An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)
Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.
A depolarizing neuromuscular-blocking agent, that causes persistent nicotinic activation resulting in spastic paralysis of susceptible nematodes. It is a drug of second-choice after benzimidazoles for treatment of ascariasis, hookworm, and pinworm infections, being effective after a single dose. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p920)
Used formerly as antimicrobial food additive. It causes mutations in many cell cultures and may be carcinogenic.
A species of parasitic nematode usually found in domestic pigs and a few other animals. Human infection can also occur, presumably as result of handling pig manure, and can lead to intestinal obstruction.
Analogs or derivatives of bephenium (N,N-dimethyl-N-(2-phenoxyethyl)benzenemethanaminium).
Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.
The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.
Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.
A genus of nematodes of the superfamily STRONGYLOIDEA, parasitic in the intestines of animals. The adults are usually free in the intestinal lumen; the larvae encyst in the wall.
A superfamily of parasitic nematodes consisting of several genera. ENTEROBIUS, which occurs in humans, and Oxyuris, which occurs in horses, are two of the most common. Other genera are: Skrjabinema, Passalurus, Dermatoxys, and Probstmayria.
Infection with nematodes of the superfamily OXYUROIDEA.

Resistance to levamisole resolved at the single-channel level. (1/354)

Levamisole is commonly used to treat nematode parasite infections but therapy is limited by resistance. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism of resistance to this selective nicotinic drug. Levamisole receptor channel currents in muscle patches from levamisole-sensitive and levamisole-resistant isolates of the parasitic nematode Oesophagostomum dentatum were compared. The number of channels present in patches of sensitive and resistant isolates was similar at 10 microM levamisole, but at 30 microM and 100 microM the resistant isolate contained fewer active patches, suggesting desensitization. Mean Po and open times were reduced in resistant isolates. The distribution of conductances of channels in the sensitive isolate revealed a heterogeneous receptor population and the presence of G25, G35, G40, and G45 subtypes. A G35 subtype was missing in the resistant isolate. Resistance to levamisole was produced by changes in the averaged properties of the levamisole receptor population, with some receptors from sensitive and resistant isolates having indistinguishable characteristics.  (+info)

One GABA and two acetylcholine receptors function at the C. elegans neuromuscular junction. (2/354)

We describe an electrophysiological preparation of the neuromuscular junction of the nematode C. elegans, which adds to its considerable genetic and genomic resources. Mutant analysis, pharmacology and patch-clamp recording showed that the body wall muscles of wild-type animals expressed a GABA receptor and two acetylcholine receptors. The muscle GABA response was abolished in animals lacking the GABA receptor gene unc-49. One acetylcholine receptor was activated by the nematocide levamisole. This response was eliminated in mutants lacking either the unc-38 or unc-29 genes, which encode alpha and non-alpha acetylcholine receptor subunits, respectively. The second, previously undescribed, acetylcholine receptor was activated by nicotine, desensitized rapidly and was selectively blocked by dihydro-beta-erythroidine, thus explaining the residual motility of unc-38 and unc-29 mutants. By recording spontaneous endogenous currents and selectively eliminating each of these receptors, we demonstrated that all three receptor types function at neuromuscular synapses.  (+info)

Quality of life as subjective experience: reframing of perception in patients with colon cancer undergoing radical resection with or without adjuvant chemotherapy. Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK) (3/354)

PURPOSE AND BACKGROUND: We examined whether patients with colon cancer undergoing surgery with or without adjuvant chemotherapy change the internal standards on which they base their quality-of-life (QL) estimation, and, if they do so, whether this reframing alters interpretation of QL findings. These questions were addressed within a randomized clinical trial of the Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK 40/93). PATIENTS AND METHODS: After radical resection of adenocarcinoma of the colon (pT1-4pN > 0M0 and pT3-4pN0M0) and perioperative chemotherapy, patients were randomized to three treatment arms: observation only (A), 5-FU 450 mg/m2 plus Levamisol (B), or 5-FU 600 mg/m2 (C). QL was measured by linear analogue self-assessment indicators. Patients estimated their pre-surgery QL both before surgery and retrospectively thereafter, and their pre-adjuvant QL both at the beginning of randomly assigned chemotherapy or observation and retrospectively about two months later. Thereafter, current QL was assessed. Paired t-tests were used to test the hypotheses of no change. RESULTS: Overall, 187 patients with at least one pair of corresponding questionnaires were analyzed. Patients estimated their pre-surgery QL after surgery significantly lower than before and their pre-adjuvant QL under treatment or observation also lower than at the beginning. In the adjuvant phase, in contradiction to our hypothesis, chemotherapy had almost no impact on these changes attributed to reframing. Conventionally assessed changes indicated an improvement in QL. Patients with treatment C reported less improvement in functional performance than those with B or those under observation (P = 0.04). Patients with treatment B indicated a greater worsening in nausea/vomiting than those with C, whereas patients with observation only showed an improvement (P = 0.0009). After adjustment of current QL scores under treatment or observation to patients' retrospective estimation, the treatment effects were diluted but the overall improvement was substantially amplified in most QL indicators. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with colon cancer substantially reframe their perception in estimating QL both under radical resection and under adjuvant chemotherapy or observation. This effect is an integral part of patients' adaptation to disease and treatment. An understanding of this phenomenon is of particular relevance for patient care. Its role in evaluating QL endpoints in clinical trials needs further investigation.  (+info)

Clinical trial to assess the relative efficacy of fluorouracil and leucovorin, fluorouracil and levamisole, and fluorouracil, leucovorin, and levamisole in patients with Dukes' B and C carcinoma of the colon: results from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project C-04. (4/354)

PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of leucovorin-modulated fluorouracil (FU+LV) with that of fluorouracil and levamisole (FU+LEV) or with the combination of FU+LV and levamisole (FU+LV+LEV). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between July 1989 and December 1990, 2,151 patients with Dukes' B (stage II) and Dukes' C (stage III) carcinoma of the colon were entered onto National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowl Project protocol C-04. Patients were randomly assigned to receive FU+LV (weekly regimen), FU + LEV, or the combination of FU+LV+LEV. The average time on study was 86 months. RESULTS: A pairwise comparison between patients treated with FU+LV or FU+LEV disclosed a prolongation in disease-free survival (DFS) in favor of the FU+LV group (65% v 60%; P =.04); there was a small prolongation in overall survival that was of borderline significance (74% v 70%; P =.07). There was no difference in the pairwise comparison between patients who received FU+LV or FU+LV+LEV for either DFS (65% v 64%; P =.67) or overall survival (74% v 73%; P =.99). There was no interaction between Dukes' stage and the effect of treatment. CONCLUSION: In patients with Dukes' B and C carcinoma of the colon, treatment with FU+LV seems to confer a small DFS advantage and a borderline prolongation in overall survival when compared with treatment with FU+LEV. The addition of LEV to FU+LV does not provide any additional benefit over and above that achieved with FU+LV. These findings support the use of adjuvant FU+LV as an acceptable therapeutic standard in patients with Dukes' B and C carcinoma of the colon.  (+info)

Anti-tumour and anti-metastatic activity of 3-(P-Chlorophenyl)-2,3-Dihydro-3-Hydroxythiazolo (3,2-A)-Benzimidazole-2-acetic acid (WY-13,876). (5/354)

Extensive investigation of 3-(p-chlorophenyl)-2,3-dihydro-3-hydroxythiazolo(3,2-alpha)-benzimidazole-2-aceti c acid (Wy-13,876) in BDF1 mice implanted with Lewis lung tumour has shown that it is an effective anti-tumour and anti-metastatic agent. In vitro examination using HEp-2 human epidermal tumour cells has indicated that Wy-13,876 is not cytotoxic. When mice implanted with Lewis lung tumour and treated with Wy-13,876 are also injected with anti-thymocyte serum, an increase in lung metastases is observed suggesting that thymocyte activity is involved in the drug's mechanism of action. An increase in peripheral T lymphocytes observed in rats 18 h after a single oral dose of Wy-13,876 further supports this possibility. When Wy-13,876 is given to tumour -bearing mice in combination with low, ineffective doses of 5-fluorouracil or cyclophosphamide, further reduction of primary tumour growth is observed.  (+info)

In vitro stimulation of murine lymphoid cell cultures by levamisole. (6/354)

Levamisole has been reported to act as an immunological adjuvant. Experiments reported here on the effect of this agent on a variety of murine lymphoid culture systems were designed to gain an insight into its mechanism of action. We have found levamisole to be a weak mitogen for mouse spleen cells producing a dose related response which peaks at 48 hr in culture. The drug acted to augment the response of spleen cells to sub-optimal concentrations of concanavalin A, but had no unusual effect on the lipopolysaccharide stimulation of B-cell DNA synthesis in vitro. Levamisole was directly stimulatory on enriched T-cell populations and was found to have two actions: (1) to stimulate a subpopulation of T cells and (2) to augment the response of suboptimal mitogen concentrations of concanavalin A. In addition, we have found that murine thymocytes stimulated by concanavalin A were greatly potentiated in the presence of levamisole, but this population of cells could not be stimulated directly by the drug.  (+info)

The effect of Levamisole on peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. (7/354)

Although Levamisole, an antihelmintic drug, has shown to have some modulatory effect on the immune response in clinical trials and experimental models, its mode of action remains obscure. In a group of fifteen patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis receiving Levamisole on an intermittant regime, simultaneous determinations of the lymphocyte subpopulations were made prior to Levamisole administration and 3 months thereafter. No significant changes were observed either in the absolute or in the relative number of T- and B-cell populations, while a statistically significant reduction was found in the "null" cells. These findings suggest that the immune potentiating effect of Levamisole may at least partially be due to a maturation process of the "null" cells.  (+info)

Peripheral blood lymphocyte populations in chronic liver disease. (8/354)

Mature T lymphocyte concentrations are reduced, null cell concentrations are increased, and Fc receptor bearing (B and K) lymphocyte concentrations are normal, in the peripheral blood of patients with chronic hepatocellular or cholestatic liver disease. Some null cells can be stimulated by either thymosin or levamisole to form rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. These changes are present in viral, alcohol associated and 'autoimmune' liver disease and are therefore probably secondary phenomena relating to liver damage.  (+info)

Levamisole is an anthelmintic medication used to treat parasitic worm infections. It works by paralyzing the worms, allowing the body to remove them from the system. In addition, levamisole has been used in veterinary medicine as an immunomodulator, a substance that affects the immune system.

In human medicine, levamisole was previously used in the treatment of colon cancer and autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. However, its use in these areas has largely been discontinued due to side effects and the availability of more effective treatments.

It is important to note that levamisole has also been identified as a common adulterant in cocaine, which can lead to various health issues, including agranulocytosis (a severe decrease in white blood cells), skin lesions, and neurological symptoms.

Antinematodal agents are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by nematodes, which are also known as roundworms. These agents work by either killing the parasitic worms or preventing them from reproducing. Some examples of antinematodal agents include albendazole, ivermectin, and mebendazole. These medications are used to treat a variety of nematode infections, such as ascariasis, hookworm infection, and strongyloidiasis. It is important to note that the use of antinematodal agents should be under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have side effects and may interact with other medications.

Pyrantel is an anthelmintic medication used to treat and prevent gastrointestinal parasitic infections caused by roundworms, hookworms, and pinworms in humans and animals. It works by paralyzing the parasites, allowing them to be expelled from the body. Pyrantel is available in various formulations, including tablets, suspensions, and pastes, for human and veterinary use. Common brand names include Pin-X, Reese's Pinworm Medicine, and Strongid.

Furylfuramide is not typically considered a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that has been used in research and industry. It's a type of antimicrobial agent known as an nitrofuran derivative. However, it is not commonly used in clinical medicine due to concerns about its potential toxicity and the development of resistance in bacteria.

In a medical context, Furylfuramide might be mentioned in relation to laboratory research or in discussions of historical uses of antimicrobial agents. It's important to note that the use of this compound in medicine is not widespread and has largely been replaced by other more effective and safer treatments.

'Ascaris suum' is a species of roundworm that primarily infects pigs, although it can also rarely infect humans. It is a type of parasitic nematode that lives in the intestines of its host and obtains nutrients from ingested food. The adult female worm can grow up to 40 cm in length and produces thousands of eggs every day. These eggs are passed in the feces of infected animals and can survive in the environment for years, making them a significant source of infection for other pigs or humans who come into contact with them.

In pigs, 'Ascaris suum' infection can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, vomiting, and stunted growth. In severe cases, it can lead to intestinal blockages or pneumonia. Humans who become infected with 'Ascaris suum' typically experience milder symptoms, such as abdominal pain, coughing, and wheezing. However, in rare cases, the infection can cause more serious complications, particularly if the worms migrate to other parts of the body.

Preventing 'Ascaris suum' infection involves good hygiene practices, such as washing hands thoroughly after handling animals or coming into contact with soil that may contain infected feces. It is also important to properly cook pork before eating it and to avoid consuming raw or undercooked meat. In areas where 'Ascaris suum' is common, deworming programs for pigs can help reduce the risk of infection for both animals and humans.

Bephenium compounds are a type of anti-parasitic drug that is primarily used to treat intestinal infections caused by parasites such as worms. The most common bephenium compound is bephenium hydroxynaphthoate, which works by paralyzing and eliminating the parasites from the body. These compounds were widely used in the past, but their use has decreased with the development of more modern anti-parasitic drugs. They are still available in some parts of the world as an over-the-counter or prescription medication. As with any medication, bephenium compounds should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, and it's important to follow the recommended dosage and duration of treatment.

Anthelmintics are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by parasitic worms, also known as helminths. These medications work by either stunting the growth of the worms, paralyzing them, or killing them outright, allowing the body to expel the worms through normal bodily functions. Anthelmintics are commonly used to treat infections caused by roundworms, tapeworms, flukeworms, and hookworms. Examples of anthelmintic drugs include albendazole, mebendazole, praziquantel, and ivermectin.

Drug contamination refers to the presence of impurities or foreign substances in a pharmaceutical drug or medication. These impurities can include things like bacteria, chemicals, or other drugs that are not intended to be present in the final product. Drug contamination can occur at any stage during the production, storage, or distribution of a medication and can potentially lead to reduced effectiveness, increased side effects, or serious health risks for patients. It is closely monitored and regulated by various health authorities to ensure the safety and efficacy of medications.

Veterinary drugs, also known as veterinary medicines, are substances or combinations of substances used to treat, prevent, or diagnose diseases in animals, including food-producing species and pets. These drugs can be administered to animals through various routes such as oral, topical, injectable, or inhalation. They contain active ingredients that interact with the animal's biological system to produce a therapeutic effect. Veterinary drugs are subject to regulatory control and must be prescribed or recommended by a licensed veterinarian in many countries to ensure their safe and effective use.

Agranulocytosis is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally low concentration of granulocytes (a type of white blood cells) in the peripheral blood. Granulocytes, which include neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils, play a crucial role in the body's defense against infections. A significant reduction in their numbers can make an individual highly susceptible to various bacterial and fungal infections.

The condition is typically defined as having fewer than 150 granulocytes per microliter of blood or less than 1% of the total white blood cell count. Symptoms of agranulocytosis may include fever, fatigue, sore throat, mouth ulcers, and susceptibility to infections. The condition can be caused by various factors, including certain medications, medical treatments (such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy), autoimmune disorders, and congenital conditions. Immediate medical attention is required for individuals diagnosed with agranulocytosis to prevent and treat potential infections and restore the normal granulocyte count.

Oesophagostomum is a genus of parasitic roundworms that infect the gastrointestinal tract of various mammals, including primates and pigs. The adult worms are typically found in the large intestine, where they lay their eggs, which are passed in the feces and can contaminate the environment.

In humans, Oesophagostomum infection is also known as "nodular worm" or "whipworm of the large intestine." The larvae hatch from the eggs and penetrate the skin, causing a pruritic rash. They then migrate to the lungs, where they cause coughing and other respiratory symptoms before being swallowed and passing into the gastrointestinal tract.

Symptoms of Oesophagostomum infection in humans can include abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, and weight loss. In severe cases, the worms can cause intestinal obstruction or perforation. Treatment typically involves administration of anthelmintic drugs to kill the parasites.

Oxyuroidea is a superfamily of small parasitic worms, also known as nematodes, that includes pinworms and other related species. These parasites are primarily found in the intestinal tracts of various animals, including humans, and can cause a number of health problems, such as itching, irritation, and infection.

Pinworms, which are the most common type of Oxyuroidea, are tiny white worms that live in the human colon and rectum. They are particularly common in children and can be spread easily through close contact or contaminated surfaces. Symptoms of pinworm infection may include itching around the anus, restless sleep, and irritability.

Other species of Oxyuroidea can infect a wide range of animals, including dogs, cats, and livestock. These parasites can cause similar symptoms in their hosts, such as diarrhea, weight loss, and decreased appetite. In severe cases, they can lead to more serious health problems if left untreated.

Treatment for Oxyuroidea infections typically involves the use of anti-parasitic drugs, which can help to kill the worms and alleviate symptoms. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and cleaning contaminated surfaces, can also help to prevent the spread of these parasites.

Oxyuriasis is a parasitic infection caused by the intestinal roundworm, Enterobius vermicularis (also known as the pinworm or threadworm). The infection is most commonly found in school-aged children.

The life cycle of this worm begins when an infected person passes microscopic eggs through their stool. These eggs can then be ingested unknowingly, often by touching the mouth with contaminated hands. Once inside the body, the larvae hatch and migrate to the small intestine, where they mature into adult worms. The female adults then move to the large intestine (colon), particularly the cecum, where they lay their eggs on the perianal skin, usually at night. This causes intense itching, which leads to scratching and further spread of the eggs through self-infection or transmission to others.

Symptoms of oxyuriasis include perianal itching, restless sleep (due to anal itching), irritability, and, in some cases, abdominal pain. The diagnosis is usually confirmed by identifying pinworm eggs using the "scotch tape test," where a piece of cellophane tape is pressed against the anus first thing in the morning and then examined under a microscope for the presence of eggs.

Treatment typically involves administering anti-parasitic medications, such as albendazole or mebendazole, to both the infected person and their close contacts to break the transmission cycle. Good hygiene practices, including regular handwashing and frequent nail trimming, are essential in preventing reinfection and spreading the infection to others.

... is also used as a dewormer for cattle. Levamisole was originally used as an anthelmintic to treat worm infestations ... A post mortem blood levamisole concentration of 2.2 mg/L was present in a woman who died of a cocaine overdose. Levamisole has ... Hess C, Ritke N, Broecker S, Madea B, Musshoff F (May 2013). "Metabolism of levamisole and kinetics of levamisole and aminorex ... contained levamisole, aminorex was never reported at concentrations higher than LoQ. Levamisole may be quantified in blood, ...
... recognized an association of skin necrosis with use of levamisole adulterated cocaine. The mnemonic LINES (Levamisole-Induced ... Levamisole has become a common additive to illicit cocaine. It is thought to intensify the "high" by releasing dopamine in the ... Levamisole induced necrosis syndrome (LINES) is a complication of adulterated cocaine recognized in 2011, caused by the use of ... Levamisole, a derivative of imidazothiazole, was previously approved as an antihelminthic and immunomodulator. It experienced ...
Levamisole is also ineffective. Mixed clinical outcomes have been found with interferon gamma and omalizumab. Though early ...
Illicitly-sold cocaine may be contaminated with levamisole. Levamisole may accentuate cocaine's effects. Levamisole-adulterated ... Tallarida CS, Egan E, Alejo GD, Raffa R, Tallarida RJ, Rawls SM (April 2014). "Levamisole and cocaine synergism: a prevalent ... ISBN 978-1-58212-066-9. Chang A, Osterloh J, Thomas J (September 2010). "Levamisole: a dangerous new cocaine adulterant". ... Illicitly sold cocaine can be adulterated with fentanyl, local anesthetics, levamisole, cornstarch, quinine, or sugar, which ...
Scheinfeld N, Rosenberg JD, Weinberg JM (2004). "Levamisole in dermatology: a review". Am J Clin Dermatol. 5 (2): 97-104. doi: ... Other drugs associated with a flu-like syndrome include bisphosphonates, caspofungin, and levamisole. A flu-like syndrome can ...
Use of toxic adulterants such as levamisole, a drug used to treat parasitic worm infections, has been documented. Sodium ... Moisse, Katie (June 22, 2011). "Cocaine Laced With Veterinary Drug Levamisole Eats Away at Flesh". ABC News. Retrieved 10 July ... Kinzie, Erik (April 2009). "Levamisole Found in Patients Using Cocaine". Annals of Emergency Medicine. 53 (4): 546-7. doi: ...
Kinzie, Erik (April 2009). "Levamisole Found in Patients Using Cocaine". Annals of Emergency Medicine. 53 (4): 546-7. doi: ... "Agranulocytosis After Consumption of Cocaine Adulterated With Levamisole". Annals of Internal Medicine. 150 (4): 287-289. doi: ...
BloodHorse Staff (16 February 2019). "Additional Horses DQ'd After Levamisole Positives". Retrieved 17 May 2020 ...
Levamisole, which is a common adulterant of cocaine, can cause an ANCA positive vasculitis. The presence or absence of ANCA ... Tran, H; Tan, D; Marnejon, TP (February 2013). "Cutaneous vasculopathy associated with levamisole-adulterated cocaine". ...
Levamisole is purportedly a common cutting agent. Decomposition of blood vessels including purpura is a symptom of acute ... "Toxic Effects of Levamisole in a Cocaine User". New England Journal of Medicine. The New England Journal of Medicine. 364 (24 ... by Amyloidosis Cocaine use with concomitant use of the one-time chemotherapy drug and now veterinary deworming agent levamisole ...
Iqbal (2004) compared the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of Artemisia brevifolia with levamisole. In vitro studies ... Levamisole produced a 99.2% reduction in EPG. However, increase in EPG reduction was noted with an increase in the dose of ...
Sinnott studied the importance of Levamisole-induced vasculitis. In 2021, Sinnott was a research physician on the team that ... "Levamisole induced necrosis of the skin and neutropenia following intranasal cocaine use: a newly recognized syndrome". Journal ...
Hetrazan, tetramisole and levamisole are most commonly used. Anderson, R.C. (2000). Nematode Parasites of Vertebrates Their ...
Some products use levamisole in conjunction with other chemicals. Levamisole is most commonly used to treat fluke and worms. ... Levamisole is available for administration by injection, pour-on and oral routes which offers a variety of choice which is ... Levamisole is another chemical that has more impact in expelling the adult parasites in livestock however exhibits less ... Benzimidazoles and Levamisole. Macrocyclic lactones (avermectins and milbemycins) are chemical products of soil microorganisms ...
Piperazine salts, levamisole, and benzimidazoles are all reported treatments. Ascarid eggs are resistant to desiccation, ...
Levamisole toxicity is a vasculitis that can appear similar to frostbite. It is caused by contamination of cocaine by ... levamisole. Skin lesions can look similar those of frostbite, but do not require cold exposure to occur. People who have ...
Nematocide applied to a tree Levamisole Emamectin Milbemectin Thionazin Pointed tail end of the male Austrian pine with pine ... For example, morantel, mesulfenfos, levamisole, emamectin, milbemectin, and thionazin. Some biopesticides are also being ...
In certain circumstances, levamisole and pyrantel pamoate may be used. A 2008 review found that the efficacy of single-dose ...
It can be produced as a metabolite of the worming medication levamisole, which is sometimes used as a cutting agent of ... "Aminorex and rexamino as metabolites of levamisole in the horse". Analytica Chimica Acta. 638 (1): 58-68. doi:10.1016/j.aca. ... "Determination of aminorex in human urine samples by GC-MS after use of levamisole". Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical ...
drugs: benzimidazoles, levamisole, macrocyclic lactones, amino acetonitrile derivatives and spiroindoles. Narrow spectrum drugs ...
Successful treatment with levamisole, ivermectin or fenbendazole has been reported. Sréter T, Széll Z, Marucci G, Pozio E, ...
Georgiev B, Gruev A (1979). "Effectiveness of levamisole and oxyclozanide in paramphistomiasis in sheep and cattle". Vet Med ... bithional and levamisole. An in vitro demonstration shows that plumbagin exhibits high efficacy on adult flukes. Since the ...
Georgiev B, Gruev A (1979). "Effectiveness of levamisole and oxyclozanide in paramphistomiasis in sheep and cattle". Vet Med ... Drugs shown to be effective are resorantel, oxyclozanide, clorsulon, ivermectin, niclosamide, bithional and levamisole. An in ...
Georgiev B, Gruev A (1979). "Effectiveness of levamisole and oxyclozanide in paramphistomiasis in sheep and cattle". Vet Med ... ivermectin and the combination of bithional and levamisole. Most important commercial anthelmintics are shown to be practically ...
Levamisole is an antihelminthic (i.e. deworming) drug used in animals. The reason for adding levamisole to cocaine ... to the presence of levamisole in the drug supply. The Drug Enforcement Administration reported that, as of February 2010, 71% ... of seized cocaine lots coming into the US contained levamisole as a cutting agent. ...
Sharma RK, Singh K, Saxena KK (1989). "The effect of levamisole and albendazole on some enzymes of Ascaridia galli and ... More recent drugs such as albendazole and levamisole are also highly effective. Fenbendazole is also very effective, 99.2-100% ...
Frequent relapses treated by: cyclophosphamide or nitrogen mustard or cyclosporin or levamisole. People can respond to ...
It is available as a combination with levamisole under the brand name Valcor. It is used for the treatment and control of ...
... levamisole and pyrantel pamoate. Oxyclozanide, hexachlorophene and nitroxynil are also highly effective. F. buski is endemic in ... levamisole, pyrantel pamoate, hexylresorcinol and tetrachloroethylene". Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 79 (4): 513-5. doi:10.1016/ ...
Levandoski MM, Piket B, Chang J (June 2003). "The anthelmintic levamisole is an allosteric modulator of human neuronal ... Acetylcholine Cytisine DMPP Epibatidine Nicotine Suberyldicholine UB-165 Varenicline Levamisole Morantel Bupropion DHβE ...
Levamisole is also used as a dewormer for cattle. Levamisole was originally used as an anthelmintic to treat worm infestations ... A post mortem blood levamisole concentration of 2.2 mg/L was present in a woman who died of a cocaine overdose. Levamisole has ... Hess C, Ritke N, Broecker S, Madea B, Musshoff F (May 2013). "Metabolism of levamisole and kinetics of levamisole and aminorex ... contained levamisole, aminorex was never reported at concentrations higher than LoQ. Levamisole may be quantified in blood, ...
... but the lesser-known threat of Levamisole-adulterated cocaine has also been growing, causing severe health complications. ... Laboratory evaluation for levamisole-adulterated cocaine is difficult at best. Urine levamisole can be detected by gas ... The treatment for levamisole-adulterated cocaine is primarily supportive. There is no antidote for levamisole. The retiform ... Drug cessation offers the only "cure." Levamisole is plentiful in quantity due to veterinary medicine. Levamisole that is good ...
... levamisole-induced necrosis syndrome, LINES. Authoritative facts about the skin from DermNet New Zealand. ... What is levamisole?. Levamisole is an anthelmintic medication currently only licensed in the United States and Canada for use ... Who gets levamisole-adulterated cocaine vasculopathy?. In 2010, 80% of cocaine seized by US authorities was levamisole- ... Introduction - levamisole Introduction - levamisole-adulterated cocaine vasculopathy Demographics Causes Clinical features ...
Levamisole HCL. CAS NO:16595-80-5; MF:C11H12N2S·ClH. Jiangsu Quality Horizons Pharmtech Co., Ltd. More>>. ...
I have been taking either Dicaris (Levamisole) or Mebex (Mebendazole). Please tell me the possible side effects or impact of ... What are the adverse effects of Mebendazole & Levamisole?. Answered by: Prof (Dr) DM Thappa , Associate Professor and Head,. ... I have been taking either Dicaris (Levamisole) or Mebex (Mebendazole). Please tell me the possible side effects or impact of ... Home » Frequently asked Questions on Health » What are the adverse effects of Mebendazole & Levamisole? ...
... levamisole/dexamisole): Long-term monitoring of its intake by chiral LC-MS/MS analysis of cocaine-positive hair samples Drug ... Samples mainly contained racemic tetramisole (%87.5), only one sample contained levamisole only and two samples contained non- ... "Cocaine adulteration with the anthelminthic tetramisole (levamisole/dexamisole): Long-term monitoring of its intake by chiral ... Recent studies indicate that not only the anthelminthic levamisole but also the racemate tetramisole (R-/S- ...
Levamisole as a contaminant of illicit cocaine. Int Assoc Forensic Toxicol 2006;44:6.. 6. Bagga A, Hari P. Levamisole-induced ... Studies report that 46% of cocaine in circulation in Canada contains levamisole. Although the role of levam-isole as a cutting ... Levamisole is an old immuno-modulator that is no longer approved for human use in North America, but is used to dilute or "cut ... Levamisole-induced vasculitis due to circulating im-mune complexes. BMJ 1978;i:407-408.. 10. Van Wieren A, Kapoor M, Rao P, et ...
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  • Levamisole has also been linked to a risk of vasculitis, and two cases of vasculitic skin necrosis have been reported in users of cocaine adulterated with levamisole. (
  • The foremost and most grotesque toxicity of levamisole-tainted cocaine is due to its vasculitis. (
  • Levamisole causes a leukocytoclastic vasculitis of small blood vessels, leading to thrombosis of small vessels, particularly among the superficial and deep dermal vasculature. (
  • Clinical diagnosis of levamisole-induced vasculitis was made and antibiotics were discontinued. (
  • 3 Levamisole-induced vasculitis has since become an increasingly recognized complication of cocaine use. (
  • Aurora N, Janin T, Bhanot R, Natesan S. Levamisole-induced leukocytoclastic vasculitis and neutropenia in a patient with cocaine use: an extensive case with necrosis of skin, soft tissue and cartilage. (
  • Sayadi L, Laub D. Levamisole-induced vasculitis. (
  • Levamisole, an anthelmintic drug with cholinergic properties, has been implicated in cases of drug-induced vasculitis when added to cocaine for profit purposes. (
  • Rarely, kidney inflammation (nephritis) can develop with drug-induced lupus caused by TNF inhibitors or with ANCA vasculitis due to hydralazine or levamisole. (
  • LCV has been reported in users of cocaine adulterated with levamisole, a veterinary anthelminthic drug that was withdrawn from human use because of adverse effects including vasculitis but is found in as much as 70% of cocaine in the United States. (
  • [ 17 ] Although most cases of levamisole-induced LCV are associated with high titers of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), ANCA-negative vasculitis also occurs in levamisole-adulterated cocaine. (
  • One of the more serious side effects of levamisole is agranulocytosis, or the depletion of the white blood cells. (
  • Levamisole suppresses the production of white blood cells, resulting in neutropenia and agranulocytosis. (
  • Levamisole is an anthelmintic medication currently only licensed in the United States and Canada for use in veterinary medicine, due to reports of adverse events including agranulocytosis (severely decreased white blood cell count), facial retiform purpura and serological abnormalities in humans. (
  • Patients carrying the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class 1 human leukocyte antigen ( HLA )-B27 are at risk of developing levamisole related agranulocytosis [5]. (
  • The most common side effect of levamisole cocaine is agranulocytosis, a rare condition in which your bone marrow doesn't make a sufficient amount of a certain kind of white cell, most often ones called neutrophils. (
  • Levamisole can significantly reduce the number of white blood cells in the body, a condition called agranulocytosis. (
  • Also known as levamisole hydrochloride, levamisole is an antihelminthic drug or immunomodulatory agent, previously used to treat parasitic, viral, and bacterial infections before being approved by the FDA as a supplemental treatment for colon cancer. (
  • Welcome to our comprehensive guide on Levamisole Hydrochloride, often known as levamisole HCl. (
  • Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) were incubated in presence of levamisole (leva), spontaneously generated NETs (NETs), or levamisole-induced NETs (NETs-leva) for 24 hours. (
  • Liebermann is useful for testing for the presence of levamisole and/or lidocaine. (
  • The urine test was positive for levamisole. (
  • Just like any anthelmintic drug, the proper dosage and administration of Levamisole Hydrochloride are necessary to prevent toxicity and be sure optimal efficacy. (
  • Levamisole HCL Injection 10% as anthelmintic of the broad spectrum, high efficiency, low toxicity, for a variety of animal gastrointestinal nematode and lungworm imagoes and larvae have higher efficient. (
  • 1987. The effect of induced liver, kidney and lung lesions on the toxicity of levamisole and diazinon in calves. (
  • Recent studies indicate that not only the anthelminthic levamisole but also the racemate tetramisole (R-/S-phenyltetraimidazothiazole, PTHIT) was found as an adulterant for cocaine. (
  • Samples mainly contained racemic tetramisole (%87.5), only one sample contained levamisole only and two samples contained non-racemic PTHIT. (
  • Toxicological interpretations in intoxication cases with adulterated cocaine should not only consider levamisole but also tetramisole and terminology in scientific contributions should be used accordingly. (
  • I just read a paper (The Separation of Cocaine and Phenyltetrahydroimidazothiazole Mixtures, Microgram Journal, Volume 10, Number 2) that showed working methods to separate cocaine HCl from tetramisole/levamisole HCl, two of the methods described are liquid-liquid extractions and thus can be performed by anyone! (
  • So generally 2-3 washes at the last step is good enough I think, your cocaine probably wont have more than 5-15% levamisole/tetramisole at start, but rather other cuts, so you may want to do a acetone wash before this procedure to remove those. (
  • wiseGEEK levamisole hydrochloride - China levamisole hydrochloride levamisole hydrochloride manufacturers & levamisole hydrochloride suppliers directory. (
  • Levamisole Hydrochloride Powder is an anthelmintic agent commonly used in large livestock such as cattle, pigs and sheep. (
  • Levamisole Hydrochloride is really a powerful anthelmintic drug which has been employed to treat parasitic worm infections in animals. (
  • Overall, Levamisole Hydrochloride's role being an anthelmintic drug continues to be crucial in maintaining animal health by preventing or treating parasitic worm infections. (
  • One of the very most significant uses of levamisole is just as an anthelmintic drug, used to treat parasitic worm infections in livestock and pets alike. (
  • The mechanism of action of levamisole as being an anthelmintic drug involves stimulating the worm's central nervous system, ultimately causing paralysis and in the end death. (
  • Levamisole Hydrochloride, using its dual role as being an anthelmintic drug and immune stimulant, is a vital tool to maintain animal health. (
  • Levamisole, sold under the brand name Ergamisol among others, is a medication used to treat parasitic worm infections, specifically ascariasis and hookworm infections. (
  • It has been used as an adulterant in cocaine, resulting in serious side effects that present as levamisole induced necrosis syndrome, in which erythematous painful papules can appear almost anywhere on skin. (
  • 1 Levamisole is an immune modulator and anthelminthic agent used in the 1970's as a therapy for conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, pediatric nephrotic syndrome, and breast cancer. (
  • Levamisole is an anthelminthic andimmunomodulator belonging to a class of synthetic imidazothiazole derivatives. (
  • As well as treating autoimmune diseases, levamisole can have potential applications in cancer treatment. (
  • Aberrant NET formation and degradation have been implicated in idiopathic autoimmune diseases that share features with levamisole-induced autoimmunity as well as in drug-induced autoimmunity. (
  • Levamisole HCl is used in humans for diseases related to imbalances in the regulation of immune responses or deficiencies of the immune system, including autoimmune diseases, chronic and recurrent diseases, chronic infections and cancer. (
  • Levamisole is also used as a dewormer for cattle. (
  • Two of the most common cocaine cuts are lidocaine (which numbs your skin) and levamisole (which is used to de-worm cattle). (
  • However, back in 2000, levamisole was pulled from the market in the United States due to its adverse side effects and because it was found in many traces of cocaine. (
  • Levamisole is used to treat worm infections in animals and it can severely reduce your number of white blood cells. (
  • Levamisole is shown to increase the production of white blood cells and boost the overall immune response, making animals less vulnerable to infections and diseases. (
  • I just still don't know how Levamisole helps with bacterial infections. (
  • This is the only kit we sell that is also capable of detecting specific cuts (levamisole and lidocaine). (
  • It turns yellow in the presence of cocaine, but will turn a rusty red color if the cocaine is cut with either levamisole or lidocaine. (
  • Levamisole can be stimulating, and lidocaine numbs your tongue and gums. (
  • Our cocaine kit can give you information about whether your cocaine might be cut with levamisole or lidocaine. (
  • For sheep , the recommended therapeutic dose is 7.5 mg levamisole and 11.25 mg rafoxanide per kg bw (equivalent to 5 mL product per 10 kg bw ). (
  • Read the articles on levamisole safety and rafoxanide safety in this site. (
  • Cutaneous vasculopathy associated with levamisole-adulterated (contaminated) cocaine is an emerging syndrome characterised by a retiform purpura around the ears, the presence of anti- neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody ( ANCA ), and leukopenia [3,4]. (
  • As an immunomodulatory drug, levamisole also changes the body's immune system by either activating or suppressing certain functions. (
  • Levamisole Hydrochloride can be a synthetic molecule that acts as being an anthelmintic and immune stimulant, rendering it a crucial therapeutic agent from the medical field. (
  • Besides its anthelmintic properties, levamisole has been specifically used as being an immune stimulant in veterinary medicine. (
  • Levamisole HCL Injection 10% enhancement effect of immune to animals. (
  • People who ingest levamisole too frequently for a long time can eventually develop immune issues. (
  • Some long-term cocaine users have died from otherwise treatable illnesses, as a result of levamisole inhibiting their immune systems. (
  • Levamisole may cause production of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) which are released from neutrophils during cell death from a variety of stimuli. (
  • This study's objective was to determine how levamisole modulates neutrophil biology and its putative effects on the vasculature. (
  • Later papers, from the Janssen group and others, indicate levamisole and its enantiomer, dexamisole, have some mood-elevating or antidepressant properties, although this was never a marketed use of the drug. (
  • We herein report on the investigation of the prevalence of PTHIT among cocaine-positive hair samples and the discrimination of the presence of its stereoisomers levamisole and dexamisole. (
  • Cocaine and PTHIT concentrations have been determined by achiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). For distinction of levamisole/dexamisole chiral LC-MS/MS was performed. (
  • Surprisingly, enantiomeric ratios of levamisole/dexamisole ranged from 0.17 to 1.34 (median: 0.63). (
  • Most probably higher dexamisole than levamisole concentrations in hair specimens arise from stereoselective metabolism and/or elimination. (
  • Drug testing of racehorse urine has led to the revelation that among levamisole equine metabolites are both pemoline and aminorex, stimulants that are forbidden by racing authorities. (
  • Further testing confirmed aminorex in human and canine urine, meaning that both humans and dogs also metabolize levamisole into aminorex. (
  • Levamisole may be quantified in blood, plasma, or urine as a diagnostic tool in clinical poisoning situations or to aid in the medicolegal investigation of suspicious deaths involving adulterated street drugs. (
  • Urine levamisole can be detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, but this is not available to many hospitals. (
  • Such programs mean users can have their drugs tested for purity and therefore avoid taking cocaine that has very high levels of levamisole," says Quednow. (
  • Levamisole was used in humans in the 1960s as a prescribed appetite suppressant [1,2]. (
  • For the past half-century, levamisole has served the veterinary community well as an anti-helminthic and also (temporarily) in medical practices as a treatment for a variety of diseases. (
  • Monitoring levamisole in food and the environment with high selectivity using an electrochemical chiral sensor comprising an MOF and molecularly imprinted polymer. (
  • We used an enhanced recognition strategy to fabricate a novel levamisole -detecting chiral electrochemical sensor featuring a metal-organic framework (MOF) combined with a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP). (
  • We obtained a composite chiral sensor with enhanced recognition capability for levamisole after template removal. (
  • Levamisole has gained prominence among aquarists as an effective treatment for Camallanus roundworm infestations in freshwater tropical fish. (
  • Recommended dosage for Levamisole 153144 - in Freshwater Fish Disease forum - Hi all, I have to treat my Rams with Levamisole for Camallanus worms and just wanted to see if there is a consensus for dosage. (
  • The Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) estimated that 80% of cocaine is cut with levamisole, which is linked to debilitating and often fatal immunologic side effects in cocaine users. (
  • Levamisole reversibly and noncompetitively inhibits most isoforms of alkaline phosphatase (e.g., human liver, bone, kidney, and spleen) except the intestinal and placental isoform. (
  • While cocaine itself can cause cerebral ischemia, strokes, and acute demyelinating encephalitis, levamisole accentuates the number and intensity of this damage. (
  • With the increasing use of levamisole as an adulterant, a number of these complications have been reported among cocaine users. (
  • Complications of cancer immunotherapy with levamisole. (
  • Levamisole-induced NETosis required activation of Akt and the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway, ROS induction through the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, and peptidylarginine deiminase activation. (
  • The plasma elimination half-life is fairly quick at 3-4 hours which can contribute to not detecting levamisole intoxication. (
  • Around 10 years ago, however, a new adulterant made an appearance which is now widely spread in street cocaine in Europe and North America: The animal anti-worming agent levamisole. (
  • We can assume from our findings that it is not just cocaine that changes the brain, but that the adulterant levamisole has an additional harmful effect. (
  • A post mortem blood levamisole concentration of 2.2 mg/L was present in a woman who died of a cocaine overdose. (
  • Additionally, in cocaine-positive plasma samples, of which 42% contained levamisole, aminorex was never reported at concentrations higher than LoQ. (
  • Cutaneous biopsy material obtained from individuals exposed to levamisole suggests that neutrophils produce NETs in areas of vasculitic inflammation and thrombosis. (
  • Levamisole is generally administered orally, either as being a tablet or as an injectable solution. (
  • The present invention provides levamisole/macrocyclic lactone-containing injectable formulations that are effective against animal pests, including endoparasites. (
  • Levamisole has increasingly been used as a cutting agent in cocaine sold around the globe with the highest incidence being in the United States. (
  • Levamisole: A New Cutting Agent? (
  • Although levamisole is no longer available for sale in the U.S., except for use in veterinary medicine, it's become a cutting agent in cocaine. (
  • Levamisole was originally used as an anthelmintic to treat worm infestations in both humans and animals. (
  • One of the three products of levamisole breakdown, known as 6-phenyl-2,3-dihydroimidazo(2,1b)-thiazole, has lymphocyte -stimulating effects, which could play a role in pathogenesis [8]. (
  • One theory is that levamisole powder looks similar to cocaine, making it cheaper for dealers and manufacturers to produce more products and also making it easier for them to gain more profit with less product. (
  • Using the templated sites as the switch and K3[Fe(CN)6]/K4[Fe(CN)6] as a probe, we established a new method for detecting levamisole in meat products and water bodies. (
  • Tramisol Levamisol for Worms in Koi Levamisole (Tramisol) - by Doc Johnson Levamisole can be added to the diet at 0.1% of the amount and. (
  • EBSCOhost serves thousands of libraries with premium essays, articles and other content including LEVAMISOLE - OLD DRUG IN NEW CLOTHES. (
  • In order to estimate the consumption of cocaine and the amount of levamisole content, the scientists analyzed hair samples of their study participants. (
  • Based on this, they examined the cognitive performance of those who had taken cocaine with a high levamisole content (more than 25% proportional to the cocaine) and those who had taken cocaine with a low levamisole content (less than 25%), and compared the results with a control group who had not taken cocaine. (
  • The same effect was seen in this study: People who consumed cocaine with a high levamisole content clearly displayed a thinner prefrontal cortex - the area of the brain associated with executive functions. (
  • NETs generated by levamisole were toxic to endothelial cells and impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. (
  • Levamisole-induced NETs promote endothelial cell cytotoxicity and endothelial dysfunction. (
  • B ) NETs generated by levamisole impair endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in response to acetylcholine (Ach). (
  • Resistance to levamisole has been reported in most countries, but is usually less strong and frequent than to benzimidazoles. (
  • Levamisole Hydrochloride is also a good alternative in cases of benzimidazole resistance. (
  • Levamisole is often administered orally or through injection, based on the kind of infection and animal species. (
  • Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) were administered a levamisole-adjuvanted or non-adjuvanted Vibrio anguillarum vaccine by either bath or intraperitoneal (IP) injection. (
  • Levamisole is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and metabolized in the liver. (
  • Levamisole is readily available to both urbanites and ranchers alike. (
  • What are the clinical features of levamisole-adulterated cocaine vasculopathy? (
  • In 2008-2009, levamisole was found in 69% of cocaine samples seized by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). (
  • In the United Kingdom, levamisole powder was found in over 50% of cocaine samples tested. (
  • Levamisole Hydrochloride has become a pivotal drug in veterinary medicine, serving multiple roles to keep animals healthy. (
  • as a professional Levamisole powder manufacturer and supplier in China, all the Levamisole powder have passed the international industry certification standards, and you can be completely assured of quality. (
  • The mechanism of action for levamisole involves stimulating the parasites' central nervous system, resulting in muscle paralysis and eventual death. (
  • We first synthesised a Cu/Zn-[ benzene -1,3,5- tricarboxylic acid ] (Cu/Zn-BTC) MOF as the molecular immobilisation and signal-amplifying unit, and then prepared the MIP (molecular recognition unit) using levamisole as the template on a glassy carbon electrode modified with Cu/Zn-BTC. (
  • The mean number of relapses before levamisole was 2.48 relapse per year per patient, however, one year following levamisole administration it was significantly dropped to 0.78 (p=0.008). (
  • Levamisole adds bulk and weight to powdered cocaine (whereas other adulterants produce smaller "rocks" of cocaine) and makes the drug appear purer. (
  • An old drug called levamisole is exacerbating health risks for cocaine users in the United States. (
  • 2 Reports of cocaine cut with levamisole began to break out when users experienced adverse skin reactions to the drug. (
  • Because using levamisole in cocaine has become such a common practice for drug dealers, individuals with cocaine addictions are more likely to suffer the adverse effects of this combination. (
  • In 2009, the drug enforcement administration (DEA) reported that 30% of seized cocaine was found to be cut by Levamisole, which is thought to be primarily used as a diluent. (
  • Levamisole is an anti-parasitic drug currently approved for use in the U.S. by veterinarians. (