highly permeable to alcohol, so once alcohol is in the bloodstream it can diffuse into nearly every cell in the body. The concentration of alcohol in blood is measured via blood alcohol content (BAC). The amount and circumstances of consumption play a large part in determining the extent of intoxication; for example, eating a heavy meal before alcohol consumption causes ...
Wine, beer, distilled spirits and other alcoholic drinks contain ethyl alcohol and alcohol consumption has short-term psychological and physiological effects on the user. Different concentrations of alcohol in the human body have different effects on a person. The effects of alcohol depend on the amount an individual has drunk, the percentage of alcohol in the wine, beer or spirits and the timespan that the consumption took place, the amount of food eaten and whether an individual has taken other prescription, over-the-counter or street drugs, among other factors. Alcohol in carbonated drinks is absorbed faster than alcohol in non-carbonated drinks.[15]. Drinking enough to cause a blood alcohol concentration ...
The alcohol laws of the United States regarding minimum age for purchase have changed over time. In colonial America, generally speaking, there were no drinking ages, and alcohol consumption by young teenagers was common, even in taverns.[1] In post-Revolutionary America, such laxity gradually changed due to religious sentiments (as embodied in the temperance movement) and a growing recognition in the medical community about the dangers of alcohol.[1] The more modern history is given in the table below. Unless otherwise noted, if different alcohol categories have different minimum purchase ages, the age listed below is set at the lowest age given (e.g. if the purchase age is 18 for beer and 21 for wine or spirits, as was the case in several states, the age in the table will read as "18", not "21"). In addition, the purchase age is not necessarily the same as the minimum age ...
There is no global consensus on recommended maximum intake (or safe limits) of the drug alcohol (also known formally as ethanol). The guidelines provided by health agencies of governments are varied and are shown below. These recommendations concerning maximum intake are distinct from any legal restrictions (e.g. driving after consuming alcohol) that may apply in those countries. The American Heart Association recommends that those who do not already consume alcoholic beverages should not start doing so because of the negative long-term effects of alcohol consumption. The recommended limits for daily or weekly consumption provided in the various countries' guidelines generally apply to the average healthy adult. However, many guidelines also set out numerous conditions under which alcohol intake should be further restricted or eliminated. ...
Finland has a history of more effective public health interventions than most countries have been able to achieve. The total annual alcohol consumption has risen from 7.6 litres (in 1985) to 10.0 litres of 100% alcohol equivalent per capita in 2010. There has been a small reduction in alcohol consumption in the recent years. Alcohol use is highest in the Northern Finland with 10,9 liters and lowest at the Åland Islands with 5,7 liters per person. Although the consumption is average to other western countries, binge drinking with especially teenagers and becoming intoxicated has remained as a characteristic of Finnish drinking habits. Finland has a national alcohol programme to reduce the long-term effects of alcohol. The World Health Organization has published a list of countries by ...
... " is the fourteenth episode of the second season of the television series Glee, and the thirty-sixth overall. The episode was written by Ian Brennan, directed by Eric Stoltz and first aired in the United States on Fox on February 22, 2011. This episode mainly centers on the issues of underage drinking, as the students of McKinley High School are coming drunk to school in increasing numbers. Principal Figgins (Iqbal Theba) plans an assembly to warn the students about the dangers on underage drinking, and asks glee club director Will Schuester (Matthew Morrison) to have his students perform a song that send positive messages about avoiding alcohol. Rachel Berry (Lea Michele) throws a party for the glee club students where almost everyone gets drunk; the partygoers wake up to hangovers, and must perform various songs about alcohol while still under the influence. The assembly ends abruptly when a song that seems to glorify ...
... , or heavy episodic drinking, is a modern epithet for drinking alcoholic beverages with an intention of becoming intoxicated by heavy consumption of alcohol over a short period of time. Binge drinking is a style of drinking that is popular in several countries worldwide, and overlaps somewhat with social drinking since it is often done in groups. The degree of intoxication, however, varies between and within various cultures that engage in this practice. A binge on alcohol can occur over hours, last up to several days, or in the event of extended abuse, even weeks. Due to the long-term effects of alcohol misuse, binge drinking is considered to be a major public health issue. Binge drinking is associated with a profound social harm, economic costs as well as increased disease burden. Binge drinking is more common in males, during adolescence and young adulthood. Heavy ...
In chemistry, alcohol is a general term which refers to many organic compounds used in industry and science as reagents, solvents, and fuels. Alcohols are carbohydrates which are made of an alkyl group with one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups bound to its carbon atoms. Alcohol is colorless, and also transparent. ...
... is a braid term fir proablems wae alcohol, an generally is uist tae mean compulsive an uncontrollable consumpt o alcoholic drink, mair awften than no tae the detriment o the drinker's ane weel bein, persoanl relationships, an social staundin. It is medically considert tae be an ailment, specifically an addictive illness, an in psychiatry sevral ither terms ir uised an aa, specifically "alcohol abuse" an "alcohol dependence," which differ in lik bi definition.[1] In 1979 an expert Wurld Healt Organization committee discurit the uiss o "alcoholism" in medicine, preferrin the category o "alcohol dependence syndrome".[2] In the 19t an early 20t centuries, alcohol dependence in general wis cawd dipsomania, but noo that term haes a mair specific meanin.[3] Fouk ailin frae ...
Most states decided on the age 21 after prohibition, but the 26th amendment allowed individuals 18 and older to vote and serve in Vietnam, so several states lowered the drinking age as well. However, President Ronald Reagan, who was influenced by groups such as Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) and Remove Intoxicated Drivers (RID), decided to federally enforce a 21+ drinking age by signing the National Minimum Drinking Age Act of 1984.[8] He believed that doing so would decrease the number of accidents related to drunk driving, because he said that states with a drinking age of 21+ did not have as many drunk driving accidents. Reagan said that although he wished states would create their own legislation to increase the drinking age, a federal law had to be implemented to avoid blood borders, or teenagers driving to the nearest state with a lower drinking age. [9] Reagan threatened states with withholding 5% of federal funding for highways if they did not comply with increasing the drinking ...
The lifetime prevalence of other substance-induced psychoses in Finland is low,15 reflecting the low levels of illegal drug use ... Alcohol-induced psychotic syndrome in alcohol dependence. The lifetime prevalence of AIPS among participants who were alcohol- ... 11 In alcohol treatment settings, 2-7% of patients with alcohol dependence had alcohol hallucinosis,8,9 5-11% delirium tremens, ... Alcohol has a central role in substance use disorders,1 and alcohol use disorders are associated with a considerable burden in ...
CONCLUSIONS:CAPE has the effect of anti-hepatic fibrosis, which can be realized through adjusting the expression level of iNOS ... RESULTS:Compared with the model group, the expression of NO and iNOS was decreased obviously and the level of H2S and CSE was ... Phenylethyl Alcohol - chemistry, Rats, Rats, Sprague-Dawley ... which can be realized through adjusting the expression level of ... RESULTS: Compared with the model group, the expression of NO and iNOS was decreased obviously and the level of H2S and CSE was ...
Definition of Alcoholic cardiomyopathy, symptoms of Alcoholic cardiomyopathy, treatment of Alcoholic cardiomyopathy, and ... prevention of Alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Exams and Tests Alcoholic cardiomyopathy. ... Eventually, nutritional problems involving thiamine, phosphorus, potassium, or magnesium levels may require treatment. ... Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a consequence of years of excessive alcohol use. Do not use alcohol in excess. If you drink heavily ...
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States should reduce the level of blood-alcohol qualifying as drunken driving to .05%, in an effort to reduce fatal crashes, ... Make DUI limit 0.05% blood-alcohol level, NTSB says. States should reduce the level of blood-alcohol qualifying as drunken ... Make DUI limit 0.05% blood-alcohol level, NTSB says States should reduce the level of blood-alcohol qualifying as drunken ... Make DUI limit 0.05% blood-alcohol level, NTSB says. Bart Jansen, USA TODAY Published 12:01 p.m. ET May 14, 2013 , Updated 1:48 ...
Level of excess drinking of alcohol is underes... Level of excess drinking of alcohol is underestimated. 27 February 2013 ...
Good hydrations: Is there a safe level of alcohol?. For many of us its an essential social and creative lubricant - yet its ... Booze is bad. But what about the steady trickle of findings that suggest, in moderate amounts, it may have some benefits? There ... Alcohol plays a central role in socialising in many cultures, especially at this time of year. In December, consumption is 41 ... Each year, alcohol-related crime costs the UK a whopping £11 billion, and the countrys National Health Service spends £3.5 ...
A study of alcohol use and its effects on health in 195 countries during 1990-2016 concludes that there is no safe level of ... A comprehensive worldwide study of alcohol use and its impact on health concludes that the safest level of consumption is zero. ... The Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 has calculated levels of alcohol use and its effects on health during 1990-2016 in 195 ... Alcohol may prime the brain for Alzheimers, but how?. A recent study reveals how alcohol may put the brain at risk by ...
The highest level offender is considered to have a blood alcohol level of .16 and higher. ... Ryan Dunns blood alcohol level was well over the legal limit, according to West Goshen, Pa., police who released the results ... Toxicology results to help determine the role alcohol might have played in the crash will not be released for 4 to 6 weeks, ... In 2003, the state lowered the limit from .10 to .08 and created three levels of DUI. ...
Hospital tests found a "highly elevated" blood alcohol level in the body of a Louisiana State University student whose death ... The lengthy report also digs deep into the scandal and gives a rare look at the inner workings of the highest level of ... Alexander said police are investigating allegations that alcohol was a factor in Gruvers death, and that he wasnt aware of ...
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017 Jun 1;175:219-226. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.02.011. Epub 2017 Apr 13. ... Area-level disadvantage and alcohol use disorder in northern Mexico.. Orozco R1, Benjet C2, Ruiz Velasco-Acosta S3, Moreno ... Future studies of alcohol use in this geographic area should consider effects of contextual determinants such as disadvantage. ... Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017 Jun 1;175:219-226. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.02.011. Epub 2017 Apr 13. ...
Use online BAC calculator to estimate your BAC level.The basic formula for estimating a persons blood alcohol concentration ... A persons blood-alcohol level is the result of a complex interaction of weight, gender, alcohol consumed, and time. ... However, many variables can affect how quickly alcohol enters your blood, raising your blood-alcohol level. One drink in a ... BAC Level. Effects from Alcohol. 0.02 - 0.03 BAC. No loss of coordination, slight euphoria and loss of shyness. Mildly relaxed ...
These resources provide information needed to estimate blood alcohol level, including variables like gender,weight, and amount ... Blood Alcohol Level and BAC Calculator Info. How Alcohol Works. The effects on the body of alcohol vary from person to person. ... Blood Alcohol Level Charts. Online Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) chart.. Online BAC Calculator and Information. A quick-and ... and extensive information concerning the effects of different levels of alcohol on the individual. ...
... old baby girl Sapphire died with an alcohol level in her tiny body which was more than six times the legal blood alcohol limit ... Pathologist Dr Simon Stables carried out a post-mortem examination which revealed the high level of alcohol in Sapphires heart ... He said the alcohol findings were difficult to explain as no alcohol was found in the stomach. ... However, she said: The main advice, if you are pregnant or breastfeeding, is not to consume alcohol because alcohol passes ...
... Summary. The determination of blood ethanol concentration in a deceased pilot is an ... Comparison of levels of these three specimens is probably the ideal means of interpreting blood alcohol concentrations. If none ... The finding of an elevated blood alcohol level in such a case may have significant implications, both medico-legal and social. ... It is known that micro-organisms involved in the process of putrefaction after death can produce alcohol, usually a mixture of ...
Drinking a glass or two of alcohol daily raises peoples good blood cholesterol levels, but numerous medical organizations do ... Details of Alcohol/HDL Studies. The studies linking alcohol to better HDL cholesterol levels show that wine, beer and liquor ( ... Some studies show that alcohol increases HDL-2 and HDL-3 levels, but other studies show that only HDL-3 levels increase, ... Drinking a glass or two of alcohol daily raises peoples good blood cholesterol levels, but numerous medical organizations do ...
Its used to see if youve been drinking more than the legal alcohol limit. You may also be tested if youre suspected of ... A blood alcohol test measures the level of alcohol in your blood. ... What is a blood alcohol test?. A blood alcohol test measures the level of Alcohol in your blood. Most people are more familiar ... Have alcohol poisoning, a life-threatening condition that happens when your blood alcohol level gets very high. Alcohol ...
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Does drinking alcohol affect the lithium levels? Im in no means an alcoholic because I have never even tried alcohol but I ... Does drinking alcohol affect the lithium levels? Im in no means an alcoholic because I have never even tried alcohol but I ... Does drinking alcohol affect the lithium levels? Im in no means an alcoholic because I have never even tried alcohol but I ... ALCOHOL IS A DEPRESSANT. ALCOHOL IS A BLOOD THINNER. ALCOHOL HAS MOOD ALTERING PROPERTIES. ALCOHOL WITHOUT PRESCRIPTIONS CAN BE ...
... a driver can test his blood alcohol level with new apps that not only give a reading but can call a cab. ... and can estimate when a users blood alcohol level will return to zero. Users can also share their blood alcohol levels through ... "Just checking blood alcohol levels can help you be more aware of your body. If you blow 0.02 percent or 0.04 percent you might ... TORONTO (Reuters) - Before getting behind the wheel after a night out, a driver can test his blood alcohol level with new apps ...
Elevated Blood Lead Levels Associated with Illicitly Distilled Alcohol -- Alabama, 1990-1991 The use of automobile radiators ... Occupational lead poisoning in the United States: clinical and biochemical findings related to blood lead levels. Br J Ind Med ... From March 5 through October 26, 1991, eight persons were diagnosed with elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) at a local hospital ... Reported by: T Dix, S Walker, MD, Crenshaw County Hospital, Luverne; D Cosby, Alabama Alcohol Beverage Control, Andalusia; CH ...
Vineyard practices and climate change have yielded wines with high alcohol levels that used to be seen only in New World ... In the rare case that a wine has enough fruit richness and fresh acidity to support such high levels of alcohol, I dont take ... Vineyard practices and climate change have yielded wines with high alcohol levels that used to be seen only in New World ... Growers have other options to cap alcohol levels, including managing the leaf canopy to protect grapes from the sun, reducing ...
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2000 Mar;24(3):259-64. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P.H.S.; ... Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2000 Mar;24(3):259-64.. Effect of chronic alcohol consumption on total plasma homocysteine level in rats. ... Alcohol-fed rats also had a significantly lower hepatic S-adenosylmethionine and higher hepatic S-adenosylhomocysteine levels. ... Chronic alcohol consumption produces hyperhomocysteinemia by a mechanism that is related to interference with one-carbon ...
A South Dakota woman who prosecutors say had a blood-alcohol level almost nine times the legal driving limit has pleaded guilty ... with a blood alcohol level at 0.708. The legal limit in South Dakota is 0.08. Officials have said Engles blood alcohol level ... Woman with .708 blood-alcohol level pleads guilty. Wednesday. Jan 20, 2010 at 12:01 AM Jan 20, 2010 at 2:00 PM ... STURGIS, S.D. (AP) -- A South Dakota woman who prosecutors say had a blood-alcohol level almost nine times the legal driving ...
The study, published Wednesday in Advances of Pediatric Research, found that the risk of damage to a fetus from alcohol isnt ... A new study by University of Washington Medicine found there is no safe level of alcohol consumption by women who are pregnant ... SEATTLE -- A new study by University of Washington Medicine found there is no safe level of alcohol consumption by women who ... "Given that, the only safe level of alcohol consumption for a mother during pregnancy is none at all.". ...
  • CAPE has the effect of anti-hepatic fibrosis, which can be realized through adjusting the expression level of iNOS and CSE. (medscimonit.com)
  • A report on the inquest into the baby's death on January 2, 2017, in Ahipara in New Zeland, has been released today with Coroner Debra Bell stressing the importance that breastfeeding mothers should not consume alcohol at any stage. (northernstar.com.au)
  • The D02.J Ballot passed all levels of ASTM technical scrutiny: ASTM D02.J subcommittee (8 November 2017), ASTM D02 Main committee on Petroleum Products, Liquid Fuels, and Lubricants (18 March 2018) and ASTM General Society Review (1 April 2018). (greencarcongress.com)
  • We therefore incorporated gene-alcohol interactions into a multiancestry genome-wide association study of levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. (lu.se)
  • Studies in the 'New England Journal of Medicine,' the journal 'Circulation' and in the journal 'Alcohol' documented that moderate amounts of alcohol can raise high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, otherwise known as 'good' cholesterol. (livestrong.com)
  • To avoid tipping the alcohol scale too far in a harmful direction, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that only moderate amounts of alcohol are consumed. (livestrong.com)
  • In a Sept. 14, 2016 text message exchange between the group's president Brendan Young and Vice President of Risk Management Michael Angelo Schiavone, Young ordered Schiavone to purchase large amounts of alcohol prior to one of their acceptance meetings. (nydailynews.com)
  • Lastly, "H" is the period of time, in hours, that alcohol was eliminated from the body -- in other words, how quickly the alcohol finished going though the bloodstream and then was processed by the liver, thereby losing the potent affect of the alcohol itself. (avvo.com)
  • The important thing to remember here is that it takes (on average) between 30 minutes and an hour (sometimes longer) for all alcohol consumed to be absorbed into the bloodstream. (sciblogs.co.nz)
  • While Stables was uncertain about the cause of death, contributing factors included acute alcohol intoxication, dangerous sleeping environment, prematurity, possible septicaemia, and suffocation. (northernstar.com.au)
  • Coroner Bell said while there were a number of significant conditions contributing to Sapphire's death as well as the acute alcohol intoxication the case also highlighted the risks of bed sharing. (northernstar.com.au)
  • In the USA women who were heavy alcohol consumers were 5.6 times more likely to be in the highest 10% of the population for blood lead than teetotallers [consumers of no alchohol] (Lee et al 2005). (lead.org.au)
  • Early demand, with no regulation and strong encouragement, may have contributed to a heavy alcohol use. (wikipedia.org)
  • We all know Cabernet needs a certain degree of ripeness to succeed-especially if the winemaker vows not to use intrusive alcohol reduction methods, such as the spinning cone. (steveheimoff.com)
  • The widely held view of the health benefits of alcohol needs revising, particularly as improved methods and analyses continue to shed light on how much alcohol contributes to global death and disability," Griswold said. (cbsnews.com)
  • though the range of methods by which it alters hepcidin levels is yet to be fully understood (Harrison-Findik 2009). (lead.org.au)
  • Pathologist Dr Simon Stables carried out a post-mortem examination which revealed the high level of alcohol in Sapphire's heart and a lesser amount in her liver. (northernstar.com.au)
  • They took brain, blood and liver samples and analyzed the DNA for methyl groups on the PCSK9 gene and PCSK9 protein levels in liver. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • But the mice given alcohol had lower PCSK9 protein levels in the liver. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Secondly long-term use of alcohol stimulates enzymes in the liver which convert testosterone into estradiol and also inhibits the manufacture of androgen receptors. (ergo-log.com)
  • Alcohol acutely will lower blood sugars by inhibiting glucose release from your liver and increasing inulin. (healthtap.com)
  • The higher the iron storage levels within the body are, the more hepcidin is produced by the liver and the less iron can be absorbed (Harrison-Findik 2009). (lead.org.au)
  • Administration of TS clearly increased the activity of NAD (H)-dependent enzymes such as lactate-(LDH), alcohol-, and aldehyde-dehydrogenase in rat liver cytosols. (scirp.org)
  • Reducing alcohol misuse is important to prevent premature death and serious negative health effects, such as alcoholic liver disease, which are big burden on our health system. (rehacare.com)
  • A survey of death certificates over a four-year period showed that deaths among Native Americans due to alcohol are about four times as common as in the general US population and are often due to traffic collisions and liver disease with homicide, suicide, and falls also contributing. (wikipedia.org)
  • An ethanol sensor embedded in the device detects alcohol on the breath and converts this into a signal, which the app processes. (reuters.com)
  • The device consists of a temporary tattoo-which sticks to the skin, induces sweat and electrochemically detects the alcohol level-and a portable flexible electronic circuit board, which is connected to the tattoo by a magnet and can communicate the information to a mobile device via Bluetooth. (ucsd.edu)
  • Vineyard practices and climate change have yielded wines with high alcohol levels that used to be seen only in New World bottlings. (winemag.com)
  • But the combination of these practices and climate change is increasing sugar levels in the grapes, which in turn yields wines with the high alcohol levels that used to be seen only in bottlings from the New World and in Amarone, a wine made with withered grapes. (winemag.com)
  • My collection of empty bottles of wines that I've particularly enjoyed shows many Barolos, Barbarescos and Brunellos from the 1980s and '90s with 13.5% alcohol by volume. (winemag.com)
  • Now, it is patently difficult to make low alcohol wines-let's say, the "12.5 to 13.5% [that] have…become popular," according to the WineLand article-in wine regions, like California, that are sunny and warm. (steveheimoff.com)
  • My hunch is that this "pressure internationally applied to produce wines with lower alcohol" is a temporary phenomenon. (steveheimoff.com)
  • We certainly have wineries with such equipment here in Australia but most of it is used in the lower price end of the market as well as those experimenting with producing low alcohol [7-10%] wines. (snooth.com)
  • The three tiers of Mondavi are Napa Valley at entry level, District wines from specific vineyards (e.g. (palatepress.com)
  • Lisa begins by saying that that the rise in alcohol levels in many wines is inexplicable. (wineanorak.com)
  • It appears that, to achieve the same physiological ripeness and qualities of wines we have known and loved in the past, we're having to accept wines at higher and higher alcohol levels, seemingly with every vintage. (wineanorak.com)
  • And yesterday I met with Francisco Baettig of Errazuriz who has brought alcohol levels down in their icon wines from close to 15% to bang on 14%, and the wines are better for it. (wineanorak.com)
  • If we want our wines to have proper flavour, she asserts, we are therefore going to have to live with higher alcohol levels. (wineanorak.com)
  • Lisa then proposes that one solution to these higher alcohol levels would be watering back wines, so that you can have ripe flavours and sensible alcohol levels. (wineanorak.com)
  • BATON ROUGE, La. - Hospital tests found a "highly elevated" blood alcohol level in the body of a Louisiana State University student whose death police are investigating as a possible result of fraternity hazing, a coroner said Friday. (nationalpost.com)
  • After receiving the post mortem report Coroner Bell asked police to get statements from Tua and Williams, seeking an explanation as to how Sapphire's blood alcohol levels could be so high. (northernstar.com.au)
  • Then, the sweat comes into contact with an electrode coated with alcohol oxidase, an enzyme that selectively reacts with alcohol to generate hydrogen peroxide, which is electrochemically detected. (ucsd.edu)
  • Ethanol reverses the impact of iron storage levels on most of these genes, so the alcohol-influenced body reacts to adequate iron as if it were iron deficient reducing hepcidin production to increase iron absorption (Crist et al 2007). (lead.org.au)
  • More than 1.2 million people were arrested in the United States in 2011 for driving under the influence of alcohol, according to Federal Bureau of Investigation data. (reuters.com)
  • For the first time, this research gives us an idea of how being under the influence of alcohol might contribute to our wellbeing later on,' said James Bisby, in Science Daily. (promises.com)
  • One could hypothesize that it could therefore balance the potential detrimental influence of alcohol on gait, by preventing damage to cerebral circulation. (hindawi.com)
  • For instance, a study performed among older adults failed to demonstrate any significant association between alcohol-related reduced cerebellar volume and features of ataxic gait [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • If they are soon stopped by the Police or involved in a road traffic incident then they may find their breath alcohol level is higher when they are stopped that it was when they were at the pub. (sciblogs.co.nz)
  • He said the alcohol findings were difficult to explain as no alcohol was found in the stomach. (northernstar.com.au)
  • Kokavec added that these findings also support their previously published theory that alcohol may activate a new energy system that was thought, until recently, to exist only in plants and other organisms that do not require oxygen. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our findings suggest that a significant number of attendees at professional sporting events may have elevated BAC levels, particularly young adults and those who participated in tailgating activities. (wiley.com)
  • Findings indicate that depression was not related to levels of circulating cytokines among patients in treatment, but that traumatized patients had higher levels of IL-1RA and TNF-α than patients without trauma experience. (springer.com)
  • These findings suggest that aqueous compound(s) in tomato promote alcohol metabolism, probably through increasing pyruvate level, enhancing LDH activity, and improving the ratio of NAD to NADH. (scirp.org)
  • The use of automobile radiators containing lead-soldered parts in the illicit distillation of alcohol (i.e., 'moonshine') is an important source of lead poisoning among persons in some rural Alabama counties. (cdc.gov)
  • Much effort was expended in the 1990 s, tracking possible sources of lead contamination in alcohol, notably lead seals on wine bottles and illicit liquor. (lead.org.au)
  • This study aims to compare and correlate the consumption estimates of pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine from wastewater analysis and other sources of information. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Published pharmaceutical sale, illicit drug seizure and alcohol, tobacco and caffeine use data were used for the comparison. (biomedcentral.com)