A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors representing malignant transformations of T-lymphocytes.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
A malignant disease of the B-LYMPHOCYTES in the bone marrow and/or blood.
A malignant disease of the T-LYMPHOCYTES in the bone marrow, thymus, and/or blood.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.
Aggressive T-Cell malignancy with adult onset, caused by HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1. It is endemic in Japan, the Caribbean basin, Southeastern United States, Hawaii, and parts of Central and South America and sub-Saharan Africa.
Malignant lymphoma composed of large B lymphoid cells whose nuclear size can exceed normal macrophage nuclei, or more than twice the size of a normal lymphocyte. The pattern is predominantly diffuse. Most of these lymphomas represent the malignant counterpart of B-lymphocytes at midstage in the process of differentiation.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Malignant lymphoma in which the lymphomatous cells are clustered into identifiable nodules within the LYMPH NODES. The nodules resemble to some extent the GERMINAL CENTER of lymph node follicles and most likely represent neoplastic proliferation of lymph node-derived follicular center B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.
Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
Extranodal lymphoma of lymphoid tissue associated with mucosa that is in contact with exogenous antigens. Many of the sites of these lymphomas, such as the stomach, salivary gland, and thyroid, are normally devoid of lymphoid tissue. They acquire mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type as a result of an immunologically mediated disorder.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.
Clonal hematopoetic disorder caused by an acquired genetic defect in PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS. It starts in MYELOID CELLS of the bone marrow, invades the blood and then other organs. The condition progresses from a stable, more indolent, chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC PHASE) lasting up to 7 years, to an advanced phase composed of an accelerated phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, ACCELERATED PHASE) and BLAST CRISIS.
A form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma having a usually diffuse pattern with both small and medium lymphocytes and small cleaved cells. It accounts for about 5% of adult non-Hodgkin lymphomas in the United States and Europe. The majority of mantle-cell lymphomas are associated with a t(11;14) translocation resulting in overexpression of the CYCLIN D1 gene (GENES, BCL-1).
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
Myeloid-lymphoid leukemia protein is a transcription factor that maintains high levels of HOMEOTIC GENE expression during development. The GENE for myeloid-lymphoid leukemia protein is commonly disrupted in LEUKEMIA and combines with over 40 partner genes to form FUSION ONCOGENE PROTEINS.
A group of lymphomas exhibiting clonal expansion of malignant T-lymphocytes arrested at varying stages of differentiation as well as malignant infiltration of the skin. MYCOSIS FUNGOIDES; SEZARY SYNDROME; LYMPHOMATOID PAPULOSIS; and PRIMARY CUTANEOUS ANAPLASTIC LARGE CELL LYMPHOMA are the best characterized of these disorders.
A group of malignant lymphomas thought to derive from peripheral T-lymphocytes in lymph nodes and other nonlymphoid sites. They include a broad spectrum of lymphocyte morphology, but in all instances express T-cell markers admixed with epithelioid histiocytes, plasma cells, and eosinophils. Although markedly similar to large-cell immunoblastic lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, LARGE-CELL, IMMUNOBLASTIC), this group's unique features warrant separate treatment.
B-cell lymphoid tumors that occur in association with AIDS. Patients often present with an advanced stage of disease and highly malignant subtypes including BURKITT LYMPHOMA; IMMUNOBLASTIC LARGE-CELL LYMPHOMA; PRIMARY EFFUSION LYMPHOMA; and DIFFUSE, LARGE B-CELL, LYMPHOMA. The tumors are often disseminated in unusual extranodal sites and chromosomal abnormalities are frequently present. It is likely that polyclonal B-cell lymphoproliferation in AIDS is a complex result of EBV infection, HIV antigenic stimulation, and T-cell-dependent HIV activation.
A systemic, large-cell, non-Hodgkin, malignant lymphoma characterized by cells with pleomorphic appearance and expressing the CD30 ANTIGEN. These so-called "hallmark" cells have lobulated and indented nuclei. This lymphoma is often mistaken for metastatic carcinoma and MALIGNANT HISTIOCYTOSIS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.
An acute myeloid leukemia in which 80% or more of the leukemic cells are of monocytic lineage including monoblasts, promonocytes, and MONOCYTES.
Leukemia produced by exposure to IONIZING RADIATION or NON-IONIZING RADIATION.
A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.
A neoplastic disease of the lymphoreticular cells which is considered to be a rare type of chronic leukemia; it is characterized by an insidious onset, splenomegaly, anemia, granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, little or no lymphadenopathy, and the presence of "hairy" or "flagellated" cells in the blood and bone marrow.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
An acute leukemia exhibiting cell features characteristic of both the myeloid and lymphoid lineages and probably arising from MULTIPOTENT STEM CELLS.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)
Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.
Malignant lymphoma characterized by the presence of immunoblasts with uniformly round-to-oval nuclei, one or more prominent nucleoli, and abundant cytoplasm. This class may be subdivided into plasmacytoid and clear-cell types based on cytoplasmic characteristics. A third category, pleomorphous, may be analogous to some of the peripheral T-cell lymphomas (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, PERIPHERAL) recorded in both the United States and Japan.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
A leukemia/lymphoma found predominately in children and adolescents and characterized by a high number of lymphoblasts and solid tumor lesions. Frequent sites involve LYMPH NODES, skin, and bones. It most commonly presents as leukemia.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
Translation products of a fusion gene derived from CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION of C-ABL GENES to the genetic locus of the breakpoint cluster region gene on chromosome 22. Several different variants of the bcr-abl fusion proteins occur depending upon the precise location of the chromosomal breakpoint. These variants can be associated with distinct subtypes of leukemias such as PRECURSOR CELL LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA; LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE; and NEUTROPHILIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.
An experimental lymphocytic leukemia originally induced in DBA/2 mice by painting with methylcholanthrene.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with the cofactor CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain. Runx1 is frequently mutated in human LEUKEMIAS.
A chronic leukemia characterized by a large number of circulating prolymphocytes. It can arise spontaneously or as a consequence of transformation of CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A leukemia/lymphoma found predominately in children and young adults and characterized LYMPHADENOPATHY and THYMUS GLAND involvement. It most frequently presents as a lymphoma, but a leukemic progression in the bone marrow is common.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
An acute myeloid leukemia in which 20-30% of the bone marrow or peripheral blood cells are of megakaryocyte lineage. MYELOFIBROSIS or increased bone marrow RETICULIN is common.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The GENETIC TRANSLATION products of the fusion between an ONCOGENE and another gene. The latter may be of viral or cellular origin.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Tumors or cancer of the THYMUS GLAND.
An extranodal neoplasm, usually possessing an NK-cell phenotype and associated with EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS. These lymphomas exhibit a broad morphologic spectrum, frequent necrosis, angioinvasion, and most commonly present in the midfacial region, but also in other extranodal sites.
A lymphoid leukemia characterized by a profound LYMPHOCYTOSIS with or without LYMPHADENOPATHY, hepatosplenomegaly, frequently rapid progression, and short survival. It was formerly called T-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Conditions in which the abnormalities in the peripheral blood or bone marrow represent the early manifestations of acute leukemia, but in which the changes are not of sufficient magnitude or specificity to permit a diagnosis of acute leukemia by the usual clinical criteria.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
A pathologic change in leukemia in which leukemic cells permeate various organs at any stage of the disease. All types of leukemia show various degrees of infiltration, depending upon the type of leukemia. The degree of infiltration may vary from site to site. The liver and spleen are common sites of infiltration, the greatest appearing in myelocytic leukemia, but infiltration is seen also in the granulocytic and lymphocytic types. The kidney is also a common site and of the gastrointestinal system, the stomach and ileum are commonly involved. In lymphocytic leukemia the skin is often infiltrated. The central nervous system too is a common site.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A receptor tyrosine kinase that is involved in HEMATOPOIESIS. It is closely related to FMS PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN and is commonly mutated in acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
The initial phase of chronic myeloid leukemia consisting of an relatively indolent period lasting from 4 to 7 years. Patients range from asymptomatic to those exhibiting ANEMIA; SPLENOMEGALY; and increased cell turnover. There are 5% or fewer blast cells in the blood and bone marrow in this phase.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A rare, aggressive variant of MULTIPLE MYELOMA characterized by the circulation of excessive PLASMA CELLS in the peripheral blood. It can be a primary manifestation of multiple myeloma or develop as a terminal complication during the disease.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Remnant of a tumor or cancer after primary, potentially curative therapy. (Dr. Daniel Masys, written communication)
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The phase of chronic myeloid leukemia following the chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC-PHASE), where there are increased systemic symptoms, worsening cytopenias, and refractory LEUKOCYTOSIS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.
An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the antigen receptors.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A leukemia affecting young children characterized by SPLENOMEGALY, enlarged lymph nodes, rashes, and hemorrhages. Traditionally classed as a myeloproliferative disease, it is now considered a mixed myeloproliferative-mylelodysplastic disorder.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A DNA-binding protein that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target genes by recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES. Aberrant Blc-6 expression is associated with certain types of human B-CELL LYMPHOMA.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (abl) originally isolated from the Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MuLV). The proto-oncogene abl (c-abl) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family. The human c-abl gene is located at 9q34.1 on the long arm of chromosome 9. It is activated by translocation to bcr on chromosome 22 in chronic myelogenous leukemia.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
A hydrolase enzyme that converts L-asparagine and water to L-aspartate and NH3. EC
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Immunological rejection of leukemia cells following bone marrow transplantation.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Enzyme that is a major constituent of kidney brush-border membranes and is also present to a lesser degree in the brain and other tissues. It preferentially catalyzes cleavage at the amino group of hydrophobic residues of the B-chain of insulin as well as opioid peptides and other biologically active peptides. The enzyme is inhibited primarily by EDTA, phosphoramidon, and thiorphan and is reactivated by zinc. Neprilysin is identical to common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA Antigen), an important marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia. There is no relationship with CALLA PLANT.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Proto-oncogene protein bcr is a serine-threonine kinase that functions as a negative regulator of CELL PROLIFERATION and NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. It is commonly fused with cellular abl protein to form BCR-ABL FUSION PROTEINS in PHILADELPHIA CHROMOSOME positive LEUKEMIA patients.
A chronic, malignant T-cell lymphoma of the skin. In the late stages, the LYMPH NODES and viscera are affected.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Large cells, usually multinucleate, whose presence is a common histologic characteristic of classical HODGKIN DISEASE.
An orally administered anthracycline antineoplastic. The compound has shown activity against BREAST NEOPLASMS; LYMPHOMA; and LEUKEMIA.
Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.
Nucleosides containing arabinose as their sugar moiety.
Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.
An experimental lymphocytic leukemia of mice.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
A pediatric acute myeloid leukemia involving both myeloid and monocytoid precursors. At least 20% of non-erythroid cells are of monocytic origin.
A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.
Tumors or cancer of the EYE.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
A spectrum of disorders characterized by clonal expansions of the peripheral blood LYMPHOCYTE populations known as large granular lymphocytes which contain abundant cytoplasm and azurophilic granules. Subtypes develop from either CD3-negative NATURAL KILLER CELLS or CD3-positive T-CELLS. The clinical course of both subtypes can vary from spontaneous regression to progressive, malignant disease.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A replication-defective strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) capable of transforming lymphoid cells and producing a rapidly progressing lymphoid leukemia after superinfection with FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; MOLONEY MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; or RAUSCHER VIRUS.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
MLL OMIM Entry: MYELOID/LYMPHOID OR MIXED LINEAGE LEUKEMIA GENE; MLL MLL+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine ... Multiple chromosomal translocations involving this gene are the cause of certain acute lymphoid leukemias and acute myeloid ... Leukemia & Lymphoma. 27 (5-6): 417-28. doi:10.3109/10428199709058308. PMID 9477123. Eguchi M, Eguchi-Ishimae M, Greaves M ( ... Histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2A also known as acute lymphoblastic leukemia 1 (ALL-1), myeloid/lymphoid or mixed-lineage ...
Gassmann W, Winfried; Löffler H. (1995). "Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia". Leuk. Lymphoma. 18 Suppl 1: Leukemia and Lymphoma. ... These cancers include leukemias, lymphomas, and myelomas. These particular types of cancers can arise as defected mature cell ... Storey, Rowland; Gatt, Marcell; Bradford, Ian (January 6, 2009). "Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma presenting within ... ISBN 0-07-144159-X. "Blood Cancers: Leukemia, Lymphoma, and Myeloma". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 5 ...
This effect applies in myeloma and lymphoid leukemias, lymphoma, multiple myeloma and possibly breast cancer. It is closely ... Graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) is a specific type of GvT effect. As the name of this effect indicates, GvL is a reaction against ... Patients who develop chronic or acute GvHD have lower chance of leukemia relapse. When transplanting T-cell depleted stem cell ... The interconnection of those two effects can be seen by comparison of leukemia relapse after HSC transplantation with ...
... lymphoid leukemias, or non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Based on their association with eosinophils, unique genetic mutations, and known ... CEP110 fusion genes may present as a chronic myelomonocytic leukemia with involvement of tonsil; and d) FGFR1-BCR or FGFR1- ... However, patients bearing: a) ZMYM2-FGFR1 fusion genes often present as T-cell lymphomas with spreading to non-lymphoid tissue ... These mutations occur in the early stages of myeloid and/or lymphoid cell lines and are the cause of or contribute to the ...
... other myeloid leukemias, myeloproliferative neoplasm, myeloid sarcoma, lymphoid leukemia, or non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Based on ... B-cell lymphoma, T-cell lymphomas, T cell leukemias, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Other hematological diseases are ... acute myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, or T lymphoblastic lymphoma. These patients usually respond well to ... chronic eosinophilic leukemia, or acute eosinophilic leukemia; b) myeloproliferative neoplasm/myeloblastic leukemia associated ...
... or lymphoma. Because fludarabine is highly active in lymphoid malignancies, these regimens can further be used when patients ... acute myeloid leukemias". Leukemia. 8 (11): 1842-6. PMID 7526088. Pastore D, Specchia G, Carluccio P, et al. (April 2003). " ... FLAG and FLAG-based regimens can also be used in cases of concomitant AML and either acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) ... Jackson GH (2004). "Use of fludarabine in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia". The Hematology Journal. 5 Suppl 1: S62-7. ...
Other malignancies Chronic lymphocytic leukemia Rare cases of other Lymphoid leukemias Rare cases of Lymphomas Protein is the ...
... precursor-cell type Acute lymphoblastic leukemia-lymphoma, NOS Acute lymphocytic leukemia Acute lymphoid leukemia Acute ... Leukemias M9860/3 Myeloid leukemia, NOS Non-lymphocytic leukemia, NOS Granulocytic leukemia, NOS Myelogenous leukemia, NOS ... leukemia Acute leukemia of ambiguous lineage Acute mixed lineage leukemia Acute bilineal leukemia M9820/3 Lymphoid leukemia, ... Chronic lymphocytic leukemia Chronic lymphoid leukemia Chronic lymphatic leukemia M9826/3 Burkitt cell Leukemia (see also M9687 ...
T cell lymphoma Anaplastic large cell lymphoma Precursor lymphoid neoplasms B-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma not otherwise ... Lymphomas and leukemias are a part of the broader group of tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. Risk factors for ... Non-Hodgkin lymphomas, which are defined as being all lymphomas except Hodgkin lymphoma, are more common than Hodgkin lymphoma ... Hodgkin lymphoma Classical Hodgkin lymphomas: Nodular sclerosis form of Hodgkin lymphoma Most common type of Hodgkin lymphoma ...
Leukemias and lymphomas both belong to a broader group of tumors that affect the blood, bone marrow, and lymphoid system, known ... The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society Archived 5 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine Facts 2012 from The Leukemia & Lymphoma ... "Leukemia Facts & Statistics." Archived 16 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society. Retrieved 2 July ... The cause for most cases of leukemia is unknown. The different leukemias likely have different causes. Leukemia, like other ...
Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) mutations such as the t(4;11) translocation cause aggressive leukemias that are refractory to ... advocating for the introduction of ABT-199 into therapeutic regimens for MLL-rearranged leukemias. ... Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein, Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2, ... Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) mutations such as the t(4;11) translocation cause aggressive leukemias that are refractory to ...
The 2001 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of hematopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms categorized "the leukemias" ... Lymphoid neoplasms are mostly reviewed as part of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Chapter 40 of this volume, although descriptive ... Myeloid neoplasms, which are the primary focus of this chapter, include acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndromes ... The 2001 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of hematopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms categorized "the leukemias" ...
... also to be needed for leukemia development.44 Mutations in RhoA are been shown to be common in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma ... and lymphoid lineages in accordance with lamin B.47 Dipraglurant Recent proof shows that lamin B1 expression correlates with ... IMMUNOTHERAPY Constructed chimeric antigen receptor-T cells are clinically utilized to take Dipraglurant care of some leukemias ... marrow and bloodstream for leukemia and lymph nodes for lymphoma), the differentiation position of abnormal cells (more ...
Precursor Lymphoid Neoplasms. 16. Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia and Mixed-Phenotype Acute Leukemias ... 8. Diffuse Aggressive B-Cell Lymphomas. 9. Peripheral T-Cell Lymphomas. 10. Immunodeficiency-Related Lymphoproliferative ...
Chronic Leukemias. *MDS & Myeloproliferative Neoplasms. *Multiple Myeloma & Plasma Cell Disorders. *Lymphomas & Lymphoid ... Director of the Leukemia Program at the Cleveland Clinic in Cleveland, Ohio. ...
Chronic Leukemias. *MDS & Myeloproliferative Neoplasms. *Multiple Myeloma & Plasma Cell Disorders. *Lymphomas & Lymphoid ... This case is regarding a patient with T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia (T-LGL). A 73-year-old-asymptomatic female was ... marrow biopsy showed diffuse extensive replacement of the marrow architecture with T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia. ...
Chronic Leukemias. *MDS & Myeloproliferative Neoplasms. *Multiple Myeloma & Plasma Cell Disorders. *Lymphomas & Lymphoid ... Acute leukemia. 0/10(0%). 0/14(0%). Gynecologic. 3/10(30%). 0/14(0%). ...
Feline lymphoma. Pages 67-73.. Radiation therapy. Pages 83-96.. Chemotherapy for non-lymphoid malignancies. Pages 111-129. ... XVI Symposium of the International Association for Comparative Research on Leukemia and Related Diseases, 1993. ... The marrow madness of cats: classifying feline myelodysplastic syndromes and leukemias.. The Veterinarian August 2014. 17-19. ... Household Chemical Exposures and the Risk of Canine Malignant Lymphoma,. a Model for Human Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma. ...
ACUTE LYMPHOID LEUKEMIA: Pediatric ALL results have improved remarkably over last few decades, with cure rates of 60-90% ... Let us continue with treatment advances in Acute Leukemias:. ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA: In this field, initial treatment i.e. ... Non Hodgkins lymphoma and Myeloma. BEFORE WE PROCEED, LET ME CONGRATULATE YOU FOR YOUR BOOK ON CANCER AWARENESS. What I liked ... This leukemia can now be cured in some patients without chemotherapy, and better cure rates in other patients by adding these ...
C91.52 is a billable diagnosis code used to specify a medical diagnosis of adult t-cell lymphoma/leukemia (htlv-1-associated), ... Malignant neoplasms of lymphoid, hematopoietic and related tissue (C81-C96) * Lymphoid leukemia (C91) ... Adults can get either type; children with leukemia most often have an acute type.Some leukemias can often be cured. Other types ... Adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia (HTLV-1-assoc), in relapse. Long Description:. Adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia (HTLV-1-associated ...
Lymphoid neoplasms *mature B-cell neoplasms *Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) *B-cell ProLymphocytic Leukemia (B-PLL) ... Acute Myeloid Leukemias *Diagnostic tool AML *AML with recurrent genetic abnormalities *APL with PML-RARA ... T-cell ProLymphocytic Leukemia (T-PLL) *Sézary Syndrome (SS) *Adult T-cell Lymphoma/Leukemia (ATLL) ...
Lymphoid neoplasms *mature B-cell neoplasms *Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) *B-cell ProLymphocytic Leukemia (B-PLL) ... Acute Myeloid Leukemias *Diagnostic tool AML *AML with recurrent genetic abnormalities *APL with PML-RARA ... T-cell ProLymphocytic Leukemia (T-PLL) *Sézary Syndrome (SS) *Adult T-cell Lymphoma/Leukemia (ATLL) ...
Lymphoid neoplasms *mature B-cell neoplasms *Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) *B-cell ProLymphocytic Leukemia (B-PLL) ... Acute Myeloid Leukemias *Diagnostic tool AML *AML with recurrent genetic abnormalities *APL with PML-RARA ... T-cell ProLymphocytic Leukemia (T-PLL) *Sézary Syndrome (SS) *Adult T-cell Lymphoma/Leukemia (ATLL) ...
Lymphoid neoplasms *mature B-cell neoplasms *Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) *B-cell ProLymphocytic Leukemia (B-PLL) ... Acute Myeloid Leukemias *Diagnostic tool AML *AML with recurrent genetic abnormalities *APL with PML-RARA ... T-cell ProLymphocytic Leukemia (T-PLL) *Sézary Syndrome (SS) *Adult T-cell Lymphoma/Leukemia (ATLL) ...
Acute Leukemia Treatment Please inquire The statement of acute leukemia depends on the subtype of leukemia. Treatment ... The main types of lymphoma are Hodgkins lymphoma and non-Hodgkins lymphoma. Symptoms include enlarged lymph nodes, fatigue ... This is a surgical procedure used to remove the adenoids (lymphoid tissue in the nasopharynx) when they are enlarged hence ... Various combination of chemotherapeutic agents has been developed for various leukemias. Oncologist use chemotherapy with or ...
The clinical course of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is heterogeneous. Several prognostic factors have been ... chronic b-cell leukemias, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, disease progression, gene expression profiling, genes, specimen ... Lymphoid Neoplasia, September 27, 2012 Subnetwork-based analysis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia identifies pathways that ... p53 protein expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.. , Leuk Lymphoma. , 2012. , vol. 53 ...
His research interests are in defining molecular and genetic biomarkers of Cancer (Lung, GI), Lymphoma and Leukemia, and normal ... Leukemias and lymphomas are monoclonal neoplasms that arise as a result of molecular abnormalities. Associate Program Director ... and defining critical genomic features in the progression and therapy resistance of lymphoid and myeloid leukemia. The Ohio ... The B-Cell Lymphoma Moon Shot is revolutionizing the conventional medical research approach to rapidly translate findings into ...
  • It causes 15% of acute leukemias in childhood, and also 40% of lymphomas in childhood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute leukemias in adults. (helsinki.fi)
  • The oral manifestations of the chronic leukemias are less common than those associated with the acute leukemias. (ajnr.org)
  • The role of Notch has been studied in a wide variety of hematological malignancies including T and B leukemias and lymphomas as well as myeloid leukemias ( 3 - 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a collective term for a heterogeneous group of lymphoproliferative malignancies with differing patterns of behavior and responses to treatment. (medscape.com)
  • From a morphologic and immunophenotypic perspective, the malignant cells of CLL are identical to those of nodal-based small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), and these 2 malignancies are thought to represent different manifestations of the same disease. (ajnr.org)
  • Her studies also demonstrate that this gene is overexpressed in human lymphoid and other malignancies. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia ( CLL ) is the most common entity in this group (∼21,000 cases/year in the United States) and the most common leukemia in the Western world. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell). (wikipedia.org)
  • This subtype, termed chronic lymphocytic leukemia-type MBL (CLL-type MBL) is an asymptomatic, indolent, and chronic disorder in which individuals exhibit a mild increase in the number of circulating B-cell lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia may also transform into Richter's syndrome, the development of fast-growing diffuse large B cell lymphoma, prolymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, or acute leukemia in some patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gastrointestinal (GI) involvement can rarely occur with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two cases to date have been reported of GI involvement in chronic lymphocytic leukemia without Richter's transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically, they have been most commonly divided by the stage of maturation at which the clonal (neoplastic) lymphoid population stopped maturing: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia Chronic lymphocytic leukemia However, the influential WHO Classification (published in 2001) emphasized a greater emphasis on cell lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • To this end, lymphoid leukemias can also be divided by the type of cells affected: B-cell leukemia T-cell leukemia NK-cell leukemia The most common type of lymphoid leukemia is B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common type of lymphoid leukemia is B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia . (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is an expansion of malignant CD5 + CD19 + B cells, yet the non-malignant T cells play just as large of a role in disease presentation and etiology. (nebraska.edu)
  • Herek, TA & Cutucache, CE 2017, ' Using murine models to investigate tumor-lymphoid interactions: Spotlight on chronic lymphocytic leukemia and angioimmunoblastic T-Cell lymphoma ', Frontiers in Oncology , vol. 7, no. (nebraska.edu)
  • Palatal involvement in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is rare and has only been reported 3 previous times in the non-radiology literature. (ajnr.org)
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a B-lineage neoplasm of prefollicular center cells that is usually associated with circulating neoplastic small lymphocytes. (ajnr.org)
  • Blood work revealed leukocytosis and he was diagnosed as having chronic lymphocytic leukemia, stage 1. (ajnr.org)
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in adults. (jci.org)
  • Prolymphocytic leukemia is very rare and can be very aggressive. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Other types include (with ICD-O code): 9826/3 - Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, mature B-cell type 9833/3 - B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia 9940/3 - Hairy cell leukemia T-cell leukemia describes several different types of lymphoid leukemias which affect T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other types include: Large granular lymphocytic leukemia Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia In practice, it can be hard to distinguish T-cell leukemia from T-cell lymphoma, and they are often grouped together. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) encompasses a broad spectrum of tumors derived from cells of the lymphoid system. (nature.com)
  • 2017. https://harrisons.unboundmedicine.com/harrisons/view/Harrisons-Manual-of-Medicine/623596/all/CHRONIC_LYMPHOID_LEUKEMIAS_LYMPHOMAS. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In the United Kingdom, 30,000 patients are diagnosed each year and the relative 5-year survival is 69.1%, bearing in mind that some leukemias' prognosis is not as good as others ( Department of Health Sciences, 2017 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Section 3: Leukemias, Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms, and Myelodysplasia. (worldcat.org)
  • Precursor lymphoid neoplasms are categorized as B lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma and T lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma. (hindawi.com)
  • The lymphocytic leukemias are closely related to lymphomas of the lymphocytes, to the point that some of them are unitary disease entities that can be called by either name (for example, adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic autoimmune or pathogen-induced immune reactions resulting in lymphoid neogenesis are associated with development of malignant lymphomas, mostly extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas (MZBCLs). (haematologica.org)
  • B) the interplay between CXCL13-producing stromal cells and increasing numbers of mLTα1β2 and TNF-expressing B lymphocytes, leads to the development of follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) and subsequent formation of lymphoid follicles. (haematologica.org)
  • Contains concise but expansive evidence-based discussion and guidelines on all major hematologic cancers from malignant lymphoma to multiple myeloma and acute leukaemia, as well as examining the therapies related these cancers. (oup.com)
  • It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias. (lookfordiagnosis.com)
  • Cell Differentiation Antigens versus Tumor-Related Antigens in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). (springer.com)
  • Childhood lymphoma. (helsinki.fi)
  • Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), for example, is the most common childhood cancer, but these diseases can occur in individuals of all ages. (cshlpress.com)
  • In recent years, a number of key molecular determinants operating during the generation of tertiary lymphoid tissue, have been identified. (haematologica.org)
  • Written and edited by experts in the field, this collection from Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine covers our current understanding of the molecular underpinnings of leukemia and lymphoma, as well as recent progress in development of therapies that target them. (cshlpress.com)
  • By using a panel of PCR-based methods, we have examined the status of the p16 INK4a , ARF and p53 genes in 123 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) at diagnosis. (nature.com)
  • This randomized phase I trial is studying the side effects and best dose of two different schedules of sorafenib in treating patients with refractory or relapsed acute leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, or blastic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • I. Determine the maximum tolerated dose of sorafenib when administered in two different schedules in patients with refractory or relapsed acute leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, or blastic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. (lookfordiagnosis.com)
  • 50% of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cases carry activating mutations in the Notch1 receptor. (frontiersin.org)
  • The most common T-cell leukemia is precursor T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its morphology is identical to that of precursor B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hana Biosciences (Nasdaq: HNAB) announced new positive preliminary efficacy results from a planned interim analysis of the ongoing pivotal rALLy clinical trial evaluating Marqibo(R) (vincristine sulfate liposomes injection) for the treatment of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in second relapse. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is predominantly found in children. (hindawi.com)
  • The immature cells in B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma can be small or medium sized with scant or moderate cytoplasm and typically express B-cell markers such as CD19, cytoplasmic CD79a, and TdT without surface light chains. (hindawi.com)
  • The B acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (ALL) is further classified into B-ALL not otherwise specified or those with recurrent genetic abnormalities. (hindawi.com)
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma is rare in the adult population, and the lymphoblasts that are characteristic of the disease show a spectrum of differentiation and have varied cytogenetic alterations. (hindawi.com)
  • Lymphoid leukemias are a group of leukemias affecting circulating lymphocytes, a type of white blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most lymphoid leukemias involve a particular subtype of lymphocytes, the B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • B-cell leukemia describes several different types of lymphoid leukemia which affect B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aggressive NK-cell leukemia (ANKL) is a lymphoid leukemia that is a deficiency NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The requirements for diagnosing ANKL are as follows: Immature-looking NK cells Certain immunophenotypes Germline configuration genes: TCR-β and IgH Restricted cytotoxicity The T-cell receptor (TCR) is an important factor when ANKL is being diagnosed along with T-cell leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • One problem when using NK cells in order to fight off lymphoid leukemia is the fact that it is hard to amount enough of them to be effective. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of the tumor microenvironment in leukemias and lymphomas is well established, yet the intricacies of how the malignant cells regulate and influence their non-malignant counterparts remain elusive. (nebraska.edu)
  • The cells show L3 morphology (Burkitt-like lymphoma) with coexpression of TdT and surface light chains in addition to an MYC gene translocation and Philadelphia chromosome. (hindawi.com)
  • As the name suggests, the cells that proliferate are immature lymphoid cells known as lymphoblasts, which have become halted in their development. (hindawi.com)
  • Bone marrow biopsy and aspirate revealed a hypercellular marrow almost completely replaced by a diffuse infiltrate of large lymphoid cells (Figures 1(a) and 1(b) ) with basophilic cytoplasm, cytoplasmic vacuoles, and large prominent nucleoli (L3/Burkitt lymphoma-like morphology) (Figure 2 ). (hindawi.com)
  • A peripheral smear showed few circulating abnormal lymphoid cells (5%) with the same cytologic features as the cells found in the bone marrow (Figure 3 ). (hindawi.com)
  • Leukemia and lymphoma are cancers that affect white blood cells. (cshlpress.com)
  • Leukemia and lymphoma are cancers that affect cells of the blood. (cshlpress.com)
  • CD33 is expressed on cells of myelomonocytic lineage, binds sialic acid residues in N- and O-glycans on cell surfaces, and is a therapeutic target for acute myeloid leukemia. (fishersci.com)
  • CD33 is useful for distinguishing myelogenous leukemia cells from lymphoid or erythroid leukemias. (fishersci.com)
  • all mice develop aggressive lymphoid malignancy similar to leukemia and lymphoma in humans. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Lower panels: immunohistochemical stainings on a well-organized lymphoid infiltrate in a minor salivary gland of a Sjögren's syndrome patient. (haematologica.org)
  • Similar results were obtained when the analysis was confined to diffuse large B cell lymphomas ( P = 0.019). (nature.com)
  • Herein, we review the dynamic tumor cell to lymphoid repertoire interactions found in two non-Hodgkin's lymphoma subtypes: CLL and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. (nebraska.edu)
  • We aim to highlight the pivot work done in the murine models which recapitulate these diseases and explore the insights that can be gained from studying the immuno-oncological regulation of non-malignant lymphoid counterparts. (nebraska.edu)
  • Diseases associated with CD43 dysfunction include gallbladder lymphoma and extracutaneous mastocytoma. (fishersci.com)
  • These lymphoblasts commonly have L1 and L2 morphology (FAB classification) with expression of TdT and other primitive lymphoid antigens. (hindawi.com)
  • We present an unusual case of a precursor B-cell ALL, in an 82-year-old woman, with L3 morphology (Burkitt-like lymphoma) that demonstrates coexpression of TdT and surface light chains. (hindawi.com)
  • In this review, we will summarize the evidence for oncogenic and tumor suppressor roles of Notch in a wide range of leukemias and lymphomas, and describe therapeutic opportunities for now and the future. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, the authors discuss state-of-the-art preclinical models of leukemia and lymphoma, existing and prospective therapeutic strategies, and how technologies such as next-generation sequencing have accelerated progress in the field. (cshlpress.com)
  • Lymphadenopathy is the most common manifestation of lymphoma. (medscape.com)
  • Chronic inflammatory conditions, due to improper eradication of pathogens, auto-immune processes or chronic allograft rejections, are associated with the genesis of organized lymphoid tissue. (haematologica.org)
  • In this review, we will outline the roles of the Notch pathway in a wide variety of leukemias and lymphomas, describe potential targeted therapies and discuss future directions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Spontaneous remissions have been documented, most commonly in patients with low-grade lymphomas. (medscape.com)
  • In contrast, Notch signaling inhibits acute myeloblastic leukemia growth and survival, and although targeting Notch signaling in AML with Notch activators appears to have pre-clinical activity, no Notch agonists are clinically available at this time. (frontiersin.org)
  • They include leukemias, lymphomas and myeloma. (frontiersin.org)
  • The most common oral manifestations in leukemia, in order of frequency, include gingival hemorrhage, mucosal ulcers, infections, and gingival hyperplasia in tooth-bearing areas. (ajnr.org)
  • ANKL is treated similarly to most B-cell lymphomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural killer (NK) cell therapy is used in pediatrics for children with relapsed lymphoid leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In practice, it can be hard to distinguish T-cell leukemia from T-cell lymphoma , and they are often grouped together. (wikipedia.org)
  • The T-cell receptor (TCR) is an important factor when ANKL is being diagnosed along with T-cell leukemia . (wikipedia.org)
  • The leukemias are divided into acute and chronic forms based on their clinical course, and the cell line involved further classifies them into myelocytic and lymphocytic types. (ajnr.org)
  • This is referred to as small lymphocytic lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • CLL can be grouped with Small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) as one disease with two clinical presentations. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2 The most common oral manifestations of the leukemias are gingival hypertrophy, petechial hemorrhage and ecchymosis, infection, ulceration, and necrosis. (ajnr.org)
  • 3 , 5 In turn, the oral manifestations associated with CLL are the least common of all the chronic leukemias. (ajnr.org)

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