Leukopenia is a condition characterized by an abnormally low white blood cell count (less than 4,000 cells per microliter of blood) in peripheral blood, increasing the risk of infection due to decreased immune defense.
Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.
A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.
A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
A generic name for film produced from wood pulp by the viscose process. It is a thin, transparent sheeting of regenerated cellulose, moisture-proof and sometimes dyed, and used chiefly as food wrapping or as bags for dialysis. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Abnormal passage communicating with the STOMACH.
Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)
An organoplatinum compound that possesses antineoplastic activity.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses.
A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
Bone marrow diseases, also known as hematologic or blood disorders, refer to conditions that affect the production and function of blood cells within the bone marrow, such as leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma, and aplastic anemia, potentially leading to complications like anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and increased susceptibility to infections or bleeding.
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE comprising many viruses, most of which are transmitted by Phlebotomus flies and cause PHLEBOTOMUS FEVER. The type species is RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
A semisynthetic anthracycline with the amino sugar on the D ring. It displays broad-spectrum antineoplastic activity against a variety of tumors.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Small, often pleomorphic, coccoid to ellipsoidal organisms occurring intracytoplasmically in circulating LYMPHOCYTES. They are the etiologic agents of tick-borne diseases of humans; DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; and HORSES.
A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.
Deoxycytidine is a nucleoside consisting of the pentose sugar deoxyribose linked to the nitrogenous base cytosine, which plays a crucial role in DNA replication and repair processes within cells.
An alkaloid isolated from the stem wood of the Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminata. This compound selectively inhibits the nuclear enzyme DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I. Several semisynthetic analogs of camptothecin have demonstrated antitumor activity.
A folic acid derivative used as a rodenticide that has been shown to be teratogenic.
A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.
An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
An antibiotic substance derived from Penicillium stoloniferum, and related species. It blocks de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides by inhibition of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mycophenolic acid is important because of its selective effects on the immune system. It prevents the proliferation of T-cells, lymphocytes, and the formation of antibodies from B-cells. It also may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1301)
Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.
The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.
The active metabolite of FOLIC ACID. Leucovorin is used principally as an antidote to FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS.
An anthrocycline from a Streptomyces nogalater variant. It is a cytolytic antineoplastic that inhibits DNA-dependent RNA synthesis by binding to DNA.
Absence of hair from areas where it is normally present.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
INFLAMMATION of the soft tissues of the MOUTH, such as MUCOSA; PALATE; GINGIVA; and LIP.
The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
Virus diseases caused by the BUNYAVIRIDAE.
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
Infections with bacteria of the family RICKETTSIACEAE.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The highest dose of a biologically active agent given during a chronic study that will not reduce longevity from effects other than carcinogenicity. (from Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
Pneumonia caused by infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS, usually with STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
A decrease in the number of GRANULOCYTES; (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
Deficiency of all three cell elements of the blood, erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets.
A biologic alkylating agent that exerts its cytotoxic effects by forming DNA ADDUCTS and DNA interstrand crosslinks, thereby inhibiting rapidly proliferating cells. The hydrochloride is an antineoplastic agent used to treat HODGKIN DISEASE and LYMPHOMA.
A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Congener of FLUOROURACIL with comparable antineoplastic action. It has been suggested especially for the treatment of breast neoplasms.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.
An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia.
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that is the causative agent of human EHRLICHIOSIS. This organism was first discovered at Fort Chaffee, Arkansas, when blood samples from suspected human ehrlichiosis patients were studied.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A group of 16-member MACROLIDES which stabilize MICROTUBULES in a manner similar to PACLITAXEL. They were originally found in the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum, now renamed to Polyangium (MYXOCOCCALES).
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
An anthracycline which is the 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumor effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA.
One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Platinum. A heavy, soft, whitish metal, resembling tin, atomic number 78, atomic weight 195.09, symbol Pt. (From Dorland, 28th ed) It is used in manufacturing equipment for laboratory and industrial use. It occurs as a black powder (platinum black) and as a spongy substance (spongy platinum) and may have been known in Pliny's time as "alutiae".
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.

Increase of hematopoietic responses by triple or single helical conformer of an antitumor (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan preparation, Sonifilan, in cyclophosphamide-induced leukopenic mice. (1/834)

It has been suggested that the immunopharmacological activity of soluble (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan depends on its conformation in mice. In this study, we examined the relationship between the conformation of Sonifilan (SPG) and hematopietic responses in cyclophosphamide (Cy)-induced leukopenic mice. SPG, a high molecular weight (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan, has a triple helical conformation in water, and it was changed by treatment with aqueous sodium hydroxide to the single helical conformer (SPG-OH). The effects of SPG or SPG-OH on hematopoietic responses in cyclophosphamide induced leukopenic mice were investigated by monitoring i) gene expression of cytokines by RT-PCR, ii) protein synthesis of interleukin 6 (IL-6) by ELISA and iii) colony formation of bone marrow cells (BMC). The mice administered Cy and SPG or SPG-OH expressed and produced higher levels of IL-6 mRNA and protein than the mice administered only Cy. Gene expression of NK1.1 was also induced by Cy/SPG (or SPG-OH) treatment. Induced gene expression of stem cell factor (SCF) and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) by SPG/SPG-OH were also found in in vitro culture of BMC from Cy treated mice. These results strongly suggested that conformation of the glucans, single and triple helix, are independent of the hematopietic response.  (+info)

A phase I/II study of continuous intra-arterial chemotherapy using an implantable reservoir for the treatment of liver metastases from breast cancer: a Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG) study 9113. JCOG Breast Cancer Study Group. (2/834)

BACKGROUND: Liver metastasis from breast cancer has a poor prognosis. While there are some reports of good response rates of hepatic metastasis from breast cancer by hepatic intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy, no phase I study including pharmacokinetic analysis has been reported. We performed a phase I/II study of intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy using adriamycin and 5-fluorouracil to find the maximum tolerated dose and response rate in patients with advanced or recurrent breast cancer. METHODS: A hepatic arterial catheter with an access port was inserted into the proper hepatic artery. Patients received 30 mg/m2 adriamycin on days 1 and 8 and 100 mg/m2 5-fluorouracil at level 1, 200 mg/m2 at level 2,300 mg/m2 at level 3 and 400 mg/m2 at level 4 continuously from day 1 through day 14 every 28 days. At least two cycles were required before evaluation. Twenty-eight patients were entered into this study and 26 patients were evaluable. Seventeen patients had hepatic metastasis only, although nine patients had additional metastasis to other sites. RESULTS: Dose-limiting toxicity of thrombocytopenia and neurotoxicity occurred at level 4. Leukocytopenia (ECOG grade 3-4) was observed in five (19%), thrombocytopenia in three (12%) and anemia in two (8%) patients. There were 11 catheter-related complications which were not dose dependent. Seven out of 13 evaluable patients (54%) responded at level 3. The median duration of response was 5.8 months (range, 1-23+) and median survival was 25.3 months (range, 6.2-54.7+). CONCLUSION: Hepatic arterial infusion therapy appears to be safe and effective but catheter-related complications must be overcome before starting a phase III trial.  (+info)

Inhibition of a membrane complement regulatory protein by a monoclonal antibody induces acute lethal shock in rats primed with lipopolysaccharide. (3/834)

Rats pretreated with traces of LPS developed acute fatal shock syndrome after i.v. administration of a mAb that inhibits the function of a membrane complement regulatory molecule. Such a shock was not observed after the administration of large amounts of LPS instead of the mAb following LPS pretreatment. The lethal response did not occur in rats depleted of either leukocytes or complement, and a C5a receptor antagonist was found to inhibit the reaction. Furthermore, LPS-treated rats did not suffer fatal shock following the injection of cobra venom factor, which activates complement in the fluid phase so extensively as to exhaust complement capacity. Therefore, complement activation on cell membranes is a requirement for this type of acute reaction.  (+info)

Quantitative and qualitative effects of cyclophosphamide administration on circulating polymorphonuclear leucocytes. (4/834)

The effect of cyclophosphamide (CY) on the absolute numbers and function of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) surviving in the circulation following either a single dose (100 mg/kg, i.p.) or daily administration (20 mg/kg, i.p., for 5 days) was studied in the guinea-pig. The quantitative effect of CY on peripheral blood leucocytes was assessed by measuring the absolute numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes daily for 5 days following the initial injection of CY. The qualitative effects of CY on PMN function were determined by measuring the ability of these cells to function as killer cells. The two functional assays employed were the PMN-mediated PHA-induced cellular cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays against chicken erythrocyte targets. Both regimens of CY administration produced an equivalent degree of leukopenia 5 days after the initial injection with disproportionately severe neutropenia (less than 300 PMN/mm3). However, neither regimen of CY administration produced a significant decrease in cytotoxic effector function as measured through a wide range of effector to target cell ratios, PHA concentrations, and antiserum dilutions. These findings have clinical relevance in that they demonstrate the dichotomy between the quantitative and qualitative effects of (CY) on PMNs in that CY administration can dramatically decrease the absolute numbers of circulating polymorphonuclear leucocytes while leaving intact certain effector cell functional capabilities of those PMN surviving in the circulation during drug administration.  (+info)

Lithium dosage and leukocyte counts in psychiatric patients. (5/834)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in leukocyte counts among patients treated with either lithium alone, antipsychotic medications alone, or a combination of both. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Long-stay psychiatric hospital. PATIENTS: Patients admitted between 1990 and 1993, and treated with lithium for at least 1 week and/or with antipsychotic medication for at least 2 weeks. Excluded from the study were those patients for whom complete blood counts at baseline and during therapy were not available, and those patients whose blood picture could primarily be accounted for by extraneous factors. Included in the study were 38 patients treated with lithium alone, 207 patients receiving antipsychotic medications alone, and 71 patients receiving both. OUTCOME MEASURES: Leukocyte, lymphocyte and granulocyte counts. RESULTS: Patients treated with lithium alone had significantly higher mean leukocyte and granulocyte counts than those treated with antipsychotic medication alone (analysis of variance, p < 0.05). None of the patients receiving lithium alone showed leukopenia. The dosage of lithium was significantly correlated with leukocyte count (r = 0.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14 to 0.35, p < 0.001,) and granulocyte count (r = 0.27, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.38, p < 0.001), but not with lymphocyte count (r = 0.06, p = 0.286, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.17). CONCLUSIONS: Lithium therapy is associated with higher leukocyte and granulocyte levels in psychiatric patients. This leukocytotic effect of lithium may be dose dependent.  (+info)

Phase I study of a biweekly schedule of a fixed dose of cisplatin with increasing doses of paclitaxel in patients with advanced oesophageal cancer. (6/834)

We performed this dose-finding study with a fixed dose of cisplatin and increasing doses of paclitaxel given every 2 weeks to determine the maximum tolerable dose of this schedule. Sixty-four patients with advanced oesophageal cancer were treated with a cisplatin dose of 60 mg m(-2) and increasing doses of paclitaxel from 100 mg m(-2) up to 200 mg m(-2) both administered over 3 h for a maximum of six cycles in patients with stable disease or eight cycles in responding patients. Patients were retreated when the granulocytes were > 0.75 x 10(9) l(-1) and the platelets > 75 x 10(9) l(-1). The dose of paclitaxel could be increased to 200 mg m(-2) without encountering dose limiting haematological toxicity. At the dose levels 190 mg m(-2) and 200 mg m(-2) of paclitaxel cumulative sensory neurotoxicity became the dose-limiting toxicity. The dose intensity of paclitaxel calculated over six cycles rose from 50 mg m(-2) per week to 85 mg m(-2) per week. Only three episodes of granulocytopenic fever were encountered out of a total of 362 cycles of treatment. Of the 59 patients evaluable for response, 31 (52%) had a partial or complete response. In a biweekly schedule with a fixed dose of 60 mg m(-2) cisplatin it is possible to increase the dose of paclitaxel to 180 mg m(-2). At higher dose levels, neurotoxicity becomes the dose-limiting toxicity. The observed response rate warrants further investigation of this schedule.  (+info)

Fundamental signals that regulate eosinophil homing to the gastrointestinal tract. (7/834)

The histological identification of increased eosinophils in the gastrointestinal tract occurs in numerous clinical disorders; however, there is a limited understanding of the mechanisms regulating eosinophil trafficking into this mucosal surface. The results presented in this study characterize the processes regulating eosinophil homing into the gastrointestinal tract at baseline. Eosinophils were found to be present in the lamina propria of 19-day-old embryos and germ-free adult mice at concentrations comparable to those present in non-germ-free adult mice. Furthermore, eosinophil gastrointestinal levels were not altered by increasing circulating eosinophils after pulmonary allergen challenge. Gastrointestinal eosinophil levels were partially reduced in mice deficient in recombinase activating gene-1 (RAG-1), IL-5, or the beta common chain (betac), but these reductions paralleled reductions in circulating eosinophils. In contrast, mice deficient in eotaxin had a marked reduction in gastrointestinal eosinophils but normal levels of eosinophils in the hematopoietic compartments. Furthermore, eotaxin was important for regulating eosinophil levels, even in the presence of high levels of IL-5. These investigations demonstrate eosinophil homing into the gastrointestinal tract during embryonic development occurring independently of viable intestinal flora. Furthermore, eotaxin is identified as the primary regulator of eosinophil gastrointestinal homing under homeostatic states, and may therefore have a fundamental role in innate immune responses.  (+info)

Prevention of febrile leucopenia after chemotherapy in high-risk breast cancer patients: no significant difference between granulocyte-colony stimulating growth factor or ciprofloxacin plus amphotericin B. (8/834)

In a prospective randomized trial, 40 stage IV breast cancer patients undergoing intermediate high-dose chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil plus epirubicin or methotrexate), received either recombinant human G-CSF (rhG-CSF, group I) or ciprofloxacin and amphotericin B (CAB, group II) for prevention of febrile leucopenia (FL). In group I, seven of 18 patients developed FL (after 10/108 courses); in group II, seven of 22 patients (7/98 courses) (P = NS). Median hospitalization duration and costs were not different. RhG-CSF was 6.6 times more expensive per course than CAB. In conclusion, prophylactic CAB has similar efficacy to rhG-CSF in this setting, and is more cost-effective.  (+info)

Leukopenia is a medical term used to describe an abnormally low white blood cell (WBC) count in the blood. White blood cells are crucial components of the body's immune system, helping to fight infections and diseases. A normal WBC count ranges from 4,500 to 11,000 cells per microliter (μL) of blood in most laboratories. Leukopenia is typically diagnosed when the WBC count falls below 4,500 cells/μL.

There are several types of white blood cells, including neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. Neutropenia, a specific type of leukopenia, refers to an abnormally low neutrophil count (less than 1,500 cells/μL). Neutropenia increases the risk of bacterial and fungal infections since neutrophils play a significant role in combating these types of pathogens.

Leukopenia can result from various factors, such as viral infections, certain medications (like chemotherapy or radiation therapy), bone marrow disorders, autoimmune diseases, or congenital conditions affecting white blood cell production. It is essential to identify the underlying cause of leukopenia to provide appropriate treatment and prevent complications.

"Drug evaluation" is a medical term that refers to the systematic process of assessing the pharmacological, therapeutic, and safety profile of a drug or medication. This process typically involves several stages, including preclinical testing in the laboratory, clinical trials in human subjects, and post-marketing surveillance.

The goal of drug evaluation is to determine the efficacy, safety, and optimal dosage range of a drug, as well as any potential interactions with other medications or medical conditions. The evaluation process also includes an assessment of the drug's pharmacokinetics, or how it is absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and eliminated by the body.

The findings from drug evaluations are used to inform regulatory decisions about whether a drug should be approved for use in clinical practice, as well as to provide guidance to healthcare providers about how to use the drug safely and effectively.

Thrombocytopenia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally low platelet count (thrombocytes) in the blood. Platelets are small cell fragments that play a crucial role in blood clotting, helping to stop bleeding when a blood vessel is damaged. A healthy adult typically has a platelet count between 150,000 and 450,000 platelets per microliter of blood. Thrombocytopenia is usually diagnosed when the platelet count falls below 150,000 platelets/µL.

Thrombocytopenia can be classified into three main categories based on its underlying cause:

1. Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP): An autoimmune disorder where the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys its own platelets, leading to a decreased platelet count. ITP can be further divided into primary or secondary forms, depending on whether it occurs alone or as a result of another medical condition or medication.
2. Decreased production: Thrombocytopenia can occur when there is insufficient production of platelets in the bone marrow due to various causes, such as viral infections, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, leukemia, aplastic anemia, or vitamin B12 or folate deficiency.
3. Increased destruction or consumption: Thrombocytopenia can also result from increased platelet destruction or consumption due to conditions like disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), or severe bacterial infections.

Symptoms of thrombocytopenia may include easy bruising, prolonged bleeding from cuts, spontaneous nosebleeds, bleeding gums, blood in urine or stools, and skin rashes like petechiae (small red or purple spots) or purpura (larger patches). The severity of symptoms can vary depending on the degree of thrombocytopenia and the presence of any underlying conditions. Treatment for thrombocytopenia depends on the cause and may include medications, transfusions, or addressing the underlying condition.

Antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols refer to a treatment plan for cancer that involves the use of more than one antineoplastic (chemotherapy) drug given in a specific sequence and schedule. The combination of drugs is used because they may work better together to destroy cancer cells compared to using a single agent alone. This approach can also help to reduce the likelihood of cancer cells becoming resistant to the treatment.

The choice of drugs, dose, duration, and frequency are determined by various factors such as the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and potential side effects. Combination chemotherapy protocols can be used in various settings, including as a primary treatment, adjuvant therapy (given after surgery or radiation to kill any remaining cancer cells), neoadjuvant therapy (given before surgery or radiation to shrink the tumor), or palliative care (to alleviate symptoms and prolong survival).

It is important to note that while combined chemotherapy protocols can be effective in treating certain types of cancer, they can also cause significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and an increased risk of infection. Therefore, patients undergoing such treatment should be closely monitored and managed by a healthcare team experienced in administering chemotherapy.

A "Drug Administration Schedule" refers to the plan for when and how a medication should be given to a patient. It includes details such as the dose, frequency (how often it should be taken), route (how it should be administered, such as orally, intravenously, etc.), and duration (how long it should be taken) of the medication. This schedule is often created and prescribed by healthcare professionals, such as doctors or pharmacists, to ensure that the medication is taken safely and effectively. It may also include instructions for missed doses or changes in the dosage.

A leukocyte count, also known as a white blood cell (WBC) count, is a laboratory test that measures the number of leukocytes in a sample of blood. Leukocytes are a vital part of the body's immune system and help fight infection and inflammation. A high or low leukocyte count may indicate an underlying medical condition, such as an infection, inflammation, or a bone marrow disorder. The normal range for a leukocyte count in adults is typically between 4,500 and 11,000 cells per microliter (mcL) of blood. However, the normal range can vary slightly depending on the laboratory and the individual's age and sex.

Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat various types of cancers, including testicular, ovarian, bladder, head and neck, lung, and cervical cancers. It is an inorganic platinum compound that contains a central platinum atom surrounded by two chloride atoms and two ammonia molecules in a cis configuration.

Cisplatin works by forming crosslinks between DNA strands, which disrupts the structure of DNA and prevents cancer cells from replicating. This ultimately leads to cell death and slows down or stops the growth of tumors. However, cisplatin can also cause damage to normal cells, leading to side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hearing loss, and kidney damage. Therefore, it is essential to monitor patients closely during treatment and manage any adverse effects promptly.

Fluorouracil is a antineoplastic medication, which means it is used to treat cancer. It is a type of chemotherapy drug known as an antimetabolite. Fluorouracil works by interfering with the growth of cancer cells and ultimately killing them. It is often used to treat colon, esophageal, stomach, and breast cancers, as well as skin conditions such as actinic keratosis and superficial basal cell carcinoma. Fluorouracil may be given by injection or applied directly to the skin in the form of a cream.

It is important to note that fluorouracil can have serious side effects, including suppression of bone marrow function, mouth sores, stomach and intestinal ulcers, and nerve damage. It should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

Intravenous (IV) infusion is a medical procedure in which liquids, such as medications, nutrients, or fluids, are delivered directly into a patient's vein through a needle or a catheter. This route of administration allows for rapid absorption and distribution of the infused substance throughout the body. IV infusions can be used for various purposes, including resuscitation, hydration, nutrition support, medication delivery, and blood product transfusion. The rate and volume of the infusion are carefully controlled to ensure patient safety and efficacy of treatment.

Paclitaxel is a chemotherapeutic agent derived from the bark of the Pacific yew tree (Taxus brevifolia). It is an antimicrotubule agent that promotes the assembly and stabilization of microtubules, thereby interfering with the normal dynamic reorganization of the microtubule network that is essential for cell division.

Paclitaxel is used in the treatment of various types of cancer including ovarian, breast, lung, and pancreatic cancers. It works by inhibiting the disassembly of microtubules, which prevents the separation of chromosomes during mitosis, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Common side effects of paclitaxel include neutropenia (low white blood cell count), anemia (low red blood cell count), alopecia (hair loss), peripheral neuropathy (nerve damage causing numbness or tingling in the hands and feet), myalgias (muscle pain), arthralgias (joint pain), and hypersensitivity reactions.

Hematologic diseases, also known as hematological disorders, refer to a group of conditions that affect the production, function, or destruction of blood cells or blood-related components, such as plasma. These diseases can affect erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells), and platelets (thrombocytes), as well as clotting factors and hemoglobin.

Hematologic diseases can be broadly categorized into three main types:

1. Anemia: A condition characterized by a decrease in the total red blood cell count, hemoglobin, or hematocrit, leading to insufficient oxygen transport to tissues and organs. Examples include iron deficiency anemia, sickle cell anemia, and aplastic anemia.
2. Leukemia and other disorders of white blood cells: These conditions involve the abnormal production or function of leukocytes, which can lead to impaired immunity and increased susceptibility to infections. Examples include leukemias (acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia), lymphomas, and myelodysplastic syndromes.
3. Platelet and clotting disorders: These diseases affect the production or function of platelets and clotting factors, leading to abnormal bleeding or clotting tendencies. Examples include hemophilia, von Willebrand disease, thrombocytopenia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).

Hematologic diseases can have various causes, including genetic defects, infections, autoimmune processes, environmental factors, or malignancies. Proper diagnosis and management of these conditions often require the expertise of hematologists, who specialize in diagnosing and treating disorders related to blood and its components.

Neutropenia is a condition characterized by an abnormally low concentration (less than 1500 cells/mm3) of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in fighting off bacterial and fungal infections. Neutrophils are essential components of the innate immune system, and their main function is to engulf and destroy microorganisms that can cause harm to the body.

Neutropenia can be classified as mild, moderate, or severe based on the severity of the neutrophil count reduction:

* Mild neutropenia: Neutrophil count between 1000-1500 cells/mm3
* Moderate neutropenia: Neutrophil count between 500-1000 cells/mm3
* Severe neutropenia: Neutrophil count below 500 cells/mm3

Severe neutropenia significantly increases the risk of developing infections, as the body's ability to fight off microorganisms is severely compromised. Common causes of neutropenia include viral infections, certain medications (such as chemotherapy or antibiotics), autoimmune disorders, and congenital conditions affecting bone marrow function. Treatment for neutropenia typically involves addressing the underlying cause, administering granulocyte-colony stimulating factors to boost neutrophil production, and providing appropriate antimicrobial therapy to prevent or treat infections.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Doxorubicin is a type of chemotherapy medication known as an anthracycline. It works by interfering with the DNA in cancer cells, which prevents them from growing and multiplying. Doxorubicin is used to treat a wide variety of cancers, including leukemia, lymphoma, breast cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, and many others. It may be given alone or in combination with other chemotherapy drugs.

Doxorubicin is usually administered through a vein (intravenously) and can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, mouth sores, and increased risk of infection. It can also cause damage to the heart muscle, which can lead to heart failure in some cases. For this reason, doctors may monitor patients' heart function closely while they are receiving doxorubicin treatment.

It is important for patients to discuss the potential risks and benefits of doxorubicin therapy with their healthcare provider before starting treatment.

Antineoplastic agents, phytogenic, also known as plant-derived anticancer drugs, are medications that are derived from plants and used to treat cancer. These agents have natural origins and work by interfering with the growth and multiplication of cancer cells, helping to slow or stop the spread of the disease. Some examples of antineoplastic agents, phytogenic include paclitaxel (Taxol), vincristine, vinblastine, and etoposide. These drugs are often used in combination with other treatments such as surgery, radiation therapy, and other medications to provide a comprehensive approach to cancer care.

A "Blood Cell Count" is a medical laboratory test that measures the number of red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and platelets in a sample of blood. This test is often used as a part of a routine check-up or to help diagnose various medical conditions, such as anemia, infection, inflammation, and many others.

The RBC count measures the number of oxygen-carrying cells in the blood, while the WBC count measures the number of immune cells that help fight infections. The platelet count measures the number of cells involved in clotting. Abnormal results in any of these counts may indicate an underlying medical condition and further testing may be required for diagnosis and treatment.

Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent, which is a type of chemotherapy medication. It works by interfering with the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. This helps to stop the spread of cancer in the body. Cyclophosphamide is used to treat various types of cancer, including lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma, and breast cancer. It can be given orally as a tablet or intravenously as an injection.

Cyclophosphamide can also have immunosuppressive effects, which means it can suppress the activity of the immune system. This makes it useful in treating certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. However, this immunosuppression can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects.

Like all chemotherapy medications, cyclophosphamide can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and increased susceptibility to infections. It is important for patients receiving cyclophosphamide to be closely monitored by their healthcare team to manage these side effects and ensure the medication is working effectively.

Lung neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the lung tissue. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant lung neoplasms are further classified into two main types: small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Lung neoplasms can cause symptoms such as cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and weight loss. They are often caused by smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke, but can also occur due to genetic factors, radiation exposure, and other environmental carcinogens. Early detection and treatment of lung neoplasms is crucial for improving outcomes and survival rates.

Antineoplastic agents are a class of drugs used to treat malignant neoplasms or cancer. These agents work by inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells, either by killing them or preventing their division and replication. Antineoplastic agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action, such as alkylating agents, antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors, mitotic inhibitors, and targeted therapy agents.

Alkylating agents work by adding alkyl groups to DNA, which can cause cross-linking of DNA strands and ultimately lead to cell death. Antimetabolites interfere with the metabolic processes necessary for DNA synthesis and replication, while topoisomerase inhibitors prevent the relaxation of supercoiled DNA during replication. Mitotic inhibitors disrupt the normal functioning of the mitotic spindle, which is essential for cell division. Targeted therapy agents are designed to target specific molecular abnormalities in cancer cells, such as mutated oncogenes or dysregulated signaling pathways.

It's important to note that antineoplastic agents can also affect normal cells and tissues, leading to various side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and myelosuppression (suppression of bone marrow function). Therefore, the use of these drugs requires careful monitoring and management of their potential adverse effects.

Combined modality therapy (CMT) is a medical treatment approach that utilizes more than one method or type of therapy simultaneously or in close succession, with the goal of enhancing the overall effectiveness of the treatment. In the context of cancer care, CMT often refers to the combination of two or more primary treatment modalities, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic therapies (chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, etc.).

The rationale behind using combined modality therapy is that each treatment method can target cancer cells in different ways, potentially increasing the likelihood of eliminating all cancer cells and reducing the risk of recurrence. The specific combination and sequence of treatments will depend on various factors, including the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and individual preferences.

For example, a common CMT approach for locally advanced rectal cancer may involve preoperative (neoadjuvant) chemoradiation therapy, followed by surgery to remove the tumor, and then postoperative (adjuvant) chemotherapy. This combined approach allows for the reduction of the tumor size before surgery, increases the likelihood of complete tumor removal, and targets any remaining microscopic cancer cells with systemic chemotherapy.

It is essential to consult with a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals to determine the most appropriate CMT plan for each individual patient, considering both the potential benefits and risks associated with each treatment method.

"Cellophane" is not a medical term. It is a type of thin, transparent sheet material made from regenerated cellulose, which is often used for packaging or wrapping purposes in various industries including food and medical. However, it does not have a specific medical definition.

A gastric fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the stomach and another organ or the skin surface. This condition can occur as a result of complications from surgery, injury, infection, or certain diseases such as cancer. Symptoms may include persistent drainage from the site of the fistula, pain, malnutrition, and infection. Treatment typically involves surgical repair of the fistula and management of any underlying conditions.

Vinblastine is an alkaloid derived from the Madagascar periwinkle plant (Catharanthus roseus) and is primarily used in cancer chemotherapy. It is classified as a vinca alkaloid, along with vincristine, vinorelbine, and others.

Medically, vinblastine is an antimicrotubule agent that binds to tubulin, a protein involved in the formation of microtubules during cell division. By binding to tubulin, vinblastine prevents the assembly of microtubules, which are essential for mitosis (cell division). This leads to the inhibition of cell division and ultimately results in the death of rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells.

Vinblastine is used to treat various types of cancers, including Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, testicular cancer, breast cancer, and others. It is often administered intravenously in a healthcare setting and may be given as part of a combination chemotherapy regimen with other anticancer drugs.

As with any medication, vinblastine can have side effects, including bone marrow suppression (leading to an increased risk of infection, anemia, and bleeding), neurotoxicity (resulting in peripheral neuropathy, constipation, and jaw pain), nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and mouth sores. Regular monitoring by a healthcare professional is necessary during vinblastine treatment to manage side effects and ensure the safe and effective use of this medication.

Carboplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat various types of cancers, including ovarian, lung, and head and neck cancer. It is a platinum-containing compound that works by forming crosslinks in DNA, which leads to the death of rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells. Carboplatin is often used in combination with other chemotherapy drugs and is administered intravenously.

The medical definition of Carboplatin is:

"A platinum-containing antineoplastic agent that forms crosslinks with DNA, inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. It is used to treat a variety of cancers, including ovarian, lung, and head and neck cancer."

Etoposide is a chemotherapy medication used to treat various types of cancer, including lung cancer, testicular cancer, and certain types of leukemia. It works by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme called topoisomerase II, which is involved in DNA replication and transcription. By doing so, etoposide can interfere with the growth and multiplication of cancer cells.

Etoposide is often administered intravenously in a hospital or clinic setting, although it may also be given orally in some cases. The medication can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and an increased risk of infection. It can also have more serious side effects, such as bone marrow suppression, which can lead to anemia, bleeding, and a weakened immune system.

Like all chemotherapy drugs, etoposide is not without risks and should only be used under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare provider. It is important for patients to discuss the potential benefits and risks of this medication with their doctor before starting treatment.

Nausea is a subjective, unpleasant sensation of discomfort in the stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract that may precede vomiting. It's often described as a feeling of queasiness or the need to vomit. Nausea can be caused by various factors, including motion sickness, pregnancy, gastrointestinal disorders, infections, certain medications, and emotional stress. While nausea is not a disease itself, it can be a symptom of an underlying medical condition that requires attention and treatment.

Taxoids are a class of naturally occurring compounds that are derived from the bark of the Pacific yew tree (Taxus brevifolia) and other species of the genus Taxus. They are known for their antineoplastic (cancer-fighting) properties and have been used in chemotherapy to treat various types of cancer, including ovarian, breast, and lung cancer.

The most well-known taxoid is paclitaxel (also known by the brand name Taxol), which was first discovered in the 1960s and has since become a widely used cancer drug. Paclitaxel works by stabilizing microtubules, which are important components of the cell's skeleton, and preventing them from disassembling. This disrupts the normal function of the cell's mitotic spindle, leading to cell cycle arrest and ultimately apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Other taxoids that have been developed for clinical use include docetaxel (Taxotere), which is a semi-synthetic analogue of paclitaxel, and cabazitaxel (Jevtana), which is a second-generation taxoid. These drugs have similar mechanisms of action to paclitaxel but may have different pharmacokinetic properties or be effective against cancer cells that have developed resistance to other taxoids.

While taxoids have been successful in treating certain types of cancer, they can also cause significant side effects, including neutropenia (low white blood cell count), anemia (low red blood cell count), and peripheral neuropathy (nerve damage). As with all chemotherapy drugs, the use of taxoids must be carefully balanced against their potential benefits and risks.

Bone marrow diseases, also known as hematologic disorders, are conditions that affect the production and function of blood cells in the bone marrow. The bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones where all blood cells are produced. There are various types of bone marrow diseases, including:

1. Leukemia: A cancer of the blood-forming tissues, including the bone marrow. Leukemia causes the body to produce large numbers of abnormal white blood cells, which can crowd out healthy blood cells and impair their function.
2. Lymphoma: A cancer that starts in the lymphatic system, which is part of the immune system. Lymphoma can affect the bone marrow and cause an overproduction of abnormal white blood cells.
3. Multiple myeloma: A cancer of the plasma cells, a type of white blood cell found in the bone marrow. Multiple myeloma causes an overproduction of abnormal plasma cells, which can lead to bone pain, fractures, and other complications.
4. Aplastic anemia: A condition in which the bone marrow does not produce enough new blood cells. This can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and an increased risk of infection.
5. Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS): A group of disorders in which the bone marrow does not produce enough healthy blood cells. MDS can lead to anemia, infections, and bleeding.
6. Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs): A group of disorders in which the bone marrow produces too many abnormal white or red blood cells, or platelets. MPNs can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, itching, and an increased risk of blood clots.

Treatment for bone marrow diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, or targeted therapies that target specific genetic mutations.

Anemia is a medical condition characterized by a lower than normal number of red blood cells or lower than normal levels of hemoglobin in the blood. Hemoglobin is an important protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Anemia can cause fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, and a pale complexion because the body's tissues are not getting enough oxygen.

Anemia can be caused by various factors, including nutritional deficiencies (such as iron, vitamin B12, or folate deficiency), blood loss, chronic diseases (such as kidney disease or rheumatoid arthritis), inherited genetic disorders (such as sickle cell anemia or thalassemia), and certain medications.

There are different types of anemia, classified based on the underlying cause, size and shape of red blood cells, and the level of hemoglobin in the blood. Treatment for anemia depends on the underlying cause and may include dietary changes, supplements, medication, or blood transfusions.

Leukocytes, also known as white blood cells (WBCs), are a crucial component of the human immune system. They are responsible for protecting the body against infections and foreign substances. Leukocytes are produced in the bone marrow and circulate throughout the body in the bloodstream and lymphatic system.

There are several types of leukocytes, including:

1. Neutrophils - These are the most abundant type of leukocyte and are primarily responsible for fighting bacterial infections. They contain enzymes that can destroy bacteria.
2. Lymphocytes - These are responsible for producing antibodies and destroying virus-infected cells, as well as cancer cells. There are two main types of lymphocytes: B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes.
3. Monocytes - These are the largest type of leukocyte and help to break down and remove dead or damaged tissues, as well as microorganisms.
4. Eosinophils - These play a role in fighting parasitic infections and are also involved in allergic reactions and inflammation.
5. Basophils - These release histamine and other chemicals that cause inflammation in response to allergens or irritants.

An abnormal increase or decrease in the number of leukocytes can indicate an underlying medical condition, such as an infection, inflammation, or a blood disorder.

Survival analysis is a branch of statistics that deals with the analysis of time to event data. It is used to estimate the time it takes for a certain event of interest to occur, such as death, disease recurrence, or treatment failure. The event of interest is called the "failure" event, and survival analysis estimates the probability of not experiencing the failure event until a certain point in time, also known as the "survival" probability.

Survival analysis can provide important information about the effectiveness of treatments, the prognosis of patients, and the identification of risk factors associated with the event of interest. It can handle censored data, which is common in medical research where some participants may drop out or be lost to follow-up before the event of interest occurs.

Survival analysis typically involves estimating the survival function, which describes the probability of surviving beyond a certain time point, as well as hazard functions, which describe the instantaneous rate of failure at a given time point. Other important concepts in survival analysis include median survival times, restricted mean survival times, and various statistical tests to compare survival curves between groups.

Phlebovirus is a type of virus that belongs to the family Bunyaviridae. These viruses have a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome and are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected insects, such as sandflies or ticks. Some examples of diseases caused by Phleboviruses include sandfly fever, Toscana virus infection, and Rift Valley fever.

The term "Phlebovirus" comes from the Greek word "phleps," which means "vein," reflecting the viruses' tendency to cause febrile illnesses characterized by symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle pain, and rash. The virus was first identified in the 1960s and has since been found in many parts of the world, particularly in areas with warm climates where sandflies and ticks are more common.

Phleboviruses have a complex structure, consisting of three segments of RNA enclosed within a lipid membrane derived from the host cell. The viral membrane contains two glycoproteins, Gn and Gc, which are important for attachment to and entry into host cells. Once inside the cell, the virus uses its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to replicate its genome and produce new virions, which can then infect other cells or be transmitted to a new host through the bite of an infected insect.

Prevention and treatment of Phlebovirus infections are focused on avoiding exposure to infected insects and reducing symptoms through supportive care. There are no specific antiviral treatments available for these infections, although research is ongoing to develop effective therapies. Vaccines are also being developed for some Phleboviruses, such as Rift Valley fever, which can cause severe illness and death in humans and animals.

Bone marrow is the spongy tissue found inside certain bones in the body, such as the hips, thighs, and vertebrae. It is responsible for producing blood-forming cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. There are two types of bone marrow: red marrow, which is involved in blood cell production, and yellow marrow, which contains fatty tissue.

Red bone marrow contains hematopoietic stem cells, which can differentiate into various types of blood cells. These stem cells continuously divide and mature to produce new blood cells that are released into the circulation. Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body, white blood cells help fight infections, and platelets play a crucial role in blood clotting.

Bone marrow also serves as a site for immune cell development and maturation. It contains various types of immune cells, such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, which help protect the body against infections and diseases.

Abnormalities in bone marrow function can lead to several medical conditions, including anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and various types of cancer, such as leukemia and multiple myeloma. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy are common diagnostic procedures used to evaluate bone marrow health and function.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Menogaril" does not appear to have a widely recognized or established medical definition. It is possible that you may be referring to a specific chemical compound or experimental drug. However, without more context or information, it is difficult for me to provide a precise definition.

Menogaril is a synthetic compound that has been studied in preclinical trials for its potential anticancer properties. It is an analog of the natural product dictyostatin and has been shown to inhibit the activity of several enzymes involved in DNA replication and repair, including topoisomerase II and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). However, it is important to note that Menogaril is not currently approved for use in clinical medicine, and its safety and efficacy have not been established in human trials.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Ehrlichia is a genus of gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria that infect and replicate within the vacuoles of host cells. These bacteria are transmitted to humans and animals through the bite of infected arthropods, such as ticks. Infection with Ehrlichia can cause a variety of symptoms, including fever, headache, muscle aches, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Some species of Ehrlichia, such as Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii, are known to cause human disease, including ehrlichiosis.

Ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne disease that can range in severity from mild to severe and can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed and treated. Symptoms of ehrlichiosis may include fever, headache, muscle aches, fatigue, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. In some cases, the infection can lead to more serious complications, such as neurological problems, respiratory failure, or kidney failure.

Ehrlichiosis is typically treated with antibiotics, such as doxycycline, which are effective against the bacteria. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you suspect that you may have been infected with Ehrlichia, as early treatment can help prevent serious complications. Prevention measures, such as using insect repellent and avoiding tick-infested areas, can also help reduce the risk of infection.

Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) is a type of growth factor that specifically stimulates the production and survival of granulocytes, a type of white blood cell crucial for fighting off infections. G-CSF works by promoting the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells into mature granulocytes, primarily neutrophils, in the bone marrow.

Recombinant forms of G-CSF are used clinically as a medication to boost white blood cell production in patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer, those with congenital neutropenia, and those who have had a bone marrow transplant. By increasing the number of circulating neutrophils, G-CSF helps reduce the risk of severe infections during periods of intense immune suppression.

Examples of recombinant G-CSF medications include filgrastim (Neupogen), pegfilgrastim (Neulasta), and lipegfilgrastim (Lonquex).

Deoxycytidine is a chemical compound that is a component of DNA, one of the nucleic acids in living organisms. It is a nucleoside, consisting of the sugar deoxyribose and the base cytosine. Deoxycytidine pairs with guanine via hydrogen bonds to form base pairs in the double helix structure of DNA.

In biochemistry, deoxycytidine can also exist as a free nucleoside, not bound to other molecules. It is involved in various cellular processes related to DNA metabolism and replication. Deoxycytidine can be phosphorylated to form deoxycytidine monophosphate (dCMP), which is an important intermediate in the synthesis of DNA.

It's worth noting that while deoxycytidine is a component of DNA, its counterpart in RNA is cytidine, which contains ribose instead of deoxyribose as the sugar component.

Camptothecin is a topoisomerase I inhibitor, which is a type of chemotherapeutic agent used in cancer treatment. It works by interfering with the function of an enzyme called topoisomerase I, which helps to uncoil DNA during cell division. By inhibiting this enzyme, camptothecin prevents the cancer cells from dividing and growing, ultimately leading to their death.

Camptothecin is found naturally in the bark and stem of the Camptotheca acuminata tree, also known as the "happy tree," which is native to China. It was first isolated in 1966 and has since been developed into several synthetic derivatives, including irinotecan and topotecan, which are used clinically to treat various types of cancer, such as colon, lung, and ovarian cancers.

Like other chemotherapeutic agents, camptothecin can have significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and myelosuppression (suppression of bone marrow function). It is important for patients receiving camptothecin-based therapies to be closely monitored by their healthcare team to manage these side effects effectively.

Aminopterin is a type of anti-folate drug that is primarily used in cancer treatment and research. It works by inhibiting the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, which is necessary for the synthesis of nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA and RNA. By blocking this enzyme, aminopterin prevents the growth and multiplication of cancer cells.

In addition to its use in cancer treatment, aminopterin has also been used in experimental studies to investigate the role of folate metabolism in various biological processes, including embryonic development and immune function. However, due to its potent anti-proliferative effects, the use of aminopterin is limited to specialized medical and research settings, and it is not commonly used as a therapeutic agent in clinical practice.

Ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by infection with Ehrlichia bacteria. It is typically transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected tick. The symptoms of ehrlichiosis can include fever, headache, muscle aches, fatigue, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. If left untreated, ehrlichiosis can cause serious complications, including damage to the central nervous system and other organs. It is important to seek medical attention if you think you may have been exposed to ehrlichiosis and are experiencing symptoms of the disease. A healthcare provider can diagnose ehrlichiosis through laboratory tests and can recommend appropriate treatment, which typically involves antibiotics. Prevention measures, such as using insect repellent and avoiding tick-infested areas, can help reduce the risk of ehrlichiosis and other tick-borne diseases.

Levamisole is an anthelmintic medication used to treat parasitic worm infections. It works by paralyzing the worms, allowing the body to remove them from the system. In addition, levamisole has been used in veterinary medicine as an immunomodulator, a substance that affects the immune system.

In human medicine, levamisole was previously used in the treatment of colon cancer and autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. However, its use in these areas has largely been discontinued due to side effects and the availability of more effective treatments.

It is important to note that levamisole has also been identified as a common adulterant in cocaine, which can lead to various health issues, including agranulocytosis (a severe decrease in white blood cells), skin lesions, and neurological symptoms.

Medical survival rate is a statistical measure used to determine the percentage of patients who are still alive for a specific period of time after their diagnosis or treatment for a certain condition or disease. It is often expressed as a five-year survival rate, which refers to the proportion of people who are alive five years after their diagnosis. Survival rates can be affected by many factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, the effectiveness of treatment, and other health conditions that the patient may have. It is important to note that survival rates are statistical estimates and do not necessarily predict an individual patient's prognosis.

Mycophenolic Acid (MPA) is an immunosuppressive drug that is primarily used to prevent rejection in organ transplantation. It works by inhibiting the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, which is a key enzyme for the de novo synthesis of guanosine nucleotides, an essential component for the proliferation of T and B lymphocytes. By doing this, MPA reduces the activity of the immune system, thereby preventing it from attacking the transplanted organ.

Mycophenolic Acid is available in two forms: as the sodium salt (Mycophenolate Sodium) and as the morpholinoethyl ester (Mycophenolate Mofetil), which is rapidly hydrolyzed to Mycophenolic Acid after oral administration. Common side effects of MPA include gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, as well as an increased risk of infections due to its immunosuppressive effects.

Antimetabolites are a class of antineoplastic (chemotherapy) drugs that interfere with the metabolism of cancer cells and inhibit their growth and proliferation. These agents are structurally similar to naturally occurring metabolites, such as amino acids, nucleotides, and folic acid, which are essential for cellular replication and growth. Antimetabolites act as false analogs and get incorporated into the growing cells' DNA or RNA, causing disruption of the normal synthesis process, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Examples of antimetabolite drugs include:

1. Folate antagonists: Methotrexate, Pemetrexed
2. Purine analogs: Mercaptopurine, Thioguanine, Fludarabine, Cladribine
3. Pyrimidine analogs: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), Capecitabine, Cytarabine, Gemcitabine

These drugs are used to treat various types of cancers, such as leukemias, lymphomas, breast, ovarian, and gastrointestinal cancers. Due to their mechanism of action, antimetabolites can also affect normal, rapidly dividing cells in the body, leading to side effects like myelosuppression (decreased production of blood cells), mucositis (inflammation and ulceration of the gastrointestinal tract), and alopecia (hair loss).

Vomiting is defined in medical terms as the forceful expulsion of stomach contents through the mouth. It is a violent, involuntary act that is usually accompanied by strong contractions of the abdominal muscles and retching. The body's vomiting reflex is typically triggered when the brain receives signals from the digestive system that something is amiss.

There are many potential causes of vomiting, including gastrointestinal infections, food poisoning, motion sickness, pregnancy, alcohol consumption, and certain medications or medical conditions. In some cases, vomiting can be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition, such as a brain injury, concussion, or chemical imbalance in the body.

Vomiting is generally not considered a serious medical emergency on its own, but it can lead to dehydration and other complications if left untreated. If vomiting persists for an extended period of time, or if it is accompanied by other concerning symptoms such as severe abdominal pain, fever, or difficulty breathing, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

Leucovorin is the pharmaceutical name for a form of folic acid, also known as folinic acid. It is used in medicine as a medication to reduce the toxic effects of certain chemotherapy drugs, such as methotrexate, that work by blocking the action of folic acid in the body. Leucovorin is able to bypass this blockage and restore some of the necessary functions of folic acid, helping to prevent or reduce the severity of side effects like nausea, vomiting, and damage to the mucous membranes.

Leucovorin may also be used in combination with fluorouracil chemotherapy to enhance its effectiveness in treating certain types of cancer. It is important to note that leucovorin should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can interact with other medications and have potentially serious side effects if not used properly.

Nogalamycin is not typically considered as a medical term, but it is a type of antibiotic that is used in research and microbiology. Here's the definition from a scientific perspective:

Nogalamycin is an anthracycline antitumor antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nogalater. It is a DNA-intercalating agent, which means it can insert itself between the base pairs of DNA and disrupt the structure and function of the genetic material in bacteria and cancer cells. Nogalamycin has been studied for its potential use as an anticancer drug, but its clinical use has been limited due to toxicity concerns.

Alopecia is a medical term that refers to the loss of hair or baldness. It can occur in various parts of the body, but it's most commonly used to describe hair loss from the scalp. Alopecia can have several causes, including genetics, hormonal changes, medical conditions, and aging.

There are different types of alopecia, such as:

* Alopecia Areata: It is a condition that causes round patches of hair loss on the scalp or other parts of the body. The immune system attacks the hair follicles, causing the hair to fall out.
* Androgenetic Alopecia: Also known as male pattern baldness or female pattern baldness, it's a genetic condition that causes gradual hair thinning and eventual hair loss, typically following a specific pattern.
* Telogen Effluvium: It is a temporary hair loss condition caused by stress, medication, pregnancy, or other factors that can cause the hair follicles to enter a resting phase, leading to shedding and thinning of the hair.

The treatment for alopecia depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, such as with telogen effluvium, hair growth may resume without any treatment. However, other forms of alopecia may require medical intervention, including topical treatments, oral medications, or even hair transplant surgery in severe cases.

Disease-free survival (DFS) is a term used in medical research and clinical practice, particularly in the field of oncology. It refers to the length of time after primary treatment for a cancer during which no evidence of the disease can be found. This means that the patient shows no signs or symptoms of the cancer, and any imaging studies or other tests do not reveal any tumors or other indications of the disease.

DFS is often used as an important endpoint in clinical trials to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatments for cancer. By measuring the length of time until the cancer recurs or a new cancer develops, researchers can get a better sense of how well a particular treatment is working and whether it is improving patient outcomes.

It's important to note that DFS is not the same as overall survival (OS), which refers to the length of time from primary treatment until death from any cause. While DFS can provide valuable information about the effectiveness of cancer treatments, it does not necessarily reflect the impact of those treatments on patients' overall survival.

Azathioprine is an immunosuppressive medication that is used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs and to treat autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and inflammatory bowel disease. It works by suppressing the activity of the immune system, which helps to reduce inflammation and prevent the body from attacking its own tissues.

Azathioprine is a prodrug that is converted into its active form, 6-mercaptopurine, in the body. This medication can have significant side effects, including decreased white blood cell count, increased risk of infection, and liver damage. It may also increase the risk of certain types of cancer, particularly skin cancer and lymphoma.

Healthcare professionals must carefully monitor patients taking azathioprine for these potential side effects. They may need to adjust the dosage or stop the medication altogether if serious side effects occur. Patients should also take steps to reduce their risk of infection and skin cancer, such as practicing good hygiene, avoiding sun exposure, and using sunscreen.

Carcinoma, small cell is a type of lung cancer that typically starts in the bronchi (the airways that lead to the lungs). It is called "small cell" because the cancer cells are small and appear round or oval in shape. This type of lung cancer is also sometimes referred to as "oat cell carcinoma" due to the distinctive appearance of the cells, which can resemble oats when viewed under a microscope.

Small cell carcinoma is a particularly aggressive form of lung cancer that tends to spread quickly to other parts of the body. It is strongly associated with smoking and is less common than non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which accounts for about 85% of all lung cancers.

Like other types of lung cancer, small cell carcinoma may not cause any symptoms in its early stages. However, as the tumor grows and spreads, it can cause a variety of symptoms, including coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath, hoarseness, and weight loss. Treatment for small cell carcinoma typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and sometimes surgery.

Carcinoma, non-small-cell lung (NSCLC) is a type of lung cancer that includes several subtypes of malignant tumors arising from the epithelial cells of the lung. These subtypes are classified based on the appearance of the cancer cells under a microscope and include adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and large cell carcinoma. NSCLC accounts for about 85% of all lung cancers and tends to grow and spread more slowly than small-cell lung cancer (SCLC).

NSCLC is often asymptomatic in its early stages, but as the tumor grows, symptoms such as coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath, hoarseness, and weight loss may develop. Treatment options for NSCLC depend on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and lung function. Common treatments include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Stomatitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the mucous membrane of any of the soft tissues in the mouth, including the lips, gums, tongue, palate, and cheek lining. It can cause discomfort, pain, and sores or lesions in the mouth. Stomatitis may result from a variety of causes, such as infection, injury, allergic reaction, or systemic diseases. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, mouth rinses, or changes in oral hygiene practices.

A platelet count is a laboratory test that measures the number of platelets, also known as thrombocytes, in a sample of blood. Platelets are small, colorless cell fragments that circulate in the blood and play a crucial role in blood clotting. They help to stop bleeding by sticking together to form a plug at the site of an injured blood vessel.

A normal platelet count ranges from 150,000 to 450,000 platelets per microliter (µL) of blood. A lower than normal platelet count is called thrombocytopenia, while a higher than normal platelet count is known as thrombocytosis.

Abnormal platelet counts can be a sign of various medical conditions, including bleeding disorders, infections, certain medications, and some types of cancer. It is important to consult with a healthcare provider if you have any concerns about your platelet count or if you experience symptoms such as easy bruising, prolonged bleeding, or excessive menstrual flow.

Bunyaviridae is a family of viruses that includes several genera capable of causing human disease. These viruses are primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected arthropods, such as mosquitoes and ticks, or through contact with infected rodents or their excreta.

Some of the diseases caused by Bunyaviridae infections include:

1. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS): This is a severe, sometimes fatal, respiratory disease caused by hantaviruses. It is transmitted to humans through contact with infected rodents or their urine and droppings.
2. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF): This is a serious and often fatal viral hemorrhagic fever caused by the CCHF virus. It is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected ticks, but can also be spread through contact with the blood or tissue of infected animals.
3. Rift Valley Fever (RVF): This is a viral disease that primarily affects animals, but can also infect humans. It is transmitted to humans through contact with the blood or tissue of infected animals, or through the bite of infected mosquitoes.
4. La Crosse Encephalitis: This is a viral disease transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes. It primarily affects children and can cause inflammation of the brain (encephalitis).
5. Toscana Virus Infection: This is a viral disease transmitted to humans through the bite of infected sandflies. It can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and meningitis.

Prevention measures include avoiding contact with rodents and their excreta, using insect repellent and wearing protective clothing to prevent mosquito and tick bites, and seeking prompt medical attention if symptoms of a Bunyaviridae infection develop.

Remission induction is a treatment approach in medicine, particularly in the field of oncology and hematology. It refers to the initial phase of therapy aimed at reducing or eliminating the signs and symptoms of active disease, such as cancer or autoimmune disorders. The primary goal of remission induction is to achieve a complete response (disappearance of all detectable signs of the disease) or a partial response (a decrease in the measurable extent of the disease). This phase of treatment is often intensive and may involve the use of multiple drugs or therapies, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or targeted therapy. After remission induction, patients may receive additional treatments to maintain the remission and prevent relapse, known as consolidation or maintenance therapy.

Rickettsiaceae is a family of Gram-negative, aerobic, intracellular bacteria that includes several important human pathogens. Rickettsiaceae infections are diseases caused by these bacteria, which include:

1. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF): Caused by Rickettsia rickettsii and transmitted to humans through the bite of infected ticks. The disease is characterized by fever, headache, muscle pain, and a rash that spreads from the wrists and ankles to the trunk.
2. Epidemic Typhus: Caused by Rickettsia prowazekii and transmitted to humans through the feces of infected lice. The disease is characterized by fever, headache, muscle pain, and a rash that starts on the chest and spreads to the rest of the body.
3. Murine Typhus: Caused by Rickettsia typhi and transmitted to humans through the feces of infected fleas. The disease is characterized by fever, headache, muscle pain, and a rash that starts on the trunk and spreads to the limbs.
4. Scrub Typhus: Caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi and transmitted to humans through the bite of infected chiggers. The disease is characterized by fever, headache, muscle pain, and a rash that starts on the trunk and spreads to the limbs.
5. Rickettsialpox: Caused by Rickettsia akari and transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mites. The disease is characterized by fever, headache, muscle pain, and a rash that starts as papules and becomes vesicular.

These infections are treated with antibiotics such as doxycycline or chloramphenicol. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent severe complications and death.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

The Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) is a term used in medical research, particularly in clinical trials of new drugs or treatments. It refers to the highest dose of a medication or treatment that can be given without causing unacceptable or severe side effects or toxicity to the patient.

Determining the MTD is an important step in developing new medications, as it helps researchers establish a safe and effective dosage range for future use. This process typically involves gradually increasing the dose in a group of subjects (often healthy volunteers in early phase trials) until intolerable side effects occur, at which point the previous dose is considered the MTD.

It's important to note that the MTD may vary between individuals and populations, depending on factors such as age, sex, genetic makeup, and overall health status. Therefore, individualized dosing strategies may be necessary to ensure safe and effective treatment with new medications.

Neoplasm metastasis is the spread of cancer cells from the primary site (where the original or primary tumor formed) to other places in the body. This happens when cancer cells break away from the original (primary) tumor and enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system. The cancer cells can then travel to other parts of the body and form new tumors, called secondary tumors or metastases.

Metastasis is a key feature of malignant neoplasms (cancers), and it is one of the main ways that cancer can cause harm in the body. The metastatic tumors may continue to grow and may cause damage to the organs and tissues where they are located. They can also release additional cancer cells into the bloodstream or lymphatic system, leading to further spread of the cancer.

The metastatic tumors are named based on the location where they are found, as well as the type of primary cancer. For example, if a patient has a primary lung cancer that has metastasized to the liver, the metastatic tumor would be called a liver metastasis from lung cancer.

It is important to note that the presence of metastases can significantly affect a person's prognosis and treatment options. In general, metastatic cancer is more difficult to treat than cancer that has not spread beyond its original site. However, there are many factors that can influence a person's prognosis and response to treatment, so it is important for each individual to discuss their specific situation with their healthcare team.

Fever, also known as pyrexia or febrile response, is a common medical sign characterized by an elevation in core body temperature above the normal range of 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) due to a dysregulation of the body's thermoregulatory system. It is often a response to an infection, inflammation, or other underlying medical conditions, and it serves as a part of the immune system's effort to combat the invading pathogens or to repair damaged tissues.

Fevers can be classified based on their magnitude:

* Low-grade fever: 37.5-38°C (99.5-100.4°F)
* Moderate fever: 38-39°C (100.4-102.2°F)
* High-grade or severe fever: above 39°C (102.2°F)

It is important to note that a single elevated temperature reading does not necessarily indicate the presence of a fever, as body temperature can fluctuate throughout the day and can be influenced by various factors such as physical activity, environmental conditions, and the menstrual cycle in females. The diagnosis of fever typically requires the confirmation of an elevated core body temperature on at least two occasions or a consistently high temperature over a period of time.

While fevers are generally considered beneficial in fighting off infections and promoting recovery, extremely high temperatures or prolonged febrile states may necessitate medical intervention to prevent potential complications such as dehydration, seizures, or damage to vital organs.

Erythrocyte count, also known as red blood cell (RBC) count, is a laboratory test that measures the number of red blood cells in a sample of blood. Red blood cells are important because they carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. A low erythrocyte count may indicate anemia, while a high count may be a sign of certain medical conditions such as polycythemia. The normal range for erythrocyte count varies depending on a person's age, sex, and other factors.

Ifosfamide is an alkylating agent, which is a type of chemotherapy medication. It works by interfering with the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. Ifosfamide is used to treat various types of cancers, such as testicular cancer, small cell lung cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, and certain types of sarcomas.

The medical definition of Ifosfamide is:

Ifosfamide is a synthetic antineoplastic agent, an oxazaphosphorine derivative, with the chemical formula C6H15Cl2N2O2P. It is used in the treatment of various malignancies, including germ cell tumors, sarcomas, lymphomas, and testicular cancer. The drug is administered intravenously and exerts its cytotoxic effects through the alkylation and cross-linking of DNA, leading to the inhibition of DNA replication and transcription. Ifosfamide can cause significant myelosuppression and has been associated with urotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and secondary malignancies. Therefore, it is essential to monitor patients closely during treatment and manage any adverse effects promptly.

Antineoplastic agents, alkylating, are a class of chemotherapeutic drugs that work by alkylating (adding alkyl groups) to DNA, which can lead to the death or dysfunction of cancer cells. These agents can form cross-links between strands of DNA, preventing DNA replication and transcription, ultimately leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Examples of alkylating agents include cyclophosphamide, melphalan, and cisplatin. While these drugs are designed to target rapidly dividing cancer cells, they can also affect normal cells that divide quickly, such as those in the bone marrow and digestive tract, leading to side effects like anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and nausea/vomiting.

Staphylococcal pneumonia is a type of pneumonia caused by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. This bacteria can colonize the upper respiratory tract and sometimes invade the lower respiratory tract, causing pneumonia.

The symptoms of staphylococcal pneumonia are often severe and may include fever, cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and production of purulent sputum. The disease can progress rapidly, leading to complications such as pleural effusion (accumulation of fluid in the space surrounding the lungs), empyema (pus in the pleural space), and bacteremia (bacteria in the bloodstream).

Staphylococcal pneumonia can occur in otherwise healthy individuals, but it is more common in people with underlying medical conditions such as chronic lung disease, diabetes, or a weakened immune system. It can also occur in healthcare settings, where S. aureus may be transmitted from person to person or through contaminated equipment.

Treatment of staphylococcal pneumonia typically involves the use of antibiotics that are active against S. aureus, such as nafcillin or vancomycin. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to drain fluid from the pleural space.

Granulocytes are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the body's immune system. They are called granulocytes because they contain small granules in their cytoplasm, which are filled with various enzymes and proteins that help them fight off infections and destroy foreign substances.

There are three types of granulocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. Neutrophils are the most abundant type and are primarily responsible for fighting bacterial infections. Eosinophils play a role in defending against parasitic infections and regulating immune responses. Basophils are involved in inflammatory reactions and allergic responses.

Granulocytes are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream, where they circulate and patrol for any signs of infection or foreign substances. When they encounter a threat, they quickly move to the site of infection or injury and release their granules to destroy the invading organisms or substances.

Abnormal levels of granulocytes in the blood can indicate an underlying medical condition, such as an infection, inflammation, or a bone marrow disorder.

Agranulocytosis is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally low concentration of granulocytes (a type of white blood cells) in the peripheral blood. Granulocytes, which include neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils, play a crucial role in the body's defense against infections. A significant reduction in their numbers can make an individual highly susceptible to various bacterial and fungal infections.

The condition is typically defined as having fewer than 150 granulocytes per microliter of blood or less than 1% of the total white blood cell count. Symptoms of agranulocytosis may include fever, fatigue, sore throat, mouth ulcers, and susceptibility to infections. The condition can be caused by various factors, including certain medications, medical treatments (such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy), autoimmune disorders, and congenital conditions. Immediate medical attention is required for individuals diagnosed with agranulocytosis to prevent and treat potential infections and restore the normal granulocyte count.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Immunosuppressive agents are medications that decrease the activity of the immune system. They are often used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs and to treat autoimmune diseases, where the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own tissues. These drugs work by interfering with the immune system's normal responses, which helps to reduce inflammation and damage to tissues. However, because they suppress the immune system, people who take immunosuppressive agents are at increased risk for infections and other complications. Examples of immunosuppressive agents include corticosteroids, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, and sirolimus.

Methotrexate is a medication used in the treatment of certain types of cancer and autoimmune diseases. It is an antimetabolite that inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, which is necessary for the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines, essential components of DNA and RNA. By blocking this enzyme, methotrexate interferes with cell division and growth, making it effective in treating rapidly dividing cells such as cancer cells.

In addition to its use in cancer treatment, methotrexate is also used to manage autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease. In these conditions, methotrexate modulates the immune system and reduces inflammation.

It's important to note that methotrexate can have significant side effects and should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider. Regular monitoring of blood counts, liver function, and kidney function is necessary during treatment with methotrexate.

Pancytopenia is a medical condition characterized by a reduction in the number of all three types of blood cells in the peripheral blood: red blood cells (anemia), white blood cells (leukopenia), and platelets (thrombocytopenia). This condition can be caused by various underlying diseases, including bone marrow disorders, viral infections, exposure to toxic substances or radiation, vitamin deficiencies, and certain medications. Symptoms of pancytopenia may include fatigue, weakness, increased susceptibility to infections, and easy bruising or bleeding.

Mechlorethamine is an antineoplastic agent, which means it is used to treat cancer. It is a type of alkylating agent, which is a class of drugs that work by interfering with the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. Mechlorethamine is used in the treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, as well as some other types of cancer. It can be administered intravenously or topically (as a cream) to treat skin lesions caused by certain types of cancer.

Mechlorethamine is a potent drug that can have significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and an increased risk of infection due to suppression of the immune system. It can also cause damage to the heart, lungs, and reproductive system with long-term use. As with all chemotherapy drugs, mechlorethamine should be administered under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

Salvage therapy, in the context of medical oncology, refers to the use of treatments that are typically considered less desirable or more aggressive, often due to greater side effects or lower efficacy, when standard treatment options have failed. These therapies are used to attempt to salvage a response or delay disease progression in patients with refractory or relapsed cancers.

In other words, salvage therapy is a last-resort treatment approach for patients who have not responded to first-line or subsequent lines of therapy. It may involve the use of different drug combinations, higher doses of chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or radiation therapy. The goal of salvage therapy is to extend survival, improve quality of life, or achieve disease stabilization in patients with limited treatment options.

Local neoplasm recurrence is the return or regrowth of a tumor in the same location where it was originally removed or treated. This means that cancer cells have survived the initial treatment and started to grow again in the same area. It's essential to monitor and detect any local recurrence as early as possible, as it can affect the prognosis and may require additional treatment.

Tegafur is an antineoplastic agent, which is a type of drug used to treat cancer. It is a prodrug of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), meaning that it is converted into 5-FU in the body after administration. 5-FU is a chemotherapeutic agent that interferes with DNA and RNA synthesis, ultimately leading to the death of cancer cells.

Tegafur is used alone or in combination with other antineoplastic agents to treat various types of cancers, including colon, rectal, gastric, breast, and head and neck cancers. It works by disrupting the growth of cancer cells, which are rapidly dividing cells.

Like all chemotherapeutic agents, Tegafur has potential side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mouth sores, and hair loss. Additionally, it can cause myelosuppression, a condition in which the production of blood cells in the bone marrow is decreased, leading to an increased risk of infection, anemia, and bleeding. Therefore, patients receiving Tegafur require regular monitoring of their blood counts and other laboratory tests to ensure that they are tolerating the treatment well.

Neoplasm staging is a systematic process used in medicine to describe the extent of spread of a cancer, including the size and location of the original (primary) tumor and whether it has metastasized (spread) to other parts of the body. The most widely accepted system for this purpose is the TNM classification system developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC).

In this system, T stands for tumor, and it describes the size and extent of the primary tumor. N stands for nodes, and it indicates whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. M stands for metastasis, and it shows whether the cancer has spread to distant parts of the body.

Each letter is followed by a number that provides more details about the extent of the disease. For example, a T1N0M0 cancer means that the primary tumor is small and has not spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant sites. The higher the numbers, the more advanced the cancer.

Staging helps doctors determine the most appropriate treatment for each patient and estimate the patient's prognosis. It is an essential tool for communication among members of the healthcare team and for comparing outcomes of treatments in clinical trials.

Parenteral infusions refer to the administration of fluids or medications directly into a patient's vein or subcutaneous tissue using a needle or catheter. This route bypasses the gastrointestinal tract and allows for rapid absorption and onset of action. Parenteral infusions can be used to correct fluid and electrolyte imbalances, administer medications that cannot be given orally, provide nutritional support, and deliver blood products. Common types of parenteral infusions include intravenous (IV) drips, IV push, and subcutaneous infusions. It is important that parenteral infusions are administered using aseptic technique to reduce the risk of infection.

6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) is a medication used primarily in the treatment of cancer, specifically acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and to prevent rejection in organ transplantation. It is an antimetabolite that works by interfering with the synthesis of DNA and RNA, thereby inhibiting cell division and growth.

6-MP is a prodrug, meaning it requires metabolic activation in the body to exert its therapeutic effects. Once absorbed, 6-MP is converted into several active metabolites, including thioguanine nucleotides (TGN), which are incorporated into DNA and RNA, leading to cytotoxicity and cell death.

Common side effects of 6-MP include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mouth sores, and increased susceptibility to infections. Long-term use of the medication can also lead to liver toxicity, pancreatitis, and anemia. Regular monitoring of blood counts, liver function tests, and TGN levels is necessary during treatment with 6-MP to minimize potential side effects and ensure safe and effective dosing.

Vincristine is an antineoplastic agent, specifically a vinca alkaloid. It is derived from the Madagascar periwinkle plant (Catharanthus roseus). Vincristine binds to tubulin, a protein found in microtubules, and inhibits their polymerization, which results in disruption of mitotic spindles leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death). It is used in the treatment of various types of cancer including leukemias, lymphomas, and solid tumors. Common side effects include peripheral neuropathy, constipation, and alopecia.

Adjuvant chemotherapy is a medical treatment that is given in addition to the primary therapy, such as surgery or radiation, to increase the chances of a cure or to reduce the risk of recurrence in patients with cancer. It involves the use of chemicals (chemotherapeutic agents) to destroy any remaining cancer cells that may not have been removed by the primary treatment. This type of chemotherapy is typically given after the main treatment has been completed, and its goal is to kill any residual cancer cells that may be present in the body and reduce the risk of the cancer coming back. The specific drugs used and the duration of treatment will depend on the type and stage of cancer being treated.

Ovarian neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the ovary, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can originate from various cell types within the ovary, including epithelial cells, germ cells, and stromal cells. Ovarian neoplasms are often classified based on their cell type of origin, histological features, and potential for invasive or metastatic behavior.

Epithelial ovarian neoplasms are the most common type and can be further categorized into several subtypes, such as serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, and Brenner tumors. Some of these epithelial tumors have a higher risk of becoming malignant and spreading to other parts of the body.

Germ cell ovarian neoplasms arise from the cells that give rise to eggs (oocytes) and can include teratomas, dysgerminomas, yolk sac tumors, and embryonal carcinomas. Stromal ovarian neoplasms develop from the connective tissue cells supporting the ovary and can include granulosa cell tumors, thecomas, and fibromas.

It is essential to diagnose and treat ovarian neoplasms promptly, as some malignant forms can be aggressive and potentially life-threatening if not managed appropriately. Regular gynecological exams, imaging studies, and tumor marker tests are often used for early detection and monitoring of ovarian neoplasms. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy, depending on the type, stage, and patient's overall health condition.

Breast neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the breast tissue that can be benign or malignant. Benign breast neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors or growths, while malignant breast neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body.

Breast neoplasms can arise from different types of cells in the breast, including milk ducts, milk sacs (lobules), or connective tissue. The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, which starts in the milk ducts and can spread to other parts of the breast and nearby structures.

Breast neoplasms are usually detected through screening methods such as mammography, ultrasound, or MRI, or through self-examination or clinical examination. Treatment options for breast neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type and stage of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and personal preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy.

'Ehrlichia chaffeensis' is a gram-negative, intracellular bacterium that causes human ehrlichiosis, a tick-borne disease. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected ticks, primarily the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum). The bacteria infect and replicate within white blood cells, causing symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle aches, and fatigue. In severe cases, ehrlichiosis can cause damage to organs and may be fatal if not promptly diagnosed and treated with appropriate antibiotics.

Ehrlichia chaffeensis is named after Dr. William A. Ehrlich, who first described the bacterium in 1937, and Fort Chaffee in Arkansas, where the tick vector was first identified.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Oral administration is a route of giving medications or other substances by mouth. This can be in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, pastes, or other forms that can be swallowed. Once ingested, the substance is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream to reach its intended target site in the body. Oral administration is a common and convenient route of medication delivery, but it may not be appropriate for all substances or in certain situations, such as when rapid onset of action is required or when the patient has difficulty swallowing.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Epothilones are a type of microtubule stabilizing agent, which are a group of drugs that inhibit the depolymerization of microtubules in cells. Microtubules are important components of the cell's cytoskeleton and play a crucial role in cell division. By stabilizing the microtubules, epothilones prevent the separation of chromosomes during mitosis, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Epothilones are naturally occurring compounds that were originally isolated from the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum. They have been found to have potent anticancer activity and have been developed as chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of various types of cancer, including breast, ovarian, and lung cancer.

There are currently two epothilone drugs that have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for clinical use: ixabepilone and patupilone. These drugs are administered intravenously and work by binding to tubulin, a protein that makes up microtubules, thereby preventing their disassembly and interfering with cell division.

Like other chemotherapeutic agents, epothilones can have significant side effects, including neutropenia (low white blood cell count), neuropathy (nerve damage), and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea and vomiting. However, they are often used in combination with other drugs to improve their efficacy and reduce toxicity.

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from glandular epithelial cells. These cells line the inside of many internal organs, including the breasts, prostate, colon, and lungs. Adenocarcinomas can occur in any of these organs, as well as in other locations where glands are present.

The term "adenocarcinoma" is used to describe a cancer that has features of glandular tissue, such as mucus-secreting cells or cells that produce hormones. These cancers often form glandular structures within the tumor mass and may produce mucus or other substances.

Adenocarcinomas are typically slow-growing and tend to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. They can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these treatments. The prognosis for adenocarcinoma depends on several factors, including the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and age.

Epirubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic used in cancer chemotherapy. It works by interfering with the DNA in cancer cells and preventing them from dividing and growing. Epirubicin is often used to treat breast cancer, lung cancer, stomach cancer, and ovarian cancer.

Like other anthracyclines, epirubicin can cause side effects such as hair loss, nausea and vomiting, mouth sores, and increased risk of infection due to damage to the bone marrow. It can also cause heart problems, including congestive heart failure, especially when given in high doses or when combined with other chemotherapy drugs that can also harm the heart.

Epirubicin is usually given by injection into a vein (intravenously) and is typically administered in cycles, with breaks between treatment periods to allow the body to recover from any side effects. The dose and schedule of epirubicin may vary depending on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as other factors such as the patient's overall health and any other medical conditions they may have.

Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) is a type I interferon, which is a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of viruses, parasites, and tumor cells. It plays a crucial role in the immune response against viral infections. IFN-α has antiviral, immunomodulatory, and anti-proliferative effects.

IFN-α is produced naturally by various cell types, including leukocytes (white blood cells), fibroblasts, and epithelial cells, in response to viral or bacterial stimulation. It binds to specific receptors on the surface of nearby cells, triggering a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of genes involved in the antiviral response. This results in the production of proteins that inhibit viral replication and promote the presentation of viral antigens to the immune system, enhancing its ability to recognize and eliminate infected cells.

In addition to its role in the immune response, IFN-α has been used as a therapeutic agent for various medical conditions, including certain types of cancer, chronic hepatitis B and C, and multiple sclerosis. However, its use is often limited by side effects such as flu-like symptoms, depression, and neuropsychiatric disorders.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Platinum" is not a medical term. Platinum is a chemical element with the symbol Pt and atomic number 78. It is a dense, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, precious, silverish-white transition metal.

However, in the field of oncology, platinum-based compounds are used as chemotherapeutic drugs. These include:

1. Cisplatin: This is a platinum-containing drug that is used to treat various types of cancers such as testicular cancer, ovarian cancer, bladder cancer, and others. It works by forming crosslinks with the DNA of cancer cells, which disrupts their function and leads to cell death.

2. Carboplatin: This is another platinum-based chemotherapy drug that is used to treat various types of cancers such as ovarian cancer, lung cancer, and others. It is less toxic than cisplatin but has similar mechanisms of action.

3. Oxaliplatin: This is a third platinum-based chemotherapy drug that is used to treat colon cancer and rectal cancer. Like the other two drugs, it forms crosslinks with DNA and disrupts cell function leading to cell death.

These drugs are not made of pure platinum but contain platinum compounds that have been synthesized for medical use.

Endotoxins are toxic substances that are associated with the cell walls of certain types of bacteria. They are released when the bacterial cells die or divide, and can cause a variety of harmful effects in humans and animals. Endotoxins are made up of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are complex molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide component.

Endotoxins are particularly associated with gram-negative bacteria, which have a distinctive cell wall structure that includes an outer membrane containing LPS. These toxins can cause fever, inflammation, and other symptoms when they enter the bloodstream or other tissues of the body. They are also known to play a role in the development of sepsis, a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by a severe immune response to infection.

Endotoxins are resistant to heat, acid, and many disinfectants, making them difficult to eliminate from contaminated environments. They can also be found in a variety of settings, including hospitals, industrial facilities, and agricultural operations, where they can pose a risk to human health.

Minocycline, a commonly prescribed antibiotic, is another drug known to cause leukopenia. There are also reports of leukopenia ... Leukopenia can be identified with a complete blood count. Below are blood reference ranges for various types leucocytes/WBCs. ... Leukopenia (from Greek λευκός (leukos) 'white', and πενία (penia) 'deficiency') is a decrease in the number of leukocytes (WBC ... The terms leukopenia and neutropenia may occasionally be used interchangeably, as the neutrophil count is the most important ...
Leukopenia. Growth reduction. Reproductive deficiencies: sterility, reduction in fecundity, and occurrence of developmental ...
... leukopenia;thrombocytopenia; purpura; eosinophilia. Gastrointestinal: Nausea and vomiting; anorexia; epigastric distress; ...
Marked leukopenia may occur. Patients may also experience transient diarrhea or constipation with abdominal discomfort. The ...
The duration of the ATA leukopenia stage could vary from 2-3 weeks to 6-8 weeks and even 3-4 months. Clinically, the leukopenia ... When the leukopenia stage was treated promptly and adequately, it was often followed by recovery. Acute symptoms such as rash, ... The leukopenia stage is the next. The third stage is distinguished by distinct clinical symptoms (anginal-hemorrhagic stage), ... The patients showed a petechial rash towards the end of the leukopenia stage. The petechial patches were initially quite little ...
Hematological signs include anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia. Brucella is isolated from a blood culture on Castaneda ...
... has been associated with a decrease in white blood cell count (leukopenia). Lamotrigine does not prolong QT/QTc in ... Nicholson RJ, Kelly KP, Grant IS (February 1995). "Leucopenia associated with lamotrigine". BMJ. 310 (6978): 504. doi:10.1136/ ...
Symptoms of pestivirus infections include leukopenia and immunosuppression. In the pathogenesis of pestiviruses, ERNS is ...
Leukopenia - a deficiency of white blood cells, or leukocytes Neutropenia - a type of leukopenia, with a specific deficiency in ... Polycythemia, the opposite of anemia "Leukopenia - MeSH - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2019-08-14. "Neutropenia - ... Weakness Shortness of breath Poor concentration Dizziness or feeling lightheaded Cold hands or feet The symptoms of leukopenia ...
A decreased white blood cell count, termed leukopenia, can lead to an increased risk of acquiring infections, and occurs in ... Sepsis is associated with both leukocytosis and leukopenia. The total white blood cell count is usually reported in cells per ...
Severe sepsis may present with hypothermia or leukopenia.[citation needed] Perforation of the colon Sepsis Shock Emergency ...
The rare side effects include leukopenia or pancreatitis. There may also be an increased risk of lymphoma that is associated ...
Laboratory abnormalities include thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and elevated liver tests.[citation needed] The severity of the ...
A decrease below the lower limit is called leukopenia. This indicates a weakened immune system. The name "white blood cell" ... leukopenias). Leukocytosis is usually healthy (e.g., fighting an infection), but it also may be dysfunctionally proliferative. ...
Additionally, patients have significant leukopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia, and eosinophilia. Mild defects in T-cell function ...
Other side effects are mild hypertension, leukopenia and bleeding. Uncommon side effects are cardiac ischaemia or infarction, ...
Leukopenia and neutropenia are due to splenomegaly with splenic margination.[citation needed] Coagulation defects occur, as the ...
Some patients may have elevated liver transaminases, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia. Cases involving an erythema migrans rash ...
Laboratory findings in neonates may indicate polycythemia, leukopenia, or neutropenia. As they age, neurological deficits begin ...
Symptoms are characterized by fever, vomiting, diarrhea, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. SFTS virus has a 6-30% fatality rate ...
Leukopenia and anemia are also frequent among patients taking palbociclib. More than 10% of patients also experience side ...
The mice fed for one year with nivalenol (also with the lower doses) were affected with severe leukopenia whereas the mice fed ... In rats and mice nivalenol showed to be toxic with adverse effects of growth retardation and leukopenia already noticed at ... 3,5 mg/kg bw) showed significant erythropenia and slight leukopenia. The subchronic toxicity was tested by feeding mice with a ... Long-term exposure may result in erythropenia and/or leukopenia. In mice it was also observed that nivalenol increased the ...
RORSMAN, HANS (1962). "Basophilic Leucopenia in Different Forms of Urticaria". Allergy. Wiley. 17 (2): 168-184. doi:10.1111/j. ...
In all reported cases, the initial symptoms included fever, lethargy, anorexia and leukopenia, and quickly progressed to ... Pathological findings during the first stage consist of leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. During the second phase, typical ...
Laboratory tests may reveal thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and evidence of liver damage.[citation needed] Humans contract the ...
Given systemically it inhibits blood formation, causing leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia. As of March 2018 it was ...
The onset of leukopenia, or reduction of white blood cell count, can be treated with a plasma or platelet transfusion. ... The second stage is characterized by leukopenia, granulopenia, and progressive lymphocytosis. The third stage is characterized ...
Common side effects include agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, anaemia, leukopenia, nausea and vomiting. Lobaplatin was first ...
Patients are expected to show thrombocytopenia and leukopenia during this period. Patients' complete blood counts should be ...
Spleen enlargement and bone marrow replacement cause anemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia. The brain and nervous system are ... Hypersplenism and pancytopenia, the rapid and premature destruction of blood cells, leads to anemia, neutropenia, leukopenia, ...
Minocycline, a commonly prescribed antibiotic, is another drug known to cause leukopenia. There are also reports of leukopenia ... Leukopenia can be identified with a complete blood count. Below are blood reference ranges for various types leucocytes/WBCs. ... Leukopenia (from Greek λευκός (leukos) white, and πενία (penia) deficiency) is a decrease in the number of leukocytes (WBC ... The terms leukopenia and neutropenia may occasionally be used interchangeably, as the neutrophil count is the most important ...
5.11 Leukopenia, Neutropenia, and Agranulocytosis. In clinical trial and postmarketing experience, events of leukopenia/ ... 5.11 Leukopenia, Neutropenia, and Agranulocytosis 5.12 Seizures 5.13 Dysphagia 5.14 Hyperprolactinemia 5.15 Potential for ... Leukopenia, Neutropenia, and Agranulocytosis has been reported with antipsychotics. Patients with a pre-existing low white ... Patients with a pre-existing low WBC or a history of drug induced leukopenia/neutropenia should have their complete blood count ...
Return to Article Details Leukopenia in a patient on haloperidol decanoate: a case report Download Download PDF ...
Leukopenia is a reduction in the circulating white blood cell (WBC) count to < 4000/mcL (9/L). It is usually the consequence of ...
Leukopenia: Decrease in total white blood cell count.. Lymphocyte: Leukocyte with a large round nucleus and usually a small ...
... leukopenia, and rash. Serious adverse reactions were hemolysis, exacerbation of CIDP, acute rash, blood pressure diastolic ...
Fever, asthenia, cephalea, myalgia, exanthema, epistaxis, hematemesis, melena hematuria, gingival hem., leukopenia, ...
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most common infectious diseases and is an important cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Typical bacterial pathogens that cause the condition include Streptococcus pneumoniae (penicillin-sensitive and -resistant strains), Haemophilus influenza (ampicillin-sensitive and -resistant strains...
Leukopenia. 4 (4.6). Relative neutrophilia. 31 (35.6). Relative neutropenia. 40 (46). Relative lymphocytosis. 43 (49.4). ...
Legionnaires disease (LD) is the pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila. LD also refers to a more benign, self-limited, acute febrile illness known as Pontiac fever, which has been linked serologically to L pneumophila, although it presents without pneumonia.
leukopenia, and/or. *elevated liver function tests.. Dermal. *Hyperpigmentation is the most sensitive endpoint for arsenic ...
7. HAEMATOLOGICAL TESTS • ANAEMIA NORMO NORMO -GI HAEMORRHAGE HMA-IRON DEF • LEUCOPENIA - PORTAL HT, HYPERSPLENISM • ...
HALDOL 2 mg/ml oral solution - Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) by Essential Pharma Ltd (Malta)
Leukopenia. Yes. 6. 5.6. 10. 12.5. 12. 15.8. 22. 14.1. 4.05. 0.0439* 28. 10.6. ... Anemia + leukopenia Yes. 1. 0.9. 5. 6.3. 5. 6.6. 10. 6.4. 3.53. 0.060. 11. 4.2. ... Thrombocytosis + leukopenia. 2/264 (0.8). 1/156 (0.6). 1/108 (0.9). Thrombocytosis + leukocytosis. 9/264 (3.4). 8/156 (5.1). 1/ ... Thrombocytopenia + leukopenia. 12/264 (4.5). 10/156 (6.4). 2/108 (1.8). Thrombocytopenia + leukocytosis. 15/264 (5.7). 9/156 ( ...
Berliner N. Leukocytosis and leukopenia. In: Goldman L, Cooney KA, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 27th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...
a lowered number of infection-fighting cells in the blood (leukopenia). *a lowered number of blood clotting cells (platelets) ( ...
Hepatomegaly and leukopenia are often present during this period. In typical cases the urine becomes dark, and the stools pale ...
Blood disorders (eg, aplastic anemia, granulocytopenia, leukopenia, pancytopenia, thrombocytopenia) or * Muscle or nerve ...
Copper deficiency, a new triad: anemia, leucopenia, and myeloneuropathy. Copper deficiency, a new triad: anemia, leucopenia, ...
Of the five workers who reported leukopenia, white blood cell counts were below the race specific range in only one; workplace ... Of particular concern were skin rashes, irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, and leukopenia in machine shop workers using ... leukopenia; Safety-Kleen; vapor degreasing; personal protective equipment ... substances have not been associated with the development of leukopenia. The authors conclude that direct skin exposure to ...
Figure 2. Crocetin improved leucopenia and thrombocytopenia in DENV-infected mice. BALB/c mice were infected with DENV-2 (4 × ... Figure 2. Crocetin improved leucopenia and thrombocytopenia in DENV-infected mice. BALB/c mice were infected with DENV-2 (4 × ... including leucopenia and thrombocytopenia, were explained by the previous finding that liver injury was linked with elevated ... which suggests that DENV infection in mice causes leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. Crocetin treatment at a dosage of 50 mg/kg ...
5.2 Leukopenia and Severe Thrombocytopenia In clinical trials, patients treated with ORFADIN and dietary restriction developed ... Leukopenia Thrombocytopenia Conjunctivitis Corneal opacity Keratitis Photophobia Eye pain Blepharitis Cataracts ... Leukopenia and Severe Thrombocytopenia: Monitor platelet and white blood cell counts. ( 5.2) ... No patients developed infections or bleeding as a result of the episodes of leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. Monitor platelet ...
Blood and lymphatic system disorders: Leucopenia.. Ear and labyrinth disorders: Vertigo.. Gastrointestinal disorders: Nausea, ...
leukopenia. This is a condition when there are a low number of white blood cells in your body. These cells help fight ... Those who develop leukopenia are more likely to have fevers and infections. ...
It is known as leukopenia. This may happen to patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Other conditions that a low WBCs count ...
leukopenia (25%), diarrhea (21%), and headache (20%). Most common laboratory abnormalities (Grades 1-4) in ≥25% of patients in ... neutropenia (17%), dyspepsia (17%), dyspnea (15%), leukopenia (13%), UTI. (13%), thrombocytopenia (11%), and stomatitis (11%). ...
  • Seropositivity was significantly associated to anemia and thrombocytopenia, alone or in combination, and to leukopenia. (scielo.br)
  • This study demonstrated that dogs referred to a veterinary teaching hospital in Central-western Brazil are highly exposed to E. canis and that seropositive dogs are more likely to present hematological abnormalities, particularly anemia, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. (scielo.br)
  • ABSTRACT This cross-sectional study at a teaching hospital in north-eastern Nigeria estimated the prevalence of anaemia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia in treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients (177 males and 316 females), and the associations with virological and immunological markers. (who.int)
  • The overall prevalences of anaemia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia were 49.5%, 5.5% and 4.5% respectively. (who.int)
  • The prevalence of anaemia was significantly higher in males than females (61.6% versus 42.7%), while the rates of leukopenia (5.1% versus 5.7%) and thrombocytopenia (5.7% versus 3.8%) were similar. (who.int)
  • citation needed] Neutropenia, a subtype of leukopenia, refers to a decrease in the number of circulating neutrophil granulocytes, the most abundant white blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The terms leukopenia and neutropenia may occasionally be used interchangeably, as the neutrophil count is the most important indicator of infection risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukopenia, Neutropenia, and Agranulocytosis has been reported with antipsychotics. (nih.gov)
  • Patients with a pre-existing low white blood cell count (WBC) or a history of leukopenia/neutropenia should have their complete blood count (CBC) monitored frequently during the first few months of therapy and should discontinue ziprasidone mesylate for injection at the first sign of a decline in WBC in the absence of other causative factors. (nih.gov)
  • A soropositividade foi associada significativamente à anemia e trombocitopenia, isoladamente ou em combinação, e à leucopenia. (scielo.br)
  • Este estudo demonstrou que cães encaminhados a um hospital veterinário-escola na região Centro-oeste do Brasil são altamente expostos à E. canis, e que cães soropositivos têm maior probabilidade de apresentar alterações hematológicas, principalmente anemia, trombocitopenia e leucopenia. (scielo.br)
  • Chemotherapy treatment and other exposure to radiation are also potential causes of leukopenia. (wisegeek.net)
  • Objective - To determine reference ranges for results of hematologic analyses of healthy Belgian Tervuren, to compare results of hematologic analyses for healthy Belgian Tervuren with results for healthy dogs of other breeds, and to determine prevalence of physiologic leukopenia in Belgian Tervuren. (illinois.edu)
  • A total of 493 patients with HIV tions of advanced HIV-1 infection sent study estimated the prevalence serological reactivity determined by that could potentially limit the use of of anaemia, leukopenia and throm- enzyme immunoassay and confirmed some components of antiretroviral bocytopenia at the initiation of ART, by Western blot analysis were re- therapy (ART) regimens [1,2]. (who.int)
  • citation needed] Medications that can cause leukopenia include clozapine, an antipsychotic medication with a rare adverse effect leading to the total absence of all granulocytes (neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils). (wikipedia.org)
  • Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Results suggest that physiologic leukopenia, resulting from low numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes, may be a typical finding in a large percentage of healthy Belgian Tervuren and is not of clinical importance in otherwise healthy dogs. (illinois.edu)
  • Neutrophils are the most abundant type of white blood cells, and a drastic reduction in these cells is one of the most common causes of leukopenia. (wisegeek.net)
  • Haematological abnormalities need to review these parameters in All consenting participants were recruit- (anaemia, leukopenia and thrombo- a group of treatment-naïve HIV in- ed consecutively into the study. (who.int)
  • Anaemia is more common ings could inform policy and practice was obtained on patients' demographic than leukopenia and thrombocytope- regarding safe provision of ART to characteristics, clinical manifestations, nia in patients with AIDS [5-8]. (who.int)
  • Thus the condition of leukopenia places individuals at increased risk of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection is one of the most common causes of leukopenia. (wisegeek.net)
  • Specifically, leukopenia is triggered when an infection spreads throughout the entire body, or a string of infections over a short period of time. (wisegeek.net)
  • One of the risk factors of severe dengue infection is leukopenia. (isainsmedis.id)
  • Enjoy this short video as Dr. Purser talks on the cause of leukopenia (low white blood cell count) he sees most commonly in patients. (physiciandesigned.com)
  • This study aims to determine the relationship between the degree of leukopenia and the severity of DHF in pediatric patients treated in the Kaswari room of Wangaya Hospital, Denpasar. (isainsmedis.id)
  • Minocycline, a commonly prescribed antibiotic, is another drug known to cause leukopenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are numerous potential causes of leukopenia, including too many infections in a short period of time, certain medications that destroy or damage white blood cells or the bone marrow , cancer, and immunodeficiency diseases. (wisegeek.net)
  • Interferons used to treat multiple sclerosis, such as interferon beta-1a and interferon beta-1b, can also cause leukopenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FDA monograph for metronidazole states that this medication can also cause leukopenia, and the prescriber information suggests a complete blood count, including differential cell count, before and after, in particular, high-dose therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukopenia can be identified with a complete blood count. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatomegaly and leukopenia are often present during this period. (bartleby.com)
  • Leukopenia is the medical term to describe the condition in which the body's white blood cell count is too low. (wisegeek.net)
  • When certain illnesses interfere with that ability, the white blood cell count drops and leukopenia occurs. (wisegeek.net)
  • There are also reports of leukopenia caused by divalproex sodium or valproic acid (Depakote), a drug used for epilepsy (seizures), mania (with bipolar disorder) and migraine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of leukopenia, the blood characteristics of the affected individual show a significant decrease in the number of white blood cells, below 3,500 White blood cells per microliter. (vedantu.com)
  • In the case of leukopenia, treatment methods recommended by the doctor should be applied depending on the severity of the symptoms and the underlying causes. (vimfay.com)
  • Viral diseases such as influenza, certain blood cancers such as leukaemia, and autoimmune diseases such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis can cause leukopenia. (vedantu.com)
  • Drugs that can cause leukopenia with lymphocytosis include clozapine, an antipsychotic drug with rare side effects that can cause all granulocytes (neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils) to disappear completely. (vedantu.com)
  • Long-term use of the antidepressant and smoking addiction drug bupropion hydrochloride (Wellbutrin) can also cause leukopenia. (vedantu.com)
  • The FDA monograph on metronidazole states that this drug may also cause leukopenia, and the prescription information indicates that a complete blood count, including a differential cell count, should be taken before and after high-dose treatment, in particular. (vedantu.com)
  • Some viral infections can cause leukopenia by suppressing leukocyte production. (vimfay.com)
  • Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) frequently suffer from a mild degree of anemia and from moderate leukopenia on top of their undernourished state and metabolic disarrangements. (medscape.com)
  • A blood test on a 14-year-old girl, who suffers from anorexia nervosa, revealed not only a leukopenia but a lymphocytosis. (medscape.com)
  • Leukopenia is a common finding in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and may contribute to severe infections. (medscape.com)
  • The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of leukopenia in SLE patients and examine the association between these conditions and severe infections noting the risk factor of severe infections. (medscape.com)
  • As white blood cells (WBCs) have a major role in the immune system in preventing infection, leukopenia may contribute to severe infections in SLE. (medscape.com)
  • Symptoms of leukopenia are vulnerability to infections caused by low leukocyte counts and a more severe course of infections. (vimfay.com)
  • Since white blood cells are an important component of the immune system, leukopenia leads to a weakened immune system and vulnerability to infections. (vimfay.com)
  • White blood cells are responsible for maintaining a healthy immune system, so in leukopenia, when their concentration is reduced, the system's ability to fight the disease is also hampered. (vedantu.com)
  • This always leads to a weakened immune system and increases the risk of infection, so a medical professional should be informed in order to resolve the leukopenia situation in time. (vedantu.com)
  • Low leukocyte count, also known as leukopenia, is a condition in which the number of white blood cells (leukocytes), an important part of the body's immune system, is reduced. (vimfay.com)
  • Leukopenia does not directly cause cancer, but it is thought that the risk of cancer may increase due to a weakened immune system. (vimfay.com)
  • When the immune system is weakened by leukopenia, the defense mechanism against the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells is reduced and the risk of cancer increases. (vimfay.com)
  • When leukopenia is treated and white blood cell levels return to normal, the immune system becomes stronger again and the risk of cancer decreases. (vimfay.com)
  • There was no difference of severe infection-free survival rate between patients who ever and never had leukopenia. (medscape.com)
  • In this study, the presence of leukopenia at any time was not the risk factor for severe infection in SLE. (medscape.com)
  • The association between leukopenia and severe infection remains controversial in SLE. (medscape.com)
  • Leukopenia medical term is that it is the low white blood cell count that may be due to an acute viral infection, such as a cold or flu. (vedantu.com)
  • West Nile encephalitis (WNE), as with many viral illnesses, may feature mild leukopenia. (medscape.com)
  • Leukopenia can cause fatigue by affecting the body's energy levels. (vimfay.com)
  • Leukopenia was found at the diagnosis in 51.6% of the cases. (medscape.com)
  • Diseases that impair the function of blood cells and bone marrow, such as overactive spleen and aplastic anaemia, can also induce leukopenia, and the main reason for leucopenia causes. (vedantu.com)
  • Leukopenia can occur due to various reasons and manifests itself with some symptoms. (vimfay.com)
  • In this article we have written for you, general information about leukopenia, its causes and symptoms will be discussed. (vimfay.com)
  • What are the Symptoms of Leukopenia? (vimfay.com)
  • Nutritional deficiencies such as vitamin B12, folic acid, and iron deficiency can lead to leukopenia by affecting leukocyte production. (vimfay.com)
  • [ 4 ] Leukopenia in SLE may result from SLE disease activity or bone marrow suppression from immunosuppressant(s), comedications, or other medical conditions. (medscape.com)
  • Leukopenia causes can be by insufficient synthesis of white blood cells in the bone marrow or by damaging factors that damage healthy white blood cells in the bloodstream. (vedantu.com)
  • If the bone marrow does not function normally, not enough white blood cells can be produced and leukopenia occurs. (vimfay.com)
  • So leukopenia meaning is the decrease in the number of white blood cells. (vedantu.com)
  • Leukopenia meaning is that it is a disease in which the number of white blood cells in the body is very low. (vedantu.com)
  • Therefore, there are five main types of leukopenia, depending on which type of White blood cells has very few numbers. (vedantu.com)
  • Leukopenia is a condition in which white blood cells (leukocytes) are found at a lower level than normal. (vimfay.com)
  • Leukopenia is a condition in which the number of white blood cells (leukocytes) in the body decreases to abnormally low levels. (vimfay.com)
  • Leukopenia was common in SLE but usually not persistent. (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 , 2 ] Leukopenia is common in SLE and is included in both the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) [ 3 ] and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) classification criteria of SLE. (medscape.com)
  • Although people with leucopenia have an increased risk of developing cancer, it cannot be said that this condition will definitely lead to cancer. (vimfay.com)
  • Leucopenia suspected, but not reproducible in second, specific hematology study. (europa.eu)
  • Case reports have suggested the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in an attempt to reverse the leukopenia. (medscape.com)
  • Leukopenia in the greek language is split into two words that are leuco and penia. (vedantu.com)