An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)
Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.
A depolarizing neuromuscular-blocking agent, that causes persistent nicotinic activation resulting in spastic paralysis of susceptible nematodes. It is a drug of second-choice after benzimidazoles for treatment of ascariasis, hookworm, and pinworm infections, being effective after a single dose. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p920)
Used formerly as antimicrobial food additive. It causes mutations in many cell cultures and may be carcinogenic.
A species of parasitic nematode usually found in domestic pigs and a few other animals. Human infection can also occur, presumably as result of handling pig manure, and can lead to intestinal obstruction.
Analogs or derivatives of bephenium (N,N-dimethyl-N-(2-phenoxyethyl)benzenemethanaminium).
Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.
The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.
Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.
A decrease in the number of GRANULOCYTES; (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS).
A genus of nematodes of the superfamily STRONGYLOIDEA, parasitic in the intestines of animals. The adults are usually free in the intestinal lumen; the larvae encyst in the wall.
A superfamily of parasitic nematodes consisting of several genera. ENTEROBIUS, which occurs in humans, and Oxyuris, which occurs in horses, are two of the most common. Other genera are: Skrjabinema, Passalurus, Dermatoxys, and Probstmayria.
Infection with nematodes of the superfamily OXYUROIDEA.
Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
The interactions between physician and patient.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
An aspect of cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8).
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.
Inflammation of any one of the blood vessels, including the ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.
A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
An application that must be submitted to a regulatory agency (the FDA in the United States) before a drug can be studied in humans. This application includes results of previous experiments; how, where, and by whom the new studies will be conducted; the chemical structure of the compound; how it is thought to work in the body; any toxic effects found in animal studies; and how the compound is manufactured. (From the "New Medicines in Development" Series produced by the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association and published irregularly.)
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.
Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.
A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.
A type of juvenile osteochondrosis affecting the fibrocartilaginous disc (INTERVERTEBRAL DISC) in the thoracic or thoracolumbar region of the SPINE. It is characterized by a forward concave SPINAL CURVATURE or KYPHOSIS.
Broad spectrum antinematodal anthelmintic used also in veterinary medicine.
Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.
A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.

Resistance to levamisole resolved at the single-channel level. (1/354)

Levamisole is commonly used to treat nematode parasite infections but therapy is limited by resistance. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism of resistance to this selective nicotinic drug. Levamisole receptor channel currents in muscle patches from levamisole-sensitive and levamisole-resistant isolates of the parasitic nematode Oesophagostomum dentatum were compared. The number of channels present in patches of sensitive and resistant isolates was similar at 10 microM levamisole, but at 30 microM and 100 microM the resistant isolate contained fewer active patches, suggesting desensitization. Mean Po and open times were reduced in resistant isolates. The distribution of conductances of channels in the sensitive isolate revealed a heterogeneous receptor population and the presence of G25, G35, G40, and G45 subtypes. A G35 subtype was missing in the resistant isolate. Resistance to levamisole was produced by changes in the averaged properties of the levamisole receptor population, with some receptors from sensitive and resistant isolates having indistinguishable characteristics.  (+info)

One GABA and two acetylcholine receptors function at the C. elegans neuromuscular junction. (2/354)

We describe an electrophysiological preparation of the neuromuscular junction of the nematode C. elegans, which adds to its considerable genetic and genomic resources. Mutant analysis, pharmacology and patch-clamp recording showed that the body wall muscles of wild-type animals expressed a GABA receptor and two acetylcholine receptors. The muscle GABA response was abolished in animals lacking the GABA receptor gene unc-49. One acetylcholine receptor was activated by the nematocide levamisole. This response was eliminated in mutants lacking either the unc-38 or unc-29 genes, which encode alpha and non-alpha acetylcholine receptor subunits, respectively. The second, previously undescribed, acetylcholine receptor was activated by nicotine, desensitized rapidly and was selectively blocked by dihydro-beta-erythroidine, thus explaining the residual motility of unc-38 and unc-29 mutants. By recording spontaneous endogenous currents and selectively eliminating each of these receptors, we demonstrated that all three receptor types function at neuromuscular synapses.  (+info)

Quality of life as subjective experience: reframing of perception in patients with colon cancer undergoing radical resection with or without adjuvant chemotherapy. Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK) (3/354)

PURPOSE AND BACKGROUND: We examined whether patients with colon cancer undergoing surgery with or without adjuvant chemotherapy change the internal standards on which they base their quality-of-life (QL) estimation, and, if they do so, whether this reframing alters interpretation of QL findings. These questions were addressed within a randomized clinical trial of the Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK 40/93). PATIENTS AND METHODS: After radical resection of adenocarcinoma of the colon (pT1-4pN > 0M0 and pT3-4pN0M0) and perioperative chemotherapy, patients were randomized to three treatment arms: observation only (A), 5-FU 450 mg/m2 plus Levamisol (B), or 5-FU 600 mg/m2 (C). QL was measured by linear analogue self-assessment indicators. Patients estimated their pre-surgery QL both before surgery and retrospectively thereafter, and their pre-adjuvant QL both at the beginning of randomly assigned chemotherapy or observation and retrospectively about two months later. Thereafter, current QL was assessed. Paired t-tests were used to test the hypotheses of no change. RESULTS: Overall, 187 patients with at least one pair of corresponding questionnaires were analyzed. Patients estimated their pre-surgery QL after surgery significantly lower than before and their pre-adjuvant QL under treatment or observation also lower than at the beginning. In the adjuvant phase, in contradiction to our hypothesis, chemotherapy had almost no impact on these changes attributed to reframing. Conventionally assessed changes indicated an improvement in QL. Patients with treatment C reported less improvement in functional performance than those with B or those under observation (P = 0.04). Patients with treatment B indicated a greater worsening in nausea/vomiting than those with C, whereas patients with observation only showed an improvement (P = 0.0009). After adjustment of current QL scores under treatment or observation to patients' retrospective estimation, the treatment effects were diluted but the overall improvement was substantially amplified in most QL indicators. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with colon cancer substantially reframe their perception in estimating QL both under radical resection and under adjuvant chemotherapy or observation. This effect is an integral part of patients' adaptation to disease and treatment. An understanding of this phenomenon is of particular relevance for patient care. Its role in evaluating QL endpoints in clinical trials needs further investigation.  (+info)

Clinical trial to assess the relative efficacy of fluorouracil and leucovorin, fluorouracil and levamisole, and fluorouracil, leucovorin, and levamisole in patients with Dukes' B and C carcinoma of the colon: results from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project C-04. (4/354)

PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of leucovorin-modulated fluorouracil (FU+LV) with that of fluorouracil and levamisole (FU+LEV) or with the combination of FU+LV and levamisole (FU+LV+LEV). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between July 1989 and December 1990, 2,151 patients with Dukes' B (stage II) and Dukes' C (stage III) carcinoma of the colon were entered onto National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowl Project protocol C-04. Patients were randomly assigned to receive FU+LV (weekly regimen), FU + LEV, or the combination of FU+LV+LEV. The average time on study was 86 months. RESULTS: A pairwise comparison between patients treated with FU+LV or FU+LEV disclosed a prolongation in disease-free survival (DFS) in favor of the FU+LV group (65% v 60%; P =.04); there was a small prolongation in overall survival that was of borderline significance (74% v 70%; P =.07). There was no difference in the pairwise comparison between patients who received FU+LV or FU+LV+LEV for either DFS (65% v 64%; P =.67) or overall survival (74% v 73%; P =.99). There was no interaction between Dukes' stage and the effect of treatment. CONCLUSION: In patients with Dukes' B and C carcinoma of the colon, treatment with FU+LV seems to confer a small DFS advantage and a borderline prolongation in overall survival when compared with treatment with FU+LEV. The addition of LEV to FU+LV does not provide any additional benefit over and above that achieved with FU+LV. These findings support the use of adjuvant FU+LV as an acceptable therapeutic standard in patients with Dukes' B and C carcinoma of the colon.  (+info)

Anti-tumour and anti-metastatic activity of 3-(P-Chlorophenyl)-2,3-Dihydro-3-Hydroxythiazolo (3,2-A)-Benzimidazole-2-acetic acid (WY-13,876). (5/354)

Extensive investigation of 3-(p-chlorophenyl)-2,3-dihydro-3-hydroxythiazolo(3,2-alpha)-benzimidazole-2-aceti c acid (Wy-13,876) in BDF1 mice implanted with Lewis lung tumour has shown that it is an effective anti-tumour and anti-metastatic agent. In vitro examination using HEp-2 human epidermal tumour cells has indicated that Wy-13,876 is not cytotoxic. When mice implanted with Lewis lung tumour and treated with Wy-13,876 are also injected with anti-thymocyte serum, an increase in lung metastases is observed suggesting that thymocyte activity is involved in the drug's mechanism of action. An increase in peripheral T lymphocytes observed in rats 18 h after a single oral dose of Wy-13,876 further supports this possibility. When Wy-13,876 is given to tumour -bearing mice in combination with low, ineffective doses of 5-fluorouracil or cyclophosphamide, further reduction of primary tumour growth is observed.  (+info)

In vitro stimulation of murine lymphoid cell cultures by levamisole. (6/354)

Levamisole has been reported to act as an immunological adjuvant. Experiments reported here on the effect of this agent on a variety of murine lymphoid culture systems were designed to gain an insight into its mechanism of action. We have found levamisole to be a weak mitogen for mouse spleen cells producing a dose related response which peaks at 48 hr in culture. The drug acted to augment the response of spleen cells to sub-optimal concentrations of concanavalin A, but had no unusual effect on the lipopolysaccharide stimulation of B-cell DNA synthesis in vitro. Levamisole was directly stimulatory on enriched T-cell populations and was found to have two actions: (1) to stimulate a subpopulation of T cells and (2) to augment the response of suboptimal mitogen concentrations of concanavalin A. In addition, we have found that murine thymocytes stimulated by concanavalin A were greatly potentiated in the presence of levamisole, but this population of cells could not be stimulated directly by the drug.  (+info)

The effect of Levamisole on peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. (7/354)

Although Levamisole, an antihelmintic drug, has shown to have some modulatory effect on the immune response in clinical trials and experimental models, its mode of action remains obscure. In a group of fifteen patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis receiving Levamisole on an intermittant regime, simultaneous determinations of the lymphocyte subpopulations were made prior to Levamisole administration and 3 months thereafter. No significant changes were observed either in the absolute or in the relative number of T- and B-cell populations, while a statistically significant reduction was found in the "null" cells. These findings suggest that the immune potentiating effect of Levamisole may at least partially be due to a maturation process of the "null" cells.  (+info)

Peripheral blood lymphocyte populations in chronic liver disease. (8/354)

Mature T lymphocyte concentrations are reduced, null cell concentrations are increased, and Fc receptor bearing (B and K) lymphocyte concentrations are normal, in the peripheral blood of patients with chronic hepatocellular or cholestatic liver disease. Some null cells can be stimulated by either thymosin or levamisole to form rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. These changes are present in viral, alcohol associated and 'autoimmune' liver disease and are therefore probably secondary phenomena relating to liver damage.  (+info)

Fresh isolations of Ostertagia spp. from sheep in a continuing field experiment confirmed a substantially lower level of benzimidazole resistance in the progeny of worms which had survived repeated doses of levamisole than in the progeny of those not exposed to any anthelmintic for 7 months. These resistance levels had remained unchanged for 4 months. Five generations of laboratory selection with levamisole had no effect on the level of benzimidazole resistance in a highly resistant line of the parasite isolated from the same field experiment. The effect of levamisole treatment in the field experiment was probably not due to a negative correlation between benzimidazole and levamisole resistance in the parasitic stages, but could be explained by the population dynamics of the parasite. It is postulated that levamisole treatment resulted in the replacement of a highly benzimidazole resistant parasitic population by one reflecting a lower frequency of resistant individuals in the infective larval ...
Based on the first favourable results of adjuvant therapy of 5FU plus levamisole in Dukes C colonic cancer in 1990, we conducted a prospective trial. 1029 patients were randomised to receive one year 5FU plus levamisole or no further treatment following curative surgery for stage II or III colon (n …
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Proctor, J W.; Auclair, B G.; Stokowski, L; Manseell, P W.; and Shibata, H, Comparison of effect of bcg, glucan and levamisole on b16 melanoma metastases. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 2136 ...
Levamisole Ergamisol Buy Cheap Levamisole, Cheap Levamisole. Levamisole is prescribed along with other agents for the treatment of certain types of colon cancer. It may also be prescribed to help treat other conditions as determined by your physician.
The effect of therapeutic concentrations of D-penicillamine, sodium aurothiomalate, and levamisole on in vitro neutrophil chemotaxis and random migration in normal subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis was studied. D-penicillamine produced no changes. Sodium aurothiomalate produced dose-related reductions in chemotaxis in normal subjects and in patients who had a good clinical response to gold therapy, while patients who had failed to respond to gold showed a minimal nondose dependent reduction. Levamisole produced dose-dependent stimulation of chemotaxis, a greater effect found with the patients cells. Neutrophil chemotaxis improved to normal values in most patients responding to several months of D-penicillamine treatment but showed an immediate and marked stimulation in patients treated with levamisole. ...
Levamisole Initially marketed as antihelminthixc drug and immunomodulator. Was used to treat cancers, and different autoimmune diseases. Was withdrawn from market in 1999 due to side effects (agranulocytosis and vasculitis). Levamisole as an adulterant in cocaine Metabolite of levamisole can inhibit NE reuptake, therefore prolonging cocaine effect. Levamisole induced vasculopathy Pathognomonic lesion is purpura bilaterally…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dose-related immunologic effects of levamisole in patients with cancer. AU - Janik, John Edward. AU - Kopp, W. C.. AU - Smith, J. W.. AU - Longo, D. L.. AU - Alvord, W. G.. AU - Sharfman, W. H.. AU - Fenton, R. G.. AU - Sznol, M.. AU - Steis, R. G.. AU - Creekmore, S. P.. AU - Ewel, C. H.. AU - Hursey, J.. AU - Urba, W. J.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - Purpose: This phase I study was conducted to determine the maximum- tolerated dose (MTD) and the immunologic properties of levamisole in cancer patients when administered alone and in combination with interferon gamma (IFN-γ). Patients and Methods: Twenty patients with advanced cancer and 36 patients with completely resected melanoma (n = 33) or renal cell cancer (n = 3) received levamisole orally every other day for six doses at 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg. Ten days later, patients restarted levamisole and began IFN- γ 0.1 mg/m2 by subcutaneous injection every other day. Blood samples were collected for measurement of ...
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Levamisole was originally used as an anthelmintic to treat worm infestations in both humans and animals. Levamisole works as a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist that causes continued stimulation of the parasitic worm muscles, leading to
Five cases of severe neutropenia (neutrophil counts | 0.5 per 109 cells/L) associated with exposure to cocaine and levamisole, an antihelimithic agent no longer available in Canada, were identified in Alberta in 2008. Alberta and British Columbia (BC) public health officials issued an advisory and urged health care professionals to report cases to public health. This paper presents the findings of the public health investigations. Cases were identified prospectively through reporting by clinicians and a retrospective review of laboratory and medical examiners data from January 1, 2006 to March 31, 2009. Cases were categorized as confirmed, probable or suspect. Only the confirmed and probable cases are included in this paper. We compare cases of severe neutropenia associated with tainted cocaine (NATC) identified in Alberta and BC between January 1, 2008 to March 31, 2009. Of the 42 NATC cases: 23(55%) were from Alberta; 19(45%) were from British Columbia; 57% of these cases reported crack cocaine use
Histopathology is paramount to the diagnosis of any type of vasculitis. In levamisole-induced vasculitis, biopsy specimens may demonstrate necrosis and inflammation of vessel walls, with red blood cell extravasation, karyorrhexis, and fibrin microthrombi within small vessels in the superficial and deep dermis.. Basic laboratory testing to evaluate vasculitis should be sent, including a complete blood count, a complete metabolic panel, and a urinalysis. Patients may have anemia, leukopenia, and neutropenia. Urinalysis may demonstrate proteinuria and hematuria. Depending on the clinical situation, clinicians may choose to broaden the workup for vasculitis, especially since levamisole-induced vasculitis should be a diagnosis of exclusion.. Urine drug testing is recommended for any patient presenting with clinical findings concerning for levamisole-induced vasculitis. Clinicians should obtain a urine specimen as soon as possible to test for the presence of cocaine. Testing for urine levamisole is ...
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In a study of 37 leprosy patients, the oral administration of levamisole failed to provoke an increase in both the Fernandez and Mitsuda reactions to lepromins of human and armadillo origin. We interpret this as evidence against an effective specific immunostimulatory capability of levamisole in leprosy patients under the conditions of the study. Current knowledge of the mechanism of levamisole action supports the concept that the fundamental immunologic defect in lepromatosus leprosy may reside in the lymphocyte and not the macrophage, or the respective related functions of these two cell forms.
Levamisole HCL 5g - Levamisole is an anti-worm agent, effective against most internal parasites including camallanus and capillaria. It was also found to enhance immune response. Levamisole is ineffective as a treatment for flatworms, tapeworms and flukes. It doesnt harm beneficial bacteria, plants or shrimps. 10 grams treats 1000 gallons Treatment: Remove active carbon from your filter
Based on the information I had and the drugs I seemed to have potential access to, I choose to go with Levamisole Hydrochloride. I went through an online farm supply store, www.valleyvet.com, to purchase it since Levamisole is also common de-worming medication used on swine and sheep. There are a lot of misconceptions about the stability of this drug in water. I spoke with the veterinarians at Valley Vet to ascertain the facts. Levamisole, by itself is not easily soluble in water and indeed not stable once dissolved in water with a Ph greater than 7.0. Meaning, it will break down and be rendered ineffective. Levamisole with a base, such as Levamisole Hydrochloride or Levamisole Phosphate, which are both easily water soluble, are stable in water for approximately 90 days. This explanation was also corroborated by another vet in one of the most comprehensive - and very informative - write-ups on this topic at forums.loaches.com [16].. I ultimately went on a hunch that Levamisole is pretty safe and ...
This study was carried out on 150 patients with newly diagnosed sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis. They were divided into 3 comparable groups [each containing 50 patients] in order to detect the actual effect of immunostimulant [Levamisole] on cell mediated immune response [E. Rossette and blastoid transformation] and consequently in the period of infection and relapse of tuberculosis. Group [A] received [streptomycin, INH and ethambutol] plus levamisole. Group [B] treated with the same standard regimen taken by group [A] but without levamisole. Group [C] received the expensive regimen in the form of rifampicin, INH, and ethambutol. The mean of sputum conversion was 34.9 +/- 5.1 days in group [A] , 51.55 +/- 11.5 days in group [B] and 35.9 +/- 3.19 days in group [C] i. e. the period of infectivity is less in levamisole treated group. The incidence of relapse rate was 0% in group [A] and [C] and 2% in group [B] . The mean E. rosette formation and blastoid transformation in group [A] 3 months ...
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cooperative Intergroup Trial INT-0035, a study of fluorouracil plus levamisole (a veterinary antihelminthic agent previously thought to have immunomodulatory effects, but now known to be inactive in this regard) as adjuvant treatment for stage II and III colon cancer, was the first to definitively demonstrate a survival benefit for postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in colon cancer. This study randomized over 900 patients to surgery alone versus surgery followed by a year of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) plus levamisole. The results showed that patients in the 5-FU/levamisole group had an absolute reduction of 17% in recurrence or death within 5 years, compared to those treated with surgery alone; this represents a one-third risk reduction.1 Further studies demonstrated that the benefits of 6 months of chemotherapy were essentially equivalent to those obtained within 12 months. These studies also showed that 5-FU + leucovorin (LV) (folinic acid) was as active as 5-FU ...
Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg 17 (2): 239-242, 2011 DOI:10.9775/kvfd.2010.3122 . RESEARCH ARTICLE. Summary. An. in vitro. cultivation method for spleen and head kidney ...
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The veterinary antihelminthic levamisole has been found as an adulterant in 69%-93% of the cocaine in the United States.{ref9}{ref5} Levamisole increases dopamine levels in the same areas of the brain... more
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prospectively randomized trial of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with high-risk colon cancer. AU - OConnell, Michael J.. AU - Laurie, John A.. AU - Kahn, Michael. AU - Fitzgibbons, Robert J.. AU - Erlichman, Charles. AU - Shepherd, Lois. AU - Moertel, Charles G.. AU - Kocha, Walter I.. AU - Pazdur, Richard. AU - Wieand, H. Sam. AU - Rubin, Joseph. AU - Vukov, Allen M.. AU - Donohue, John H.. AU - Krook, James E.. AU - Figueredo, Alvaro. PY - 1998/1. Y1 - 1998/1. N2 - Purpose: This study had two major goals: (1) to assess the effectiveness of a regimen of fluorouracil (5-FU) plus levamisole plus leucovorin as postoperative surgical adjuvant therapy for patients with high-risk colon cancer, and (2) to evaluate 6 months versus 12 months of chemotherapy. Patients and Methods: Patients with poor-prognosis stage II or III colon cancer were randomly assigned to receive adjuvant chemotherapy with either intensive-course 5-FU and leucovorin combined with levamisole, or a ...
Dicaris 150 (Levamisole) belongs to a class of medicines called antineoplastics and is widely used in the treatment of cancer, such as colon cancer, melanoma and cancer that affects the head or neck. It also has anthelminthic benefits and some people have used it to treat parasitic worm infections.
Khoo S.K., Whitaker S.V., Jones I.S.C. and Thomas D.A. (1984) Levamisole as adjuvant to chemotherapy of ovarian cancer. Results of a randomized trial and 4-year follow-up. Cancer, 54 6: 986-990. ...
British researchers reporting in a recent issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute offer a study-based explanation of why levamisole and fluorouracil (5-FU), used together, can lengthen survival for certain colon cancer patients, 1
C.J.Nganga, D.W. Gakuya, R.M.Waruiru, A.Z.Sabuni, B.S.Muasa. Co-administration of albendazole,levamisole and nitroxynil to control multiple anthelminitic resistant nematodes in a sheep farm in Kabete.. In: 49th KVA Annual Scientific Conference. Busia county,Kenya; 2015 ...
A baggie of white powder was sold in Milwaukee, WI as cocaine but actually contains fentanyl, amphetamine, and levamisole. Report submitted from Oberlin, Ohio.
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16595-80-5 - LAZPBGZRMVRFKY-HNCPQSOCSA-N - Levamisole hydrochloride [USAN:USP] - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
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Cocaine adulterated levamisole is an increasingly reported cause of skin necrosis, arthralgia and systemic vasculitis, but renal involvement is uncommon. We present a case of a 40-year-old Hispanic man with a history of cocaine abuse who presented with acute kidney injury to the rheumatology clinic …
Are You Confident of the Diagnosis? Levamisole-induced vasculitis develops in patients exposed to cocaine that has been adulterated or cut with levamisole. Characteristic physical exam findings, history, and laboratory data may help clinicians differentiate this entity from other vasculitides and therefore help with long-term management of this potentially recurrent problem. Patients who develop levamisole-induced vasculitis…. ...
1. The Neglected Tropical Diseases include ascariasis and lymphatic filariasis. These diseases are caused by parasitic nematodes that are grouped in Clade III b...
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M Treinin] suppression of deg-3(u662) induced degenerations, Coilers, Levamisole resistance, Aldicarb resistance, pharyngeal pumping defect, temperature sensitive ...
Tissues can contain endogenous alkaline phosphatase activity that will produce background staining if an alkaline phosphatase detection system and substrate are used.
Compare effectiveness of bolus 5-FU, leucovorin, levamisole vs continuous infusion 5-FU, levamisole as adjuvant therapy for patients with colon cancer, measured in overall ...
The suitability of a single mid-season targeted selective treatment (TST) for gastrointestinal nematodes control, based on flexible average daily weight gain (ADWG) thresholds, was investigated in 23 groups of first grazing season calves. In each group, animals were weighed three times: before turnout, at mid-season and at housing. Just after the first weighing, each group was divided in two homogenous sub-groups in terms of age, breed and weight, and randomly allocated to one of two sub-groups intented for two different mid-season anthelmintic treatment strategies: (1) a treatment of all calves composing the sub-group (whole-group treatment (WT)) or (2) a targeted selective weight gain-based treatment (TST) of the animals showing an individual pre-treatment ADWG inferior to the mean pre-treatment ADWG of the corresponding WT sub-group ...
A 61-year-old man presented with fatigue, arthralgias and a tender rash on his ears in the setting of recent cocaine use. Physical examination revealed purpuric dark purple patches with haemorrhagic bullae on the bilateral helical rims (figures 1 and 2). Laboratory investigation was significant for a serum sodium of 130 mmol/l (normal range, 135-145) and positive perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic … ...
Levamisole is administered at a dose of2-2.5 mg/kg on alternate days for 12-24 The patient should be examined for infections, months(7-9). Co-treatment with prednisolone which should be treated before initiating steroid at a dose of 1.5 mg/kg on alternate days is given therapy. Appropriate therapy of an infection might for 2-4 weeks; its dose is gradually reduced by 0.15-0.25 mg/kg every 4 weeks to a mainte- nephrotoxicity (increase in serum creatinine by nance dose of 0.25-0.5 mg/kg that is continued 30% or more from the baseline)(12). Trough for six or more months. Occasionally, it might (12-hr) CsA levels should be kept between 80- be possible to discontinue treatment with 120 ng/mL(12). Side effects of CsA therapy corticosteroids. The chief side effect of levamisole is leukopenia; flu-like symptoms, liver toxicity, convulsions and skin rash are toxicity; hypercholesterolemia and elevated rare. The leukocyte count should be monitored transaminases may occur. Estimation of blood levels of ...
The dauer life stage in wild-type C. elegans exhibits morphological and behavioral characteristics that differentiate it from non-dauers (Hu, 2007). In addition to the commonly observed radial shrinkage, quiescence and lack of pharyngeal pumping, we noted a tendency of wild-type dauers to lie dorsoventrally when mounted on agarose slides, as opposed to laterally like adults. To quantify this observation, we mounted wild-type dauers and L3s on increasing concentrations of agarose with 0.1 M levamisole. We found that 75-90% of wild-type dauers mounted with levamisole lie dorsoventrally regardless of agarose concentration (Fig. 1). Very few (2.5-5%) non-dauer animals were positioned dorsoventrally. There was no significant difference in positioning between dauers that still retained their L2d cuticle and those that were unsheathed. We then utilized a non-anesthetic method of immobilization by mounting dauers on 10% agarose with 10 micron polystyrene microbeads (Kim et al., 2013). Interestingly, ...
Ascaridil information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Janssen, Ascaridil indications, usages and related health products lists
The analysis is based on the original complete China Customs transaction records, we conduct a series of research & analysis to locate the target commoditys transaction records, as well as its manufacturers & the export specifications. From our analysis you can see that we use 4 sheets to present our analysis & comparison from different dimensions to help you monitor the target commoditys export pricing strategy, the exporters export dynamics and the export trend, which also can help you get to know your potential competitors/ clients & partners business movements in real time, as well as to help you adjust your market strategies & business strategies at any time, so as to assist you can always do the first strike by facing the changing market.. Benefits and features: ...
Ultrasound cю»§a also be used to confirm the presence of dб»ng choroidal processes. International Uveitis Study Group recommendations for the evaluation of intraocular inflammatory disease. ANTIDEPRESSANTS PSYCHOSTIMULANTS use LU-11-305 PRILOCAINE LEVAMISOLE LEVAMISOLE h. Longer adaptation may be needed after such exposure.
Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are taking this medicine, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.. Using this medicine with any of the following medicines may cause an increased risk of certain side effects, but using both drugs may be the best treatment for you. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.. ...
سیتوتوکسیسیته طبیعی ( cytotoxicity=NC Natural) به واسطه رسپتورهای NC-1.1 و NC-2، یکی از بازوهای ایمنی ذاتی بر علیه سرطان می باشد. حذف رسپتورهای فوق توسط آنتی بادی ضد NC-2 و NC-1.1 در موش منجر به رشد سریع تر برخی از سرطان ها می گردد. لذا از مواد تقویت کننده سیتوتوکسیسیته طبیعی می توان به عنوان داروهای ضد سرطان استفاده کرد. این پژوهش تاثیر داروی لوامیزول را بر تقویت سیتوتوکسیسیته طبیعی سلول های NC-2+ و کنترل فیبروسارکومایWEHI-164 موش های نژاد BALB/c مورد بررسی قرار داده است. تزریق لوامیزول به موش، سیتوتوکسیسیته طبیعی سلول های طحال را در کشتن سلول های توموری رادیواکتیو شده با کرومیوم 51 ...
Levamisole is also ineffective. Mixed clinical outcomes have been found with interferon gamma and omalizumab. Though early ...
Levamisole. *Salicylanilide - mitochondrial un-couplers (used only for flatworm infections): *Niclosamide. *Oxyclozanide ...
Scheinfeld N, Rosenberg JD, Weinberg JM (2004). "Levamisole in dermatology: a review". Am J Clin Dermatol. 5 (2): 97-104. doi: ... Other drugs associated with a flu-like syndrome include bisphosphonates, caspofungin, and levamisole. A flu-like syndrome can ...
Use of toxic adulterants such as levamisole, a drug used to treat parasitic worm infections, has been documented. Sodium ... Moisse, Katie (June 22, 2011). "Cocaine Laced With Veterinary Drug Levamisole Eats Away at Flesh". ABC News. Retrieved 10 July ... Kinzie, Erik (April 2009). "Levamisole Found in Patients Using Cocaine". Annals of Emergency Medicine. 53 (4): 546-7. doi: ...
Kinzie, Erik (April 2009). "Levamisole Found in Patients Using Cocaine". Annals of Emergency Medicine. 53 (4): 546-7. doi: ... "Agranulocytosis After Consumption of Cocaine Adulterated With Levamisole". Annals of Internal Medicine. 150 (4): 287-289. doi: ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) BloodHorse Staff (16 February 2019). "Additional Horses DQ'd After Levamisole Positives ...
Levamisole, which is a common adulterant of cocaine, can cause an ANCA positive vasculitis. The presence or absence of ANCA ... Tran, H; Tan, D; Marnejon, TP (February 2013). "Cutaneous vasculopathy associated with levamisole-adulterated cocaine". ...
Levamisole is purportedly a common cutting agent. Decomposition of blood vessels including purpura is a symptom of acute ... OCLC 960844656.CS1 maint: others (link) Muirhead, Trevor T.; Eide, Melody J. (2011). "Toxic Effects of Levamisole in a Cocaine ... by Amyloidosis Cocaine use with concomitant use of the one-time chemotherapy drug and now veterinary deworming agent levamisole ...
Iqbal (2004) compared the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of Artemisia brevifolia with levamisole. In vitro studies ... Levamisole produced a 99.2% reduction in EPG. However, increase in EPG reduction was noted with an increase in the dose of ...
Sinnot studied the importance of Levamisole-induced vasculitis. Sinnott graduated from Columbus College in Georgia in 1971 and ... "Levamisole induced necrosis of the skin and neutropenia following intranasal cocaine use: a newly recognized syndrome". Journal ...
Hetrazan, tetramisole and levamisole are most commonly used. Anderson, R.C. (2000). Nematode Parasites of Vertebrates Their ...
Some products use Levamisole in conjunction with other chemicals. Levamisole is most commonly used to treat fluke and worms. ... Levamisole is available for administration by injection, pour-on and oral routes which offers a variety of choice which is ... Levamisole is another chemical that has more impact in expelling the adult parasites in livestock however exhibits less ... Benzimidazoles and Levamisole. Macrocyclic lactones (avermectins and milbemycins) are chemical products of soil microorganisms ...
Piperazine salts, levamisole, and benzimidazoles are all reported treatments. Ascarid eggs are resistant to desiccation, ...
Levamisole toxicity is a vasculitis that can appear similar to frostbite. It is caused by contamination of cocaine by ... levamisole. Skin lesions can look similar those of frostbite, but do not require cold exposure to occur. People who have ...
Nematocide applied to a tree Levamisole Emamectin Milbemectin Thionazin Pointed tail end of the male Austrian pine with pine ... levamisole, emamectin, milbemectin, and thionazin. Some biopesticides are also being studied, but they remain in the ...
In certain circumstances, levamisole and pyrantel pamoate may be used. A 2008 review found that the efficacy of single-dose ...
It can be produced as a metabolite of the worming medication levamisole, which is sometimes used as a cutting agent of ... "Aminorex and rexamino as metabolites of levamisole in the horse". Analytica Chimica Acta. 638 (1): 58-68. doi:10.1016/j.aca. ... "Determination of aminorex in human urine samples by GC-MS after use of levamisole". Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical ...
drugs: benzimidazoles, levamisole, macrocyclic lactones, amino acetonitrile derivatives and spiroindoles. Narrow spectrum drugs ...
Successful treatment with levamisole, ivermectin or fenbendazole has been reported. Sréter T, Széll Z, Marucci G, Pozio E, ...
Georgiev B, Gruev A (1979). "Effectiveness of levamisole and oxyclozanide in paramphistomiasis in sheep and cattle". Vet Med ... bithional and levamisole. An in vitro demonstration shows that plumbagin exhibits high efficacy on adult flukes. Since the ...
Georgiev B, Gruev A (1979). "Effectiveness of levamisole and oxyclozanide in paramphistomiasis in sheep and cattle". Vet Med ... Drugs shown to be effective are resorantel, oxyclozanide, clorsulon, ivermectin, niclosamide, bithional and levamisole. An in ...
Georgiev B, Gruev A (1979). "Effectiveness of levamisole and oxyclozanide in paramphistomiasis in sheep and cattle". Vet Med ... ivermectin and the combination of bithional and levamisole. Most important commercial anthelmintics are shown to be practically ...
Levamisole is an antihelminthic (i.e. deworming) drug used in animals. The reason for adding levamisole to cocaine is unknown, ... to the presence of levamisole in the drug supply. The Drug Enforcement Administration reported that, as of February 2010, 71% ... of seized cocaine lots coming into the US contained levamisole as a cutting agent. ...
Sharma RK, Singh K, Saxena KK (1989). "The effect of levamisole and albendazole on some enzymes of Ascaridia galli and ... More recent drugs such as albendazole and levamisole are also highly effective. Fenbendazole is also very effective, 99.2-100% ...
Frequent relapses treated by: cyclophosphamide or nitrogen mustard or ciclosporin or levamisole. People can respond to ...
... levamisole and pyrantel pamoate. Oxyclozanide, hexachlorophene and nitroxynil are also highly effective. F. buski is endemic in ... levamisole, pyrantel pamoate, hexylresorcinol and tetrachloroethylene". Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 79 (4): 513-5. doi:10.1016/ ...
Drugs used to treat infestation include triclabendazole, praziquantel, bithionol, albendazole, levamisole, and mebendazole. ...
Severe infections can be treated through anthelmintic medications, such as levamisole and methylridine. Knight, Robert (1971 ...
... using levamisole". Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 73: 83-88. doi:10.3354/dao073083. Mendes, M., Madeira de Carvalho, L. M., ...
Amery, W K P and Bruynseels, J M. Levamisole, the story and the lessons. 1992, Inr. J Immunopharmac, 14(3):481 doi: 481-86 ... "Decoquinate combined with levamisole reduce the clinical signs and serum SAG 1, 5, 6 antibodies in horses with suspected equine ...
Levamisole was originally used as an anthelmintic to treat worm infestations in both humans and animals. Levamisole works as a ... A post mortem blood levamisole concentration of 2.2 mg/L was present in a woman who died of a cocaine overdose. Levamisole has ... Hess C, Ritke N, Broecker S, Madea B, Musshoff F (May 2013). "Metabolism of levamisole and kinetics of levamisole and aminorex ... In some of the leukemic cell line studies, both levamisole and tetramisole showed similar effect. Levamisole has been used to ...
Levamisole is one of those drugs that was discovered quite awhile ago, when we had even less idea what target things were ... Levamisole is one of those drugs that was discovered quite awhile ago, when we had even less idea what target things were ... Levamisole hydrochloride is only slightly soluble in absolute ethanol. So if you want to use cocaine I suggest you learn a few ... Filter off the levamisole and then evaporate off the alcohol from the cocaine solution and you will have mostly pure cocaine ...
... recognized an association of skin necrosis with use of levamisole adulterated cocaine. The mnemonic LINES (Levamisole-Induced ... Levamisole has become a common additive to illicit cocaine. It is thought to intensify the "high" by releasing dopamine in the ... Levamisole Induced Necrosis Syndrome (LINES) is a complication of adulterated cocaine recognized in 2011, caused by the use of ... Levamisole, a levo rotatory isomer of imidazothiazole, was previously approved as an antihelminthic and immunomodulator. It ...
Information about this levamisole-oral-route. Pregnancy Category. Explanation. All Trimesters. C. Animal studies have shown an ... Infection-Levamisole may decrease your bodys ability to fight infection Proper Use. Take this medicine only as directed by ... Levamisole may cause a temporary loss of hair in some people. After treatment has ended, normal hair growth should return. ... Levamisole is used with another cancer medicine (fluorouracil) to help make it work better against cancer of the colon. ...
However, because there is little published experience with levamisole during breastfeeding, an alternate drug may be preferred ... The World Health Organization recommends against breastfeeding with maternal levamisole therapy. ... Levamisole is no longer marketed for human use in the United States because can cause agranulocytosis, but it is used as an ... Levamisole: a dangerous new cocaine adulterant.[Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2010]. Levamisole: a dangerous new cocaine adulterant.. ...
Cocaine cut with the veterinary drug levamisole could be the culprit in a flurry of flesh-eating disease in New York and Los ... Cocaine Laced With Veterinary Drug Levamisole Eats Away at Flesh. Over 80 percent of U.S. coke supply contains levamisole, DEA ... June 23, 2011 -- Cocaine cut with the veterinary drug levamisole could be the culprit in a flurry of flesh-eating disease in ... Although some people might be more vulnerable to the effects of levamisole, the drug doesnt discriminate based on race or ...
... indicates an increase in both the proportion of cocaine samples adulterated with levamisole and the concentration of levamisole ... The use of levamisole (l-tetramisole) as a cocaine adulterant has been reported in the United States and Europe since 2004. ... Levamisole is used as an anti-parasitic agent in veterinary medicine and was formerly used in human medicine as an ... Levamisole as a cocaine adulterant. Adulterants or cutting agents are substances intentionally added to drugs, in particular ...
Levamisole and fluorouracil for adjuvant therapy of resected colon carcinoma.. Moertel CG1, Fleming TR, Macdonald JS, Haller DG ... Toxic effects of levamisole alone were infrequent, usually consisting of mild nausea with occasional dermatitis or leukopenia, ... Levamisole and fluorouracil for adjuvant therapy of resected colon carcinoma. [N Engl J Med. 1990] ... Patients with Stage C disease could also be randomly assigned to treatment with levamisole alone. The median follow-up time at ...
Levamisole increases dopamine levels in the same areas of the brain... more ... The veterinary antihelminthic levamisole has been found as an adulterant in 69%-93% of the cocaine in the United States.{ref9}{ ... encoded search term (What is the role of levamisole in the development of cocaine toxicity?) and What is the role of levamisole ... The veterinary antihelminthic levamisole has been found as an adulterant in 69%-93% of the cocaine in the United States. [9, 5 ...
Levamisole was used as an antihelminth drug and later was rescinded from use in humans due to adverse effects. Through this ... Levamisole-induced vasculitis syndrome was suspected. A urine toxicology screen was positive for cocaine, opiates, and ... There have been many reports of cutaneous vasculitis syndrome caused by cocaine which is contaminated with levamisole. ... The prevalence of cocaine adulterated with levamisole-induced vasculitis is increasing and physicians should be aware of this ...
Ascaridil information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Janssen, Ascaridil indications, usages and related health products lists
Cocaine Levamisole Toxicity : Cocaine contaminated with levamisole has been detected in the United States since 2003, and the ... Because levamisole is difficult to test for and because other treatable causes of vasculitis may be present, levamisole-induced ... Toxicity induced by levamisole seems to affect all ages and both genders equally depending on cocaine use. The cocaine can be ... Cocaine levamisole toxicity is a diagnosis of exclusion and depends heavily on the history. Although very suggestive, the use ...
... Michelle R. Carter and Sorour Amirhaeri ... With the growing use of levamisole-tainted cocaine, clinicians should be aware of the symptoms of vasculitis and neutropenia ... A clinical diagnosis of levamisole-induced vasculitis was made based on initial presentation of purpuric skin lesions involving ... The diagnosis was confirmed after laboratory findings of neutropenia, positive serum levamisole, and a histopathologic test of ...
... levamisole) Soluble Drench Powder revising the description of various internal parasites in labeling for levamisole powder, ... Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Levamisole Powder for Oral Solution. A Rule by the Food and Drug Administration on 03/02/ ... The supplemental NADA revises the description of various internal parasites in labeling for levamisole powder, used to make a ... Each package of powder contains 9.075, 11.7, 18.15, 46.8, or 544.5 grams (g) levamisole hydrochloride. ...
Since the intestinal form of the enzyme is used as the marker enzyme in the VECTASTAIN® ABC-AP Kit, levamisole can be used to ... Levamisole does not inhibit the isoenzyme used for either the VECTASTAIN® ABC-AP reagents or other alkaline phosphatase ... Levamisole Solution, a competitive inhibitor of alkaline phosphatase, is provided in a convenient dropper bottle and can be ... Levamisole is a reversible inhibitor of alkaline phosphatase, effective against most forms of alkaline phosphatase other than ...
A baggie of white powder was sold in Milwaukee, WI as cocaine but actually contains fentanyl, amphetamine, and levamisole. The ... Levamisole is an increasingly common adulterant of cocaine as well. It is commonly used as an antiparasitic and has been used ... Levamisole is capable of reducing the bodys immune response, which has spurned media declarations that it is a "flesh-eating" ... adulterant, adulterated, alert, amphetamine, baggie, cocaine, DanceSafe, fentanyl, Harm Reduction, heroin, levamisole, ...
Effects of Levamisole on Cocaine Self-Administration by Rats.(ORIGINAL ARTICLE, Report) by The Psychological Record; ... B., & Musshoff, F. (2013). Metabolism of levamisole and kinetics of levamisole and aminorex in urine by means of LC-QTOF-HRMS ... APA style: Effects of Levamisole on Cocaine Self-Administration by Rats.. (n.d.) >The Free Library. (2014). Retrieved Jan 17 ... LVM = levamisole Caption: Fig. 2 Representative samples of cumulative records generated for an unlimited-access 1 -h test ...
There are several case reports of levamisole induced vasculopathy following use of levamisole -adulterated cocaine in Europe ... Levamisole-induced vasculitis due to circulating immune complexes. Br Med J. 1978;1:407-8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle ... The levamisole was stopped immediately. The patient received methyl prednisolone 600 mg/m2 and was followed up by intravenous ... She has been on levamisole (2.5 mg/kg) alternate days for two and half years. The serum creatinine 3 mo before was 56 μmol/l. ...
Thus, tribendimidine may not be a viable anthelmintic where resistance to levamisole or pyrantel already exists but c … ... Our results demonstrate that the mechanism of action of tribendimidine against nematodes is the same as levamisole and pyrantel ... The new anthelmintic tribendimidine is an L-type (levamisole and pyrantel) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist PLoS Negl ... Furthermore, we demonstrate that eleven C. elegans mutants isolated based on their ability to resist levamisole are also ...
Levamisole does not inhibit the isoenzyme used for either the VECTASTAIN ABC-AP reagents or other alkaline phosphatase ... One drop of levamisole concentrate is added to 5 ml of substrate solution. ... To eliminate this problem, Levamisole Solution, an inhibitor of alkaline phosphatase, is provided in a convenient dropper ...
... positivity most likely as a result of a hypersensitivity reaction to cocaine-levamisole induced ... CONCLUSIONS: Cocaine-levamisole-related cutaneous vasculitis with leukopenia is a diagnosis of exclusion, but this diagnosis ... RESULTS: We describe 3 cases of cocaine-levamisole-related cutaneous vasculitis with or without associated neutropenia, and 1 ... positivity most likely as a result of a hypersensitivity reaction to cocaine-levamisole induced vasculopathy. METHODS: Cases ...
... levamisole-induced necrosis syndrome, LINES. Authoritative facts about the skin from DermNet New Zealand. ... What is levamisole?. Levamisole is an anthelmintic medication currently only licensed in the United States and Canada for use ... Who gets levamisole-adulterated cocaine vasculopathy?. In 2010, 80% of cocaine seized by US authorities was levamisole- ... What causes levamisole-adulterated cocaine vasculopathy?. The exact cause of levamisole-adulterated cocaine vasculopathy is ...
Levamisole has also been found to be a contaminant in heroin, although heroin-related levamisole vasculopathy has not yet been ... Because levamisole is difficult to test for and because other treatable causes of vasculitis may be present, levamisole-induced ... Use of levamisole-adulterated cocaine most often leads to a syndrome of levamisole-associated vasculopathy or vasculitis. ... Cocaine levamisole toxicity. Subscriber Sign In VisualDx Mobile Feedback Select Language Share Enter a Symptom, Medication, or ...
... levamisole HCl explanation free. What is levamisole HCl? Meaning of levamisole HCl medical term. What does levamisole HCl mean? ... Looking for online definition of levamisole HCl in the Medical Dictionary? ... levamisole HCl. levamisole HCl,. n brand name: Ergamisol; drug class: immunomodulator; action: may increase the action of ... Levamisole HCl , definition of levamisole HCl by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/levamisole ...
... reporting in a recent issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute offer a study-based explanation of why levamisole ... levamisole and fluorouracil have complementary effects at the. level of RNA activity. Specifically, levamisole offsets 5-FUs. ... biochemical or molecular interaction between [levamisole and 5-FU]. to be demonstrated at pharmacologically relevant levamisole ... of why levamisole and fluorouracil (5-FU), used together, can. lengthen survival for certain colon cancer patients, while ...
Buy Levamisole (hydrochloride) - CAS Number 16595-80-5 from LGC Standards. Please login or register to view prices, check ... Nemicide ; Tramisole ;Levamisole Hydrochloride ; Imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole, 2,3,5,6-tetrahydro-6-phenyl-, monohydrochloride, (S)- ... Levamisole hydrochloride ; Dekaris ; Nilverm forte ; Levasole ; R 12654 ;. Read more.. ...
I have been taking either Dicaris (Levamisole) or Mebex (Mebendazole). Please tell me the possible side effects or impact of ... What are the adverse effects of Mebendazole & Levamisole?. Answered by: Prof (Dr) DM Thappa , Associate Professor and Head,. ... I have been taking either Dicaris (Levamisole) or Mebex (Mebendazole). Please tell me the possible side effects or impact of ... Home » Frequently asked Questions on Health » What are the adverse effects of Mebendazole & Levamisole? ...
1029 patients were randomised to receive one year 5FU plus levamisole or no further treatment following curative surgery for ... Based on the first favourable results of adjuvant therapy of 5FU plus levamisole in Dukes C colonic cancer in 1990, we ... Compliance to 5FU plus levamisole was 69%. Severe toxicity did not occur. In conclusion, one year 5FU plus levamisole was of ... Adjuvant 5FU plus levamisole in colonic or rectal cancer: improved survival in stage II and III Br J Cancer. 2001 Nov 16;85(10 ...
METHODS: The study consisted of 29 SSNS patients who had been treated with levamisole for 12 ... and long-term effects of levamisole therapy in steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) in children. ... 1 year prior to the initiation of levamisole therapy (Pre-Lev), during 1 year of levamisole therapy (During-Lev), and the year ... PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to evaluate short- and long-term effects of levamisole therapy in steroid-sensitive nephrotic ...
High impact information on levamisole. *Levamisole in Jobs syndrome [8].. *Levamisole in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [ ... Disease relevance of levamisole. *The cost of 5-FU/levamisole therapy for stage III colon cancer per year of life saved is less ... Letter: Levamisole in sarcoidosis [5].. *These findings strongly suggest that levamisole decreases iRBC sequestration in ... Letter: Immunotherapy with levamisole [32].. *Some aspects of host response to levamisole after chemotherapy in a murine ...
  • Levamisole hydrochloride is only slightly soluble in absolute ethanol. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Levamisole hydrochloride is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to the drug or its components, in patients with pre-existing blood disorders. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Alcohol: Levamisole hydrochloride has been reported to produce "ANTABUSE"-like side effects when given concomitantly with alcohol. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Available as levamisole hydrochloride: 118 mg is equivalent to 100 mg base. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Each tablet contains Levamisole Hydrochloride BP equivalent to Levamisole 40mg. (gafacom.website)
  • Levamisole hydrochloride is the active levo-isomer of tetramisole hydrochloride. (gafacom.website)
  • Calculated on levamisole hydrochloride. (kexingpharma.com)
  • One of the more serious side effects of levamisole is agranulocytosis, or the depletion of the white blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although some people might be more vulnerable to the effects of levamisole, the drug doesn't discriminate based on race or socioeconomic status. (go.com)
  • Toxic effects of levamisole alone were infrequent, usually consisting of mild nausea with occasional dermatitis or leukopenia, and those of levamisole plus fluorouracil were essentially the same as those of fluorouracil alone--i.e., nausea, vomiting, stomatitis, diarrhea, dermatitis, and leukopenia. (nih.gov)
  • Brunt TM, van den Berg J, Pennings E, Venhuis B. Adverse effects of levamisole in cocaine users: a review and risk assessment. (medscape.com)
  • Effects of Levamisole on Cocaine Self-Administration by Rats. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to evaluate short- and long-term effects of levamisole therapy in steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) in children. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Animal studies and human case reports suggest potential neurotoxicity of the compound but neither neuroanatomical nor cognitive effects of levamisole have been systematically investigated in cocaine users so far. (uzh.ch)
  • A quick summary of cocaine toxicity including the effects of levamisole as a cutting agent. (youtube.com)
  • The skin necrosis associated with levamisole toxicity ranges from leukocytoclastic vasculitis to occlusive vasculopathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several case reports of levamisole induced vasculopathy following use of levamisole -adulterated cocaine in Europe and USA. (springer.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: We describe 4 patients who presented with palpable purpura, arthralgia or arthritis, leukopenia, and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antigen (ANCA) positivity most likely as a result of a hypersensitivity reaction to cocaine-levamisole induced vasculopathy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cutaneous vasculopathy associated with levamisole-adulterated (contaminated) cocaine is an emerging syndrome characterised by a retiform purpura around the ears, the presence of anti- neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody ( ANCA ), and leukopenia [3,4]. (dermnetnz.org)
  • Levamisole-adulterated cocaine vasculopathy was first described in the late 2000s following an increase in the lacing of cocaine with levamisole. (dermnetnz.org)
  • Levamisole-adulterated cocaine vasculopathy is exclusively reported in cocaine users, more often with chronic use and in those smoking and snorting contaminated cocaine [6,7]. (dermnetnz.org)
  • Levamisole-adulterated cocaine vasculopathy is more prevalent in women, at a ratio of 1:3 [1]. (dermnetnz.org)
  • The exact cause of levamisole-adulterated cocaine vasculopathy is unknown. (dermnetnz.org)
  • The inflammation of small- and medium-sized blood vessels in the skin has a different serological profile from pure cocaine-related vasculopathy, and is probably due to the levamisole component [1,2,7]. (dermnetnz.org)
  • What are the clinical features of levamisole-adulterated cocaine vasculopathy? (dermnetnz.org)
  • Use of levamisole-adulterated cocaine most often leads to a syndrome of levamisole-associated vasculopathy or vasculitis. (visualdx.com)
  • Case reports also exist of pulmonary hemorrhage or acute renal failure associated with levamisole-induced vasculopathy. (visualdx.com)
  • Levamisole has also been found to be a contaminant in heroin, although heroin-related levamisole vasculopathy has not yet been reported. (visualdx.com)
  • Purpura and necrosis of the cheeks, ears, and nose in a patient with levamisole vasculitis/vasculopathy. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Severe and recurrent levamisole-induced cutaneous vasculopathy. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Levamisole-induced vasculopathy is a thrombotic and necrotic vasculitis usually seen in cocaine users due to adulteration of the drug with this veterinary medication. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • ANCA antibodies can be found in levamisole-induced vasculopathy - pANCA can be found in 100% of the patients , cANCA in 50% of the patients . (wordpress.com)
  • Cutaneous Vasculopathy Associated with Levamisole-Adulterated Cocaine. (wordpress.com)
  • After being pulled from the market in the U.S. and Canada in 1999 and 2003, respectively, levamisole has been tested in combination with fluorouracil to treat colon cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levamisole is used with another cancer medicine (fluorouracil) to help make it work better against cancer of the colon. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Levamisole and fluorouracil for adjuvant therapy of resected colon carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • Twelve hundred ninety-six patients with resected colon cancer that either was locally invasive (Stage B2) or had regional nodal involvement (Stage C) were randomly assigned to observation or to treatment for one year with levamisole combined with fluorouracil. (nih.gov)
  • Among the patients with Stage C disease, therapy with levamisole plus fluorouracil reduced the risk of cancer recurrence by 41 percent (P less than 0.0001). (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that adjuvant therapy with levamisole and fluorouracil should be standard treatment for Stage C colon carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • British researchers reporting in a recent issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute offer a study-based explanation of why levamisole and fluorouracil (5-FU), used together, can lengthen survival for certain colon cancer patients, while neither drug alone has consistently been shown to make a difference. (cancernetwork.com)
  • On the basis of laboratory experiments with colon cancer cells, investigators at the University of Leeds (England) propose that levamisole and fluorouracil have complementary effects at the level of RNA activity. (cancernetwork.com)
  • The findings suggest, the investigators say, that levamisole both reduces the toxicity that fluorouracil would otherwise exhibit because of its general suppression of RNA synthesis, and at the same time augments the therapeutic benefit of 5-FU through selective effects on certain messenger RNAs. (cancernetwork.com)
  • A total of 401 eligible patients with resected stages B and C colorectal carcinoma were randomly assigned to no-further therapy or to adjuvant treatment with either levamisole alone, 150 mg/d for 3 days every 2 weeks for 1 years, or levamisole plus fluorouracil (5-FU), 450 mg/m2/d intravenously (IV) for 5 days and beginning at 28 days, 450 mg/m2 weekly for 1 year. (gsajournals.org)
  • Levamisole/fluorouracil: A review of their pharmacology and adjuvant therapeutic use in colorectal cancer. (chemicalbook.com)
  • A multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy is associated with the administration of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), a pyrimidine analogue, and levamisole (LE), an immunomodulator, in patients receiving adjuvant therapy for colon cancer. (elsevier.com)
  • Levamisole, sold under the brand name Ergamisol among others, is a medication used to treat parasitic worm infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levamisole (Ergamisol) is an antiparasitic drug that has been found to enhance T-cell function and cellular immunity. (chemicalbook.com)
  • What is the role of levamisole in the development of cocaine toxicity? (medscape.com)
  • Levamisole, which was first developed as an antihelminth agent in the 1960s [ 1 ], can result in toxicity from the use of adulterated cocaine. (hindawi.com)
  • In this report, we describe the case of a 39-year-old crack cocaine user who presents with this unique thrombotic vasculitis, purpuric lesions, and skin necrosis of the ear lobes related to levamisole toxicity. (hindawi.com)
  • To view more images of Cocaine Levamisole Toxicity and other visually presenting diseases and adverse drug reactions, log in to VisualDx or try it now . (skinsight.com)
  • Cocaine contaminated with levamisole has been detected in the United States since 2003, and the incidence of toxicity caused by this contamination has been increasing rapidly since 2008. (skinsight.com)
  • Toxicity induced by levamisole seems to affect all ages and both genders equally depending on cocaine use. (skinsight.com)
  • Because levamisole is difficult to test for and because other treatable causes of vasculitis may be present, levamisole-induced toxicity is a diagnosis of exclusion. (skinsight.com)
  • Since neutropenia is a common presenting sign of this toxicity, bacterial or fungal infections may be presenting features of levamisole toxicity. (skinsight.com)
  • The differential diagnosis for cocaine levamisole toxicity includes many of the same diagnoses as for leukocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV) or drug toxicities. (skinsight.com)
  • I wish to report a patient with nephrotic syndrome who developed liver toxicity after four weeks' treatment with levamisole. (bmj.com)
  • 3 As far as I am aware there are no reports of liver toxicity in children with nephrotic syndrome treated with levamisole. (bmj.com)
  • The toxicity is likely to relate to the cumulative dose as ALT continued to rise until levamisole was stopped. (bmj.com)
  • Those receiving larger doses of levamisole, as in the patient described, may develop liver toxicity after some time. (bmj.com)
  • Return to Levamisole toxicity . (wikem.org)
  • However, this practice is apparently dangerous as numerous individuals have been showing up in emergency rooms in Canada with agranulocytosis due to the postulated addition of Levamisole (1). (scienceblogs.com)
  • 1. Zhu N, LeGatt D,Turner R. Agranulocytosis after consumption of cocaine adulterated with levamisole. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Levamisole is no longer marketed for human use in the United States because can cause agranulocytosis, but it is used as an anthelmintic in other countries. (nih.gov)
  • Review Immune-mediated agranulocytosis caused by the cocaine adulterant levamisole: a case for reactive metabolite(s) involvement. (nih.gov)
  • Review Agranulocytosis and other consequences due to use of illicit cocaine contaminated with levamisole. (nih.gov)
  • A public health warning issued in the United States announced that over 7 % of cocaine seizures analysed in 2009 contained levamisole ( 2 ) and by the end of that year 20 confirmed or probable cases of agranulocytosis (with two fatalities) had been reported in the country. (europa.eu)
  • Use of cocaine that has been adulterated with levamisole can lead to a constellation of symptoms including agranulocytosis, neutropenia, and a vasculitis-like purpuric tender skin eruption. (skinsight.com)
  • Levamisole is an anthelmintic medication currently only licensed in the United States and Canada for use in veterinary medicine, due to reports of adverse events including agranulocytosis (severely decreased white blood cell count), facial retiform purpura and serological abnormalities in humans. (dermnetnz.org)
  • Patients carrying the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class 1 human leukocyte antigen ( HLA )-B27 are at risk of developing levamisole related agranulocytosis [5]. (dermnetnz.org)
  • Levamisole is a synthetic imidazothiazole antihelminthic agent with immunomodulatory properties, and was previously used for various inflammatory or neoplastic diseases until its removal from the United States market in 2000 due to side effects of agranulocytosis and vasculitis. (visualdx.com)
  • Complications such as agranulocytosis and vasculitis were reported in the 1970s among patients taking levamisole for inflammatory conditions. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • A case of agranulocytosis in a man with nonspecific seronegative polyarthritis treated with levamisole in the form of a proprietary veterinary antihelmintic is descriptionbed. (journals.co.za)
  • Levamisole suppresses the production of white blood cells , resulting in neutropenia and agranulocytosis . (blogspot.bg)
  • Patients with Stage C disease could also be randomly assigned to treatment with levamisole alone. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment with levamisole alone had no detectable effect. (nih.gov)
  • It is fair to assume that the raised levels of ALT on this patient were the result of treatment with levamisole, as liver function tests two weeks before starting treatment were normal and two weeks after cessation the ALT had returned to near normal. (bmj.com)
  • Talk to your doctor about the possible side effects from treatment with levamisole. (pharmacy-network.com)
  • Discuss with your doctor the appropriate use of birth control during treatment with levamisole if necessary. (pharmacy-network.com)
  • Your doctor will determine the correct amount and frequency of treatment with levamisole depending upon the type of cancer being treated and other factors. (pharmacy-network.com)
  • Your doctor may want you to have blood tests and other medical evaluations during treatment with levamisole to monitor progress and side effects. (pharmacy-network.com)
  • Avoid contact with people who have colds, the flu, or other contagious illnesses and do not receive vaccines that contain live strains of a virus (e.g., live oral polio vaccine) during treatment with levamisole. (pharmacy-network.com)
  • These periods of recurrent infections before the treatment with levamisole were considered as control period. (tripod.com)
  • The prevalence of cocaine adulterated with levamisole-induced vasculitis is increasing and physicians should be aware of this unique entity. (hindawi.com)
  • There have been many reports of cutaneous vasculitis syndrome caused by cocaine which is contaminated with levamisole. (hindawi.com)
  • Levamisole-induced vasculitis syndrome was suspected. (hindawi.com)
  • The combination of neutropenia in a patient with purpura of the ears and a urine toxicology screen positive for cocaine should suggest levamisole-induced vasculitis. (skinsight.com)
  • A clinical diagnosis of levamisole-induced vasculitis was made based on initial presentation of purpuric skin lesions involving the ears and positive cocaine on urine toxicology screening. (hindawi.com)
  • With the growing use of levamisole-tainted cocaine, clinicians should be aware of the symptoms of vasculitis and neutropenia induced by this combination of drugs to avoid unnecessary tests and delayed diagnosis. (hindawi.com)
  • Levamisole-induced vasculitis due to circulating immune complexes. (springer.com)
  • Syndrome of Cocaine-Levamisole-Induced Cutaneous Vasculitis and Immune-Mediated Leukopenia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • RESULTS: We describe 3 cases of cocaine-levamisole-related cutaneous vasculitis with or without associated neutropenia, and 1 case of severe neutropenia with oral mucosal ulceration. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cocaine-levamisole-related cutaneous vasculitis with leukopenia is a diagnosis of exclusion, but this diagnosis should be strongly considered in patients with a history of cocaine abuse who present with a tetrad of cutaneous manifestations consisting of palpable purpura or bullae with ear involvement, arthralgias, leukopenia, and positive ANCA in high titers and negative Antimyeloperoxidase, when other infectious or idiopathic vasculitic entities have been excluded. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Levamisole-induced vasculitis develops in patients exposed to cocaine that has been adulterated or "cut" with levamisole. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Patients who develop levamisole-induced vasculitis present with purpuric macules and papules, retiform purpura, and skin necrosis characteristically localized to the helices and lobes of the ears, the nasal tip, the digits, and the cheeks (See Figure 1 ). (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • In levamisole-induced vasculitis, biopsy specimens may demonstrate necrosis and inflammation of vessel walls, with red blood cell extravasation, karyorrhexis, and fibrin microthrombi within small vessels in the superficial and deep dermis. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Depending on the clinical situation, clinicians may choose to broaden the workup for vasculitis, especially since levamisole-induced vasculitis should be a diagnosis of exclusion. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Urine drug testing is recommended for any patient presenting with clinical findings concerning for levamisole-induced vasculitis. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Of note, the presence or absence of cocaine in the urine does not definitively confirm or exclude the diagnosis of levamisole-induced vasculitis. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Autoantibody testing in levamisole-induced vasculitis is often positive for myeloperoxidase (MPO)-antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) and proteinase 3-ANCA. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • This double positivity for MPO and PR3 in a patient with typical cutaneous findings suggests levamisole-induced vasculitis, whereas single positive results and clinical history may suggest alternate diagnoses such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis or microscopic polyangiitis. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • In summary, patients who present with characteristic cutaneous findings, with or without constitutional symptoms and neutropenia, should prompt suspicion and workup for levamisole-induced vasculitis. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Any person who uses cocaine is at risk for developing levamisole-induced vasculitis. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Laux-End et al report a case of vasculitis with circulating autoantibodies in an 11 year old girl with nephrotic syndrome treated with levamisole. (bmj.com)
  • Levamisole, an anthelmintic drug with cholinergic properties, has been implicated in cases of drug-induced vasculitis when added to cocaine for profit purposes. (jci.org)
  • Epidemiologic studies suggest that women who use cocaine may be more susceptible to developing levamisole-induced vasculitis. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Treating Vasculitis Arising From Levamisole-Contaminated Cocaine. (wordpress.com)
  • I have been taking either Dicaris (Levamisole) or Mebex (Mebendazole). (ndtv.com)
  • Dicaris ( Levamisole ) Adults Tablet is an anti-parasitic agent used for the treatment of roundworm and hookworm infections. (erectilewellness.com)
  • Dicaris 150 (Levamisole) belongs to a class of medicines called antineoplastics and is widely used in the treatment of cancer, such as colon cancer, melanoma and cancer that affects the head or neck. (unitedpharmacies-uk.md)
  • Dicaris 150 (Levamisole) comes as a single 150mg tablet. (unitedpharmacies-uk.md)
  • Always use Dicaris 150 (Levamisole) as you have been prescribed by your doctor. (unitedpharmacies-uk.md)
  • Based on the first favourable results of adjuvant therapy of 5FU plus levamisole in Dukes C colonic cancer in 1990, we conducted a prospective trial. (nih.gov)
  • Levamisole plus 5-FU, and to a lesser extent levamisole alone, reduced cancer recurrence in comparison with no adjuvant therapy. (gsajournals.org)
  • This paper presents the study protocol for the LEARNS study (LEvamisole as Adjuvant therapy to Reduce relapses of Nephrotic Syndrome). (bmj.com)
  • Levamisole does not have antitumor activity against established or metastatic cancer and has not been found useful in the adjuvant therapy of cancers other than colorectal cancer. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Short- and long-term efficacy of levamisole in children with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome. (biomedsearch.com)
  • E ditor ,-Levamisole along with prednisolone has been used in the treatment of steroid dependent minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) for many years. (bmj.com)
  • As treatment of nephrotic syndrome with levamisole would normally last several months, it is important to define a safe upper limit of the dose. (bmj.com)
  • What are the adverse effects of Mebendazole & Levamisole? (ndtv.com)
  • Home » Frequently asked Questions on Health » What are the adverse effects of Mebendazole & Levamisole? (ndtv.com)
  • We stock Anthelmintic Tablets such as Albendazole Tablets, Levamisole Tablets, Mebendazole Tablets. (bhumipharmaceuticals.com)
  • Cutaneous biopsy material obtained from individuals exposed to levamisole suggests that neutrophils produce NETs in areas of vasculitic inflammation and thrombosis. (jci.org)
  • The use of levamisole (l-tetramisole) as a cocaine adulterant has been reported in the United States and Europe since 2004. (europa.eu)
  • The veterinary antihelminthic levamisole has been found as an adulterant in 69%-93% of the cocaine in the United States. (medscape.com)
  • Levamisole is an increasingly common adulterant of cocaine as well. (dancesafe.org)
  • Currently, levamisole is the most common cocaine adulterant worldwide and it is known to induce a variety of adverse side effects. (uzh.ch)
  • Recently, levamisole has reemerged as a popular cocaine adulterant. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • With the increasing use of levamisole as an adulterant , a number of these complications have been reported among cocaine users. (blogspot.bg)
  • There have also been reports of levamisole induced necrosis syndrome in which erythematous painful papules can appear almost anywhere on skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyoderma gangrenosum has also been reported to be associated with levamisole-adulterated cocaine, and almost always involves the lower extremities and often the upper extremities, while lacking the ear involvement and arthralgias that are common with levamisole-associated purpura. (visualdx.com)
  • Levamisole can stimulate formation of antibodies to various antigens, enhance T-cell responses by stimulating T-cell activation and proliferation, potentiate monocyte and macrophage functions including phagocytosis and chemotaxis, and increase neutrophil mobility, adherence, and chemotaxis. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • The diagnosis was confirmed after laboratory findings of neutropenia, positive serum levamisole, and a histopathologic test of the skin lesions. (hindawi.com)
  • The only important side effect cited in the study of levamisole in the treatment of MCNS by the British Association for Paediatric Nephrology (BAPN) is neutropenia. (bmj.com)
  • Levamisole Induced Necrosis Syndrome (LINES) is a complication of adulterated cocaine recognized in 2011, caused by the use of levamisole as a cutting agent for cocaine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2011 a team of physicians from University of South Florida Morsani College of Medicine in Tampa, FL (under the attending service of John T. Sinnott, MD FACP) recognized an association of skin necrosis with use of levamisole adulterated cocaine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mnemonic LINES (Levamisole-Induced NEcrosis Syndrome) was coined to name the syndrome because the name was descriptive, reminds one of a "line" of cocaine, and is easily remembered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is an acquired chronic hemolytic anemia,this study is designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Levamisole combined with cyclosporine A in patients with classic paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 7. Amery WK, Butterworth BS (1983) The dosage regimen of levamisole in cancer: is it related to efficacy and safety Int J Immunopharmacol, 5, 1-9. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Levamisole 600mg and oxyclozanide 700mg tablets For Veterinary Use Only Levamisole Sheep Wormer is a broad spectrum anthelmintic and Levamisole Hcl Tablets Goat is effective against the following nematode infections in cattle stomach worms. (kexingpharma.com)
  • Levamisole 3 And Oxyclozanide 6 Suspension act against a broad spectrum of gastrointestinal worms and against lung worms Oxyclozanide 6 Oral Suspension causes an increase of the axial muscle tone followed by paralysis of worms Levamisole 3 Oral. (kexingpharma.com)
  • Some individuals who consume levamisole-adulterated cocaine can develop a life-threatening autoimmune syndrome. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Spector, Munjal, and Schmidtâs study on rats found that Levamisole increases dopamine levels in the brainâs euphoric center similarly to the psychoactive effects of cocaine in the human brain (2). (scienceblogs.com)
  • [ 9 , 5 ] Levamisole increases dopamine levels in the same areas of the brain as does cocaine, possibly accounting for its current ubiquity. (medscape.com)
  • Levamisole is used as an anti-parasitic agent in veterinary medicine and was formerly used in human medicine as an immunostimulant. (europa.eu)
  • Levamisole is an antihelminthic drug with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties used primarily in veterinary medicine. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Purpura associated with levamisole occurs in approximately 0.5% to 3% of all exposed patients. (visualdx.com)
  • Levamisole has been used in the treatment of chronic thrombocytopenic purpura [ 13 ] Congenital immuno-deficiency is not a common disease but the condition is not rare in the children which have been delivered prematurely and may also occur rarely in some of them which have delivered after full-term. (tripod.com)
  • Following a single dose of 150mg by mouth in healthy adults, Levamisole is rapidly absorbed with mean peak plasma concentration of 0.7mcg (micrograms) per ml being achieved at 1.5 hours and rapidly eliminated, with plasma elimination half-life of 5-6 hours. (gafacom.website)
  • Levamisole works as a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist that causes continued stimulation of the parasitic worm muscles, leading to paralysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levamisole, a levo rotatory isomer of imidazothiazole, was previously approved as an antihelminthic and immunomodulator. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levamisole is known as an imidazothiazole. (buy-pharma.md)
  • Generic Levamisole is an anti-helminthic and immunomodulatory medicine belonging to the class of imidazothiazole derivatives. (pharmacy2home.com)
  • Levamisole, a synthetic imidazothiazole derivative, which had been originally designed for anthelmintic properties, have immuno-stimulatory properties in vivo. (tripod.com)
  • RESULTS: The results showed that the chance of improvement in patients taking levamisole was 6 [odds ratio (OR)=5.67, 95% confidence interval (CI)] times more than in patients not taking this drug. (sid.ir)
  • BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of this study was to systematically analyze the effect of levamisole on treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). (sid.ir)
  • Finally, 9 articles that have assessed the effect of levamisole on the treatment of RAS and had suitable qualifications for the accomplishment of systematic review and meta-analysis were included. (sid.ir)
  • One of the three products of levamisole breakdown, known as 6-phenyl-2,3-dihydroimidazo(2,1b)-thiazole, has lymphocyte -stimulating effects, which could play a role in pathogenesis [8]. (dermnetnz.org)
  • Product categories of Levamisole , we are specialized manufacturers from China, Levamisole Injection , Levamisole Solution suppliers/factory, wholesale high-quality products of Levamisole Tablet R & D and manufacturing, we have the perfect after-sales service and technical support. (kexingpharma.com)
  • Thus, tribendimidine may not be a viable anthelmintic where resistance to levamisole or pyrantel already exists but could productively be used where resistance to benzimidazoles exists or could be combined with this class of anthelmintics. (nih.gov)
  • This increased resistance to levamisole was associated with an orthologue of cel-unc 38 identified in G. pallida, gpa unc 38.1. (bl.uk)
  • The basis of increased levamisole resistance of gpa unc 38.1 was not identified, as all gpa unc 38.1 chimeric genes retained a higher resistance to levamisole than cel-unc 38. (bl.uk)
  • 1) Levamisole is a broad spectrum anthelmintic, it is mainly used for expelling worms and hook worms. (wellonapharma.com)
  • Levamisole Tablet Cats is a broad spectrum anthelmintic and Levamisole Bolus for Pet is effective against the following nematode infections in cattle stomach worms haemonchus ostertagia trichostrongylus intestinal worms trichostrongylus cooperia. (kexingpharma.com)
  • In countries that still permit the use of levamisole, the recommended dose for anthelmintic therapy is a single dose, with a repeated dose 7 days later if needed for a severe hookworm infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood samples following oral administration of levamisole out to 172 hr post-dose did not demonstrate any plasma aminorex levels above that of the limit of quantification (LoQ). (wikipedia.org)
  • If you vomit shortly after taking a dose of levamisole, check with your doctor. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Levamisole produced dose-dependent stimulation of chemotaxis, a greater effect found with the patients cells. (bmj.com)
  • Because of his size this patient received the adult dose of levamisole. (bmj.com)
  • The adult dose of 150 mg/day of levamisole is generally well tolerated when given in short courses not exceeding two days for the treatment of worm infections. (bmj.com)
  • Contact your doctor if you miss a dose of levamisole. (pharmacy-network.com)
  • Comparative single-dose treatment of hookworm and roundworm infections with levamisole, pyrantel and bephenium. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Treatment of frequent relapse (2 relapses in 6 months or ≥4 relapses in 12 months): Continue infrequent relapse treatment for 3 months at the lowest dose to maintain remission or use corticosteroid-sparing agents, including alkylating agents, levamisole, calcineurin inhibitors, and mycophenolate mofetil . (medscape.com)
  • Several immuno-deficient cases of children from the district of Rangpur of Bangladesh, diagnosed only on clinical basis due to suffering particularly from repeated acute respiratory tract infections, recurrent herpes infection, chronic autitis media and recurrent tonsillitis, were treated with levamisole in a different dose than as anthelmintic. (tripod.com)
  • The dose of levamisole was different than that as anthelmintic. (tripod.com)
  • Here, initially the dose was 20mg levamisole twice daily for 4 days. (tripod.com)
  • Levamisole may cause production of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) which are released from neutrophils during cell death from a variety of stimuli. (dermnetnz.org)
  • The effect of therapeutic concentrations of D-penicillamine, sodium aurothiomalate, and levamisole on in vitro neutrophil chemotaxis and random migration in normal subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis was studied. (bmj.com)
  • Neutrophil chemotaxis improved to normal values in most patients responding to several months of D-penicillamine treatment but showed an immediate and marked stimulation in patients treated with levamisole. (bmj.com)
  • This study's objective was to determine how levamisole modulates neutrophil biology and its putative effects on the vasculature. (jci.org)
  • C ) Nuclear envelope marker lamin B (red) depicts areas of neutrophil nuclear membrane disintegration after 3 hours of incubation with levamisole. (jci.org)
  • D ) Neutrophil elastase (red) translocates from the cytoplasm into the nucleus after 3 hours incubation with levamisole. (jci.org)
  • Levamisole is used to treat worm infections in animals and it can severely reduce your number of white blood cells. (tripproject.ca)
  • Levamisole has recently shown up as a cutting agent in cocaine , and has resulted in many cases of dangerously low white blood cell counts, serious infections, and can cause an inflammation of small blood vessels which can have serious effects on health and life itself. (healthtap.com)
  • Levamisole can lower the activity of your immune system making you susceptible to infections. (pharmacy-network.com)
  • Levamisole is used in the treatment of Parasitic worm infections. (buy-pharma.md)
  • Levamisole kills parasitic worm infections by causing paralysis to worm muscles thus stopping the infections. (buy-pharma.md)
  • Use of levamisole in parasitic infections. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Levamisole is used to treat parasitic infections in the body. (pharmacy2home.com)
  • In this way, different types of cases of immuno-deficient state were treated with levamisole successfully preventing the recurrence of the infections. (tripod.com)
  • Besides its immunomodulatory function, levamisole has other pharmacologic activities, including inhibition of alkaline phosphatase and cholinergic activity. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Levamisole was previously used for its immunomodulatory properties to treat rheumatoid arthritis and some cancers. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • 2 Raised levels of aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) have been reported in two out of 11 patients given levamisole for recurrent pyoderma. (bmj.com)
  • In this study immunotropic activity of levamisole has been utilized on trial basis for the benefit of the children suffering from recurrent acute infective diseases e.g. recurrent acute respiratory tract infection, recurrent sore throat with tonsillitis, CSOM, recurrent herpes infection, sinusitis etc. (tripod.com)
  • Levamisole is one of those drugs that was discovered quite awhile ago, when we had even less idea what target things were hitting. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Levamisole may be quantified in blood, plasma, or urine as a diagnostic tool in clinical poisoning situations or to aid in the medicolegal investigation of suspicious deaths involving adulterated street drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Warfarin and Phenytoin: some evidence that levamisole can increase effects of these drugs but clinical importance uncertain. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Compared with other steroid-sparing drugs, levamisole has relatively few side effects. (bmj.com)
  • The 3 drugs used were doramectin, levamisole and closantel. (scielo.org.za)
  • Drug testing of racehorse urine has led to the revelation that among levamisole equine metabolites are both pemoline and aminorex, stimulants that are forbidden by racing authorities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further testing confirmed aminorex in human and canine urine, meaning that both humans and dogs also metabolize levamisole into aminorex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levamisole testing of serum or urine is difficult and unreliable. (skinsight.com)
  • Vaculopathy related to cocaine adultered with levamisole: a review of the literature. (springer.com)
  • Bacterial liposaccharides (lps) activate the video monitoring systems, and political and economic problems that make the nausea of migraine are speci levamisole ed in up to ensure complete cervical resection. (yogachicago.com)
  • The reason levamisole is added to cocaine is unclear, but it may be related to an amphetamine-like substance called aminorex, which is a metabolite of levamisole. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Metabolite of levamisole can inhibit NE reuptake, therefore prolonging cocaine effect. (wordpress.com)
  • Why dealers would stretch their stash with levamisole instead of the more traditional fillers, like baking soda, is unclear, although studies in rats suggest the drug acts on the same brain receptors as cocaine. (go.com)
  • In a cirrhosis model of liver insufficiency in rats, levamisole metabolism and biliary excretion was decreased. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • LevaMed Levamisole Soluble Pig Wormer controls large roundworms, nodular worms, lungworms, and intestinal threadworms in swine. (valleyvet.com)
  • Levamisole has become a common additive to illicit cocaine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Drug Enforcement Administration was the first organization to report the presence of levamisole (LVM) as a cutting agent in illicit cocaine (Valentino & Fuentecilla, 2005). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental new animal drug application (NADA) filed by Schering-Plough Animal Health Corp. The supplemental NADA revises the description of various internal parasites in labeling for levamisole powder, used to make a drench solution for oral administration to cattle and sheep. (federalregister.gov)
  • Schering-Plough Animal Health Corp., 1095 Morris Ave., Union, NJ 07083, filed a supplement to NADA 112-051 for LEVASOLE (levamisole) Soluble Drench Powder revising the description of various internal parasites in labeling for levamisole powder, used to make a drench solution for oral administration to cattle and sheep. (federalregister.gov)
  • A Dangerous Substance (Levamisole) is showing up with increasing frequency in cocaine powder and crack cocaine! (tripproject.ca)
  • For this Levamisole Powder Amazon , I am very happy with it. (kexingpharma.com)
  • I like this Levamisole Powder Amazon , it is a well-made product. (kexingpharma.com)
  • We bought the Levamisole Powder Amazon a few months ago. (kexingpharma.com)
  • We consistently carry out our spirit of ''Innovation bringing development, Highly-quality ensuring subsistence, Management promoting benefit, Credit attracting customers for Levamisole Powder Amazon , levamisole powder amazon , Levamisole Powder , Customers Foremost. (kexingpharma.com)
  • Levamisole Solution, a competitive inhibitor of alkaline phosphatase, is provided in a convenient dropper bottle and can be added to the alkaline phosphatase substrate solution. (vectorlabs.com)
  • Levamisole is a reversible inhibitor of alkaline phosphatase, effective against most forms of alkaline phosphatase other than the intestinal isoenzyme. (vectorlabs.com)
  • Since the intestinal form of the enzyme is used as the marker enzyme in the VECTASTAIN ® ABC-AP Kit, levamisole can be used to inhibit endogenous alkaline phosphatase in most cases. (vectorlabs.com)
  • Levamisole does not inhibit the isoenzyme used for either the VECTASTAIN ® ABC-AP reagents or other alkaline phosphatase conjugates. (vectorlabs.com)
  • Liver function tests done two weeks after stopping levamisole showed ALT 64 U/l, total protein 60 g/l, albumin 40 g/l, bilirubin 12 μmol/l, GGT 14 U/l, and alkaline phosphatase 370 U/l. (bmj.com)
  • In cases of steroid resistant/dependent INS several types of treatment are used, including course of methyloprednisolone "pulses", alkylating agents, cyclosporin A, levamisole and mycophenolate mofetil. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Levamisole Injection Sheep is a synthetic anthelmintic with activity against a broad spectrum of gastrointestinal worms and against lungworms Levamisole Sheep Deworm causes an increase of the axial muscle tone followed by paralysis of worms. (kexingpharma.com)
  • Displacement of rifampicin bound to serum proteins by addition of levamisole. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Levamisole-induced NETosis required activation of Akt and the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway, ROS induction through the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, and peptidylarginine deiminase activation. (jci.org)
  • Levamisole induces NET formation in a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase- (NOX-) and peptidylarginine deiminase-dependent (PAD-dependent) manner. (jci.org)
  • LEVAMISOLE PHOSPHATE (CAS 32093-35-9) World Market Report 2019 aims at providing comprehensive data on levamisole phosphate market globally and regionally (Europe, Asia, North America, Latin America etc. (chemmonitor.com)
  • It captures levamisole phosphate market trends, pays close attention to levamisole phosphate manufacturers and names suppliers. (chemmonitor.com)
  • Furthermore, levamisole phosphate prices in regional markets can be found in the report with regards to countries and companies. (chemmonitor.com)
  • In addition to the above the report determines levamisole phosphate consumers. (chemmonitor.com)
  • Please note that LEVAMISOLE PHOSPHATE (CAS 32093-35-9) World Market Report 2019 is a half ready publication. (chemmonitor.com)
  • Levamisole was used as an antihelminth drug and later was rescinded from use in humans due to adverse effects. (hindawi.com)
  • In this review, the medical consequences of levamisole exposure and postulated mechanisms by which levamisole induces these adverse effects are discussed. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • I work as a forensic drug chemist, and we see Levamisole in Cocaine all the time. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Later papers, from the Janssen group and others, indicate levamisole and its enantiomer, dexamisole, have some mood-elevating or antidepressant properties, although this was never a marketed use of the drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2008-2009, levamisole was found in 69% of cocaine samples seized by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Levamisole adds bulk and weight to powdered cocaine (whereas other adulterants produce smaller "rocks" of cocaine) and makes the drug appear purer. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, because there is little published experience with levamisole during breastfeeding, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. (nih.gov)
  • June 23, 2011 -- Cocaine cut with the veterinary drug levamisole could be the culprit in a flurry of flesh-eating disease in New York and Los Angeles. (go.com)
  • Eighty-two percent of seized cocaine contains levamisole, according to an April 2011 report by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. (go.com)
  • The available information, however, indicates an increase in both the proportion of cocaine samples adulterated with levamisole and the concentration of levamisole in the drug. (europa.eu)
  • Levamisole is capable of reducing the body's immune response, which has spurned media declarations that it is a "flesh-eating" drug. (dancesafe.org)
  • According to the United States Drug Enforcement Agency, before 2008 less than 10% of tested, wholesale-level cocaine contained levamisole, whereas by 2009 approximately 71% of tested cocaine samples were positive for the drug. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Aberrant NET formation and degradation have been implicated in idiopathic autoimmune diseases that share features with levamisole-induced autoimmunity as well as in drug-induced autoimmunity. (jci.org)
  • CONCLUSION: It appears that levamisole is an effective drug for the treatment of RAS, but further appropriate studies should carryout in this context. (sid.ir)
  • Consequently, prevention and drug policy-making should aim to reduce levamisole contamination of street cocaine. (uzh.ch)
  • Recently, studies have shown that levamisole, an anthelminthic drug, significantly improves relapse-free survival in children with frequent relapses or steroid dependency. (bmj.com)
  • Sydney Brenner promoted Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism, and subsequent investigations pursued resistance to the nicotinic anthelmintic drug levamisole in C. elegans at a genetic level. (semanticscholar.org)
  • levamisole is a topic covered in the Davis's Drug Guide . (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Pediatrics Central , peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/Davis-Drug-Guide/109124/all/levamisole. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • [33] Andrew Koppel, son of newsman Ted Koppel , was also found with levamisole in his body after his death was ruled a drug overdose. (blogspot.bg)
  • Levamisole, a three-ringed anthelmintic drug, has good immunotropic activity as well as to some extent antiviral properties [ 2 ]. (tripod.com)
  • With the permission of the parents and explaining the nature of the drug, levamisole was prescribed after 7 days course of amoxycillin (it was given many times before). (tripod.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Drug rash due to levamisole. (who.int)
  • The percentage of bound drug protein was independent of levamisole concentration within the range studied, 5-50µg/ml (ANOVA). (unileon.es)
  • A post mortem blood levamisole concentration of 2.2 mg/L was present in a woman who died of a cocaine overdose. (wikipedia.org)