An opioid antagonist with properties similar to those of NALOXONE; in addition it also possesses some agonist properties. It should be used cautiously; levallorphan reverses severe opioid-induced respiratory depression but may exacerbate respiratory depression such as that induced by alcohol or other non-opioid central depressants. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p683)
A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is nearly as effective orally as by injection.
3,6-Diamino-10-methylacridinium chloride mixt. with 3,6-acridinediamine. Fluorescent dye used as a local antiseptic and also as a biological stain. It intercalates into nucleic acids thereby inhibiting bacterial and viral replication.
Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon morphine.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.

Targeting sigma receptor-binding benzamides as in vivo diagnostic and therapeutic agents for human prostate tumors. (1/26)

Sigma receptors are known to be expressed in a variety of human tumor cells, including breast, neural, and melanoma tumors. A very high density (1.0-1.5 million receptors/cell) of sigma receptors was also reported in a human androgen-dependent prostate tumor cell line (LNCaP). In this study, we show that a very high density of sigma receptors is also expressed in an androgen-independent human prostate tumor cell line (DU-145). Pharmacological binding studies using the sigma-1-selective ligand [3H](+)-pentazocine showed a high-affinity binding (Kd = 5.80 nM, Bmax = 1800 fmol/mg protein). Similarly, binding studies with [3H]1,3-di-o-tolylguanidine in the presence of dextrallorphan also showed a high-affinity binding (Kd = 15.71 nM, Bmax = 1930 fmol/mg protein). Radioiodinated benzamide N-[2-(1'-piperidinyl)ethyl]-3-[125I]iodo-4-methoxybenzamide ([125I]PIMBA) was also shown to bind DU-145 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Three different radioiodinated benzamides, [125I]PIMBA, 4-[125I]iodo-N-[2-(1'-piperidinyl)ethyl]benzamide, and 2-[125I]-N-(N-benzylpiperidin-4-yl)-2-iodobenzamide, were screened for their potential to image human prostate tumors in nude mice bearing human prostate cells (DU-145) xenografts. All three compounds showed a fast clearance from the blood pool and a high uptake and retention in the tumor. Therapeutic potential of nonradioactive PIMBA was studied using in vitro colonogenic assays. A dose-dependent inhibition of cell colony formation was found in two different human prostate cells. These results demonstrate the potential use of sigma receptor binding ligands in non-invasive diagnostic imaging of prostate cancer and its treatment.  (+info)

The antitussive activity of delta-opioid receptor stimulation in guinea pigs. (2/26)

In this study, the activity of the delta-opioid receptor subtype-selective agonist, SB 227122, was investigated in a guinea pig model of citric acid-induced cough. Parenteral administration of selective agonists of the delta-opioid receptor (SB 227122), mu-opioid receptor (codeine and hydrocodone), and kappa-opioid receptor (BRL 52974) produced dose-related inhibition of citric acid-induced cough with ED(50) values of 7.3, 5.2, 5.1, and 5.3 mg/kg, respectively. The nonselective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone (3 mg/kg, i.m.), attenuated the antitussive effects of codeine or SB 227122, indicating that the antitussive activity of both compounds is opioid receptor-mediated. The delta-receptor antagonist, SB 244525 (10 mg/kg, i.p.), inhibited the antitussive effect of SB 227122 (20 mg/kg, i.p.). In contrast, combined pretreatment with beta-funaltrexamine (mu-receptor antagonist; 20 mg/kg, s.c.) and norbinaltorphimine (kappa-receptor antagonist; 20 mg/kg, s.c.), at doses that inhibited the antitussive activity of mu- and kappa-receptor agonists, respectively, was without effect on the antitussive response of SB 227122 (20 mg/kg, i.p.). The sigma-receptor antagonist rimcazole (3 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited the antitussive effect of dextromethorphan (30 mg/kg, i.p.), a sigma-receptor agonist, but not that of SB 227122. These studies provide compelling evidence that the antitussive effects of SB 227122 in this guinea pig cough model are mediated by agonist activity at the delta-opioid receptor.  (+info)

Effect of fentanyl, a narcotic analgesic, on two components of the jaw opening reflex. (3/26)

An action of fentanyl, a short-acting narcotic, on the reflex discharge in the digastric nerve induced by the inferior alveolar nerve stimulation was investigated in alpha-chloralose anesthetized cats. In the ipsilateral digastric reflex discharge, there were an early phase induced by stimulus exciting Aalpha fibers and a late phase appearing when Adelta fibers were also stimulated. Following dorso-lateral cordotomy at the obex level, an isolation of the spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis, a total area in the digastric reflex discharge decreased, while its first peak amplitude was little affected, indicating a disappearance of the late phase and a preservation of the early phase. Fentanyl depressed both the total discharge area and the first peak amplitude. After dorso-lateral cordotomy, the depression of the area decreased considerably, whereas that of the amplitude decreased slightly. Results indicate that fentanyl depressed both the early phase which is activated by the Aalpha fiber stimulation, not via the subnucleus caudalis and the late phase which is activated by the Adelta fiber stimulation via the sub-nucleus caudalis or its surroundings. The latter action would be related to the analgesic action of fentanyl.  (+info)

Physical dependence on morphine, phenobarbital and diazepam in rats by drug-admixed food ingestion. (4/26)

To produce physical dependence on morphine, phenobarbital and diazepam in rats, these drugs were mixed with powder form of rat food in concentrations of 0.5 mg/g, 1 mg/g and 2 mg/g of food. One group of rats (the lower dose group) was continuously exposed for 1 week to two morphine-admixed foods with morphine to food ratios of 0.5 mg/g and 1 mg/g in a cage. The other group (the higher dose group) could choose between two morphine-admixed foods with morphine to food ratios of 1 mg/g and 2 mg/g. After 1 week, morphine-admixed foods were replaced with morphine free food for 2 days. Both groups of rats showed greatly reduced body weight and food intake after the first 24-48 hr withdrawal. The body weight decrease was greater for rats in the higher dose group. Control groups of morphine dependent rats were kept on the morphine added food diets and showed the same body weight increase as well as normal control rats during the course of these experiments. Physical dependence on phenobarbital and diazepam was produced using the same dosage schedules as with morphine. Both the lower and higher dose groups showed significant decrease in body weight due to withdrawal after 1 week of drug-food exposure. Levallorphan (0.5, 1, 3 and 5 mg/kg, s.c.) administered to morphine dependent rats had dose-dependent effects on the intensity of abstinence symptoms (e.g., diarrhea, piloerection and wet shakes phenomena), maximal decrease in body weight and duration of decreased body weight. Cross-physical dependence between phenobarbital and diazepam was demonstrated by this method.  (+info)

Effects of naloxone and levallorphan on the spinal cord reflex potentials under the spinal ischemic condition in cats. (5/26)

The spinal reflex potentials elicited by electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve were recorded from the lumbo-sacral ventral root in spinal cats. When the thoracic aorta and the bilateral internal mammary arteries were occluded for 10 min, the potentials were completely depressed. Reappearance of these potentials could be observed at about 10 min after removal of the occlusion and they gradually recovered. Intravenous injection of naloxone (1 or 10 mg/kg) or levallorphan (0.1 mg/kg) together with removal of occlusion significantly promoted the recovery of the polysynaptic reflex potential. Morphine (5 mg/kg) showed no particular effect on the recovery of potentials. Furthermore, pretreatment with morphine (5 mg/kg) did not influence the effects of these opioid antagonists. These results suggest that naloxone and levallorphan may preserve or potentiate the interneuronal activities of the lumbo-sacral spinal cord under the ischemic condition and that the effects may not be mediated through morphine-like opioid receptors.  (+info)

Use of polymyxin B, levallorphan, and tetracaine to isolate novel envelope mutants of Escherichia coli. (6/26)

Mutants of Escherichia coli were isolated by their resistance to the bacteriocidal effects of the membrane-active drugs polymyxin B, levallorphan, and tetracaine. The mutants were examined for additional changes in cellular physiology evoked by the lesions; many polymyxin-resistant strains had a concomitant increased sensitivity to anionic detergents, and several strains of each type had concomitant alterations in generation time and morphology. Mutants of each class (polymyxin resistant, tetracaine resistant, and levallorphan resistant) were transduced into recipient strains. The levallorphan resistance site (lev) was located at approximately 9 min on the E. coli chromosome. Polymyxin (pmx) and tetracaine (tec) resistance loci were also transduced. The lev and tec strains had a slight prolongation of generation time, in contrast with their isogenic wild-type strains. The tec transductant produced long filaments in the absence of tetracaine and had an altered colonial morphology, it reverted at high frequency, with the morphological abnormalities reverting along with the tetracaine resistance. The pmx transductant had an increased sensitivity to levallorphan and to anionic detergents. In contrast, both lev and tec mutants were more resistant to acriflavine than was the wild type or the pmx transductant. The pmx, lev, and tec loci differed in sensitivity to mitomycin C; the lev strain was more resistant, the tec strain was more sensitive, and the pmx strain was much more sensitive than the wild type. There was no difference in sensitivity to several other dyes and detergents, colicins, or T bacteriophage between the transductant and isogenic wild-type strains. Thus, lev, tec, and pmx loci confer more subtle alterations in the permeability barrier than do lipopolysaccharide-deficient mutants previously studied.  (+info)

Opiate receptor: autoradiographic localization in rat brain. (7/26)

Opiate receptor sites in rat brain can be labeled in vivo by [3H]diprenorphine, a potent opiate antagoinst. Using techniques to minimize diffusion in fresh, frozen, unfixed brain, we have localized [3H]diprenorphine by autoradiography to visualize the distribution of opiate receptors. Silver grains indicative of the binding of labeled [3H]diprenorphine are discretely localized in numerous areas of the brain with very high densities in the locus coeruleus, the substantia gelatinosa of the spinal cord, and in clusters within the caudate-putamen, amygdala, and parts of the periventricular gray matter.  (+info)

Exploration of catalytic properties of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 through metabolic studies of levorphanol and levallorphan. (8/26)

 (+info)

Levallorphan is a opioid antagonist and agonist, often used as an analgesic (pain reliever) and antitussive (cough suppressant). It works by binding to the opioid receptors in the brain, blocking the effects of certain opioid agonists such as morphine while also acting as a weak agonist itself. This means that it can both block the pain-relieving effects and produce some of the unwanted side effects of opioids, such as respiratory depression. It is used in clinical settings to reverse or reduce the effects of opioid overdose, and also for the treatment of severe cough.

It's important to note that Levallorphan has a complex pharmacology and its use should be restricted to medical professionals due to its potential for abuse and dependence.

Levorphanol is a potent opioid analgesic medication used to treat moderate to severe pain. It is a synthetic compound with a chemical structure similar to that of morphine, but it has more potent analgesic and sedative effects. Levorphanol works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, which reduces the perception of pain and produces a sense of well-being or euphoria.

Levorphanol is available in oral tablet form and is typically used for short-term pain management in patients who are not able to take other opioid medications or who have developed tolerance to them. It has a long duration of action, with effects lasting up to 24 hours after a single dose.

Like all opioids, levorphanol carries a risk of dependence and addiction, as well as serious side effects such as respiratory depression, sedation, and constipation. It should be used with caution in patients with a history of substance abuse or mental illness, and it is not recommended for use in pregnant women or children.

Acriflavine is an antiseptic and disinfectant substance that has been used in dermatology and veterinary medicine. Its chemical name is trypaflavine, and it is a mixture of basic dyes with the ability to interact with DNA, RNA, and proteins. Acriflavine has shown antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties, although its use in human medicine has been limited due to its potential toxicity and staining effects on tissues. It is still used in some topical preparations for the treatment of skin conditions such as psoriasis and eczema.

Morphine dependence is a medical condition characterized by a physical and psychological dependency on morphine, a potent opioid analgesic. This dependence develops as a result of repeated use or abuse of morphine, leading to changes in the brain's reward and pleasure pathways. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) outlines the following criteria for diagnosing opioid dependence, which includes morphine:

A. A problematic pattern of opioid use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by at least two of the following, occurring within a 12-month period:

1. Opioids are often taken in larger amounts or over a longer period than was intended.
2. There is a persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control opioid use.
3. A great deal of time is spent in activities necessary to obtain the opioid, use the opioid, or recover from its effects.
4. Craving, or a strong desire or urge to use opioids.
5. Recurrent opioid use resulting in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home.
6. Continued opioid use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of opioids.
7. Important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of opioid use.
8. Recurrent opioid use in situations in which it is physically hazardous.
9. Continued opioid use despite knowing that a physical or psychological problem is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by opioids.
10. Tolerance, as defined by either of the following:
a. A need for markedly increased amounts of opioids to achieve intoxication or desired effect.
b. A markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of an opioid.
11. Withdrawal, as manifested by either of the following:
a. The characteristic opioid withdrawal syndrome.
b. The same (or a closely related) substance is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms.

Additionally, it's important to note that if someone has been using opioids for an extended period and suddenly stops taking them, they may experience withdrawal symptoms. These can include:

- Anxiety
- Muscle aches
- Insomnia
- Runny nose
- Sweating
- Diarrhea
- Nausea or vomiting
- Abdominal cramping
- Dilated pupils

If you or someone you know is struggling with opioid use, it's essential to seek professional help. There are many resources available, including inpatient and outpatient treatment programs, support groups, and medications that can help manage withdrawal symptoms and cravings.

Morphine is a potent opioid analgesic (pain reliever) derived from the opium poppy. It works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals and reducing the perception of pain. Morphine is used to treat moderate to severe pain, including pain associated with cancer, myocardial infarction, and other conditions. It can also be used as a sedative and cough suppressant.

Morphine has a high potential for abuse and dependence, and its use should be closely monitored by healthcare professionals. Common side effects of morphine include drowsiness, respiratory depression, constipation, nausea, and vomiting. Overdose can result in respiratory failure, coma, and death.

Naloxone is a medication used to reverse the effects of opioids, both illicit and prescription. It works by blocking the action of opioids on the brain and restoring breathing in cases where opioids have caused depressed respirations. Common brand names for naloxone include Narcan and Evzio.

Naloxone is an opioid antagonist, meaning that it binds to opioid receptors in the body without activating them, effectively blocking the effects of opioids already present at these sites. It has no effect in people who have not taken opioids and does not reverse the effects of other sedatives or substances.

Naloxone can be administered via intranasal, intramuscular, intravenous, or subcutaneous routes. The onset of action varies depending on the route of administration but generally ranges from 1 to 5 minutes when given intravenously and up to 10-15 minutes with other methods.

The duration of naloxone's effects is usually shorter than that of most opioids, so multiple doses or a continuous infusion may be necessary in severe cases to maintain reversal of opioid toxicity. Naloxone has been used successfully in emergency situations to treat opioid overdoses and has saved many lives.

It is important to note that naloxone does not reverse the effects of other substances or address the underlying causes of addiction, so it should be used as part of a comprehensive treatment plan for individuals struggling with opioid use disorders.

... (INN, BAN) (brand names Lorfan, Naloxifan, Naloxiphan), also known as levallorphan tartrate (USAN), is an opioid ... Levallorphan was also used in combination with opioid analgesics to reduce their side effects, mainly in obstetrics, and a very ... Levallorphan was formerly widely used in general anesthesia, mainly to reverse the respiratory depression produced by opioid ... The combination of levallorphan with pethidine (meperidine) was indeed used so frequently, a standardized formulation was made ...
Roberts, H; Kuck, MA (19 November 1960). "Use of alphaprodine and levallorphan during labour". Canadian Medical Association ...
It is used as the hydrobromide (free base conversion ratio 0.750) and hydrochloride (0.870). Levallorphan Levorphanol ...
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While its stereoisomer, levallorphan, had a 10,000 times more potent dose, thus proving that binding to these receptors is ... Morphinan Oxilorphan Dextrorphan Dextromethorphan Levallorphan Su TP (November 1982). "Evidence for sigma opioid receptor: ...
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Wray SR, Cowan A (1971). "The behavioural effects of levallorphan, cyprenorphine (M285) and amphetamine on repeated Y-maze ...
... levallorphan, pentazocine, phenazocine, and eptazocine. Difelikefalin (CR845, FE-202845) and CR665 (FE-200665, JNJ-38488502) ... non-selective Levallorphan Levomethorphan Levorphanol Morphine - alkaloid Nalbuphine - partial agonist Nalfurafine - full ...
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... may refer to: Dextrallorphan Levallorphan Methorphan This set index article lists chemical compounds articles ...
Costa PJ, Bonnycastle DD (March 1955). "The effect of levallorphan tartrate, nalorphine HCl and WIN 7681 (1-allyl-4-phenyl-4- ...
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... and its salts Levallorphan (l-11-allyl-1,2,3,9,10,10a-hexahydro-4H-10,4a-iminoethanophenanthren-6-ol) and its salts ...
... levallorphan MeSH D03.132.610.422.463 - levorphanol MeSH D03.132.610.422.463.382 - dextromethorphan MeSH D03.132.610.422.547 - ... levallorphan MeSH D03.549.686.485 - levorphanol MeSH D03.549.686.485.382 - dextromethorphan MeSH D03.549.686.575 - morphine ... levallorphan MeSH D03.605.497.485 - levorphanol MeSH D03.605.497.485.382 - dextromethorphan MeSH D03.605.497.575 - morphine ...
... levallorphan (INN) levamfetamine (INN) levamisole (INN) levamlodipine malate (USAN) levaquin levatol levcromakalim (INN) ...
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In animal studies it produces potent analgesic effects that are blocked by levallorphan and so appear to be μ-opioid mediated, ...
Hexapradol Histrionicotoxin Levallorphan Tesmilifene, also known as N,N-diethyl-2-(4-phenylmethyl)ethanamine (DPPE) This set ...
Levallorphan (INN, BAN) (brand names Lorfan, Naloxifan, Naloxiphan), also known as levallorphan tartrate (USAN), is an opioid ... Levallorphan was also used in combination with opioid analgesics to reduce their side effects, mainly in obstetrics, and a very ... Levallorphan was formerly widely used in general anesthesia, mainly to reverse the respiratory depression produced by opioid ... The combination of levallorphan with pethidine (meperidine) was indeed used so frequently, a standardized formulation was made ...
LEVALLORPHAN 53043 LEVOBUNOLOL HCL 53045 LEVODESOXYEPHEDRINE 53050 LEVODOPA 53055 LEVORPHANOL 53065 LEVOTHYROXINE 53070 ...
Race)Allorphan: l (+) Levallorphan ,, Dextrallorphan (-) d --, l= ANTI-OPIOID ,, d=NMDA ANTAGONISTS. └--, Racemic mix of both ... Levallorphan - μ opioid antagonist. , when used with opiate, it potentiates it and removes addiction potential or induces ... Levallorphan - μ opioid antagonist, when used with opiate. , it potentiates it and removes addiction potential or induces ... Levallorphan - μ opioid antagonist, when used with opiate, it potentiates it and removes addiction potential or induces ...
Levallorphan. *Neuromuscular blocking agents, e.g. atracurium. *Metoclopramide. *Mexiletine. *Hypnotics and sedatives, e.g. ...
The respiratory effects of pethidine and levallorphan. Anesthesia. April 1957;12(2). ...
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Codeine Phosphate-Narcotic antagonists, such as nalorphine and levallorphan, may be indicated. ...
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Safety and efficacy of a combination of pethidine and levallorphan for pain relief during labor: An observational study Masato ... Safety and efficacy of a combination of pethidine and levallorphan for pain relief during labor: An observational study Masato ... Aim: To evaluate the safety, effect on breastfeeding and efficacy of a combination of pethidine and levallorphan (Pethilorfan) ...
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The narcotic antagonists - nalorphine, naloxone, and levallorphan - are specific antidotes against respiratory depression ...
Butorphanol and levallorphan were detected by the LC-MS-MS system in MS-MS mode. Concentrations of ,20 pg/mL were reported as ... levallorphan) were extracted from human plasma using solid-phase extraction. The samples were subjected to reverse-phase high- ...
On the Mode of Action of Levallorphan on Escherichia coli: Effects on Cellular Magnesium M. A. DEVYNCK, P. L. BOQUET, P. ... On the Mode of Action of Levallorphan on Escherichia coli: Effects on Cellular Magnesium M. A. DEVYNCK, P. L. BOQUET, P. ... On the Mode of Action of Levallorphan on Escherichia coli: Effects on Cellular Magnesium M. A. DEVYNCK, P. L. BOQUET, P. ... On the Mode of Action of Levallorphan on Escherichia coli: Effects on Cellular Magnesium M. A. DEVYNCK, P. L. BOQUET, P. ...
12) Levallorphan (l-11-allyl-1,2,3,9,10,10a-hexahydro-4H-10,4a-iminoethanophenanthren-6-ol) ...
8. Exploration of catalytic properties of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 through metabolic studies of levorphanol and levallorphan.. Bonn B ...
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Use of a combination of meperidine 50 mg and levallorphan 0.625 mg (Pethilorphan) per dose intramuscularly as a last resort for ... Safety and efficacy of a combination of pethidine and levallorphan for pain relief during labor: An observational study. J ... Although women who received meperidine plus levallorphan had several indications of more difficult labor and delivery, there ...
Substances capable of antagonizing one or more of these actions include nalorphine, levallorphan, cyclazocine, butorphanol, ...
Levallorphan (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Levallorphan (substance). Concept Status. Published. ...
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Levallorphan Preferred Term Term UI T023770. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID ... Levallorphan Preferred Concept UI. M0012429. Registry Number. 353613BU4U. Related Numbers. 152-02-3. Scope Note. An opioid ... Levallorphan. Tree Number(s). D03.132.577.249.413. D03.605.497.429. D03.633.400.686.429. D04.615.723.795.413. Unique ID. ... It should be used cautiously; levallorphan reverses severe opioid-induced respiratory depression but may exacerbate respiratory ...
Levallorphan Preferred Term Term UI T023770. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID ... Levallorphan Preferred Concept UI. M0012429. Registry Number. 353613BU4U. Related Numbers. 152-02-3. Scope Note. An opioid ... Levallorphan. Tree Number(s). D03.132.577.249.413. D03.605.497.429. D03.633.400.686.429. D04.615.723.795.413. Unique ID. ... It should be used cautiously; levallorphan reverses severe opioid-induced respiratory depression but may exacerbate respiratory ...
Levallorphan - Preferred Concept UI. M0012429. Scope note. An opioid antagonist with properties similar to those of NALOXONE; ... It should be used cautiously; levallorphan reverses severe opioid-induced respiratory depression but may exacerbate respiratory ... It should be used cautiously; levallorphan reverses severe opioid-induced respiratory depression but may exacerbate respiratory ...
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Exploration of catalytic properties of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 through metabolic studies of levorphanol and levallorphan. ...
... the series of 800 patients includes six patients who experienced depressed respirations requiring treatment with levallorphan ... the series of 800 patients includes six patients who experienced depressed respirations requiring treatment with levallorphan ...
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  • Levallorphan (INN, BAN) (brand names Lorfan, Naloxifan, Naloxiphan), also known as levallorphan tartrate (USAN), is an opioid modulator of the morphinan family used as an opioid analgesic and opioid antagonist/antidote. (wikipedia.org)
  • The combination of levallorphan with pethidine (meperidine) was indeed used so frequently, a standardized formulation was made available, known as Pethilorfan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levallorphan was also used in combination with opioid analgesics to reduce their side effects, mainly in obstetrics, and a very small dose of levallorphan used alongside a full agonist of the MOR can produce greater analgesia than when the latter is used by itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • levallorphan reverses severe opioid-induced respiratory depression but may exacerbate respiratory depression such as that induced by alcohol or other non-opioid central depressants. (nih.gov)