Levamisole: An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)Antinematodal Agents: Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.Pyrantel: A depolarizing neuromuscular-blocking agent, that causes persistent nicotinic activation resulting in spastic paralysis of susceptible nematodes. It is a drug of second-choice after benzimidazoles for treatment of ascariasis, hookworm, and pinworm infections, being effective after a single dose. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p920)Furylfuramide: Used formerly as antimicrobial food additive. It causes mutations in many cell cultures and may be carcinogenic.Ascaris suum: A species of parasitic nematode usually found in domestic pigs and a few other animals. Human infection can also occur, presumably as result of handling pig manure, and can lead to intestinal obstruction.Bephenium Compounds: Analogs or derivatives of bephenium (N,N-dimethyl-N-(2-phenoxyethyl)benzenemethanaminium).Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Veterinary Drugs: Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.Agranulocytosis: A decrease in the number of GRANULOCYTES; (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS).Oesophagostomum: A genus of nematodes of the superfamily STRONGYLOIDEA, parasitic in the intestines of animals. The adults are usually free in the intestinal lumen; the larvae encyst in the wall.Oxyuroidea: A superfamily of parasitic nematodes consisting of several genera. ENTEROBIUS, which occurs in humans, and Oxyuris, which occurs in horses, are two of the most common. Other genera are: Skrjabinema, Passalurus, Dermatoxys, and Probstmayria.Oxyuriasis: Infection with nematodes of the superfamily OXYUROIDEA.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.United StatesPubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Butyrylcholinesterase: An aspect of cholinesterase (EC Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Materia Medica: Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Consumer Product SafetyInvestigational New Drug Application: An application that must be submitted to a regulatory agency (the FDA in the United States) before a drug can be studied in humans. This application includes results of previous experiments; how, where, and by whom the new studies will be conducted; the chemical structure of the compound; how it is thought to work in the body; any toxic effects found in animal studies; and how the compound is manufactured. (From the "New Medicines in Development" Series produced by the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association and published irregularly.)Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Dosage Forms: Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.WisconsinAmphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Amphetamines: Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.OhioScheuermann Disease: A type of juvenile osteochondrosis affecting the fibrocartilaginous disc (INTERVERTEBRAL DISC) in the thoracic or thoracolumbar region of the SPINE. It is characterized by a forward concave SPINAL CURVATURE or KYPHOSIS.PhenylenediaminesPyrantel Pamoate: Broad spectrum antinematodal anthelmintic used also in veterinary medicine.Nicotinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC Tyrosine Phosphatases: An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Protein Phosphatase 2: A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.Protein Phosphatase 1: A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.

Resistance to levamisole resolved at the single-channel level. (1/354)

Levamisole is commonly used to treat nematode parasite infections but therapy is limited by resistance. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism of resistance to this selective nicotinic drug. Levamisole receptor channel currents in muscle patches from levamisole-sensitive and levamisole-resistant isolates of the parasitic nematode Oesophagostomum dentatum were compared. The number of channels present in patches of sensitive and resistant isolates was similar at 10 microM levamisole, but at 30 microM and 100 microM the resistant isolate contained fewer active patches, suggesting desensitization. Mean Po and open times were reduced in resistant isolates. The distribution of conductances of channels in the sensitive isolate revealed a heterogeneous receptor population and the presence of G25, G35, G40, and G45 subtypes. A G35 subtype was missing in the resistant isolate. Resistance to levamisole was produced by changes in the averaged properties of the levamisole receptor population, with some receptors from sensitive and resistant isolates having indistinguishable characteristics.  (+info)

One GABA and two acetylcholine receptors function at the C. elegans neuromuscular junction. (2/354)

We describe an electrophysiological preparation of the neuromuscular junction of the nematode C. elegans, which adds to its considerable genetic and genomic resources. Mutant analysis, pharmacology and patch-clamp recording showed that the body wall muscles of wild-type animals expressed a GABA receptor and two acetylcholine receptors. The muscle GABA response was abolished in animals lacking the GABA receptor gene unc-49. One acetylcholine receptor was activated by the nematocide levamisole. This response was eliminated in mutants lacking either the unc-38 or unc-29 genes, which encode alpha and non-alpha acetylcholine receptor subunits, respectively. The second, previously undescribed, acetylcholine receptor was activated by nicotine, desensitized rapidly and was selectively blocked by dihydro-beta-erythroidine, thus explaining the residual motility of unc-38 and unc-29 mutants. By recording spontaneous endogenous currents and selectively eliminating each of these receptors, we demonstrated that all three receptor types function at neuromuscular synapses.  (+info)

Quality of life as subjective experience: reframing of perception in patients with colon cancer undergoing radical resection with or without adjuvant chemotherapy. Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK) (3/354)

PURPOSE AND BACKGROUND: We examined whether patients with colon cancer undergoing surgery with or without adjuvant chemotherapy change the internal standards on which they base their quality-of-life (QL) estimation, and, if they do so, whether this reframing alters interpretation of QL findings. These questions were addressed within a randomized clinical trial of the Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK 40/93). PATIENTS AND METHODS: After radical resection of adenocarcinoma of the colon (pT1-4pN > 0M0 and pT3-4pN0M0) and perioperative chemotherapy, patients were randomized to three treatment arms: observation only (A), 5-FU 450 mg/m2 plus Levamisol (B), or 5-FU 600 mg/m2 (C). QL was measured by linear analogue self-assessment indicators. Patients estimated their pre-surgery QL both before surgery and retrospectively thereafter, and their pre-adjuvant QL both at the beginning of randomly assigned chemotherapy or observation and retrospectively about two months later. Thereafter, current QL was assessed. Paired t-tests were used to test the hypotheses of no change. RESULTS: Overall, 187 patients with at least one pair of corresponding questionnaires were analyzed. Patients estimated their pre-surgery QL after surgery significantly lower than before and their pre-adjuvant QL under treatment or observation also lower than at the beginning. In the adjuvant phase, in contradiction to our hypothesis, chemotherapy had almost no impact on these changes attributed to reframing. Conventionally assessed changes indicated an improvement in QL. Patients with treatment C reported less improvement in functional performance than those with B or those under observation (P = 0.04). Patients with treatment B indicated a greater worsening in nausea/vomiting than those with C, whereas patients with observation only showed an improvement (P = 0.0009). After adjustment of current QL scores under treatment or observation to patients' retrospective estimation, the treatment effects were diluted but the overall improvement was substantially amplified in most QL indicators. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with colon cancer substantially reframe their perception in estimating QL both under radical resection and under adjuvant chemotherapy or observation. This effect is an integral part of patients' adaptation to disease and treatment. An understanding of this phenomenon is of particular relevance for patient care. Its role in evaluating QL endpoints in clinical trials needs further investigation.  (+info)

Clinical trial to assess the relative efficacy of fluorouracil and leucovorin, fluorouracil and levamisole, and fluorouracil, leucovorin, and levamisole in patients with Dukes' B and C carcinoma of the colon: results from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project C-04. (4/354)

PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of leucovorin-modulated fluorouracil (FU+LV) with that of fluorouracil and levamisole (FU+LEV) or with the combination of FU+LV and levamisole (FU+LV+LEV). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between July 1989 and December 1990, 2,151 patients with Dukes' B (stage II) and Dukes' C (stage III) carcinoma of the colon were entered onto National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowl Project protocol C-04. Patients were randomly assigned to receive FU+LV (weekly regimen), FU + LEV, or the combination of FU+LV+LEV. The average time on study was 86 months. RESULTS: A pairwise comparison between patients treated with FU+LV or FU+LEV disclosed a prolongation in disease-free survival (DFS) in favor of the FU+LV group (65% v 60%; P =.04); there was a small prolongation in overall survival that was of borderline significance (74% v 70%; P =.07). There was no difference in the pairwise comparison between patients who received FU+LV or FU+LV+LEV for either DFS (65% v 64%; P =.67) or overall survival (74% v 73%; P =.99). There was no interaction between Dukes' stage and the effect of treatment. CONCLUSION: In patients with Dukes' B and C carcinoma of the colon, treatment with FU+LV seems to confer a small DFS advantage and a borderline prolongation in overall survival when compared with treatment with FU+LEV. The addition of LEV to FU+LV does not provide any additional benefit over and above that achieved with FU+LV. These findings support the use of adjuvant FU+LV as an acceptable therapeutic standard in patients with Dukes' B and C carcinoma of the colon.  (+info)

Anti-tumour and anti-metastatic activity of 3-(P-Chlorophenyl)-2,3-Dihydro-3-Hydroxythiazolo (3,2-A)-Benzimidazole-2-acetic acid (WY-13,876). (5/354)

Extensive investigation of 3-(p-chlorophenyl)-2,3-dihydro-3-hydroxythiazolo(3,2-alpha)-benzimidazole-2-aceti c acid (Wy-13,876) in BDF1 mice implanted with Lewis lung tumour has shown that it is an effective anti-tumour and anti-metastatic agent. In vitro examination using HEp-2 human epidermal tumour cells has indicated that Wy-13,876 is not cytotoxic. When mice implanted with Lewis lung tumour and treated with Wy-13,876 are also injected with anti-thymocyte serum, an increase in lung metastases is observed suggesting that thymocyte activity is involved in the drug's mechanism of action. An increase in peripheral T lymphocytes observed in rats 18 h after a single oral dose of Wy-13,876 further supports this possibility. When Wy-13,876 is given to tumour -bearing mice in combination with low, ineffective doses of 5-fluorouracil or cyclophosphamide, further reduction of primary tumour growth is observed.  (+info)

In vitro stimulation of murine lymphoid cell cultures by levamisole. (6/354)

Levamisole has been reported to act as an immunological adjuvant. Experiments reported here on the effect of this agent on a variety of murine lymphoid culture systems were designed to gain an insight into its mechanism of action. We have found levamisole to be a weak mitogen for mouse spleen cells producing a dose related response which peaks at 48 hr in culture. The drug acted to augment the response of spleen cells to sub-optimal concentrations of concanavalin A, but had no unusual effect on the lipopolysaccharide stimulation of B-cell DNA synthesis in vitro. Levamisole was directly stimulatory on enriched T-cell populations and was found to have two actions: (1) to stimulate a subpopulation of T cells and (2) to augment the response of suboptimal mitogen concentrations of concanavalin A. In addition, we have found that murine thymocytes stimulated by concanavalin A were greatly potentiated in the presence of levamisole, but this population of cells could not be stimulated directly by the drug.  (+info)

The effect of Levamisole on peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. (7/354)

Although Levamisole, an antihelmintic drug, has shown to have some modulatory effect on the immune response in clinical trials and experimental models, its mode of action remains obscure. In a group of fifteen patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis receiving Levamisole on an intermittant regime, simultaneous determinations of the lymphocyte subpopulations were made prior to Levamisole administration and 3 months thereafter. No significant changes were observed either in the absolute or in the relative number of T- and B-cell populations, while a statistically significant reduction was found in the "null" cells. These findings suggest that the immune potentiating effect of Levamisole may at least partially be due to a maturation process of the "null" cells.  (+info)

Peripheral blood lymphocyte populations in chronic liver disease. (8/354)

Mature T lymphocyte concentrations are reduced, null cell concentrations are increased, and Fc receptor bearing (B and K) lymphocyte concentrations are normal, in the peripheral blood of patients with chronic hepatocellular or cholestatic liver disease. Some null cells can be stimulated by either thymosin or levamisole to form rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. These changes are present in viral, alcohol associated and 'autoimmune' liver disease and are therefore probably secondary phenomena relating to liver damage.  (+info)

  • LevaMed Levamisole Soluble Pig Wormer controls large roundworms, nodular worms, lungworms, and intestinal threadworms in swine. (valleyvet.com)
  • Studies on this medicine have been done only in adult patients, and there is no specific information comparing use of levamisole in children with use in other age groups. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Although there is no specific information comparing use of levamisole in the elderly with use in other age groups, this medicine has been used in elderly patients and is not expected to cause different side effects or problems in older people than it does in younger adults. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Some patients may be genetically predisposed to develop levamisole-related neutropenia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Purpose: This phase I study was conducted to determine the maximum- tolerated dose (MTD) and the immunologic properties of levamisole in cancer patients when administered alone and in combination with interferon gamma (IFN-γ). (elsevier.com)
  • Patients and Methods: Twenty patients with advanced cancer and 36 patients with completely resected melanoma (n = 33) or renal cell cancer (n = 3) received levamisole orally every other day for six doses at 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg. (elsevier.com)
  • Ten days later, patients restarted levamisole and began IFN- γ 0.1 mg/m 2 by subcutaneous injection every other day. (elsevier.com)
  • Multiple doses of ≥ 5 mg/kg of levamisole were required to elicit immune changes, which were more prominent in patients with minimal tumor burdens. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusion: Levamisole induces dose-related immunologic changes in patients with large or minimal tumor burdens. (elsevier.com)
  • Patients and Methods: Patients with poor-prognosis stage II or III colon cancer were randomly assigned to receive adjuvant chemotherapy with either intensive-course 5-FU and leucovorin combined with levamisole, or a standard regimen of 5-FU plus levamisole. (elsevier.com)
  • In this review, the medical consequences of levamisole exposure and postulated mechanisms by which levamisole induces these adverse effects are discussed. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Ongoing clinical trials should correlate immune changes with response, and trials exploring different schedules of administration using higher, more immunologically active, doses of levamisole should be performed. (elsevier.com)
  • Levamisole is capable of reducing the body's immune response, which has spurned media declarations that it is a "flesh-eating" drug. (dancesafe.org)
  • Levamisole can stimulate formation of antibodies to various antigens, enhance T-cell responses by stimulating T-cell activation and proliferation, potentiate monocyte and macrophage functions including phagocytosis and chemotaxis, and increase neutrophil mobility, adherence, and chemotaxis. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Levamisole, sold under the trade name Ergamisol among others, is a medication used to treat parasitic worm infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levamisole (Ergamisol) is an antiparasitic drug that has been found to enhance T-cell function and cellular immunity. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Cutaneous biopsy material obtained from individuals exposed to levamisole suggests that neutrophils produce NETs in areas of vasculitic inflammation and thrombosis. (jci.org)
  • June 2012;87(6):581-586 Mouzakis J., Somboonwit C., Lakshmi S., Rumbak M., Sinnott J., Cherpelis B., Keshishian J. Levamisole induced necrosis of the skin and neutropenia following intranasal cocaine use: a newly recognized syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diagnosis was confirmed after laboratory findings of neutropenia, positive serum levamisole, and a histopathologic test of the skin lesions. (hindawi.com)
  • The only important side effect cited in the study of levamisole in the treatment of MCNS by the British Association for Paediatric Nephrology (BAPN) is neutropenia. (bmj.com)
  • Some patients may be genetically predisposed to develop levamisole-related neutropenia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The majority of North American cocaine is now spiked with levamisole, which can cause a dangerous or fatal blood disorder called neutropenia. (choosehelp.com)
  • Canadian researchers say that cocaine tainted with levamisole caused 42 cases of neutropenia in Alberta and British Columbia between Jan 1, 2008 and March 31, 2009. (choosehelp.com)
  • Consuming levamisole can cause neutropenia, a blood disorder that results in very low levels of white blood cells. (choosehelp.com)
  • Levamisole plus 5-FU, and to a lesser extent levamisole alone, reduced cancer recurrence in comparison with no adjuvant therapy. (gsajournals.org)
  • Levamisole does not have antitumor activity against established or metastatic cancer and has not been found useful in the adjuvant therapy of cancers other than colorectal cancer. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Levamisole can stimulate formation of antibodies to various antigens, enhance T-cell responses by stimulating T-cell activation and proliferation, potentiate monocyte and macrophage functions including phagocytosis and chemotaxis, and increase neutrophil mobility, adherence, and chemotaxis. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Purpura associated with levamisole occurs in approximately 0.5% to 3% of all exposed patients. (visualdx.com)
  • Levamisole has been used in the treatment of chronic thrombocytopenic purpura [ 13 ] Congenital immuno-deficiency is not a common disease but the condition is not rare in the children which have been delivered prematurely and may also occur rarely in some of them which have delivered after full-term. (tripod.com)
  • In 2011 a team of physicians from University of South Florida Morsani College of Medicine in Tampa, FL (under the attending service of John T. Sinnott, MD FACP) recognized an association of skin necrosis with use of levamisole adulterated cocaine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levamisole had no consistent effect on induction of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase activity or indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase activity, or production of tumor necrosis factor. (elsevier.com)
  • Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is an acquired chronic hemolytic anemia,this study is designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Levamisole combined with cyclosporine A in patients with classic paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 7. Amery WK, Butterworth BS (1983) The dosage regimen of levamisole in cancer: is it related to efficacy and safety Int J Immunopharmacol, 5, 1-9. (chemicalbook.com)
  • The effect of levamisole treatment in the field experiment was probably not due to a negative correlation between benzimidazole and levamisole resistance in the parasitic stages, but could be explained by the population dynamics of the parasite. (edu.au)
  • NOX inhibitor) or ( F ) 200 μM Cl-amidine (PAD inhibitor) significantly decreases the percentage of netting neutrophils in response to levamisole. (jci.org)
  • The main aim of this study was to evaluate the humoral immune induction through measuring the expression of interleukin4 (IL-4) in response to levamisole, as an adjuvant, with the HIV-1 Nef-p24 fusion protein as an immunogenic sequence. (ac.ir)
  • One of the three products of levamisole breakdown, known as 6-phenyl-2,3-dihydroimidazo(2,1b)-thiazole, has lymphocyte -stimulating effects, which could play a role in pathogenesis . (dermnetnz.org)
  • Product categories of Levamisole , we are specialized manufacturers from China, Levamisole Injection , Levamisole Solution suppliers/factory, wholesale high-quality products of Levamisole Tablet R & D and manufacturing, we have the perfect after-sales service and technical support. (kexingpharma.com)
  • Thus, tribendimidine may not be a viable anthelmintic where resistance to levamisole or pyrantel already exists but could productively be used where resistance to benzimidazoles exists or could be combined with this class of anthelmintics. (nih.gov)
  • This increased resistance to levamisole was associated with an orthologue of cel-unc 38 identified in G. pallida, gpa unc 38.1. (bl.uk)
  • The basis of increased levamisole resistance of gpa unc 38.1 was not identified, as all gpa unc 38.1 chimeric genes retained a higher resistance to levamisole than cel-unc 38. (bl.uk)
  • 1) Levamisole is a broad spectrum anthelmintic, it is mainly used for expelling worms and hook worms. (wellonapharma.com)
  • Levamisole Tablet Cats is a broad spectrum anthelmintic and Levamisole Bolus for Pet is effective against the following nematode infections in cattle stomach worms haemonchus ostertagia trichostrongylus intestinal worms trichostrongylus cooperia. (kexingpharma.com)
  • Levamisole may be quantified in blood, plasma, or urine as a diagnostic tool in clinical poisoning situations or to aid in the medicolegal investigation of suspicious deaths involving adulterated street drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory values and clinical data were analyzed for three separate periods for each patient: 1 year prior to the initiation of levamisole therapy (Pre-Lev), during 1 year of levamisole therapy (During-Lev), and the year following cessation of levamisole therapy (End-Lev). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Warfarin and Phenytoin: some evidence that levamisole can increase effects of these drugs but clinical importance uncertain. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Larocque, L. Hoffman, R. Clinical Toxicology: Levamisole in cocaine: Unexpected news from an old acquaintance. (wikem.org)
  • Owing to the low degree of protein binding and the high volume of distribution of levamisole, the variations in protein binding due to different factors would not be of major clinical importance in its therapeutic application. (unileon.es)
  • The pharmacology of Clade III muscle receptors (levamisole receptors) are modulated by receptor subunit composition. (grantome.com)
  • Your healthcare provider will store levamisole as directed by the manufacturer. (pharmacy-network.com)
  • Levamisole has recently shown up as a cutting agent in cocaine , and has resulted in many cases of dangerously low white blood cell counts, serious infections, and can cause an inflammation of small blood vessels which can have serious effects on health and life itself. (healthtap.com)
  • Levamisole can lower the activity of your immune system making you susceptible to infections. (pharmacy-network.com)
  • In this way, different types of cases of immuno-deficient state were treated with levamisole successfully preventing the recurrence of the infections. (tripod.com)
  • Orthologues of genes encoding subunits which comprise the C. elegans levamisole sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (cel-lev 1, cel-lev 8, cel-unc 29, cel-unc 63 and cel-unc 38) were searched for, and cel-lev 1 and cel-lev 8 orthologues were absent in both Globodera spp. (bl.uk)
  • The EC50 of the response to acetylcholine and levamisole of the chimeric receptor and the native receptor was comparable and had similar opening responses to different agonists. (bl.uk)
  • Chimeric genes were created to analyse key motifs in gpa unc 38.1 that may affect receptor function and levamisole sensitivity. (bl.uk)
  • Murine and human neutrophils exposed to levamisole demonstrated enhanced NET formation through engagement of muscarinic subtype 3 receptor. (jci.org)
  • The Caenorhabditis elegans unc-63 gene encodes a levamisole-sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It will express four specific nicotinic receptor subunits from A. suum in different combinations to test the hypothesis that different subunit compositions reproduce the pharmacological diversity of native muscle receptors (levamisole receptors). (grantome.com)
  • Levamisole had no effect on monocyte cytotoxicity or expression of HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, HLA-DP, and the Fc receptor. (elsevier.com)
  • Drug testing of racehorse urine has led to the revelation that among levamisole equine metabolites are both pemoline and aminorex, stimulants that are forbidden by racing authorities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further testing confirmed aminorex in human and canine urine, meaning that both humans and dogs also metabolize levamisole into aminorex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levamisole testing of serum or urine is difficult and unreliable. (skinsight.com)
  • Levamisole has been reported to displace the protein binding of rifampicin in vitro . (chemicalbook.com)
  • The binding of levamisole to total plasma proteins of 6 animal species was determined in vitro by equilibrium dialysis. (unileon.es)
  • No significant enhancement in the expression of three tumor-associated antigens (880364, NRCO-4, and ING-1) and the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) antigen on four human cancer cell lines was observed following in vitro exposure to levamisole. (elsevier.com)
  • Toxicology reports showed levamisole, along with cocaine, was present in DJ AM 's body at the time of his death. (blogspot.bg)