Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.
A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.
A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
A generic name for film produced from wood pulp by the viscose process. It is a thin, transparent sheeting of regenerated cellulose, moisture-proof and sometimes dyed, and used chiefly as food wrapping or as bags for dialysis. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Abnormal passage communicating with the STOMACH.
Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)
An organoplatinum compound that possesses antineoplastic activity.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses.
A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE comprising many viruses, most of which are transmitted by Phlebotomus flies and cause PHLEBOTOMUS FEVER. The type species is RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
A semisynthetic anthracycline with the amino sugar on the D ring. It displays broad-spectrum antineoplastic activity against a variety of tumors.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Small, often pleomorphic, coccoid to ellipsoidal organisms occurring intracytoplasmically in circulating LYMPHOCYTES. They are the etiologic agents of tick-borne diseases of humans; DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; and HORSES.
A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.
An alkaloid isolated from the stem wood of the Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminata. This compound selectively inhibits the nuclear enzyme DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I. Several semisynthetic analogs of camptothecin have demonstrated antitumor activity.
A folic acid derivative used as a rodenticide that has been shown to be teratogenic.
A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.
An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
An antibiotic substance derived from Penicillium stoloniferum, and related species. It blocks de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides by inhibition of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mycophenolic acid is important because of its selective effects on the immune system. It prevents the proliferation of T-cells, lymphocytes, and the formation of antibodies from B-cells. It also may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1301)
Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.
The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.
The active metabolite of FOLIC ACID. Leucovorin is used principally as an antidote to FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS.
An anthrocycline from a Streptomyces nogalater variant. It is a cytolytic antineoplastic that inhibits DNA-dependent RNA synthesis by binding to DNA.
Absence of hair from areas where it is normally present.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
INFLAMMATION of the soft tissues of the MOUTH, such as MUCOSA; PALATE; GINGIVA; and LIP.
The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
Virus diseases caused by the BUNYAVIRIDAE.
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
Infections with bacteria of the family RICKETTSIACEAE.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The highest dose of a biologically active agent given during a chronic study that will not reduce longevity from effects other than carcinogenicity. (from Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
Pneumonia caused by infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS, usually with STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
A decrease in the number of GRANULOCYTES; (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
Deficiency of all three cell elements of the blood, erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets.
A biologic alkylating agent that exerts its cytotoxic effects by forming DNA ADDUCTS and DNA interstrand crosslinks, thereby inhibiting rapidly proliferating cells. The hydrochloride is an antineoplastic agent used to treat HODGKIN DISEASE and LYMPHOMA.
A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Congener of FLUOROURACIL with comparable antineoplastic action. It has been suggested especially for the treatment of breast neoplasms.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.
An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia.
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that is the causative agent of human EHRLICHIOSIS. This organism was first discovered at Fort Chaffee, Arkansas, when blood samples from suspected human ehrlichiosis patients were studied.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A group of 16-member MACROLIDES which stabilize MICROTUBULES in a manner similar to PACLITAXEL. They were originally found in the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum, now renamed to Polyangium (MYXOCOCCALES).
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
An anthracycline which is the 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumor effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA.
One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Platinum. A heavy, soft, whitish metal, resembling tin, atomic number 78, atomic weight 195.09, symbol Pt. (From Dorland, 28th ed) It is used in manufacturing equipment for laboratory and industrial use. It occurs as a black powder (platinum black) and as a spongy substance (spongy platinum) and may have been known in Pliny's time as "alutiae".
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.

Increase of hematopoietic responses by triple or single helical conformer of an antitumor (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan preparation, Sonifilan, in cyclophosphamide-induced leukopenic mice. (1/834)

It has been suggested that the immunopharmacological activity of soluble (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan depends on its conformation in mice. In this study, we examined the relationship between the conformation of Sonifilan (SPG) and hematopietic responses in cyclophosphamide (Cy)-induced leukopenic mice. SPG, a high molecular weight (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan, has a triple helical conformation in water, and it was changed by treatment with aqueous sodium hydroxide to the single helical conformer (SPG-OH). The effects of SPG or SPG-OH on hematopoietic responses in cyclophosphamide induced leukopenic mice were investigated by monitoring i) gene expression of cytokines by RT-PCR, ii) protein synthesis of interleukin 6 (IL-6) by ELISA and iii) colony formation of bone marrow cells (BMC). The mice administered Cy and SPG or SPG-OH expressed and produced higher levels of IL-6 mRNA and protein than the mice administered only Cy. Gene expression of NK1.1 was also induced by Cy/SPG (or SPG-OH) treatment. Induced gene expression of stem cell factor (SCF) and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) by SPG/SPG-OH were also found in in vitro culture of BMC from Cy treated mice. These results strongly suggested that conformation of the glucans, single and triple helix, are independent of the hematopietic response.  (+info)

A phase I/II study of continuous intra-arterial chemotherapy using an implantable reservoir for the treatment of liver metastases from breast cancer: a Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG) study 9113. JCOG Breast Cancer Study Group. (2/834)

BACKGROUND: Liver metastasis from breast cancer has a poor prognosis. While there are some reports of good response rates of hepatic metastasis from breast cancer by hepatic intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy, no phase I study including pharmacokinetic analysis has been reported. We performed a phase I/II study of intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy using adriamycin and 5-fluorouracil to find the maximum tolerated dose and response rate in patients with advanced or recurrent breast cancer. METHODS: A hepatic arterial catheter with an access port was inserted into the proper hepatic artery. Patients received 30 mg/m2 adriamycin on days 1 and 8 and 100 mg/m2 5-fluorouracil at level 1, 200 mg/m2 at level 2,300 mg/m2 at level 3 and 400 mg/m2 at level 4 continuously from day 1 through day 14 every 28 days. At least two cycles were required before evaluation. Twenty-eight patients were entered into this study and 26 patients were evaluable. Seventeen patients had hepatic metastasis only, although nine patients had additional metastasis to other sites. RESULTS: Dose-limiting toxicity of thrombocytopenia and neurotoxicity occurred at level 4. Leukocytopenia (ECOG grade 3-4) was observed in five (19%), thrombocytopenia in three (12%) and anemia in two (8%) patients. There were 11 catheter-related complications which were not dose dependent. Seven out of 13 evaluable patients (54%) responded at level 3. The median duration of response was 5.8 months (range, 1-23+) and median survival was 25.3 months (range, 6.2-54.7+). CONCLUSION: Hepatic arterial infusion therapy appears to be safe and effective but catheter-related complications must be overcome before starting a phase III trial.  (+info)

Inhibition of a membrane complement regulatory protein by a monoclonal antibody induces acute lethal shock in rats primed with lipopolysaccharide. (3/834)

Rats pretreated with traces of LPS developed acute fatal shock syndrome after i.v. administration of a mAb that inhibits the function of a membrane complement regulatory molecule. Such a shock was not observed after the administration of large amounts of LPS instead of the mAb following LPS pretreatment. The lethal response did not occur in rats depleted of either leukocytes or complement, and a C5a receptor antagonist was found to inhibit the reaction. Furthermore, LPS-treated rats did not suffer fatal shock following the injection of cobra venom factor, which activates complement in the fluid phase so extensively as to exhaust complement capacity. Therefore, complement activation on cell membranes is a requirement for this type of acute reaction.  (+info)

Quantitative and qualitative effects of cyclophosphamide administration on circulating polymorphonuclear leucocytes. (4/834)

The effect of cyclophosphamide (CY) on the absolute numbers and function of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) surviving in the circulation following either a single dose (100 mg/kg, i.p.) or daily administration (20 mg/kg, i.p., for 5 days) was studied in the guinea-pig. The quantitative effect of CY on peripheral blood leucocytes was assessed by measuring the absolute numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes daily for 5 days following the initial injection of CY. The qualitative effects of CY on PMN function were determined by measuring the ability of these cells to function as killer cells. The two functional assays employed were the PMN-mediated PHA-induced cellular cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays against chicken erythrocyte targets. Both regimens of CY administration produced an equivalent degree of leukopenia 5 days after the initial injection with disproportionately severe neutropenia (less than 300 PMN/mm3). However, neither regimen of CY administration produced a significant decrease in cytotoxic effector function as measured through a wide range of effector to target cell ratios, PHA concentrations, and antiserum dilutions. These findings have clinical relevance in that they demonstrate the dichotomy between the quantitative and qualitative effects of (CY) on PMNs in that CY administration can dramatically decrease the absolute numbers of circulating polymorphonuclear leucocytes while leaving intact certain effector cell functional capabilities of those PMN surviving in the circulation during drug administration.  (+info)

Lithium dosage and leukocyte counts in psychiatric patients. (5/834)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in leukocyte counts among patients treated with either lithium alone, antipsychotic medications alone, or a combination of both. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Long-stay psychiatric hospital. PATIENTS: Patients admitted between 1990 and 1993, and treated with lithium for at least 1 week and/or with antipsychotic medication for at least 2 weeks. Excluded from the study were those patients for whom complete blood counts at baseline and during therapy were not available, and those patients whose blood picture could primarily be accounted for by extraneous factors. Included in the study were 38 patients treated with lithium alone, 207 patients receiving antipsychotic medications alone, and 71 patients receiving both. OUTCOME MEASURES: Leukocyte, lymphocyte and granulocyte counts. RESULTS: Patients treated with lithium alone had significantly higher mean leukocyte and granulocyte counts than those treated with antipsychotic medication alone (analysis of variance, p < 0.05). None of the patients receiving lithium alone showed leukopenia. The dosage of lithium was significantly correlated with leukocyte count (r = 0.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14 to 0.35, p < 0.001,) and granulocyte count (r = 0.27, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.38, p < 0.001), but not with lymphocyte count (r = 0.06, p = 0.286, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.17). CONCLUSIONS: Lithium therapy is associated with higher leukocyte and granulocyte levels in psychiatric patients. This leukocytotic effect of lithium may be dose dependent.  (+info)

Phase I study of a biweekly schedule of a fixed dose of cisplatin with increasing doses of paclitaxel in patients with advanced oesophageal cancer. (6/834)

We performed this dose-finding study with a fixed dose of cisplatin and increasing doses of paclitaxel given every 2 weeks to determine the maximum tolerable dose of this schedule. Sixty-four patients with advanced oesophageal cancer were treated with a cisplatin dose of 60 mg m(-2) and increasing doses of paclitaxel from 100 mg m(-2) up to 200 mg m(-2) both administered over 3 h for a maximum of six cycles in patients with stable disease or eight cycles in responding patients. Patients were retreated when the granulocytes were > 0.75 x 10(9) l(-1) and the platelets > 75 x 10(9) l(-1). The dose of paclitaxel could be increased to 200 mg m(-2) without encountering dose limiting haematological toxicity. At the dose levels 190 mg m(-2) and 200 mg m(-2) of paclitaxel cumulative sensory neurotoxicity became the dose-limiting toxicity. The dose intensity of paclitaxel calculated over six cycles rose from 50 mg m(-2) per week to 85 mg m(-2) per week. Only three episodes of granulocytopenic fever were encountered out of a total of 362 cycles of treatment. Of the 59 patients evaluable for response, 31 (52%) had a partial or complete response. In a biweekly schedule with a fixed dose of 60 mg m(-2) cisplatin it is possible to increase the dose of paclitaxel to 180 mg m(-2). At higher dose levels, neurotoxicity becomes the dose-limiting toxicity. The observed response rate warrants further investigation of this schedule.  (+info)

Fundamental signals that regulate eosinophil homing to the gastrointestinal tract. (7/834)

The histological identification of increased eosinophils in the gastrointestinal tract occurs in numerous clinical disorders; however, there is a limited understanding of the mechanisms regulating eosinophil trafficking into this mucosal surface. The results presented in this study characterize the processes regulating eosinophil homing into the gastrointestinal tract at baseline. Eosinophils were found to be present in the lamina propria of 19-day-old embryos and germ-free adult mice at concentrations comparable to those present in non-germ-free adult mice. Furthermore, eosinophil gastrointestinal levels were not altered by increasing circulating eosinophils after pulmonary allergen challenge. Gastrointestinal eosinophil levels were partially reduced in mice deficient in recombinase activating gene-1 (RAG-1), IL-5, or the beta common chain (betac), but these reductions paralleled reductions in circulating eosinophils. In contrast, mice deficient in eotaxin had a marked reduction in gastrointestinal eosinophils but normal levels of eosinophils in the hematopoietic compartments. Furthermore, eotaxin was important for regulating eosinophil levels, even in the presence of high levels of IL-5. These investigations demonstrate eosinophil homing into the gastrointestinal tract during embryonic development occurring independently of viable intestinal flora. Furthermore, eotaxin is identified as the primary regulator of eosinophil gastrointestinal homing under homeostatic states, and may therefore have a fundamental role in innate immune responses.  (+info)

Prevention of febrile leucopenia after chemotherapy in high-risk breast cancer patients: no significant difference between granulocyte-colony stimulating growth factor or ciprofloxacin plus amphotericin B. (8/834)

In a prospective randomized trial, 40 stage IV breast cancer patients undergoing intermediate high-dose chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil plus epirubicin or methotrexate), received either recombinant human G-CSF (rhG-CSF, group I) or ciprofloxacin and amphotericin B (CAB, group II) for prevention of febrile leucopenia (FL). In group I, seven of 18 patients developed FL (after 10/108 courses); in group II, seven of 22 patients (7/98 courses) (P = NS). Median hospitalization duration and costs were not different. RhG-CSF was 6.6 times more expensive per course than CAB. In conclusion, prophylactic CAB has similar efficacy to rhG-CSF in this setting, and is more cost-effective.  (+info)

Korcakova, L and Holub, M, The response of peripheral lymphocytes of nude mice and leucopenic hybrids to antigen and lymphokine challenge. Abstr. (1978). Subject Strain Bibliography 1978. 1400 ...
To the editor: Infections in cancer patients with severe leukopenia secondary to chemotherapy cause a great degree of morbidity and mortality. It is generally recommended that the number of invasive procedures during periods of leukopenia be limited (1). We have recently studied two cases of severe infection caused by finger sticks in leukopenic patients.. Case 1: A 63-year-old woman was receiving chemotherapy for recurrent non-Hodgkins lymphoma. A routine finger stick was done on the right middle finger. The finger had been prepped with an alcohol swab. Leukocyte count was 300/mm3. Two days later, the finger became swollen, tender, and violaceous, ...
Looking for monocytopenia? Find out information about monocytopenia. Reduction in the number of circulating monocytes per unit volume of blood to below the minimum normal levels Explanation of monocytopenia
Hematologic toxicity: Severe leukopenia, neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, bone marrow depression, and aplastic anemia have occurred with the use of Valcyte or ganciclovir. Avoid Valcyte use if absolute neutrophil count is less than 500 cells/µL, platelet count is less than 25,000/µL, or hemoglobin is less than 8 g/dL. Use with caution in pre-existing cytopenias and when receiving myelosuppressive drugs or irradiation. Monitor with frequent testing of platelet and complete blood counts. In patients with severe leukopenia, neutropenia, anemia and/or thrombocytopenia, treatment with hematopoietic growth factors and or the interruption of therapy is recommended. Patients with low baseline platelet counts ...
What is Leukopenia Disease? Leukopenia, is also called leukocytopenia, is a kind of disease occurred when the blood has unusually low amount of WBCs or White Blood Cells. This article will surely give an answer to Leukopenia Disease. This disease got its name from the Greek word, which means deficiency and white. Due to a Read more ...
What is Leukopenia Disease? Leukopenia, is also called leukocytopenia, is a kind of disease occurred when the blood has unusually low amount of WBCs or White Blood Cells. This article will surely give an answer to Leukopenia Disease. This disease got its name from the Greek word, which means deficiency and white. Due to a Read more ...
Leukopenia is not. The cause of cancer, but it can be a sign that something is wrong in the body. For some, leukopenia is a sign of cancer, but for others, it is a sign of some autoimmune disease. Some develop leukopenia because its a side effect of a medication that theyre taking. Others just have lower white blood cell counts normally and never see or feel any bad effects from this ...
Leukopenia is a term used when there are less than adequate white blood cells in the bloodstream. This condition may make those suffering from it susceptible to infections. Leukopenia is often seen in diseases such as AIDS, cancer and lupus, as well as in common occurrences like the flu or a cold. Leukopenia can also be medically induced, as is. Continue reading ...
The first patient was placed in a separate room.Doctors and other health workers compulsorily treated with antiseptic hand, use gauze bandages and change into sterile gowns.In the House of the cleaning is carried out with the use of disinfectants, germicidal lamps used.. How to treat leukopenia?In the case of a moderate variant of the disease are appointed by the following drugs: leucogen, Batilol, pentoxy.In the event of bacterial complications that appear on the skin damage, the first days of broad-spectrum antibiotics are recommended (means Tseporin, Ampicillin, gentamicin).. leukopenia after chemotherapy treated with drugs obtained through genetic engineering (drugs Lenograstim, Sargramostin, filgrastim).. is important to note that it will take a long time to finally overcome this malaise, leukopenia.The causes of the disease, as noted above, are often rooted in a deficiency of certain vitamins and trace elements.That is why in the course of treatment should pay particular ...
Docetaxel is a medication used mainly for the treatment of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and non-small cell lung cancer. It is marketed under the trade name Taxotere.Wikipedia [PMID 18294295] rs12762549 and rs11045585 can be used to predict whether docetaxel will induced leukopenia/neutropenia, according to a study of ~100 Japanese patients. When patients were classified into three groups by the scoring system based on the genotypes of these two SNPs, patients with a score of 1 or 2 were shown to have a significantly higher risk of docetaxel-induced leukopenia/neutropenia as compared to those with a score of 0 (P = 0.0000057; odds ratio [OR], 7.00; 95% CI [confidence interval], 2.95-16.59). This prediction system correctly classified 69.2% of severe leukopenia/neutropenia and 75.7% of non-leukopenia/neutropenia into the respective categories. ...
Information about English words derived from Latin and Greek sources and English vocabulary words with etymologies plus explanations. and quizzes
unitsconverters.com helps in the conversion of different units of measurement like Leukopenia to J/mg through multiplicative conversion factors.
To the Editor: We report a case of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection in a man with serologic evidence of HIV-1 infection. The clinical course was complicated by lung and brain involvement (respiratory failure and lethargy), severe leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, but complications resolved after treatment with oseltamivir (150 mg 2×/d).. In November 2009, a 47-year-old man who had received a diagnosis of hepatitis C infection 8 months earlier sought treatment at Ospedale Santa Maria Nuova, Reggio Emilia, Italy. He had a 3-day history of fever, dry cough, and drowsiness. Eight days before being admitted, the man had resided in the hospitals inpatient detoxification unit, in which at least 10 influenza-like cases had been recorded. While in the detoxification unit, he had received methadone, 50 mg 1×/d. Computed tomography images of the brain and radiographs of the chest were normal; ultrasound examination showed upper lobe consolidation of the left lung. Hematochemistry showed high creatine ...
Leukopenia, or low white blood cell count, may be caused by diseases such as leukemia, AIDS, various types of liver disease, aplastic anemia and rheumatoid arthritis, according to Healthgrades. Other...
Leukopenia is a deficiency in white blood cells. Learn what causes this condition and what complications can develop if it is not treated quickly.
unitsconverters.com helps in the conversion of different units of measurement like Millirad to Leukopenia through multiplicative conversion factors.
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A decrease in the number of white blood cells. The threshold value for leukopenia is usually defined as fewer than 5000 white blood cells per cubic millimeter of blood ...
A simple, reproducible model of fatal Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis in mice during immunosuppression was developed. Mice were rendered leukopenic (less than or equal to 800 leukocytes per mm3 of blood) for a period of 5 days by multiple injections of cyclophosphamide. Mice were challenged at the onset of leukopenia by instilling the bacteria onto a 0.5-mm incision made into the back. The mean lethal dose (LD50) for P. aeruginosa PA220 and M-2 was less than 20 bacteria. The mean time to death for these strains ranged from 46 to 59 h. Leukopenic mice were comparatively resistant when challenged with Klebsiella pneumoniae (LD50 = 1.5 x 10(6)) or Staphylococcus aureus (LD50 greater than 10(6)). Infection with P. aeruginosa was characterized by rapid bacterial multiplication in the skin at the site of infection, producing ecthyma gangrenosum. Bacteremia and colonization of the liver were pronounced 21 h postinfection. This model should prove to be a useful tool for studying the pathogenesis of P. ...
Leukopenia (from Greek λευκός (leukos), meaning white, and πενία (penia), meaning deficiency) is a decrease in the number of white blood cells (leukocytes) found in the blood, which places individuals at increased risk of infection. Neutropenia, a subtype of leukopenia, refers to a decrease in the number of circulating neutrophil granulocytes, the most abundant white blood cells. The terms leukopenia and neutropenia may occasionally be used interchangeably, as the neutrophil count is the most important indicator of infection risk. This should not be confused with agranulocytosis. Low white cell count may be due to acute viral infections, such as a cold or influenza. It has been associated with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, myelofibrosis, aplastic anemia (failure of white cell, red cell and platelet production), stem cell transplant, bone marrow transplant, HIV, AIDS, and steroid use. Other causes of low white blood cell count include systemic lupus erythematosus, Hodgkins ...
CHAPTER 77 MONOCYTOSIS AND MONOCYTOPENIA Williams Hematology CHAPTER 77 MONOCYTOSIS AND MONOCYTOPENIA MARSHALL A. LICHTMAN Normal Blood Monocyte Concentration Disorders Associated with Monocytosis Hematologic Disorders Inflammatory and Immune Disorders Nonhematopoietic Malignancies Exogenous Cytokine Administration Miscellaneous Conditions Disorders Associated with Monocytopenia Chapter References The blood monocyte is in transit between the marrow and tissues, where it…
Explaining the causes, symptoms, and treatments of leukopenia, also known as a low white blood cell count. Leukocytes are a type of white blood cell, and when the body has low levels of them, leucopenia is the result.
Tips to help with your thrombocytopenia: Thrombocytopenia Leukopenia. My thrombocytopenia, Online resources for thrombocytopenia.
Leukopenia is a shortage of leukocyte in the system, which can be triggered by anemia, menorrhagia, and so on. In addition, the blood cell count can dip due to infection or because leukocyte production has actually been prevented.
Leukopenia is a term used when there are less than adequate white blood cells in the bloodstream. This condition may make those suffering from it susceptible to infections. Leukopenia is often seen in diseases such as AIDS, cancer and lupus, as well as in common occurrences like the flu or a cold. Leukopenia can also…. Read More ...
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Hong Kong has long been one of the worlds most expensive cities to live. But as Catherine Mercier tells us, the cost of housing is skyrocketing even further.
A classical non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) chemotherapy treatment is gemcitabine in combination with carboplatin. The treatment is known to cause severe hematological toxicity such as leukopenia, which can lead to chemotherapy cessation or even death. It would therefore a priori be of advantage to identify patients at risk of severe leukopenia to allow for a personalized treatment approach. In this study we aim to identify genetic markers for chemotherapy induced leukopenia in non-small cell lung cancer.. In total, 212 non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with gemcitabine and carboplatin regimen were included in the study. Whole blood extracted DNA was prepared with Nextera Rapid Capture kit and whole exome sequenced using Illumina HiSeq 2500. Leukopenia was assessed from leukocyte particle count at baseline and the first cycle nadir values.. The statistical approach was to study association of single common variants (MAF , 0.01) to leukopenia using linear regression in PLINK and ...
The most dangerous thing that is associated with this disease is that it affects the bodys ability to fight infections. A person effected with a leucopenia have a tremendous decrease in the number of total white blood cells (leukocytes) found in blood. It is also known as leukocytopenia. The normal total white cell count is 5000-10000 per cubic millimeter. If the total white cell count drops below 3,500 per cubic millimeter in the blood, the person is said to be suffering from leucopenia. ...
Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Supportive Management of Anaemic and Cytopenic (Leukopenia, Thrombocytopenia) Haematological Disorders This study has been…
Why is it important to know about bone marrow suppression during chemotherapy, and what can you do to keep yourself healthy and cope?
Bone marrow suppression is when fewer blood cells are made in the marrow. Its a common side effect of some strong medicines, such as chemotherapy.
Bone marrow suppression is when fewer blood cells are made in the marrow. Its a common side effect of some strong medicines, such as chemotherapy.
Bone marrow suppression is when fewer blood cells are made in the marrow. Its a common side effect of some strong medicines, such as chemotherapy.
Bone marrow suppression is when fewer blood cells are made in the marrow. Its a common side effect of some strong medicines, such as chemotherapy.
Bone marrow suppression is when fewer blood cells are made in the marrow. Its a common side effect of some strong medicines, such as chemotherapy.
Methods A retrospective study was conducted, 56 patients with SLE were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) at a University Hospital in Bogotá, Colombia, between 2008 and 2016. The average age was 40.7 years old (SD ±17.7 y/o), female sex was predominant (71% vs 29%). Correlation between procalcitonin and eosinopenia in patients with positive cultures in bivariate analysis was performed to identify if there was a possible association to include those variables in a logistic regression model to establish an association with positive cultures. ...
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Good test characteristics for patients newly admitted to the ICU were demonstrated in this study from Critical Care. (I like to add a manual differential on such patients. That gives you a band count. The combined information may be a more powerful predictor---not evidence based that Im aware but it makes sense). Think of it as a quick and dirty substitute for the much more expensive and less readily available procalcitonin assay ...
Leukopenia, i.e., abnormal decline in white blood cells (WBCs) in the body, can weaken your immune system, and make you vulnerable to a range of infectious diseases. However, there do exist some measures to increase WBC count, and these can help you strengthen your immune system and keep all the infections at bay.
Bone marrow suppression also known as myelotoxicity or myelosuppression, is the decrease in production of cells responsible for providing immunity (leukocytes), carrying oxygen (erythrocytes), and/or those responsible for normal blood clotting (thrombocytes). Bone marrow suppression is a serious side effect of chemotherapy and certain drugs affecting the immune system such as azathioprine. The risk is especially high in cytotoxic chemotherapy for leukemia. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), in some rare instances, may also cause bone marrow suppression. The decrease in blood cell counts does not occur right at the start of chemotherapy because the drugs do not destroy the cells already in the bloodstream (these are not dividing rapidly). Instead, the drugs affect new blood cells that are being made by the bone marrow. When myelosuppression is severe, it is called myeloablation. Many other drugs including common antibiotics may cause bone marrow suppression. Unlike chemotherapy the ...
Drug Tolerability and Outcomes in Kidney Transplant Recipients Treated with Two Formulations of Mycophenolic Acid. Articles related to leukopenia are open access to read here.
Leucopenia is a decrease in the number of white blood cells, which puts a person at risk for infection. Normally when a person has infection or inflammation, the number of white blood cells increases so there are more cells to fight the infection with. In some cases though, the infection actually destroys white blood cells, leaving the number decreased. White blood cells can be destroyed due to other causes such as some medications, automimmune disorders and disorders of the bone marrow. If no cause for the low white blood cell count can be determined, your physician may refer you to a hematologist. The hematologist will need to do further tests to determine the cause of the leucopenia. If you have a low white blood cell count, you should practice good handwashing and watch for signs of infection.. ...
Sorption Detoxification as an Addition to Conventional Therapy of Acute Radiation Sickness and Iatrogenic Leukopenia. By Oksana O. Shevchuk, Elisaveta A. Snezhkova, Anatoliy G. Bilous, Veronika V. Sarnatskaya, Kvitoslava I. Badakhivska, Larysa A. Sakhno, Vasyl F. Chekhun and Volodymyr G. Nikolaev. Leukopenia is an essential part of the clinical course of acute radiation sickness and is a side effect of anti-cancer treatment. In both situations, the main factors which determine the survival are the degree of bone marrow suppression and gastrointestinal tract damage due to the presence of a large pool of fast-dividing cells. Leuko- and neutropenia are main limiting factors which may contribute to chemotherapy failure. Hematopoietic cytokines the part of conventional therapy in this field, but their effects require boosting. That is why the use of means and methods of adsorption therapy is considered promising. Sorption therapy creates a basis for sorption detoxification, a doctrine of curative ...
The administration of immunosuppressive agents may be associated with the occurrence of hematologic toxicity, such as anemia, due to bone marrow suppression or hemolysis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia. The administration of azathioprine and mycophenolate mofetil is more frequently associated with …
AZT Azidothymidine, also called RetrovirTM, zidovudine, or ZDV. The first antiretroviral drug against HIV infection to be approved by the FDA (1987). A thymidine (RNA constituent) analog that suppresses replication of HIV. AZT is increasingly administered in combination with other antiviral drugs. Possible side effects include bone marrow suppression leading to anemia, leukopenia, or neutropenia; nausea; muscle weakness; and headaches. ...
- know what leukocytes are - know the functions of leukocytes - know the process of leukocpoiesis - know what the values for leukocytes are - understand the importance of a differential leukocyte count - understand: leukocytosis, leukocytopenia, leukemia basics This packet covers the topic of leukocytes
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: White Blood Cell, WBC Count, White Blood Cell Count, Leukocyte, Leukopenia, Granulocyte.
failure of all 3 cell lines produced in the bone marrow, resulting in anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia (pancytopenia). The marrow is essentially empty with the absence of precursor cells ...
Lehenbiziko transfusioak XVII. mendean egin baziren ere, odol taldeen arteko elkartezintasuna arautzen duten legeak ezagutzen ez zirenez, bertan behera utzi behar izan ziren, gaixoak hil egiten baitziren. XX. mendearen hasieran, Karl Landsteiner austriarrak odol taldeak eta haiek elkartzeko legeak aurkitu zituenean, berriz egiten hasi ziren, emaitza hobeekin. Gaur egun, ohiko bihurtu da transfusioa eta, gehienetan, odol talde eta Rh bereko pertsonen artean egiten da. Badira, hala ere, edozein taldetako odola jaso dezaketen pertsonak (AB odol taldekoak, hartzaile unibertsalak) eta, orobat, edozein taldetakoei eman diezaieketenak (0 taldekoak, emaile unibertsalak). Odol-transfusioak hainbat egoeratan eta gaixotasunetan burutzen dira. Trauma baten ondorioz odol-galera handia gertatzen denean, adibidez. Baita ebakuntza eta kirurgiaren ondorioz odol asko galtzen denean ere. Gaixotasun hematologiko larri batzuek (anemia latza, tronbopenia, leukopenia, hemofilia, leuzemia...) transfusioa eskatzen dute ...
Imuran generic price - without a prescription over the internet. Common side effects include bone marrow suppression and vomiting
However, in animals we can say that depletion is absolutely required for action and the depletion within a few days of giving antibody is about 95% but within a few weeks it is about 60% so if you do a blood sample months after treatment as is the norm in human studies you do not get a picture of what has happened previously....maybe relating to the statements that leucopenia are not related to the mechanism of action, when it clearly is. ...

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... leucopenia, archival anemia, sicilian ana, esr increase, eosinophilia, arthritis, photosensitivity, chills, troubled epidermal ...

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