Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
A replication-defective strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) capable of transforming lymphoid cells and producing a rapidly progressing lymphoid leukemia after superinfection with FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; MOLONEY MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; or RAUSCHER VIRUS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia in the gibbon ape. Natural transmission is by contact.
A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.
A strain of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS associated with mouse tumors similar to those caused by the FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. It is a replication-competent murine leukemia virus. It can act as a helper virus when complexing with a defective transforming component, RAUSCHER SPLEEN FOCUS-FORMING VIRUS.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Transcriptional trans-acting proteins of the promoter elements found in the long terminal repeats (LTR) of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The tax (trans-activator x; x is undefined) proteins act by binding to enhancer elements in the LTR.
Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
A lymphoid neoplastic disease in cattle caused by the bovine leukemia virus. Enzootic bovine leukosis may take the form of lymphosarcoma, malignant lymphoma, or leukemia but the presence of malignant cells in the blood is not a consistent finding.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Clonal hematopoetic disorder caused by an acquired genetic defect in PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS. It starts in MYELOID CELLS of the bone marrow, invades the blood and then other organs. The condition progresses from a stable, more indolent, chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC PHASE) lasting up to 7 years, to an advanced phase composed of an accelerated phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, ACCELERATED PHASE) and BLAST CRISIS.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
A malignant disease of the T-LYMPHOCYTES in the bone marrow, thymus, and/or blood.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.
A genus of RETROVIRIDAE comprising endogenous sequences in mammals, related RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN, and a reptilian virus. Many species contain oncogenes and cause leukemias and sarcomas.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).
Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Aggressive T-Cell malignancy with adult onset, caused by HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1. It is endemic in Japan, the Caribbean basin, Southeastern United States, Hawaii, and parts of Central and South America and sub-Saharan Africa.
Viruses that produce tumors.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2 that can transform normal T-lymphocytes and can replicate in both T- and B-cell lines. The virus is related to but distinct from HTLV-1.
A genus in the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of exogenous horizontally-transmitted viruses found in a few groups of mammals. Infections caused by these viruses include human B- or adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), and bovine leukemia (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS). The type species is LEUKEMIA VIRUS, BOVINE.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from radiation-induced lymphomas in C57BL mice. It is leukemogenic, thymotrophic, can be transmitted vertically, and replicates only in vivo.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
A genus of the family HYLOBATIDAE consisting of six species. The members of this genus inhabit rain forests in southeast Asia. They are arboreal and differ from other anthropoids in the great length of their arms and very slender bodies and limbs. Their major means of locomotion is by swinging from branch to branch by their arms. Hylobates means dweller in the trees. Some authors refer to Symphalangus and Nomascus as Hylobates. The six genera include: H. concolor (crested or black gibbon), H. hoolock (Hoolock gibbon), H. klossii (Kloss's gibbon; dwarf siamang), H. lar (common gibbon), H. pileatus (pileated gibbon), and H. syndactylus (siamang). H. lar is also known as H. agilis (lar gibbon), H. moloch (agile gibbon), and H. muelleri (silvery gibbon).
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
Strains of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS discovered in 1976 by Hartley, Wolford, Old, and Rowe and so named because the viruses originally isolated had the capacity to transform cell foci in mink cell cultures. MCF viruses are generated by recombination with ecotropic murine leukemia viruses including AKR, Friend, Moloney, and Rauscher, causing ERYTHROLEUKEMIA and severe anemia in mice.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A neoplastic disease of cats frequently associated with feline leukemia virus infection.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Post-transcriptional regulatory proteins required for the accumulation of mRNAs that encode the gag and env gene products in HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The rex (regulator x; x is undefined) products act by binding to elements in the LONG TERMINAL REPEAT.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
An acute myeloid leukemia in which 80% or more of the leukemic cells are of monocytic lineage including monoblasts, promonocytes, and MONOCYTES.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Conditions in which the abnormalities in the peripheral blood or bone marrow represent the early manifestations of acute leukemia, but in which the changes are not of sufficient magnitude or specificity to permit a diagnosis of acute leukemia by the usual clinical criteria.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Leukemia produced by exposure to IONIZING RADIATION or NON-IONIZING RADIATION.
A neoplastic disease of the lymphoreticular cells which is considered to be a rare type of chronic leukemia; it is characterized by an insidious onset, splenomegaly, anemia, granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, little or no lymphadenopathy, and the presence of "hairy" or "flagellated" cells in the blood and bone marrow.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for at least three proteins which regulate the expression of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The proteins are p21(x), p27(rex), and p40(tax). The tax (trans-activator x) and rex (regulator x) genes are part of pX but are in overlapping reading frames. X was the original designation for the sequences or region (at that time of unknown function) in the long open reading frame (lor) which is now called pX.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Infections caused by the HTLV or BLV deltaretroviruses. They include human T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED).
Carnivores of genus Mustela of the family MUSTELIDAE. The European mink, which has white upper and lower lips, was widely trapped for commercial purposes and is classified as endangered. The American mink, lacking a white upper lip, is farmed commercially.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A malignant disease of the B-LYMPHOCYTES in the bone marrow and/or blood.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
An experimental lymphocytic leukemia originally induced in DBA/2 mice by painting with methylcholanthrene.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in mice infected with mouse leukemia viruses (MuLV). The syndrome shows striking similarities with human AIDS and is characterized by lymphadenopathy, profound immunosuppression, enhanced susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and B-cell lymphomas.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Myeloid-lymphoid leukemia protein is a transcription factor that maintains high levels of HOMEOTIC GENE expression during development. The GENE for myeloid-lymphoid leukemia protein is commonly disrupted in LEUKEMIA and combines with over 40 partner genes to form FUSION ONCOGENE PROTEINS.
A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Tumors or cancer of the THYMUS GLAND.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An acute leukemia exhibiting cell features characteristic of both the myeloid and lymphoid lineages and probably arising from MULTIPOTENT STEM CELLS.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2, closely related to the human HTLV-1 virus. The clinical, hematological, and histopathological characteristics of the disease in STLV-infected monkeys are very similar to those of human adult T-cell leukemia. Subgroups include the African green monkey subtype (STLV-I-AGM), for which the nucleotide sequence is 95% homologous with that of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1, and the Asian rhesus macaque subtype (STLV-I-MM), for which the nucleotide sequence is 90% homologous with that of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).

Foamy virus capsids require the cognate envelope protein for particle export. (1/1905)

Unlike other subclasses of the Retroviridae the Spumavirinae, its prototype member being the so-called human foamy virus (HFV), require the expression of the envelope (Env) glycoprotein for viral particle egress. Both the murine leukemia virus (MuLV) Env and the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein, which efficiently pseudotype other retrovirus capsids, were not able to support export of HFV particles. Analysis of deletion and point mutants of the HFV Env protein revealed that the HFV Env cytoplasmic domain (CyD) is dispensable for HFV particle envelopment, release, and infectivity, whereas deletion of the membrane-spanning-domain (MSD) led to an accumulation of naked capsids in the cytoplasm. Neither alternative membrane association of HFV Env deletion mutants lacking the MSD and CyD via phosphoglycolipid anchor nor domain swapping mutants, with the MSD or CyD of MuLV Env and VSV-G exchanged against the corresponding HFV domains, could restore particle envelopment and the release defect of pseudotypes. However, replacement of the HFV MSD with that of MuLV led to budding of HFV capsids at the intracellular membranes. These virions were of apparently wild-type morphology but were not naturally released into the supernatant and they were noninfectious.  (+info)

Amphotropic murine leukemia virus entry is determined by specific combinations of residues from receptor loops 2 and 4. (2/1905)

Pit2 is the human receptor for amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV); the related human protein Pit1 does not support A-MuLV entry. Interestingly, chimeric proteins in which either the N-terminal or the C-terminal part of Pit2 was replaced by the Pit1 sequence all retained A-MuLV receptor function. A possible interpretation of these observations is that Pit1 harbors sequences which can specify A-MuLV receptor function when presented in a protein context other than Pit1, e.g., in Pit1-Pit2 hybrids. We reasoned that such Pit1 sequences might be identified if presented in the Neurospora crassa protein Pho-4. This protein is distantly related to Pit1 and Pit2, predicted to have a similar membrane topology with five extracellular loops, and does not support A-MuLV entry. We show here that introduction of the Pit1-specific loop 2 sequence conferred A-MuLV receptor function upon Pho-4. Therefore, we conclude that (i) a functional A-MuLV receptor can be constructed by combining sequences from two proteins each lacking A-MuLV receptor function and that (ii) a Pit1 sequence can specify A-MuLV receptor function when presented in another protein context than that provided by Pit1 itself. Previous results indicated a role of loop 4 residues in A-MuLV entry, and the presence of a Pit2-specific loop 4 sequence was found here to confer A-MuLV receptor function upon Pho-4. Moreover, the introduction of a Pit1-specific loop 4 sequence, but not of a Pit2-specific loop 4 sequence, abolished the A-MuLV receptor function of a Pho-4 chimera harboring the Pit1-specific loop 2 sequence. Together, these data suggest that residues in both loop 2 and loop 4 play a role in A-MuLV receptor function. A-MuLV is, however, not dependent on the specific Pit2 loop 2 and Pit2 loop 4 sequences for entry; rather, the role played by loops 2 and 4 in A-MuLV entry can be fulfilled by several different combinations of loop 2 and loop 4 sequences. We predict that the residues in loops 2 and 4, identified in this study as specifying A-MuLV receptor function, are to be found among those not conserved among Pho-4, Pit1, and Pit2.  (+info)

Stable transduction of quiescent CD34(+)CD38(-) human hematopoietic cells by HIV-1-based lentiviral vectors. (3/1905)

We compared the efficiency of transduction by an HIV-1-based lentiviral vector to that by a Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) retroviral vector, using stringent in vitro assays of primitive, quiescent human hematopoietic progenitor cells. Each construct contained the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter gene. The lentiviral vector, but not the MLV vector, expressed GFP in nondivided CD34(+) cells (45.5% GFP+) and in CD34(+)CD38(-) cells in G0 (12.4% GFP+), 48 hr after transduction. However, GFP could also be detected short-term in CD34(+) cells transduced with a lentiviral vector that contained a mutated integrase gene. The level of stable transduction from integrated vector was determined after extended long-term bone marrow culture. Both MLV vectors and lentiviral vectors efficiently transduced cytokine-stimulated CD34(+) cells. The MLV vector did not transduce more primitive, quiescent CD34(+)CD38(-) cells (n = 8). In contrast, stable transduction of CD34(+)CD38(-) cells by the lentiviral vector was seen for over 15 weeks of extended long-term culture (9.2 +/- 5.2%, n = 7). GFP expression in clones from single CD34(+)CD38(-) cells confirmed efficient, stable lentiviral transduction in 29% of early and late-proliferating cells. In the absence of growth factors during transduction, only the lentiviral vector was able to transduce CD34(+) and CD34(+)CD38(-) cells (13.5 +/- 2.5%, n = 11 and 12.2 +/- 9.7%, n = 4, respectively). The lentiviral vector is clearly superior to the MLV vector for transduction of quiescent, primitive human hematopoietic progenitor cells and may provide therapeutically useful levels of gene transfer into human hematopoietic stem cells.  (+info)

Modulation of phosphate uptake and amphotropic murine leukemia virus entry by posttranslational modifications of PIT-2. (4/1905)

PIT-2 is a type III sodium phosphate cotransporter and the receptor for amphotropic murine leukemia viruses. We have investigated the expression and the functions of a tagged version of PIT-2 in CHO cells. PIT-2 remained equally abundant at the cell surface within 6 h following variation of the phosphate supply. In contrast, the efficiency of phosphate uptake and retrovirus entry was inversely related to the extracellular phosphate concentration, indicating that PIT-2 activities are modulated by posttranslational modifications of cell surface molecules induced by phosphate. Conformational changes of PIT-2 contribute to both activities, as shown by the inhibitory effect of sulfhydryl reagents known as inhibitors of type II cotransporters. A physical association of PIT-2 with actin was demonstrated. Modifications of the actin network were induced by variations of the concentrations of extracellular phosphate, cytochalasin D, or lysophosphatidic acid. They revealed that the formation of actin stress fibers determines the cell surface distribution of PIT-2, the internalization of the receptor in response to virus binding, and the capacity to process retrovirus entry. Thus, the presence of PIT-2 at the cell surface is not sufficient to ensure phosphate transport and susceptibility to amphotropic retrovirus infection. Further activation of cell surface PIT-2 molecules is required for these functions.  (+info)

Structures of endogenous nonecotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) long terminal repeats in wild mice: implication for evolution of MLVs. (5/1905)

To develop a better understanding of the interaction between retroviruses and their hosts, we have investigated the polymorphism in endogenous murine leukemia proviruses (MLVs). We used genomic libraries of wild mouse DNAs and PCR to analyze genetic variation in the proviruses found in wild mouse species, including Mus musculus (M. m. castaneus, M. m. musculus, M. m. molossinus, and M. m. domesticus), Mus spretus, and Mus spicelegus, as well as some inbred laboratory strains. In this analysis, we detected several unique forms of sequence organization in the U3 regions of the long terminal repeats of these proviruses. The distribution of the proviruses with unique U3 structures demonstrated that xenotropic MLV-related proviruses were present only in M. musculus subspecies, while polytropic MLV-related proviruses were found in both M. musculus and M. spretus. Furthermore, one unique provirus from M. spicelegus was found to be equidistant from ecotropic provirus and nonecotropic provirus by phylogenetic analysis. This provirus, termed HEMV, was thus likely to be related to the common ancestor of these MLVs. Moreover, an ancestral type of polytropic MLV-related provirus was detected in M. spretus species. Despite their "ancestral" phylogenetic position, proviruses of these types are not widespread in mice, implying more-recent spread by infection rather than inheritance. These results imply that recent evolution of these proviruses involved alternating periods of replication as virus and residence in the germ line.  (+info)

Oncogene activation in myeloid leukemias by Graffi murine leukemia virus proviral integration. (6/1905)

The Graffi murine leukemia virus (MuLV) is a nondefective retrovirus that induces granulocytic leukemia in BALB/c and NFS mice. To identify genes involved in Graffi MuLV-induced granulocytic leukemia, tumor cell DNAs were examined for genetic alterations at loci described as common proviral integration sites in MuLV-induced myeloid, lymphoid, and erythroid leukemias. Southern blot analysis revealed rearrangements in c-myc, Fli-1, Pim-1, and Spi-1/PU.1 genes in 20, 10, 3.3, and 3.3% of the tumors tested, respectively. These results demonstrate for the first time the involvement of those genes in granulocytic leukemia.  (+info)

Glutamate augments retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency through chronic stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary- adrenal axis. (7/1905)

The mechanisms for activating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the roles glucocorticoids play in the pathogenesis of chronic infectious disease are largely undefined. Using the LP-BM5 model of retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency, we found alterations in HPA axis function, manifested as an increase in circulating levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone, beginning after only 3 mo of infection. These changes occurred contemporaneously with a shift in the profile of circulating cytokines from a Th1-dominant (IFN-gamma) to Th2-dominant (IL-4, IL-10) phenotype. No significant changes in either circulating IL-1beta, IL-6, or TNF-alpha levels were observed in infected mice. Administering the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 to infected mice normalized plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone levels, indicating that glutamate was a major activator of the HPA axis. Moreover, MK-801 treatment of late-stage mice also reversed the type 1 to type 2 cytokine shift to a degree comparable or superior to treatment with the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU-486. These findings indicate that HPA axis activation during LP-BM5 retrovirus infection is mediated by the chronic hyperactivation of glutamatergic pathways in the hypothalamus. Through this mechanism, the degree of peripheral immunodeficiency observed in the late-stage disease is profoundly augmented.  (+info)

Distribution of cycling T lymphocytes in blood and lymphoid organs during immune responses. (8/1905)

Proliferation of murine T lymphocytes in blood, lymph nodes, and spleen was studied in four in vivo stimulation systems, using BrdU pulse-labeling of DNA-synthesizing cells. The T cell response to the superantigen Staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB) was studied in detail. Vbeta8+ T cells showed a peak of DNA synthesis 16-24 h after SEB injection, and the percentage of BrdU+ CD4 and CD8 T cells was higher in blood than in lymph nodes and spleen. DNA synthesis was preceded by massive migration of Vbeta8+ cells from blood to lymphoid organs, in which the early activation marker CD69 was first up-regulated. SEB-nonspecific Vbeta6+ cells showed minimal stimulation but, when cycling, also expressed a high level of CD69. The other systems studied were injection of the IFN-gamma inducer polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, infection by the BM5 variants of murine leukemia virus (the causative agent of murine AIDS), and T cell expansion after transfer of normal bone marrow and lymph node cells into recombinase-activating gene-2-deficient mice. In each case, a peak of T cell proliferation was observed in blood. These data demonstrate the extensive redistribution of cycling T cells in the first few hours after activation. Kinetic studies of blood lymphocyte status appear crucial for understanding primary immune responses because cycling and redistributing T lymphocytes are enriched in the circulating compartment.  (+info)

Multiple recombinant inbred lines, derived from crosses between strains permissive to N-tropic murine leukemia viruses (Fv-1n) and strains permissive to B-tropic murine leukemia viruses (Fv-1b), have been characterized as to Fv-1 genotype and other chromosome 4 markers, including the closely linked hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase isozyme locus (Gpd-1). Only one recombinant between Fv-1 and Gpd-1 was found among 45 lines tested. On this basis, the distance between Fv-1 and Gpd-1 is estimated to be 0.6 centimorgans. None of the lines was either resistant or susceptible to both N- and B-tropic viruses. Nineteen other inbred strains, previously untested, were characterized as either Fv-1n or Fv-1b.
This correspondence was written in response to the comments by Young et al. Following careful evaluation of the relevant dataset, each of the points brought up by Young et al. has been addressed in this response. We anticipate this will clarify our findings regarding ERVmch8, an ecotropic endogenous retrovirus that was shown to have cerebellum-specific and age-dependent expression patterns in C57BL/6J mice.
Replication-competent retrovirus vectors based on murine leukemia virus (MLV) have been shown to effectively transfer therapeutic genes over multiple serial infections in cell culture and through solid tumors in vivo with a high degree of genomic stability. MLV vectors, whereby the last two are transcriptionally restricted to liver- and -catenin/T-cell factor-deregulated cells, respectively. When the heterologous promoters were used to replace almost the entire MLV U3 region, including the MLV TATA box, vector replication was inefficient since nascent virus particle production from contaminated cells was significantly decreased. Fusion from the heterologous promoters missing the TATA container towards the MLV TATA container, however, generated vectors which replicated with almost-wild-type kinetics throughout permissive cells while exhibiting negligible or low spread in nonpermissive cells. The genomic balance from the vectors was been shown to be much like that of an identical vector filled ...
The cell lines of the NCI-60 panel represent different cancer types and have been widely utilized for drug screening and molecular target identification. Screening these cell lines for envelope proteins or gene sequences related to xenotropic murine leukemia viruses (X-MLVs) revealed that one cell line, EKVX, was a candidate for production of an infectious gammaretrovirus. The presence of a retrovirus infectious to human cells was confirmed by the cell-free transmission of infection to the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Amplification and sequencing of additional proviral sequences from EKVX confirmed a high degree of similarity to X-MLV. The cell line EKVX was established following passage of the original tumor cells through nude mice, providing a possible source of the X-MLV found in the EKVX cells.
Hybrid Moloney/Amphotropic murine leukemia virus (Mo/A-MuLv) ATCC ® VR-1450™ Designation: 4070A envelope strain Application: Analytical methodologies Pharmaceutical and Personal Care
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of murine leukemia virus envelope glycoprotein gp69/71 on mouse thymocytes. Evidence for two structural variants distinguished by presence vs absence of G(ix) antigen. AU - Tung, J. S.. AU - Fleissner, E.. AU - Vitetta, E. S.. AU - Boyse, E. A.. PY - 1975. Y1 - 1975. N2 - Thymocytes of several mouse strains were tested for expression of the gp69/71 envelope component of murine leukemia virus by surface iodination (125I), followed by immunoprecipitation and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These strains included two congenic lines differing from their partner stocks with respect to expression of G(IX) antigen demonstrable in the cytotoxicity assay. It is concluded that two structural variants of gp69/71 can be expressed on mouse thymocytes, that these are distinguishable by a small difference in mobility in SDS gels, that one carries G(IX) antigen and the other not, that they are coded, or their expression is regulated, by different ...
A method for rapidly producing helper-free murine leukemia virus (MLV) without using packaging cell lines is described. Viruses bearing ecotropic or amphotropic MLV or Rous sarcoma virus envelope glycoprotein and containing various retroviral vector genomes have been prepared with titers 30 to 40-fold higher than those produced by transient transfection of standard packaging cells. This system can be used to alter the cellular tropism of MLV by incorporating other envelope glycoproteins and to prepare retroviral vector stocks without establishing stable producer cell lines. This method will be particularly useful for preparing viruses that encode toxic proteins and for the rapid analysis of panels of mutant envelope glycoproteins. ...
Inefficient gene delivery continues to be a primary hurdle facing gene therapy. Viruses offer the highest gene transfer capabilities but are not optimized as therapeutics. Applying directed evolution, we randomly mutated the entire genome of amphotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) and selected for improved stability and infection at 37°C. After one round of mutagenesis and several rounds of selection, we isolated MLV variants with double the half-life of wild-type MLV. The improved stability of the mutant MLV leads to increased virus production, titer, and infection efficiency. Remarkably, a single mutation in the protease (PR), G119E, in the MLV gag-pro-pol is responsible for the enhanced stability. Thus, the variant MLV exhibits increased stability with various wild type envelope proteins, including amphotropic, ecotropic, 10A1, and VSV-G. Lastly, saturation mutagenesis at the site of the beneficial mutation identified MLV mutants with infectivity half-lives of ∼24 h at 37°C, nearly a ...
Advances in Virology is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of virology.
Thirty endogenous proviruses belonging to the modified polytropic (Mpmv) class of murine leukemia virus (MLV) were identified by proviral-cellular DNA junction fragment segregation in several sets of recombinant inbred mice. Twenty-six Mpmv loci were mapped to chromosomal regions by matching proviral strain distribution patterns to those of previously assigned genes. Like other endogenous nonecotropic MLVs, Mpmv loci were present on several chromosomes in all strains examined. We pooled recombinant inbred strain linkage data from 110 MLV loci and selected marker genes in order to construct a chromosomal linkage map. Every mouse chromosome was found to harbor at least one proviral insertion, and several regions contained multiple integrations. However, the overall distribution of the 110 mapped proviruses did not deviate significantly from a random distribution. Because of their polymorphism in inbred strains of mice, and the ability to score as many as 57 proviruses per strain using only
Ia8, a cell membrane antigen controlled by gene(s) located in the I region of the H-2 complex, was found on 9 of 26 murine leukemia cell lines. In addition, 3 of the 9 Ia8-bearing lines had a membrane receptor for antigen-antibody-complement complexes. Six of 26 lines bore the Thy-1.2 antigen. Ia8 and Thy-1.2 antigens were mutually exclusive on the cell lines studied. The strain of virus used to induce the leukemia, the H-2 type of the cells, and the techniques of leukemia cell propagation all appeared to influence the antigenic characteristics of the cell lines obtained. Production of infectious murine leukemia virus in vitro and expression of leukemia virus-induced membrane antigens did not appear to correlate with the presence of Ia8 or Thy-1.2 antigens or with the H-2 type of the cells.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein A-coated erythrocyte binding to cell surface antigens. T2 - Application to quantitate retrovirus infectivity in vitro. AU - Fitting, Thomas. AU - Kabat, David. N1 - Funding Information: ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research was supported by Grant PCM791372 from the National Science Foundation and in part by Grant CA23032 from the U. S. Public Health Service. T.F. was supported by a predoctoral training grant from the U. S. Public Health Service.. PY - 1981/6. Y1 - 1981/6. N2 - Fibroblasts infected with murine leukemia virus (MuLV) bind erythrocytes coated with protein A to form rosettes in the presence of MuLV-specific antisera. This method, which is potentially applicable to any retrovirus and susceptible cell, has been specifically adapted as a focus assay for quantitating both ecotropic and xenotropic MuLV.. AB - Fibroblasts infected with murine leukemia virus (MuLV) bind erythrocytes coated with protein A to form rosettes in the presence of MuLV-specific antisera. This method, ...
2MQV: Solution NMR structure of the U5-primer binding site (U5-PBS) domain of murine leukemia virus RNA genome bound to the retroviral nucleocapsid protein
The Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) is a gammaretrovirus that hijack host components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) for budding. To determine the minimal requirements for ESCRT factors in MLV viral and viral-like particles (VLP) release, an siRNA knockdown screen of ESCRT(-associated) proteins was performed in MLV-producing human cells. We found that MLV VLPs and virions primarily engage the ESCRT-I factor Tsg101 and marginally the ESCRT-associated adaptors Nedd4-1 and Alix to enter the ESCRT pathway. Conversely, the inactivation of ESCRT-II had no impact on VLP and virion egress. By analyzing the effects of individual ESCRT-III knockdowns, VLP and virion release was profoundly inhibited in CHMP2A- and CHMP4B-knockdown cells. In contrast, neither the CHMP2B and CHMP4A isoforms nor CHMP3, CHMP5, and CHMP6 were found to be essential. In case of CHMP1, we unexpectedly observed that the CHMP1A isoform was specifically required for virus budding, but dispensable for VLP release.
Jolicoeur, Paul and Rassart, Eric and Kozak, Christine et al. (1980) Distribution of endogenous murine leukemia virus DNA sequences among mouse chromosomes. Journal of Virology, 33 (3). pp. 1229-1235. ISSN 0022-538X. PMCID PMC288660. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:JOLjvir80 ...
TRIM5alpha is a restriction factor that limits infection of human cells by so-called N- but not B- or NB-tropic strains of murine leukemia virus (MLV). Here, we performed a mutation-based functional analysis of TRIM5alpha-mediated MLV restriction. Our results reveal that changes at tyrosine(336) of human TRIM5alpha, within the variable region 1 of its C-terminal PRYSPRY domain, can expand its activity to B-MLV and to the NB-tropic Moloney MLV. Conversely, we demonstrate that the escape of MLV from restriction by wild-type or mutant forms of huTRIM5alpha can be achieved through interdependent changes at positions 82, 109, 110, and 117 of the viral capsid. Together, our results support a model in which TRIM5alpha-mediated retroviral restriction results from the direct binding of the antiviral PRYSPRY domain to the viral capsid, and can be prevented by interferences exerted by critical residues on either one of these two partners. Maillard, Pierre; Reynard, Séverine; Serhan, Fatima; Turelli, Priscilla;
So, Rachel Bagni did whats known as a phylogenetic analysis - a tree where you compare the sequences of all the polytropic viruses in green in the gene bank in the data base to the sequences from our patients...And you can see that many of the WPI samples from that original study also contain polytropic sequences. Interestingly, one patient contained whats called a mink cell focus or a modified polytropic virus - much more divergent that some of the other strains ...
This congenic strain carries the |i|H2|sup|b|/sup||/i| haplotype and |i|Fv1|sup|b|/sup||/i| allele from C57BL/6 on the AKR genetic background. Cells of strains carrying |i|Fv1|sup|b|/sup||/i| are resistant to N-tropic and susceptible to B-tropic viruses. |i|Fv1|sup|b|/sup||/i| is carried as the wild-type allele in the BALB/c, A and C57BL/6|br/| strains.|br/|
BioAssay record AID 152712 submitted by ChEMBL: Concentration which leads to inhibitory effect on the proliferation of murine leukemia (P388) cells.
A major assumption in this study was that the IAS Env obtained by Ca2+ depletion in the presence of alkylator corresponds to a structural intermediate in the receptor‐activated Env. Its validity was suggested by several facts. First, Ca2+ depletion facilitates receptor‐mediated fusion of virus with cells, whereas the reaction is reversibly suppressed by high Ca2+ (,1.8 mM) (Wallin et al, 2004). This suggests that removal of Ca2+ mediates receptor‐induced activation as well. Second, receptor activation elicits a pathway of conformational changes that appears identical with that obtained in vitro by Ca2+ depletion. This includes a stage with the exposure of the CXXC thiol and the intersubunit disulphide for external modifications (IAS), the disulphide isomerization reaction and SU dissociation (Wallin et al, 2004; M Sjöberg, unpublished results). Finally, recent analyses by us have shown that Env triggering in vitro or in vivo results in a similarly SDS‐sensitive IAS oligomer in the ...
Mutations of an alternative splice donor site located within the gag region has previously been shown to broaden the pathogenic potential of the T-lymphomagenic gammaretrovirus Moloney murine leukemia virus, while the equivalent mutations in the erythroleukemia inducing Friend murine leukemia virus seem to have no influence on the disease-inducing potential of this virus. In the present study we investigate the splice pattern as well as the possible effects of mutating the alternative splice sites on the oncogenic properties of the B-lymphomagenic Akv murine leukemia virus. By exon-trapping procedures we have identified a novel gammaretroviral exon, resulting from usage of alternative splice acceptor (SA) and splice donor (SD) sites located in the capsid region of gag of the B-cell lymphomagenic Akv murine leukemia virus. To analyze possible effects in vivo of this novel exon, three different alternative splice site mutant viruses, mutated in either the SA, in the SD, or in both sites, respectively,
Goat and rabbit antisera prepared against a purified Rauscher murine leukemia virus glycoprotein (gp69/71) rapidly neutralized spleen focus-forming virus in Rauscher and Friend virus preparations. Absorption studies revealed that most of the neutralizing activity of goat anti-Rauscher virus gp69/71 serum was directed against type- and group-specific determinants. ...
Retrovirus entry into cells is mediated by specific interactions between the retrovirally encoded Env envelope glycoprotein and a host cell surface receptor. Though a number of peptide motifs responsible for the structure as well as for the binding and fusion activities of Env have been identified, only a few quantitative data concerning the infection process are available. Using an inducible expression system, we have expressed various amounts of ecotropic and amphotropic Env at the surfaces of Moloney murine leukemia virus-derived vectors and assayed for the infectivity of viral particles. Contrary to the current view that numerous noncooperative Env-viral receptor interactions are required for cell infection, we report here that very small amounts of Env are sufficient for optimal infection. However, increasing Env density clearly accelerates the rate at which infectious attachment to cells occurs. Moreover, our data also show that a surprisingly small number of Env molecules are sufficient ...
Murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (MAIDS) induced by defective LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus is a disease with many similarities to human AIDS. Previous studies indicated that the depressed hematopoiesis observed in LP-BM5-infected marrow cultures may be attributable to a defect of hematopoietic stroma. We report here the generation of permanent stromal cell lines from noninfected and LP-BM5-infected marrow cultures. Retrovirus infection was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction for viral genome. The ability of these cell lines to support in vitro hematopoiesis was studied. Results indicated that, when cocultured with normal or infected nonadherent mononuclear cells, noninfected cell lines efficiently supported the production of hematopoietic precursors, whereas viral-infected cell lines induced suppression of both normal and viral-infected progenitors. Expression of cytokine genes in stromal cell lines was also examined. All cell lines expressed equivalent levels of transcripts for stem ...
Vincent and Ian review a multicenter blinded analysis which finds no association between chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis and XMRV or polytropic murine leukemia virus.
APOBEC proteins have evolved in mice and humans as potent innate defences against retroviral infections. APOBEC3G (hA3G) in humans and mouse APOBEC3 (mA3) deaminate cytidine in single-stranded DNA which ultimately results in hypermutation of newly synthesized proviral DNA. Other deaminase-independent mechanisms of inhibition have been identified, such as directly inhibiting reverse transcription. Both HIV and murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) have evolved mechanisms to evade the action of the APOBEC proteins. HIV encodes the Vif protein which binds to hA3G and facilitates its rapid degradation through the proteasome. The mechanism(s) by which exogenous MuLVs evade mA3 inhibitory activity is unknown. Exogenous MuLVs encode a glycosylated gag protein (gGag) originating from an alternate CUG start site upstream of the AUG start site of the Gag structural polyproteins. gGag is synthesized to similar amounts as the structural Gag polyprotein in MuLV infected cells but is glycosylated in the endoplasmic
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Nonviral producer cell proteins incorporated into retroviral vector surfaces profoundly influence infectivity and in vivo half-life. We report the purification and concentration of lentiviral vectors using these surface proteins as an efficient gene transduction strategy. Biotinylation of these proteins and streptavidin paramagnetic particle concentration enhances titer 400- to 2,500-fold (to 10(9) CFU/ml for vesicular stomatitis virus G protein and 5 x 10(8) for amphotropic murine leukemia virus envelope). This method also uses newly introduced membrane proteins (B7.1 and DeltaLNGFR) directed to lentiviral surfaces, allowing up to 17,000-fold concentrations. Particle conjugation of lentivirus allows facile manipulation in vitro, resulting in the transduction of 48 to 94% of human acute myeloid leukemia blasts.
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Glycoprotein, Glycoproteins, Human, Infection, Somatostatin, Virus, Binding Site, Gene, Leukemia, Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus, Mouse, Murine Leukemia Virus, Somatostatin Receptors, Stomatitis, Vesicular Stomatitis, Cell, Cell Lines, Cholesterol, Complement, Cytoplasm
Moloney Murine Leukaemia Virus Reverse Transcriptase Kit, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
Video articles in JoVE about moloney murine leukemia virus include Amplification, Next-generation Sequencing, and Genomic DNA Mapping of Retroviral Integration Sites, Retroviral Scanning: Mapping MLV Integration Sites to Define Cell-specific Regulatory Regions, Probe-based Real-time PCR Approaches for Quantitative Measurement of microRNAs, Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: A Functional Genomics Tool for the Study of Positive-strand RNA Viruses, Using RNA-sequencing to Detect Novel Splice Variants Related to Drug Resistance in In Vitro Cancer Models, Transduction of Human Cells with Polymer-complexed Ecotropic Lentivirus for Enhanced Biosafety, Improved Swiss-rolling Technique for Intestinal Tissue Preparation for Immunohistochemical and Immunofluorescent Analyses, Synthesis and Characterization of an Aspirin-fumarate Prodrug that Inhibits NFκB Activity and Breast Cancer Stem Cells, 3 End Sequencing Library Preparation with A-seq2, Studying the Integration of Adult-born Neurons,
RAF1 (v-raf-1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1), Authors: Max Cayo, David Yu Greentblatt, Muthusamy Kunnimalaiyaan, Herbert Chen. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Adult or newborn C57BL/6J mice were immunized with isogenic Moloney strain MuLV-induced leukemia cells irradiated with 10,000 rads or treated with low concentrations of formalin. Groups of immunized and control mice were challenged with a range of doses of viable leukemia cells, and tumor deaths were recorded for 90 days after challenge. Then, the doses of challenge cells which produced 50% tumor deaths were calculated for immunized and control mice. The logarithm of their ratio quantified the degree of protection provided by immunization. For adult C57BL/6J mice, a single immunization with MuLV-induced leukemia cells was not effective; either cells plus Bacillus Calmette-Guérin or Corynebacterium parvum, or else two immunizations with irradiated leukemia cells were needed to produce statistically significant increases in the values of the doses of challenge cells which produced 50% tumor deaths. Cross-protection was obtained by immunization with other isogenic MuLV-induced leukemias, but not ...
Xenotropic doesnt mean human, it refers to a virus that can grow in the cells of a species foreign to the normal host species. Other mammals can have the XPR1 receptor too. However, in her talk, Dr. Mikovitz DID emphasize that XMRV and PMRV are found in humans but not in mice. Further, I misstated that MLVs are not mouse viruses (I got the terminology mixed up). In fact, MLVs are mouse viruses, but there is confusion about this because MLV-related viruses (e.g. XMRV and PMRV) are not MLVs and not mouse viruses. So, XMRV and PMRV are not MLVs (not mouse viruses) but they are only MLV-related human viruses. Follow that? ...
Xenotropic doesnt mean human, it refers to a virus that can grow in the cells of a species foreign to the normal host species. Other mammals can have the XPR1 receptor too. However, in her talk, Dr. Mikovitz DID emphasize that XMRV and PMRV are found in humans but not in mice. Further, I misstated that MLVs are not mouse viruses (I got the terminology mixed up). In fact, MLVs are mouse viruses, but there is confusion about this because MLV-related viruses (e.g. XMRV and PMRV) are not MLVs and not mouse viruses. So, XMRV and PMRV are not MLVs (not mouse viruses) but they are only MLV-related human viruses. Follow that? ...
The amplification of RNA requires the conversion of the RNA substrate into DNA. This is achieved through the use of a reverse transcriptase such as AMV RT (avian myeloblastis virus reverse transcriptase) or M-MuLV RT (moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase). The resulting cDNA can be used as a template for a standard PCR. Nested PCR means that two pairs of PCR primers were used for a single locus. The first pair generates an amplicon within the locus as seen in any PCR experiment. The second pair of primers (nested primers) bind within the first amplicon and produce a second PCR product that will be shorter than the first one. The logic behind this strategy is that if the wrong locus were amplified by mistake, the probability is very low that it would also be amplified a second time by a second pair of primers. ...
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 1d1u.1. USE OF AN N-TERMINAL FRAGMENT FROM MOLONEY MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE TO FACILITATE CRYSTALLIZATION AND ANALYSIS OF A PSEUDO-16-MER DNA MOLECULE CONTAINING G-A MISPAIRS
Mutations in the catalytic subunit of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K, encoded by PIK3CA) are common in breast cancer. Drugs inhibiting PI3K show efficacy in a small proportion of patients; some tumors are intrinsically resistant, whereas others become resistant. Le et al. found that another kinase, proviral insertion site in murine leukemia virus (PIM), maintains the activity of downstream effectors of the PI3K pathway and that cotargeting PIM may be effective in patients that show resistance to PI3K inhibitors. A large gain-of-function screen in cultured PI3K-mutant, luminal A-type breast cancer cells identified genes encoding isoforms of PIM as promoting resistance to the PI3K inhibitor BYL719. Overexpression of PIM1 (more so than that of PIM2 or PIM3) decreased the potency of BYL719 and other PI3K pathway inhibitors in various types of breast cancer cells. Cultures of PI3K-mutant breast cancer cells that were resistant to BYL719 had greater abundance of all three PIM isoforms than ...
In this study we characterized the CTL response induced in vivo against TS/A mouse adenocarcinoma cells genetically engineered to express different cytokine or costimulatory molecules, i.e., IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, and B7.1. Independent of the molecule introduced, the CTL response elicited was constantly directed against a single immunodominant epitope represented by the AH1 peptide derived from the gp70 product of an endogenous MuLV and corresponding to amino acids 423-431 of the protein (19) . Indeed, tumor rejection was accompanied by increases in a CD8+ T-cell population that was stainable with gp70-specific tetramers; moreover, independent in vitro restimulation of splenocytes from mice that had rejected a primary TS/A tumor challenge with either gp70423-431 peptide or engineered TS/A, which provided the entire antigenic array of the tumor cells, produced a similar large increase in CTLs specifically recognizing the AH1 antigenic epitope. Finally, MLTC lytic activity could be inhibited in an ...
Armando Arias is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Reverse Genetics Mediated Recovery of Infectious Murine Norovirus
Han, L.; Chiang, Y.L.; Anderson, W.F., 1992: Study of host range determinants of murine retroviruses using chimeric viral envelope
ABL2 antibody (v-abl Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2) for WB. Anti-ABL2 pAb (GTX81937) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Commander AKR1C4 anticorps monoclonal et polyclonal pour beaucoup dapplications. Selection de fournisseur de qualité pour anti-AKR1C4 anticorps.
Little maid, pretty maid, whither goest thou? Down in the forest to milk my cow. Shall I go with thee? No, not now; When I send for thee, then come
TY - JOUR. T1 - T-cell differentiative capacity of haematopoietic stem cells immortalized in vitro with radiation leukemia virus. AU - Ho, E S. AU - ONeill, H C. PY - 1993/8. Y1 - 1993/8. N2 - The differentiative capacity of a unique haematopoietic cell type has been investigated. These cells have been found to be a common target in vitro to infection and immortalization by radiation leukemia viruses (RadLVs). Many continuous lines of these cells have been generated. Since RadLV retroviruses are known to be strictly T-cell-tropic in vivo, we have questioned whether these cells are precursors of T cells. To this end, the RadLV-induced C1-V13D cell line has been inoculated into thymus of sublethally irradiated syngeneic CBA/H mice and tested for capacity to proliferate and differentiate, i.e. express T-cell markers. When inoculated in high number, C1-V13D cells can induce a thymic tumour within 14 to 21 days. Expression of T-cell markers on these cells was determined by fluorescence-activated ...
We have previously shown that the delta E3 site is an essential element for transcriptional activation by the human T-cell receptor (TCR) delta enhancer and identified two factors, NF-delta E3A and NF-delta E3C, that bound to overlapping core (TGTGGTTT) and E-box motifs within delta E3. In this study, we show that protein binding to the core motif is necessary but not sufficient for transcriptional activation by the delta E3 element. In contrast, protein binding to the E-box motif does not contribute significantly to enhancer activity. A similar core motif present within the enhancers of T-cell-tropic murine retroviruses has been shown to contribute to transcriptional activity of the viral long terminal repeat in T lymphocytes and to viral T-cell tropism. We therefore determined the relationship between the nuclear factors that bind to the TCR delta and Moloney murine leukemia virus core motifs. On the basis of electrophoretic mobility shift binding and competition studies, biochemical analysis ...
Two different classes of neoplastic T cells were isolated from radiation leukemia virus (RadLV)-inoculated and from X-ray-treated C57BL/6 mice. One consisted of growth factor-dependent T-cell lymphoma (FD-TCL) lines which were established from the spleens and thymuses of treated mice within a day of lymphoma detection. FD-TCL cells were often eudiploid and could be grown in pure culture only at high concentrations, or on stromal feeder layers. Non-thymic, factor-dependent TCL cells produced interleukin-2 upon lectin stimulation, and were autostimulatory because they secreted growth factor(s) constitutively. Single cell cloning of FD-TCL cells in semisolid medium required the addition of exogenous conditioned medium. In vivo, FD-TCL cells that were injected intraperitoneally or intravenously homed to the spleen, proliferated in it and killed the injected mice. FD-TCL cells did not produce local tumors at the site of subcutaneous injection. The isolation and study of FD-TCL cells were facilitated ...
Recent Longevity News for the seven days ending 9/19/12. You should consult your doctor if you are taking any medications.. Chronic fatigue syndrome not linked to suspect viruses; Study puts to rest notion that XMRV or pMLV cause the mysterious ailment - Science Daily, 9/18/12 - The causes of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have long eluded scientists. In 2009, a paper in the journal Science linked the syndrome -- sometimes called myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) -- to infection with a mouse retrovirus called XMRV (xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV)-related virus). Given that affected patients often have symptoms consistent with a chronic infection, this viral connection seemed plausible, and the findings were celebrated as a major achievement for a complex disease that afflicts nearly 1 million in the U.S. ... To definitively resolve this issue, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), commissioned a study ... None of the ...
The scientific method at work: xenotropic murine leukemia virus?related virus is neither a cause of chronic fatigue syndrome nor a threat to the blood...
Malignant primary brain tumors, gliomas, often overexpress both platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) ligands and receptors providing an autocrine and/or paracrine boost to tumor growth. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent glioma. Its aggressive and infiltrative growth renders it extremely difficult to treat. Median survival after diagnosis is currently only 12-14 months. The present review describes the use of retroviral tagging to identify candidate cancer-causing genes that cooperate with PDGF in brain tumor formation. Newborn mice injected intracerebrally with a Moloney murine leukemia retrovirus carrying the sis/PDGF-B oncogene and a replication competent helper virus developed brain tumors with many characteristics of human gliomas. Analysis of proviral integrations in the brain tumors identified almost 70 common insertion sites (CISs). These CISs were named brain tumor loci and harbored known but also putative novel cancer-causing genes. Microarray analysis identified ...
Mice infected with LP-BM5 murine leukemia viruses develop a syndrome, termed mouse AIDS (MAIDS), characterized by increasingly severe immunodeficiency and progressive lymphoproliferation. Virus-infected mice were examined for the ability to resist acute infection and to control chronic infection with the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, a major opportunistic pathogen of individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Mice infected with the retroviruses for 2 or 4 weeks responded normally to challenge with the parasite, but mice inoculated with the protozoan 8 or 12 weeks after viral infection died with acute disease due to T. gondii. Increased sensitivity to acute infection was associated with a reduced ability to produce gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and with established changes in CD4+ T-cell function. Mice latently infected with T. gondii and then inoculated with the retrovirus mixture were found to reactivate the parasite infection, with 30 to 40% of dually infected animals dying between ...
We previously described an enhancer variant of Moloney murine leukaemia virus (M-MuLV), ΔMo + SV M-MuLV, in which the enhancers of MuLV have been deleted and replaced with the enhancers of the simian virus 40 (SV40). When this virus is injected into neonatal NIH Swiss mice, pre-B and B-lymphoblastic lymphomas develop with a latency of 17 months. Van Lohuizen et al. (1989) described a line of transgenic mice that carry an activated pim-1 proto-oncogene transgene (Eµ pim-1). They also reported that Eµ pim-1 transgenic mice show greatly accelerated lymphoma development when infected with wild-type M-MuLV at birth. In these experiments, neonatal Eµ pim-1 transgenic mice were infected intraperitoneally with ΔMo + SV M-MuLV. Marked acceleration of T-lymphoid leukaemia was seen. However, 10 of the 11 tumours analysed were found to be negative for the SV40 enhancers, but they still contained M-MuLV DNA as measured by Southern blot analysis. The LTRs on viruses cloned from two such tumours (as well as on
The spectral function |mml:math alttext=$\theta \left( t \right) = \sum\limits_{m = 1}^\infty {\exp \left( { - t\lambda _m } \right)} $ xmlns:mml=http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML||mml:mrow||mml:mi|θ|/mml:mi||mml:mrow||mml:mo|(|/mml:mo||mml:mi|t|/mml:mi||mml:mo|)|/mml:mo||/mml:mrow||mml:mo|=|/mml:mo||mml:munderover||mml:mo|∑|/mml:mo||mml:mrow||mml:mi|m|/mml:mi||mml:mo|=|/mml:mo||mml:mn|1|/mml:mn||/mml:mrow||mml:mi|∞|/mml:mi||/mml:munderover||mml:mrow||mml:mo|exp|/mml:mo||mml:mrow||mml:mo|(|/mml:mo||mml:mrow||mml:mo|−|/mml:mo||mml:mi|t|/mml:mi||mml:msub||mml:mi|λ|/mml:mi||mml:mi|m|/mml:mi||/mml:msub||/mml:mrow||mml:mo|)|/mml:mo||/mml:mrow||/mml:mrow||/mml:mrow||/mml:math|, |mml:math alttext=$t > 0$ xmlns:mml=http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML||mml:mrow||mml:mi|t|/mml:mi||mml:mo|>|/mml:mo||mml:mn|0|/mml:mn||/mml:mrow||/mml:math| where |mml:math alttext=$\left\{ {\lambda _m } \right\}_{m = 1}^\infty $ xmlns:mml=http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML||mml:mrow|
In a previous study, we showed that MMLV-RT has a strong terminal transferase activity, and that the C-, G-, and T-tailing activities are enhanced by dGMP, dCMP, and dAMP, respectively. In this study, to achieve faster reaction and higher tailing efficiency, we screened other compounds for the ability to enhance the tailing activities of MMLV-RT, and determined the corresponding optimal concentrations. The C-, G-, and T-tailing activities were enhanced by guanine, cytosine, and adenine, respectively, and by derivatives thereof, suggesting a transient Watson-Click base pairing between an enhancer molecule and the nucleotide to be incorporated. In the presence of some additives (GMP and GDP for C-tailing and CMP for G-tailing), the tail length increased continuously, resulting in tail lengths of 7 to 15 (GMP and GDP) or 13 to 22 (CMP) nucleotides. Among the compounds that do not induce continuous addition, adenosine, deoxycytidine, and deoxyguanosine mostly enhanced T-, G-, and C-tailings, ...
1. Esnault C, Heidmann O, Delebecque F, Dewannieux M, Ribet D, Hance AJ, et al. APOBEC3G cytidine deaminase inhibits retrotransposition of endogenous retroviruses. Nature. 2005;433(7024):430-3. Epub 2005/01/28. doi: 10.1038/nature03238 15674295.. 2. Harris RS, Bishop KN, Sheehy AM, Craig HM, Petersen-Mahrt SK, Watt IN, et al. DNA deamination mediates innate immunity to retroviral infection. Cell. 2003;113(6):803-9. Epub 2003/06/18. doi: 10.1016/s0092-8674(03)00423-9 12809610.. 3. Mangeat B, Turelli P, Caron G, Friedli M, Perrin L, Trono D. Broad antiretroviral defence by human APOBEC3G through lethal editing of nascent reverse transcripts. Nature. 2003;424(6944):99-103. Epub 2003/06/17. doi: 10.1038/nature01709 12808466.. 4. Suspene R, Aynaud MM, Koch S, Pasdeloup D, Labetoulle M, Gaertner B, et al. Genetic editing of herpes simplex virus 1 and Epstein-Barr herpesvirus genomes by human APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases in culture and in vivo. J Virol. 2011;85(15):7594-602. Epub 2011/06/03. doi: ...
Murine type C ecotropic retrovirus infection is initiated by virus envelope binding to a membrane receptor expressed on mouse cells. We have identified a cDNA clone that may encode for this receptor through a strategy combining gene transfer of mouse NIH 3T3 DNA into nonpermissive human EJ cells, se …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selection of reversions and suppressors of a mutation in the CBF binding site of a lymphomagenic retrovirus. AU - Martiney, Marita J.. AU - Rulli, Karen. AU - Beaty, Robert. AU - Levy, Laura S.. AU - Lenz, Jack. PY - 1999/8/23. Y1 - 1999/8/23. N2 - The retrovirus SL3 induces T-cell lymphomas in mice. The transcriptional enhancer in the long terminal repeat (LTR) of SL3 contains two 72-bp repeats. Each repeat contains a binding site for the transcription factor CBF (also called AML1). The CBF binding sites are called core elements. SAA is a mutant that is identical to SL3 except for the presence of a single-base-pair substitution in each of the two core elements. This mutation significantly attenuates viral lymphomagenicity. Most lymphomas that occur in SAA-infected mice contain proviruses with reversions or second-site suppressor mutations within the core element. We examined the selective pressures that might account for the predominance of the reversions and suppressor ...
Adv Virol 2011;2011:787394 Xenotropic and other murine leukemia virus-related viruses in humans.. Khan AS, McClure M, Kubo Y, Jolicoeur P. ...
LP-BM5 retrovirus induces a disease featuring an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome termed murine AIDS (MAIDS) in susceptible strains of mice, such as C57BL/6 (B6). CD4 T helper effector cells are critical to MAIDS induction and progression of viral pathogenesis. CD8 T cells are not needed for viral pathogenesis, but rather are essential for protection from disease in resistant strains, such as BALB/c. We have discovered an immunodominant cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope encoded in a previously un-recognized LP-BM5 retroviral alternative (+1 NT) gag translational open reading frame. CTLs specific for this cryptic gag epitope are the basis of protection from LP-BM5-induced immunodeficiency in BALB/c mice, and the inability of B6 mice to mount an anti-gag CTL response is critical to MAIDS pathogenesis. However, uninfected B6 mice can generate CTL responses to LP-BM5 retrovirus-associated epitope(s) especially prevalent on LP-BM5-induced tumors. Here, we utilized this LP-BM5 retrovirus-induced ...
The ETS gene Fli-1 is involved in the induction of erythroleukemia in mice by Friend murine leukemia virus and Ewings sarcoma in children. Mice with a targeted null mutation in the Fli-1 locus die at day 11.5 of embryogenesis with loss of vascular integrity leading to bleeding within the vascular plexus of the cerebral meninges and specific downregulation of Tek/Tie-2, the receptor for angiopoietin-1. We also show that dysmegakaryopoiesis in Fli-1 null embryos resembles that frequently seen in patients with terminal deletions of 11q (Jacobsen or Paris-Trousseau Syndrome). We map the megakaryocytic defects in 14 Jacobsen patients to a minimal region on 11q that includes the Fli-1 gene and suggest that dysmegakaryopoiesis in these patients may be caused by hemizygous loss of Fli-1 ...
A protein engineered by researchers at KU Leuven that combines proteins active in HIV and Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) replication may lead to safer, more effective retroviral gene therapy. KU Leuven is located in Flanders, the Dutch-speaking region of Belgium. Gene therapy involves inserting healthy genetic material into a diseased cell. Using a carrier derived from a retrovirus, the genetic material is smuggled into a human cell where, once inside, it integrates itself into the cells DNA. But gene therapy is not without risks. If integrated too near a carcinogenic gene, the newly introduced genetic material can also induce disease-causing mutations. In gene therapy, the delivery vehicle is not the retrovirus itself, but a viral vector: a derivative form of the retrovirus that retains its proteins but not its nucleic acid. One of the most widely used viral vectors is derived from MLV. But this particular virus-borne carrier is both a weapon and a risk. It can cure disease but, if ...
Our laboratory is interested in the replication of mammalian retroviruses, including the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV). The major approach has been to alter cloned DNA copies of the viral genome by site-directed mutagenesis, and to determine the effects of these mutations on the viral life cycle after transfer of the altered DNAs into cells in culture. These genetic analyses have defined the functional domains of various viral proteins and the sites of their action on viral nucleic acids. We have also expressed reverse transcriptase and integrase in bacteria and studied these enzymes biochemically. We have applied the yeast two-hybrid system to monitor protein-protein interactions between viral proteins, and to identify new host proteins that interact with the Gag, Pol and Env gene products. We are also screening overexpression cDNA libraries, and RNAi knock-down libraries, in mammalian cells to identify novel host proteins involved in retroviral ...
The central effort of our laboratory for several years has been a detailed genetic analysis of the replication cycle of the Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) and the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The major approach has been to create mutations in cloned DNA copies of the viral genomes and to determine the effect of the mutations on the viral life cycle after transfer of the altered DNAs into cells in culture. These genetic analyses have defined the functional domains of various viral proteins and the sites of their action on viral nucleic acids. We have also expressed reverse transcriptase and integrase in bacteria and studied these enzymes biochemically. We make use of the yeast two-hybrid system to monitor protein-protein interactions between viral proteins, and to identify new host proteins that interact with the Gag, Pol and Env gene products. Finally, we use genetic selections in mammalian cells to screen overexpression libraries and gene knock-down libraries to identify ...
Ecotropic, xenotropic, and polytropic mouse leukemia viruses (E-, X-, and P-MLVs) exist in mice as infectious viruses and endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) inserted into mouse chromosomes. All three MLV subgroups are linked to leukemogenesis, which involves generation of recombinants with polytropic host range. Although P-MLVs are deemed to be the proximal agents of disease induction, few biologically characterized infectious P-MLVs have been sequenced for comparative analysis. We analyzed the complete genomes of 16 naturally occurring infectious P-MLVs, 12 of which were typed for pathogenic potential. We sought to identify ERV progenitors, recombinational hot spots, and segments that are always replaced, never replaced, or linked to pathogenesis or host range. Each P-MLV has an E-MLV backbone with P- or X-ERV replacements that together cover 100% of the recombinant genomes, with different substitution patterns for X- and P-ERVs. Two segments are always replaced, both coding for envelope (Env) ...
Differential display. Total RNA was isolated from P1 and P14 rat retina, and the differential display was performed as described previously (Imaizumi et al., 1994). Briefly, total RNA (3 μg) was converted to cDNA with Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase (Life Technologies, Rockville, MD). Subsequently, each pool of cDNA was amplified by PCR with 200 different arbitrary primers. After separation by 5% PAGE, cDNA bands that were amplified abundantly only from the cDNA derived from the P14 retina were recovered from the gel, reamplified with the corresponding primer, and cloned into the pGEM-T vector (Promega, Madison, WI).. cDNA library screening. A rat retina cDNA library constructed in the Uni-ZAP XR vector (Stratagene, La Jolla, CA) was screened using the cDNA fragment obtained from the differential display as a probe by the standard methods. To obtain the sequence of human homolog of Pal, a human retina cDNA library (Clontech, Palo Alto, CA) was screened using the rat cDNA ...
Total RNA was extracted from the liver tissue using Trizol (Life Technologies, USA) according to the manufacturers protocol. To synthesize single-strand cDNA, reverse transcription of 2 μg total RNA was carried out using 200 U Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase (M-MLV RT) and reaction mixture (2.5 mmol/L dNTP, 100 pmol/L oligo(dT) primer, RT buffer, 50 U RNA inhibitor) according to the manufacturers protocol. Transcripts of the gene for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were used as an internal control. Sequences of the PCR primers were as follows: CuZn-SOD forward 5-AAG GCC GTG TGC GTG CTG AA-3, reverse 5-CAG GTC TCC AAC ATG CCT CT-3 (246 bp product) (El Mouatassim et al., 1999); CAT forward 5-GCA GAT ACC TGT GAA CTG TC-3, reverse 5-GTA GAA TGT CCG CAC CTG AG-3 (229 bp product) (El Mouatassim et al., 1999); and, GAPDH forward 5-GAC CCC TTC ATT GAC CTC AAC T-3, Reverse 5-GTT TGT GAT GGG TGT GAA CCA-3 (200 bp product) (Hougardy et al., 2005). The PCR ...
The genome of vertebrates contains endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) that have resulted from ancestral infections by exogenous retroviruses. ERVs are germline encoded, transmitted in a Mendelian fashion and account for about 8% of the human and 9.9% of the murine genome, respectively1, 2. By spontaneous activation and reintegration ERVs may cause insertional mutagenesis and thus participate in the process of malignant transformation or progression of tumor growth3, 4. However, if the innate immune system is able to recognize and control ERVs has not yet been elucidated. Here we report that, in vitro, nucleic-acid sensing TLRs on dendritic cells are activated by retroviral RNA and DNA from infected cells in vitro. Infection of TLR competent wild type mice with murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-like ERV isolates results in non-canonical gene upregulation, independent of type I IFN. In vivo, TLR3, -7 and -9 triple deficient mice (TLR379-/-) and mice with non functional TLR3, 7 and 9 signaling due to a ...
The clonal make-up of the haematopoietic system of mice reconstituted with retrovirus-infected bone marrow cells was analysed at two different points in time following reconstitution. We have found that under these conditions, the haematopoietic system consists of clones that persist throughout the …
Aim: Leukemia is characterized by uncontrolled marrow cell proliferation and metastatic foci. We investigated the antitumor potential of a nutrient mixture on
Mouse monocytic Mm-A, Mm-P, Mm-S1, and Mm-S2 cells are sublines of mouse monocytic and immortalized Mm-1 cells derived from spontaneously differentiated, mouse myeloblastic M1 cells. Although these subline cells retain their monocytic characteristics in vitro, Mm-A and Mm-P cells are highly leukemogenic to syngeneic SL mice and athymic nude mice, whereas Mm-S1 and Mm-S2 cells are not or are only slightly leukemogenic. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of these levels of leukemogenicity, we investigated putative leukemogenesis-associated genes or oncogenes involved in the maintenance of growth, especially in vivo, by means of differential mRNA display. We isolated a fragment clone (15T01) from Mm-P cells. The mRNA probed with 15T01 was expressed at high levels in leukemogenic Mm-P and Mm-A cells but not in nonleukemogenic Mm-S1 and Mm-S2 cells. The gene corresponding to 15T01, named TRA1, was isolated from an Mm-P cDNA library. The longest open reading frame of the TRA1 clone predicts ...
Mouse monocytic Mm-A, Mm-P, Mm-S1, and Mm-S2 cells are sublines of mouse monocytic and immortalized Mm-1 cells derived from spontaneously differentiated, mouse myeloblastic M1 cells. Although these subline cells retain their monocytic characteristics in vitro, Mm-A and Mm-P cells are highly leukemogenic to syngeneic SL mice and athymic nude mice, whereas Mm-S1 and Mm-S2 cells are not or are only slightly leukemogenic. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of these levels of leukemogenicity, we investigated putative leukemogenesis-associated genes or oncogenes involved in the maintenance of growth, especially in vivo, by means of differential mRNA display. We isolated a fragment clone (15T01) from Mm-P cells. The mRNA probed with 15T01 was expressed at high levels in leukemogenic Mm-P and Mm-A cells but not in nonleukemogenic Mm-S1 and Mm-S2 cells. The gene corresponding to 15T01, named TRA1, was isolated from an Mm-P cDNA library. The longest open reading frame of the TRA1 clone predicts ...
Concentration Unitmg/mLConcentration0.5Quantity0.1 mgVolume0.2ImmunogenAbelson murine leukemia virus-induced pre-B tumor cellsBackground Informatio...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
RAF1 - RAF1 (untagged)-Kinase deficient mutant (K375M) of Human v-raf-1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (RAF1) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
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over 1300 citations) Hartley, J. W.; Wolford, N. K.; Old, L. J.; Rowe, W. P. (1977). "A new class of murine leukemia virus ... over 800 citations) Lowy, D. R.; Rowe, W. P.; Teich, N.; Hartley, J. W. (1971). "Murine Leukemia Virus: High-Frequency ... over 700 citations) Staal, S. P.; Hartley, J. W.; Rowe, W. P. (1977). "Isolation of transforming murine leukemia viruses from ... Rowe, Wallace P.; Pugh, Wendell E.; Hartley, Janet W. (1970). "Plaque assay techniques for murine leukemia viruses". Virology. ...
March 2012). "Detection of murine leukemia virus in the Epstein-Barr virus-positive human B-cell line JY, using a computational ... JY cells are positive for murine leukemia virus. "ECACC HLA-Typed Collection: JY". Public Health England. Retrieved 28 June ... The JY cell line is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-immortalised B cell lymphoblastoid line. JY cells express HLA class-I A2 and ...
"Host cell cathepsins potentiate Moloney murine leukemia virus infection". Journal of Virology. 81 (19): 10506-14. doi:10.1128/ ...
II.-Inhibition of dna-polymerase from murine sarcoma leukemia virus". Biochimie. 58 (6): 689-95. doi:10.1016/s0300-9084(76) ...
De Tkaczevski, L; De Harven, E; Friend, C (1968). "Structure and leukemogenic activity of a murine leukemia virus". Journal of ... He did pioneering research on viruses, mostly related to murine leukemia. He is former President of the Electron Microscopy ... De Harven, E; Friend, C (1966). "Origin of the viremia in murine leukemia". National Cancer Institute Monograph. 22: 79-105. ... Tumour Viruses of Murine Origin. Novartis Foundation Symposia. pp. 193-213. doi:10.1002/9780470719275.ch10. ISBN 978-0-470- ...
Yap MW, Nisole S, Lynch C, Stoye JP (2004). "Trim5alpha protein restricts both HIV-1 and murine leukemia virus". Proc. Natl. ...
"Dynein Regulators Are Important for Ecotropic Murine Leukemia Virus Infection". Journal of Virology. 90 (15): 6896-6905. doi: ... Not much is known about virus' motor-specific binding sites, but it is known that some viruses contain proline-rich sequences ( ... Dynein and kinesin can both be exploited by viruses to mediate the viral replication process. Many viruses use the microtubule ... that diverge between viruses) which, when removed, reduces dynactin binding, axon transport (in culture), and neuroinvasion in ...
Murine leukemia virus; others include Feline leukemia virus Genus Deltaretrovirus; type species: Bovine leukemia virus; others ... Also, human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) causes disease in humans. The murine leukemia viruses (MLVs) cause cancer in mouse ... Some viruses contain additional genes. The lentivirus genus, the spumavirus genus, the HTLV / bovine leukemia virus (BLV) genus ... Feline leukemia virus and Feline immunodeficiency virus infections are treated with biologics, including the only ...
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and Moloney murine leukemia virus enzymes prefer to cleave the RNA strand one nucleotide ... "Crystal structure of the moloney murine leukemia virus RNase H domain". Journal of Virology. 80 (17): 8379-89. doi:10.1128/jvi. ... Taylor JM (March 1977). "An analysis of the role of tRNA species as primers for the transcription into DNA of RNA tumor virus ... Leo B, Schweimer K, Rösch P, Hartl MJ, Wöhrl BM (September 2012). "The solution structure of the prototype foamy virus RNase H ...
... the human version of TRIM5α can inhibit strains of the murine leukemia virus (MLV) as well as equine infectious anemia virus ( ... Yap MW, Nisole S, Lynch C, Stoye JP (2004). "Trim5α protein restricts both HIV-1 and murine leukemia virus". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... By using a PtERV1 capsid, which produces higher titer virus-like particles, Perez-Caballero et al. reported that PtERV1 is not ... After recreating part of the PtERV1 retrovirus, it was reported that TRIM5α prevents the virus from entering human cells in ...
Coffin, JM; Hageman RC; Maxam AM; Haseltine WA (1978). "Structure of the Genome of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus: A Terminally ... "Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus Hall's Island: New Strain of Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus". Journal of Virology. 29 (1): 395-400. doi: ... "Construction of Recombinant Retroviruses that Express the Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type II and Human T Cell Leukemia Virus ... Rosen, CR; Haseltine WA; Lenz J; Ruprecht R; Cloyd M (1985). "Tissue Selectivity of Murine Leukemia Virus (MULV) Infection is ...
"President's Cancer Panel". Witte ON, Dasgupta A, Baltimore D (February 28, 1980). "Abelson murine leukemia virus protein is ... Konopka JB, Watanabe SM, Witte ON (July 1984). "An alteration of the human c-abl protein in K562 leukemia cells unmasks ... Witte's research has contributed to the understanding of human leukemias, immune disorders and stem cell activity in cancers of ... This finding influenced the development of targeted drugs like Ibrutinib to treat leukemia and lymphoma. Witte's current ...
His dissertation described the biosynthesis of Rauscher murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase. From 1980 to 1982, he ...
For the virus to penetrate the cytosol of a host cell, a low pH is necessary. The env gene of Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) codes ... The Env proteins of the Avian Sarcoma and Leukosis virus (ASLV) and the Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) are both trimers of SU-TM ... This membrane receptor was isolated from Rauscher murine leukemia virus (R-MuLV). The retroviral protein env has been captured ... DeLarco J, Todaro GJ (July 1976). "Membrane receptors for murine leukemia viruses: characterization using the purified viral ...
"Murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase: structural comparison with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase". Virus Research. 134 (1-2 ... Retroviral RT proteins from HIV-1 and murine leukemia virus are the best-studied members of the family. Retroviral RT is ... Pathogenic examples include human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus, respectively. Both encode large multifunctional ... "Insight into the mechanism of the stabilization of moloney murine leukaemia virus reverse transcriptase by eliminating RNase H ...
A few examples of the virus are Moloney murine leukemia virus, xenotropic MuLB-related virus, feline leukemia virus, and feline ... Example species are the murine leukemia virus and the feline leukemia virus. They cause various sarcomas, leukemias and immune ... over 50 human cancer cell lines that were claimed to be linked to murine leukemia virus-related virus or murine leukemia virus ... A specific gammaretrovirus called xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) has been found to infect prostate ...
Jainchill JL, Aaronson SA, Todaro GJ (November 1969). "Murine sarcoma and leukemia viruses: assay using clonal lines of contact ...
The virus used in the experiment was a mouse-tropic strain of Murine leukemia virus isolated from the brain of a mouse captured ... Hartley, JW; Rowe, WP (July 1976). "Naturally occurring murine leukemia viruses in wild mice: characterization of a new " ... Langdon WY, Hartley JW, Klinken SP, Ruscetti SK, Morse HC (1989). "v-cbl, an oncogene from a dual-recombinant murine retrovirus ... Leukemia. 13 (5): 760-7. doi:10.1038/sj/leu/2401397. PMID 10374881. Watanabe S, Take H, Takeda K, Yu ZX, Iwata N, Kajigaya S ( ...
Johnson AD, Cohn CS (October 2016). "Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus (XMRV) and the Safety of the Blood Supply ... "Prevalence of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome in the Netherlands: ... "Absence of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus in UK patients with chronic fatigue syndrome". Retrovirology. 7 (1 ... Studies eventually concluded that neither people nor the blood supply had been infected with the XMRV virus, and the origin of ...
"NMR structure of the 101-nucleotide core encapsidation signal of the Moloney murine leukemia virus". J Mol Biol. 337 (2): 427- ... D'Souza V, Summers MF (2004). "Structural basis for packaging the dimeric genome of Moloney murine leukaemia virus". Nature. ... signal is an RNA element known to be essential for stable dimerisation and efficient genome packaging during virus assembly. ...
Staal SP, Hartley JW, Rowe WP (July 1977). "Isolation of transforming murine leukemia viruses from mice with a high incidence ... This virus was named Akt-8, the "t" representing its transforming capabilities. AKT1 has been shown to interact with: AKTIP, ... "Entrez Gene: AKT1 v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1". Lindhurst MJ, Sapp JC, Teer JK, Johnston JJ, Finn EM, Peters ... Pekarsky Y, Hallas C, Croce CM (2001). "Molecular basis of mature T-cell leukemia". JAMA. 286 (18): 2308-14. doi:10.1001/jama. ...
Staal SP, Hartley JW, Rowe WP (July 1977). "Isolation of transforming murine leukemia viruses from mice with a high incidence ... the virus activates AKT, which in turn causes the release of calcium. Treating the cells with AKT inhibitors before virus ... AKT is now thought to be the "key" for cell entry by HSV-1 and HSV-2 (herpes virus: oral and genital, respectively). ... September 2011). "AKT/FOXO signaling enforces reversible differentiation blockade in myeloid leukemias". Cell. 146 (5): 697-708 ...
Doehle BP, Schäfer A, Wiegand HL, Bogerd HP, Cullen BR (July 2005). "Differential sensitivity of murine leukemia virus to ... "Vif Proteins from Diverse Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Lineages Have Distinct Binding Sites in ... A3C was also shown to inhibit other viruses. This gene is a member of the cytidine deaminase gene family. It is one of seven ... Baumert TF, Rösler C, Malim MH, von Weizsäcker F (September 2007). "Hepatitis B virus DNA is subject to extensive editing by ...
... murine leukemia virus and again Rous sarcoma virus. For their achievements, they shared the 1975 Nobel Prize in Physiology or ... M-MLV reverse transcriptase from the Moloney murine leukemia virus is a single 75 kDa monomer. AMV reverse transcriptase from ... Biology portal Viruses portal cDNA library DNA polymerase msDNA Reverse transcribing virus RNA polymerase Telomerase ... ISBN 978-0-87969-382-4. Bernstein A, Weiss R, Tooze J (1985). "RNA tumor viruses". Molecular Biology of Tumor Viruses (2nd ed ...
Garcia JV, Jones C, Miller AD (1991). "Localization of the amphotropic murine leukemia virus receptor gene to the ... 1994). "A human amphotropic retrovirus receptor is a second member of the gibbon ape leukemia virus receptor family". Proc. ... Kozak SL, Siess DC, Kavanaugh MP, Miller AD, Kabat D (Jun 1995). "The envelope glycoprotein of an amphotropic murine retrovirus ...
"Proviral Integration Site for Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (PIM) Kinases Promote Human T Helper 1 Cell Differentiation". The ... "Increased Expression of the hPim-2 Gene In Human Chronic lymphocytic Leukemia and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma". Leukemia & Lymphoma. ... The studies showed higher levels of expression in NHL over normal lymphocytes as well as in chronic lymphocytic leukemia over ... Elevated PIM2 levels have also been found in primary blasts from acute myeloid leukemia patients. PIM2 may be an important ...
... such as Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV), feline leukemia virus (FLV), and feline sarcoma virus (FESV). This family also ... "Atomic resolution structure of Moloney murine leukemia virus matrix protein and its relationship to other retroviral matrix ... Matrix proteins are also components of beta-retroviruses such as Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV) and mouse mammary tumor virus ... Stansell E, Tytler E, Walter MR, Hunter E (May 2004). "An early stage of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus budding is regulated by the ...
... a protein that binds the conserved core site in murine leukemia virus enhancers". Mol Cell Biol. 12 (1): 89-102. doi:10.1128/ ... "Cloning and characterization of subunits of the T-cell receptor and murine leukemia virus enhancer core-binding factor". Mol ... purified as a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that regulated the disease specificity of the Moloney murine Leukemia virus ... Perry C, Eldor A, Soreq H (March 2002). "Runx1/AML1 in leukemia: disrupted association with diverse protein partners". Leukemia ...
Rec1 for murine ecotropic virus, and GLVR1 for gibbon ape leukemia virus (see MIM 182090). These 3 proteins show no homology to ... 1992). "Feline leukemia virus subgroup B uses the same cell surface receptor as gibbon ape leukemia virus". J. Virol. 66 (2): ... "Cell-surface receptors for gibbon ape leukemia virus and amphotropic murine retrovirus are inducible sodium-dependent phosphate ... Johann SV, Gibbons JJ, O'Hara B (1992). "GLVR1, a receptor for gibbon ape leukemia virus, is homologous to a phosphate permease ...
Baltimore extended this work and examined two RNA tumor viruses, Rauscher murine leukemia virus and Rous sarcoma virus. He went ... He tackled new problems such as the pathogenesis of Abelson murine leukemia virus (AMuLV), lymphocyte differentiation and ... Witte ON, Dasgupta A, Baltimore D (February 1980). "Abelson murine leukaemia virus protein is phosphorylated in vitro to form ... His early interest in phage genetics quickly yielded to a passion for animal viruses. He took the Cold Spring Harbor course on ...
T cells during bovine leukemia virus infection. Veterinary Research. June 2018, 49 (1): 50. PMC 6006750. PMID 29914540. doi: ... Invariant and noninvariant natural killer T cells exert opposite regulatory functions on the immune response during murine ... The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society: 2. May 2006 [2008-04-07]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2008-07-06).. 已忽略未知参数. ,url-status=. (帮助) ... Hepatitis B Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Maintain Functional Exhaustion after Antigen Reexposure in an Acute Activation Immune ...
Murine leukemia virus; others include Feline leukemia virus. *Genus Deltaretrovirus; type species: Bovine leukemia virus; ... Feline leukemia virus and Feline immunodeficiency virus infections are treated with biologics, including the only ... Such viruses are either single stranded RNA (e.g. HIV) or double stranded DNA (e.g. Hepatitis B virus) viruses. ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2018b Release" (html). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2019. Retrieved 16 March ...
Talk:Abadina virus. *Talk:Abalone shriveling syndrome-associated virus. *Talk:Abelson murine leukemia virus ... Pages in category "Low-importance virus articles". The following 200 pages are in this category, out of approximately 1,493 ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Low-importance_virus_articles&oldid=388350164" ...
"Lack of evidence for xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) in German prostate cancer patients". Retrovirology. ... Papilloma virus has been proposed in several studies to have a potential role in prostate cancer, but as of 2015 the evidence ... A series of studies published in Science involved introduced viruses known to cause cancerous mutation in prostate cells: AKT, ... In 2006, a previously unknown retrovirus, Xenotropic MuLV-related virus (XMRV), was associated with human prostate tumors,[194] ...
T cells purified from each person are modified by a virus that inserts genes that encode a chimaeric antigen receptor into ... Blinatumomab, a CD19-CD3 bi-specific monoclonal murine antibody, currently shows promise as a novel pharmacotherapy. By ... Acute leukemias of ambiguous lineage *Acute undifferentiated leukemia. *Mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) with t(9;22)( ... a b c Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia at eMedicine *^ Bleyer WA (August 1988). "Central nervous system leukemia". Pediatric ...
Astrin SM, Laurence J, Human immunodeficiency virus activates c-myc and Epstein-Barr virus in human B lymphocytes, in Ann. N. Y ... is a candidate for a tumor suppressor in leukemia/lymphoma and tongue cancer, in J. Biol. Chem., vol. 276, nº 48, novembre 2001 ... sono stati messi a punto dei modelli murini transgenici. ... chromosome translocation in a human leukemia T-cell line ...
Sudo K, Takahashi E, Nakamura Y (Jan 1996). "Isolation and mapping of the human EIF4A2 gene homologous to the murine protein ... Kyono K, Miyashiro M, Taguchi I (2002). "Human eukaryotic initiation factor 4AII associates with hepatitis C virus NS5B protein ... cellular response to leukemia inhibitory factor. Sources:Amigo / QuickGO. Orthologs. Species. Human. Mouse. ... "mRNA Decay during Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Infections: Protein-Protein Interactions Involving the HSV Virion Host Shutoff ...
Product safety testing : Sterility (bacteria and fungi), In vitro and in vivo testing for adventitious viruses, Murine ... expression is influenced by immunoglobulin gene rearrangement and affects the biology of chronic lymphocytic leukemia". Blood. ... Determination of the virus clearance studies. Before clinical trials[edit]. * ... Circulating antibodies are produced by clonal B cells that specifically respond to only one antigen (an example is a virus ...
Than S, Oyaizu N, Pahwa RN, et al., Effect of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 envelope glycoprotein gp160 on cytokine ... The interleukin 3 gene is located on human chromosome 5 and is deleted in myeloid leukemias with a deletion of 5q., in Proc. ... identification by expression cloning of a novel hematopoietic growth factor related to murine IL-3., in Cell, vol. 47, nº 1, ... identification by expression cloning of a novel hematopoietic growth factor related to murine IL-3, in Cell, vol. 47, nº 1, ...
Paul Chih-Hsueh Chen, Chin-Chen Pan, An-Hang Yang, Liang-Shun Wang ja Hung Chiang, Detection of Epstein-Barr virus genome ... Lymphoepithelial cell complexes in murine thymuses: morphological and serological characterization., J Exp Med. 1. aprill 1980; ... Histopathology of the Thymus of Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Lymphoblastic Lymphoma in Complete Clinical ... CD4+CD8+ tümotsüütide polulatsioon oli HPAIV-infektsiooni (Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus infection) korral pea ...
Chikungunya virus, HIV, or viral hepatitis. However, whether these virus infections trigger the expansion of adaptive NKG2C+ NK ... Cytotoxic cells with specificity for mouse Moloney leukemia cells. Characteristics of the killer cell". European Journal of ... and uterine natural killer cell maturation during normal murine pregnancy". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 192 (2): 259- ... For NK cells to defend the body against viruses and other pathogens, they require mechanisms that enable the determination of ...
... transformation of mammalian cells induced by a normal human gene homologous to the oncogene of Harvey murine sarcoma virus". ... "Cancer Spread By Transplantation Extremely Rare: In Very Rare Case, Woman Develops Leukemia from Liver Transplant". ... virus, ex Human Papilloma virus) ஏற்படும் நோய் ஆகும்.உயிரணு பிரிதலை கட்டுப்படுத்தும் (Ex. Retinoblastoma protein) அல்லது புற்று ... zur Hausen H (1991). "Viruses in human cancers". Science 254 (5035): 1167-73. doi:10.1126/science.1659743. பப்மெட் 1659743. ...
Many bacteria and viruses secrete virulence factors, such as the enzyme collagenase, which destroys collagen or interferes with ... "Collagen XVIII mutation in Knobloch syndrome with acute lymphoblastic leukemia". American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A ... "Daily oral consumption of hydrolyzed type 1 collagen is chondroprotective and anti-inflammatory in murine posttraumatic ...
... with murine and feline leukemia viruses as helpers. Int J Cancer 9, 383-392 PMID 4339414 ... 1976) Murine sarcoma virus defectiveness: serological detection of only helper virus reverse transcriptase in sarcoma virus ... 1980) Cellular origin of the transforming gene of Moloney murine sarcoma virus. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 44 Pt 2, 727- ... Monti-Bragadin C, Ulrich K. (1972) Rescue of the genome of the defective murine sarcoma virus from a non-producer hamster tumor ...
... human respiratory syncytial virus, murine leukemia viruses and Mayaro virus. The most studied mechanism of antiviral activity ... Lactoferrin also suppresses virus replication after the virus penetrated into the cell. Such an indirect antiviral effect is ... including the herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, cytomegalovirus, HIV, hepatitis C virus, hantaviruses, rotaviruses, poliovirus type ... Many viruses tend to bind to the lipoproteins of the cell membranes and then penetrate into the cell. Lactoferrin binds to the ...
... murine Friend leukemia virus, Rauscher leukemia virus, equine infectious anemia virus, murine immunodeficiency virus, murine ... cytomegalovirus, influentsaviirus, vesiculostomatitis virus, Sendai virus, herpesviirused, duck hepatitis B virus jt.[3] ... John's Wort Plant, in Patients with Chronic Heptatis C Virus Infection, Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001 February; 45(2): 517- ...
Lin R, Maeda S, Liu C, Karin M, Edgington TS (February 2007). "A large noncoding RNA is a marker for murine hepatocellular ... September 2007). "Ultraconserved regions encoding ncRNAs are altered in human leukemias and carcinomas". Cancer Cell. 12 (3): ... "Expression of enhanced levels of small RNA polymerase III transcripts encoded by the B2 repeats in simian virus 40-transformed ...
Absence of evidence of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related virus infection in persons with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and ... En studie fra 2009 antydet en sammenheng mellom retroviruset xenotropic murine leukemi virus-related virus (XMRV) og kronisk ... 2010). «Prevalence of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome in the ... Absence of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus in UK patients with chronic fatigue syndrome». Retrovirology. PMID ...
... s during bovine leukemia virus infection". Veterinary Research. 49 (1): 50. doi:10.1186/s13567-018-0543-9. PMC 6006750. ... Some murine γδ T cells recognize MHC class IB molecules. Human γδ T cells which use the Vγ9 and Vδ2 gene fragments constitute ... The main pathogens of concern in T cell deficiencies are intracellular pathogens, including Herpes simplex virus, Mycobacterium ... Cytotoxic T cells (TC cells, CTLs, T-killer cells, killer T cells) destroy virus-infected cells and tumor cells, and are also ...
Sulphonated benzochlorin derivatives demonstrated a reduced phototherapeutic response against murine leukemia L1210 cells in ... Another metallo-porphyrin complex, the iron chelate, is more photoactive (towards HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus in MT-4 ... The cadmium-texaphyrin derivative has shown in vitro photodynamic activity against human leukemia cells and Gram positive ( ... Copper octaethylbenzochlorin demonstrated greater photoactivity towards leukemia cells in vitro and a rat bladder tumour model ...
Schattner EJ (May 2000). "CD40 ligand in CLL pathogenesis and therapy". Leukemia & Lymphoma. 37 (5-6): 461-72. doi:10.3109/ ... Seth Lederman at Columbia University generated a murine monoclonal antibody, 5c8 that inhibited contact-dependent T cell helper ... Subauste CS (February 2002). "CD154 and type-1 cytokine response: from hyper IgM syndrome to human immunodeficiency virus ... Tong AW, Stone MJ (March 1996). "CD40 and the effect of anti-CD40-binding on human multiple myeloma clonogenicity". Leukemia & ...
... the name of a leukemia virus which carries a similar protein. The symbol BCR is derived from breakpoint cluster region, a gene ... Ras in particular is shown to be an important downstream target of BCR-ABL1 in CML, as Ras mutants in murine models disrupt the ... Chronic myelogenous leukemia. References[edit]. *^ a b c Wapner J. The Philadelphia Chromosome: A Genetic Mystery, a Lethal ... Proliferative roles in leukemia[edit]. The BCR-ABL1 fusion gene and protein encoded by the Philadelphia chromosome affects ...
The human immunodeficiency virus (or HIV), is a difficult target to find and eradicate. The earliest tests for infection relied ... Park DJ (2005). "A new 5' terminal murine GAPDH exon identified using 5'RACE LaNe". Molecular Biotechnology. 29 (1): 39-46. doi ... PCR permits early diagnosis of malignant diseases such as leukemia and lymphomas, which is currently the highest-developed in ... The amount of virus ("viral load") in a patient can also be quantified by PCR-based DNA quantitation techniques (see below). ...
Spontaneous reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 in latently infected murine sensory ganglia. Journal of Virology. 2007; ... Bellon M, Nicot C. Telomerase: a crucial player in HTLV-I-induced human T-cell leukemia. Cancer genomics & proteomics. 2007;4(1 ... I: dsDNA viruses. II: ssDNA viruses. III: dsRNA viruses. IV: (+)ssRNA viruses. V: (−)ssRNA viruses. VI: ssRNA-RT viruses. VII: ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ...
In the case of the murine leukemia viruses, a species of viruses capable of causing cancer in murines (mice), the viral life ... "Comparison of three recombinant murine leukemia viruses carrying the v-src oncogene of avian sarcoma virus: Differences in in ... As a specific case, a Gag-v-Onc fusion protein from the Rous sarcoma virus is useful in illustrating the dual role that the ... Rous sarcoma virus Fusion protein Fusion gene Fusion transcript Chimeric gene Bcr-abl fusion protein Oncovirus Retrovirus ...
Isolation of transforming murine leukemia viruses from mice with a high incidence of spontaneous lymphoma. Proc. Natl. Acad. ...
Milk Whey Protein decreases Oxygen Free Radical Production in a Murine Model of Chronic Iron-Overload Cardiomyopathy Bartfay WJ ... Place For An Antioxidant Therapy In Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection Baruchel S., Bounous G., Gold P. Oxidative ... studies have shown that antioxidant status may affect chemotherapy tolerance in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. ... Objectives: To examine in an experimental murine model of iron-overload cardiomyopathy the relation between milk whey protein ...
RNA virus. HCV Hepatocellular carcinoma. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma. HTLV-I Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. ... Suncus murinus). A new virus designated rat hepatitis E virus has been isolated.[62] ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. Human polyomavirus 2 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis ...
Infectious diseases such as Ebola, Marburg virus disease and yellow fever can cause bleeding. ... "The risk of bleeding in thrombocytopenic patients with acute myeloid leukemia". Haematologica. 91 (11): 1530-37. PMID 17043016. ... "18F-positron-emitting/fluorescent labeled erythrocytes allow imaging of internal hemorrhage in a murine intracranial ...
... transformation of mammalian cells induced by a normal human gene homologous to the oncogene of Harvey murine sarcoma virus". ... which occurs in chronic myelogenous leukemia, and results in production of the BCR-abl fusion protein, an oncogenic tyrosine ... One concern is that we may end up with thousands of vaccines to prevent every virus that can change our cells. Viruses can have ... In contrast, in slowly transforming viruses, the virus genome is inserted, especially as viral genome insertion is obligatory ...
Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus: Classification[citation needed] Xenotropic viruses (xenos Gr. foreign; tropos ... Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a retrovirus which was first described in 2006 as an apparently novel ... "XMRV (Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related Virus) , CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2018-04-17.. .mw-parser-output cite. ... 2010). "Failure to detect xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus in blood of individuals at high risk of blood-borne ...
Moloney murine leukemia virus, complete genome Moloney murine leukemia virus, complete genome. gi,2801468,gb,AF033811.1, ...
Murine Leukemia Viruses by Interactions Of Murine Apobec, Human Apobecg, John M. Coffin, David Derse, Alan Rein , 2007 ... murine leukemia virus enhancer. T lymphocytes that interact with the Moloney Identification of ETS domain proteins in murine ... murine leukemia virus enhancer. T lymphocytes that interact with the Moloney Identification of ETS domain proteins in murine ... a new class of murine leukemia virus (MuLV) 1 was described which has properties of both xenotropic and ecotropic viruses and ...
Structure of a murine leukemia virus receptor-binding glycoprotein at 2.0 angstrom resolution.. Fass, D., Davey, R.A., Hamson, ... The structure of the receptor-binding domain of the envelope glycoprotein from Friend murine leukemia virus was determined to ... The structure of the receptor-binding domain of the envelope glycoprotein from Friend murine leukemia virus was determined to ... An essential step in retrovirus infection is the binding of the virus to its receptor on a target cell. ...
In case of CHMP1, we unexpectedly observed that the CHMP1A isoform was specifically required for virus budding, but dispensable ... The Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) is a gammaretrovirus that hijack host components of the endosomal sorting complex required for ... Viruses 2016, 8, 103. AMA Style. Bartusch C, Prange R. ESCRT Requirements for Murine Leukemia Virus Release. Viruses. 2016; 8(4 ... "ESCRT Requirements for Murine Leukemia Virus Release." Viruses 8, no. 4: 103. ...
3 Abstracts with Murine Leukemia Virus Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ... Diseases : Immune Dysregulation: TH1/TH2 imbalance, Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes, Murine Leukemia Virus ... Curcuma longa L and purple sweet potato had a positive effect on immunomodulation in C57BL/6 mice induced by LP-BM5 leukemia ...
The Friend virus (FV) is a strain of murine leukemia virus. The Friend virus has been used for both immunotherapy and vaccines ... The murine leukemia viruses (MLVs or MuLVs) are retroviruses named for their ability to cause cancer in murine (mouse) hosts. ... The murine leukemia viruses are group/type VI retroviruses belonging to the gammaretroviral genus of the Retroviridae family. ... Rein A (2011). "Murine leukemia viruses: objects and organisms". Advances in Virology. 2011: 403419. doi:10.1155/2011/403419. ...
1998) Moloney murine leukemia virus envelope protein subunits, gp70 and Pr15E, form a stable disulfide-linked complex. J Virol ... 2008) Stabilization of TM trimer interactions during activation of moloney murine leukemia virus Env. J Virol 82(5):2358-2366. ... 2007) The conserved His8 of the Moloney murine leukemia virus Env SU subunit directs the activity of the SU-TM disulphide bond ... Sequential activation of the three protomers in the Moloney murine leukemia virus Env. Mathilda Sjöberg, Robin Löving, Birgitta ...
Articles on viral structure, function, and genetics will be considered, as well as articles focusing on virus-host interactions ... and clinical studies on viruses and viral diseases. ... for Detection of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus ... Shixing Tang and Indira K. Hewlett, "Testing Strategies for Detection of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus ...
Articles on viral structure, function, and genetics will be considered, as well as articles focusing on virus-host interactions ... and clinical studies on viruses and viral diseases. ... Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a ... Testing Strategies for Detection of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus Infection. Shixing Tang and Indira K. ... Since its identification in 2006 and detection of polytropic murine lenkemia virus (MLV)-like sequences in CFS patients in 2010 ...
... VR-1450™ Designation: 4070A envelope strain Application: ... Hybrid Moloney/Amphotropic murine leukemia virus (Mo/A-MuLv) (ATCC® VR-1450™) Classification: Retrovirus, Mammalian Type C ... Hybrid Moloney/Amphotropic murine leukemia virus (Mo/A-MuLv) ATCC® VR-1450™ frozen ... Nucleotide (GenBank) : AF010170 Plasmid pAMS with hybrid amphotropic/Moloney murine leukemia virus, complete sequence. ...
Ecotropic murine leukemia viruses (E-MLV), Virus: Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), Xenotropic murine ... Ecotropic murine leukemia viruses (E-MLV), Prostate Cancer, Xenotropic murine leukemia virus (X-MLV), Xenotropic murine ... 2 Abstracts with Xenotropic murine leukemia virus (X-MLV) Research. Filter by Study Type. Commentary. ... 5 Diseases Researched for Xenotropic murine leukemia virus (X-MLV) Name. AC. CK. Focus. ...
A highly efficient helper virus commonly used when growing A-MuLV in vitro is Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV). It causes ... Shields A, Rosenberg N, Baltimore D (1979). "Virus production by Abelson murine leukemia virus-transformed lymphoid cells". J. ... The Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MLV or A-MuLV) is a retrovirus (Class VI) used to induce malignant transformation of ... The Abelson murine leukemia virus is named for the American pediatrician Herbert T. Abelson, who together with Louise S ...
... moloney murine leukemia virus include Amplification, Next-generation Sequencing, and Genomic DNA Mapping of Retroviral ... A Functional Genomics Tool for the Study of Positive-strand RNA Viruses, Using RNA-sequencing to Detect Novel Splice Variants ... Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (Leukemia virus, Murine) arising during the propagation of S37 ... Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: A Functional Genomics Tool for the Study of Positive-strand RNA Viruses. Sang-Im Yun1, Byung- ...
LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) capable of transforming lymphoid cells and producing a rapidly progressing lymphoid leukemia after ... superinfection with FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; MOLONEY MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; or RAUSCHER VIRUS. ... A replication-defective strain of Murine leukemia virus ( ... Abelson murine leukemia virus. Known as: Abelson leukemia virus ... Abelsons virus, A-MuLV Expand. A replication-defective strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) capable of ...
Moloney murine leukemia virus isolate Shinnick. Mutation(s): 1 Gene Names: gag-pol. EC: 2.7.7.49 (PDB Primary Data), 2.7.7.7 ( ... The crystal structure of the monomeric reverse transcriptase from Moloney murine leukemia virus.. Das, D., Georgiadis, M.M.. ( ... We now report the first crystal structure of the full-length Moloney murine leukemia virus (MMLV) RT at 3.0 A resolution. The ... The crystal structure of the monomeric reverse transcriptase from moloney murine leukemia virus. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb4MH8/pdb ...
Virus research. Read more related scholarly scientific articles and abstracts. ... Murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase: structural comparison with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. by Marie L Coté, Monica J ... Murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase: structural comparison with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.. Virus research. (2008-02- ... Murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase: structural comparison with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. ...
The integrase inhibitor Raltegravir has been found to block the replication of murine leukemia virus, which is highly related ... The mouse retrovirus murine leukemia virus (MLV) has been linked to the development of spontaneous autoimmune disease. The ... Raltegravir inhibits murine leukemia virus: implications for chronic fatigue syndrome?. 20 November 2009 ... The integrase inhibitor Raltegravir has been found to block the replication of murine leukemia virus, which is highly related ...
murine leukemia virus;. GALV,. gibbon ape leukemia virus;. SU,. surface portion of the retrovirus envelope protein;. Env,. ... A HeLa cDNA library in a murine leukemia virus-based retroviral vector plasmid with a complexity of 2.5 × 106 independent ... A human cell-surface receptor for xenotropic and polytropic murine leukemia viruses: Possible role in G protein-coupled signal ... A human cell-surface receptor for xenotropic and polytropic murine leukemia viruses: Possible role in G protein-coupled signal ...
The envelope (Env) protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMuLV) is a homotrimeric complex whose monomers consist of linked ... Cytoplasmic tail of Moloney murine leukemia virus envelope protein influences the conformation of the extracellular domain: ... Cytoplasmic Tail of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Envelope Protein Influences the Conformation of the Extracellular Domain: ... Cytoplasmic Tail of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Envelope Protein Influences the Conformation of the Extracellular Domain: ...
Screening these cell lines for envelope proteins or gene sequences related to xenotropic murine leukemia viruses (X-MLVs) ... xenotropic murine leukemia virus; gammaretrovirus EKVX; NCI-60; human cell line; xenotropic murine leukemia virus; ... "The Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cell Line EKVX Produces an Infectious Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus." Viruses 3, no. 12: 2442- ... The Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cell Line EKVX Produces an Infectious Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus. Viruses. 2011; 3(12):2442 ...
... * ... A recent report suggested an association between xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) and chronic fatigue ...
Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a virus created through recombination of two murine leukemia ... NMR study of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus protease in a complex with amprenavir. * * Furukawa Ayako ...
... xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus) and pMLV (polytropic murine leukemia virus). A study reveals that research that ... Some Viruses Not to Blame for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome After All. Contrary to previous findings, new research finds no link ... reported patients with chronic fatigue syndrome carried these two viruses was wrong and that there is still no evidence for an ... between chronic fatigue syndrome and the viruses XMRV ( ...
No Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related Virus Detected in Fibromyalgia Patients Joanna Luczkowiak, Olalla Sierra, Jorge ... Testing for xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) in patients with fibromyalgia. Lanes 1 and 13, molecular ... No Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related Virus Detected in Fibromyalgia Patients. ...
Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related gammaretrovirus (XMRV) has been recently associated with prostate cancer and chronic ... Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related Gammaretrovirus in Respiratory Tract Nicole Fischer. , Claudia Schulz, Kristin Stieler ... XMRV, xenotropic murine leukemia virus; +, positive for XMRV-specific sequences by PCR; RTI, respiratory tract infection; COPD ... Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related Gammaretrovirus in Respiratory Tract. ...
Effects of Adriamycin on the Reverse Transcriptase and the Production of Murine Leukemia Virus. Yoshimi Tomita and Tsuguo ... Effects of Adriamycin on the Reverse Transcriptase and the Production of Murine Leukemia Virus ... Effects of Adriamycin on the Reverse Transcriptase and the Production of Murine Leukemia Virus ... Effects of Adriamycin on the Reverse Transcriptase and the Production of Murine Leukemia Virus ...
Unmyristylated Moloney murine leukemia virus Pr65gag is excluded from virus assembly and maturation events. J. Virol. 63:2370- ... Translational readthrough of the murine leukemia virus gag gene amber codon does not require virus-induced alteration of tRNA. ... Myristylation site in Pr65gag is essential for virus particle formation by Moloney murine leukemia virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... Mutations altering the Moloney murine leukemia virus p12 Gag protein affect virion production and early events of the virus ...
... Asper, M (Charles River Biopharmaceutical ... The removal of xenotrpic murine leukemia virus (xMuLV) by size-exclusion filter paper composed of 100% naturally derived ... Following the filtration of xMuLV spiked solutions, LRV ≥5.25 log10 TCID50 was observed, as limited by the virus titre in the ...
Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Based Retroviral Vector. Tue, 29 May 2012 , Muscular Dystrophy ...
  • However, this is only possible when the host cell is co-infected with a helper virus which provides functions it needs to be able to replicate which it does not code for in its own genome such as a reverse transcriptase and some major structural proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase: structural comparison with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Recent X-ray crystal structure determinations of Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase (MoMLV RT) have allowed for more accurate structure/function comparisons to HIV-1 RT than were formerly possible. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Adriamycin inhibited the endogenous RNA-, poly(A)·d(T) 12 - , and calf thymus DNA-catalyzed reaction of reverse transcriptase from AKR mouse murine leukemia virus (AKR-MLV). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This result suggests that the Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase is not specific to one tRNA, but can utilize different tRNAs to prime the synthesis of viral DNA. (asm.org)
  • Detection of reverse transcriptase activity in human melanoma cell lines and identification of a murine leukemia virus contaminant. (uzh.ch)
  • Compounds that enhance the tailing activity of Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Random Primer Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Reverse Transcriptase, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. (bioz.com)
  • Liver RNA was extracted using TriPure reagent (Roche Applied Science) according to the manufacturer's instructions and cDNA was synthesized using random primer Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase (Invitrogen). (bioz.com)
  • M-MLV (Moloney murine leukemia virus) reverse transcriptase enzyme is isolated from E. coli expressing a portion of the pol gene of M-MLV on a plasmid. (sial.com)
  • M-MLV (Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus) reverse transcriptase is a DNA polymerase that uses single-stranded RNA, DNA, or an RNA-DNA hybrid (using a primer) to synthesize a complementary DNA strand. (sial.com)
  • Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Reverse Transcriptase, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. (bioz.com)
  • Increasing amounts (7.5 to 60 ng, quantified by OD, as indicated under the lanes) of total RNA extracted from human monocytes were employed in reverse transcription with Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase for 1 h, followed by PCR in the same tube (100-μl final volume, 25 cycles). (bioz.com)
  • The cDNA synthesis from 15 ng of total cellular RNA from each extract was performed with 25 ng of random primers (Gibco BRL), 200 U of Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase ( Gibco BRL), and 20 U of RNase inhibitor (Boehringer Mannheim). (bioz.com)
  • In other viruses a reverse transcriptase contained in the virion transcribes the genetic message on the viral RNA into DNA, which is then replicated by the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Once inside the host cell's cytoplasm , the virus uses its own reverse transcriptase enzyme to produce DNA from its RNA genome, the reverse of the usual pattern, thus retro (backwards). (wikipedia.org)
  • Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus ( XMRV ) is a retrovirus which was first described in 2006 as an apparently novel human pathogen found in tissue samples from men with prostate cancer . (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] [2] Initial reports erroneously linked the virus to prostate cancer and later to chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), leading to considerable interest in the scientific and patient communities, investigation of XMRV as a potential cause of multiple medical conditions, and public-health concerns about the safety of the donated blood supply . (wikipedia.org)
  • XMRV is a murine leukemia virus (MLV) that formed through the recombination of the genomes of two parent MLVs known as preXMRV-1 and preXMRV-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name XMRV was given because the discoverers of the virus initially thought that it was a novel potential human pathogen that was related to but distinct from MLVs. (wikipedia.org)
  • XMRV is closely related to several known xenotropic mouse viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related gammaretrovirus (XMRV) has been recently associated with prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. (psu.edu)
  • Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a newly identified gamma retrovirus and may be associated with prostate cancer- (PC) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). (hindawi.com)
  • Since its identification in 2006 and detection of polytropic murine lenkemia virus (MLV)-like sequences in CFS patients in 2010, several test methods including nucleic acid testing methods and serological assays have been developed for detection of XMRV and/or MLV-like sequences. (hindawi.com)
  • The integrase inhibitor Raltegravir has been found to block the replication of murine leukemia virus, which is highly related to XMRV. (virology.ws)
  • Given the similarity between the genomes of MLV and XMRV it seems likely that the drug will inhibit the virus. (virology.ws)
  • A recent report suggested an association between xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). (prohealth.com)
  • Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a virus created through recombination of two murine leukemia proviruses under artificial conditions during the passage of human prostate cancer cells in athymic nude mice. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Contrary to previous findings, new research finds no link between chronic fatigue syndrome and the viruses XMRV (xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus) and pMLV (polytropic murine leukemia virus). (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Testing for xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) in patients with fibromyalgia. (cdc.gov)
  • Fibrils of prostatic acid phosphatase fragments boost infections with XMRV (xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus), a human retrovirus associated with prostate cancer. (uniprot.org)
  • The xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) has recently been detected in prostate cancer tissues and may play a role in tumorigenesis. (uniprot.org)
  • We show that amyloidogenic fragments known as semen-derived enhancer of virus infection (SEVI) originating from prostatic acid phosphatase greatly increase XMRV infections of primary prostatic epithelial and stromal cells. (uniprot.org)
  • Hybrid simian/human immunodeficiency chimeric virus particles pseudotyped with XMRV envelope protein were used to demonstrate that the enhancing effect of SEVI, or of human semen itself, was at the level of viral attachment and entry. (uniprot.org)
  • The fact that the precursor of SEVI is produced in abundance by the prostate indicates that XMRV replication occurs in an environment that provides a natural enhancer of viral infection, and this may play a role in the spread of this virus in the human population. (uniprot.org)
  • There has been much discussion of XMRV, Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus , here at Left Brain/Right Brain and elsewhere in the past few months. (leftbrainrightbrain.co.uk)
  • PCR and serology find no association between xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) and autism. (leftbrainrightbrain.co.uk)
  • To that end, a recent study explored whether XMRV is a contaminant in live virus vaccines. (leftbrainrightbrain.co.uk)
  • The association of xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV)-related virus (XMRV) in prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome reported in previous studies remains controversial as these results have been questioned by recent data. (leftbrainrightbrain.co.uk)
  • All eight live attenuated vaccines, including Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) (SA-14-14-2), varicella (Varivax), measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR-II), measles (Attenuvax), rubella (Meruvax-II), rotavirus (Rotateq and Rotarix), and yellow fever virus were negative for XMRV and highly related MLV sequences. (leftbrainrightbrain.co.uk)
  • The disabling disorder known as chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) has been linked in two independent studies to infection with xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) and polytropic murine leukemia virus (pMLV). (asm.org)
  • Here, the original investigators who found XMRV and pMLV (polytropic murine leukemia virus) in blood of subjects with this disorder report that this association is not confirmed in a blinded analysis of samples from rigorously characterized subjects. (asm.org)
  • Of the 78 non-xenograft derived cell lines maintained in the xenograft culture-containing facilities, 13 (17%) were positive for MLV, including XMRV, a virus strain first identified in human tissues. (nih.gov)
  • In 2009, a retrospective study reported the detection of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) in clinical isolates derived from individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS). (biomedcentral.com)
  • While many efforts to confirm this observation failed, one report detected polytropic murine leukemia virus (pMLV), instead of XMRV. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The observed sequences appeared to reflect the detection of endogenous murine retroviral DNA, which was not identical to either XMRV or pMLV. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In further aspects, the XMRV-related lymphoma can be an XMRV-related Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) or an XMRV-related Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia lymphoma (CLL). (phoenixrising.me)
  • Because a virus called XMRV has been proposed as a possible cause of chronic fatigue syndrome, researchers explored whether XMRV may be a cause of fibromyalgia. (cdc.gov)
  • We used broadly reactive PCR and Western blot (WB) assays to detect infection with XMRV and related murine leukemia viruses (MLV). (cdc.gov)
  • Xenotropic-murine-leukemia-virus-related virus (XMRV) was the first gammaretrovirus to be reported in humans. (chromoscience.com)
  • The sequence similarity between XMRV and murine leukemia viruses (MLVs) was consistent with an origin of XMRV from one or more MLVs present as endogenous proviruses in mouse genomes. (chromoscience.com)
  • Evidence for the presence of XMRV and other MLV-related viruses in human tissues have so far relied on various methods including fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), immunological detection of viral antigens and antibodies against them, isolation of infectious virus from human samples, and, finally, PCR amplification of MLV sequences [12-14]. (chromoscience.com)
  • The Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MLV or A-MuLV) is a retrovirus (Class VI) used to induce malignant transformation of murine lymphoid cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A-MuLV causes a rapidly progressive lymphosarcoma known as Abelson disease in mice, which is a type of leukemia that does not involve the thymus. (wikipedia.org)
  • A highly efficient helper virus commonly used when growing A-MuLV in vitro is Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV). (wikipedia.org)
  • At the time of deposit, cell-free preparations of the Mo/A-MuLV strain were considered as suitable reference standards in assays to detect replication competent murine retrovirus--select lots have had titer confirmed by workers outside the ATCC. (atcc.org)
  • Immunodominant mink cell focus-inducing murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-encoded CTL epitope, identified by its MHC class I-binding motif, explains MuLV-type specificity of MCF-directed cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • H-2b mice are immunologic responders to the tumorigenic MCF1233 murine leukemia virus (MuLV), an AKV-related virus derived from endogenous C57BL MuLV. (jimmunol.org)
  • By using molecularly cloned ecotropic AKR murine leukemia virus (MuLV) DNA, a 400-base-pair ecotropic type-specific segment in the env region has been identified. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Hybridoma cell line 500 expresses monoclonal antibody specific for Moloney murine leukemia virus (MuLV) gp80. (nih.gov)
  • Females of the RF and SJL inbred mouse strains transmit to their progeny of both sexes a nonmendelian maternal resistance factor (MRF) able to suppress the expression of endogenous ecotropic murine leukemia virus (E-MuLV). (rupress.org)
  • Neonatal inoculation of E-MuLV-containing spleen extracts gives rise to persistent expression of infectious virus in mice of the MRF- but not the MRF+ strains. (rupress.org)
  • ZASC1 is a zinc finger-containing transcription factor that was previously shown to bind to specific DNA binding sites in the Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV) promoter and is required for efficient viral mRNA transcription (J. Virol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Indeed, Mo-MuLV infection of neonatal mice revealed that ZASC1 is required for efficient early virus replication in the bone marrow, but not in the thymus or spleen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Maloney ectropic murine leukemia virus (Maloney-MuLV) was chosen as the model virus for the initial virus clearance validation of the C225 purification process. (biocompare.com)
  • AJOU Open Repository: Activation of mouse macrophage by soluble endogenous murine leukemia virus (MuLV) envelope protein. (ajou.ac.kr)
  • We identified recently an endogenous murine leukemia virus (MuLV) envelope protein as a new autoantigen reactive with autoimmune diabetic mouse sera and observed immunosuppressive activity of this envelope protein. (ajou.ac.kr)
  • Wild-type normal rat kidney fibroblasts infected with the Friend strain of murine leukemia virus (MuLV) contain two virus-encoded glycoproteins on the outer surfaces of their plasma membranes: an envelope glycoprotein with an apparent molecular weight of 70,000 (gp70), and a glycoprotein that reacts with antisera to the major virion internal core proteins p30, p15, p12 and p10 and has an apparent molecular weight of 93,000 (gp93 gag ). (elsevier.com)
  • These results suggest that MuLV particles can bud efficiently from cells that lack known virus-encoded plasma membrane constituents. (elsevier.com)
  • Mouse APOBEC3 (mA3) inhibits murine leukemia virus (MuLV) replication by a deamination-independent mechanism in which the reverse transcription is considered the main target process. (prolekarniky.cz)
  • [8] MLVs belong to the virus family Retroviridae and the genus gammaretrovirus and have a single-stranded RNA genome that replicates through a DNA intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • As Type C retroviruses, replicating murine leukemia viruses produce a virion containing a spherical nucleocapsid (the viral genome in complex with viral proteins) surrounded by a lipid bilayer derived from the host cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleotide sequence of Abelson murine leukemia virus genome: structural similarity of its transforming gene product to other onc gene products with tyrosine-specific kinase activity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Raltegravir also inhibits integration of MLV DNA into the murine genome. (virology.ws)
  • Although present in many copies in the mouse genome, xenotropic murine leukemia viruses cannot infect cells from laboratory mice because of the lack of a functional cell surface receptor required for virus entry. (pnas.org)
  • The revertant is a recombinant virus containing a 500-base-pair patch of new sequences derived from the mouse genome. (asm.org)
  • It is apparent that the murine leukemia virus genome is often mutated by spontaneous processes generating a wide range of phenotypes. (caltech.edu)
  • Applying directed evolution, we randomly mutated the entire genome of amphotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) and selected for improved stability and infection at 37°C. After one round of mutagenesis and several rounds of selection, we isolated MLV variants with double the half-life of wild-type MLV. (illinois.edu)
  • Viral pseudotyped particles (pp) are enveloped virus particles, typically derived from retroviruses or rhabdoviruses, that harbor heterologous envelope glycoproteins on their surface and a genome lacking essential genes. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Some of these may already have been present within the initial virus, and others may be coded for by the viral genome for production within the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A retrovirus is a type of RNA virus that inserts a copy of its genome into the DNA of a host cell that it invades, thus changing the genome of that cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The host cell then treats the viral DNA as part of its own genome , transcribing and translating the viral genes along with the cell's own genes, producing the proteins required to assemble new copies of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, retroviruses function differently, as their RNA is reverse-transcribed into DNA, which is integrated into the host cell's genome (when it becomes a provirus ), and then undergoes the usual transcription and translational processes to express the genes carried by the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, because the promoter is normally placed into such vectors as well as the complete supplement of viral genes which is known that lengthening from the viral genome can result in large reduces in replication performance (38), suitable applicant promoters ought to be of very similar size to or smaller sized compared to the murine leukemia trojan (MLV) components that they replace and really should mediate solid transcription in permissive cells. (siamtech.net)
  • We have recently shown that amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MLV) can enter the mouse fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 via caveola-dependent endocytosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Retroviral vectors carrying the envelope protein of amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MLV) are some of the most widely used retroviral vector pseudotypes in gene therapy trials. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our strategy relies on the fact that feline leukemia virus subgroup B (FeLV-B) and amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A- MLV) have closely related gp70 surface envelope glycoproteins and use related Na + -dependent phosphate symporters, Pit1 and Pit2, respectively, as their receptors. (elsevier.com)
  • Encrypted proteins are trafficked to the plasma membrane, where they are combined into progeny virus particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiments have shown that it is possible to protect against Friend virus infection with several types of vaccines, including attenuated viruses, viral proteins, peptides, and recombinant vaccinia vectors expressing the Friend virus gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The viral class I membrane fusion proteins, such as those of the influenza, retro, paramyxo, corona, and Ebola viruses, are typically trimeric transmembrane proteins, where the protomeric unit is composed of a transmembrane subunit (TM) and a peripheral subunit. (pnas.org)
  • The envelope (Env) protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMuLV) is a homotrimeric complex whose monomers consist of linked surface (SU) and transmembrane (TM) proteins cleaved from a precursor protein by a cellular protease. (nih.gov)
  • Screening these cell lines for envelope proteins or gene sequences related to xenotropic murine leukemia viruses (X-MLVs) revealed that one cell line, EKVX, was a candidate for production of an infectious gammaretrovirus. (mdpi.com)
  • In murine leukemia virus (MLV) maturation, Gag is cleaved at three sites, resulting in formation of the matrix (MA), p12, capsid (CA), and nucleocapsid (NC) proteins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This conversion to an infectious particle is brought about by the cleavage of viral proteins by the virus-encoded protease (PR). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Biochemical and antibody-based analyses of the replication cycle and proteins found in the virions have revealed many details of the molecular interactions between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and its host ( 20 ). (asm.org)
  • Gammaretroviruses, such as murine leukemia viruses (MLVs), encode, in addition to the canonical Gag, Pol, and Env proteins that will form progeny virus particles, a protein called "glycogag" (glycosylated Gag). (nih.gov)
  • The use of monospecific antisera for the analysis by radioimmunoassay and immunofluorescence study of two major viral proteins, gp69/71 and p30 of murine leukemia virus, that could be of significance in the pathogenesis of immune complex glomerulonephritis of mice, particularly NZB and B/WF 1 hybrid mice, yielded the following conclusions. (rupress.org)
  • Bennett, RP & Wills, J 1999, ' Conditions for copackaging Rous sarcoma virus and murine leukemia virus Gag proteins during retroviral budding ', Journal of virology , vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 2045-2051. (elsevier.com)
  • 2016). We have successfully used this method to pseudotype viral envelope glycoproteins from all three classes of viral fusion proteins: influenza hemagglutinin (HA, class I), coronavirus spike (S, class I), Ebola glycoprotein (GP, class I), Semliki forest virus (SFV) E1 (class II), and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G glycoprotein (class III). (bio-protocol.org)
  • Within the host cell the genetic material of a DNA virus is replicated and transcribed into messenger RNA by host cell enzymes, and proteins coded for by viral genes are synthesized by host cell ribosomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In viruses that have membranes, membrane-bound viral proteins are synthesized by the host cell and move, like host cell membrane proteins, to the cell surface. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some viruses have only a few genes coding for capsid proteins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although in general viruses "steal" their lipid envelope from the host cell, virtually all of them produce "envelope proteins" that penetrate the envelope and serve as receptors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Molecular techniques were used to generate assay positive controls and to determine the lower limit of detection (LLOD) for murine retroviral and Intracisternal A particle (Cell 12(4):963-72, 1977) detection methods. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Murine retroviral sequences were detected at a low frequency that did not differ between CFS and control subjects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The nature of these sequences appeared to reflect the detection of pre-existing, endogenous, murine retroviral DNA in the PCR reagents employed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several model viruses such as the retroviral murine leukemia virus (MLV) and human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) or the rhabdoviral vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) have been successfully used to generate viral pseudotyped particles (also named pseudoviruses or pseudovirions). (bio-protocol.org)
  • Capsid-targeted viral inactivation (CTVI), a promising gene-based antiviral strategy against retroviruses, was designed to disrupt the retroviral life cycle by incorporating a degradative enzyme (e.g., nuclease) into viral particles during assembly, thereby reducing or eliminating the production of infectious virus. (elsevier.com)
  • The murine leukemia viruses (MLVs or MuLVs) are retroviruses named for their ability to cause cancer in murine (mouse) hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The murine leukemia viruses are group/type VI retroviruses belonging to the gammaretroviral genus of the Retroviridae family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different strains of mice may have different numbers of endogenous retroviruses, and new viruses may arise as the result of recombination of endogenous sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • The residues in the helical region, but not in the beta sandwich, are highly variable among mammalian C-type retroviruses with distinct tropisms, indicating that the helical subdomain determines the receptor specificity of the virus. (rcsb.org)
  • Expanded HIV-1 cellular tropism by phenotypic mixing with murine endogenous retroviruses. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Xenotropic retroviruses were named based on the ability of these mouse viruses to infect cells from many species but not cells from laboratory mice. (pnas.org)
  • Interestingly, microvesicles, which are similar in size to viruses and are also released from the cell periphery, lack phosphoinositides, suggesting a different budding mechanism/location for these particles than for retroviruses. (asm.org)
  • Retroviruses, including HIV and murine leukemia virus (MLV), acquire their lipid coats by budding through host plasma membranes. (asm.org)
  • Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) and murine leukemia virus (MLV) are examples of distantly related retroviruses that normally do not encounter one another in nature. (elsevier.com)
  • The murine leukemia virus (MLV) is among the first retroviruses discovered and is classified as simple Retroviridae due to its minimal encoding capacity. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The experimental system used to develop the CTVI strategy for retroviruses is designed to block the production of infectious Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MLV). (elsevier.com)
  • These viruses recognize and enter cells of non-rodent species by means of the cell-surface xenotropic and polytropic murine leukemia virus receptor (XPR1). (wikipedia.org)
  • This molecule also acts as a receptor for polytropic murine leukemia viruses, consistent with observed interference between xenotropic and polytropic viruses in some cell types. (pnas.org)
  • In contrast, polytropic viruses can infect cells from a reduced range of species but can infect cells from mice ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • The Abelson murine leukemia virus is named for the American pediatrician Herbert T. Abelson, who together with Louise S Rabstein, first described and isolated it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene transcripts in Abelson murine leukemia virus-transformed lymphoid cell lines. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Abelson murine leukemia virus: molecular cloning of infectious integrated proviral DNA. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Abelson murine leukemia virus-induced tumors elicit antibodies against a host cell protein, P50. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The Abelson murine leukemia virus is named for the American pediatrician Herbert T. Abelson who first described and isolated it. (blogspot.com)
  • Transformed Fisher rat fibroblast cell lines by Abelson murine leukemia virus frequently revert to the normal phenotype in usual culture conditions. (elsevier.com)
  • The role of oncogene expression in tumor metastasis was examined using the Abelson leukemia virus-transformed murine large cell lymphoma RAW117. (springer.com)
  • MLVs include both exogenous and endogenous viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among the latter MLVs are amphotropic viruses (Gr. amphos, "both") that can infect both mouse cells and cells of other animal species. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the murine leukemia viruses (MLVs), Gag is cleaved at three sites during maturation, resulting in the formation of four cleavage products, i.e. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Many murine leukemia viruses (MLVs) encode a protein called "glycogag. (nih.gov)
  • Murine leukemia viruses (MLVs) naturally infect unsynchronized T and B lymphocytes, thus, the incoming virus encounters both interphase and mitotic cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • one of the best-studied groups comprises the murine leukemia viruses (MLVs). (chromoscience.com)
  • Here, we investigated virus assembly in NIH3T3 cells chronically infected with the replication-competent MLV using electron microscopy (EM). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because these properties are shared by certain bacteria ( rickettsiae , chlamydiae ), viruses are now characterized by their simple organization and their unique mode of replication. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To address these questions, we have primarily set up a reverse genetics system to study the molecular bases of Ebola virus replication, pathogenesis and immunity. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • This research led to the identification of interferon-stimulated genes antiviral against Ebola virus replication, and which mechanisms of action we are interested in characterise. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • Replication-competent retrovirus vectors based on murine leukemia virus (MLV) have been shown to effectively transfer therapeutic genes over multiple serial infections in cell culture and through solid tumors in vivo with a high degree of genomic stability. (siamtech.net)
  • When the heterologous promoters were used to replace almost the entire MLV U3 region, including the MLV TATA box, vector replication was inefficient since nascent virus particle production from contaminated cells was significantly decreased. (siamtech.net)
  • However, other steps in virus replication that can be targeted by mA3 have not been examined. (prolekarniky.cz)
  • Shixing Tang and Indira K. Hewlett, "Testing Strategies for Detection of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus Infection," Advances in Virology , vol. 2011, Article ID 281425, 5 pages, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus in monozygotic twins discordant for chronic fatigue syndrome. (prohealth.com)
  • NMR study of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus protease in a complex with amprenavir. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Using an inducible expression system, we have expressed various amounts of ecotropic and amphotropic Env at the surfaces of Moloney murine leukemia virus-derived vectors and assayed for the infectivity of viral particles. (cnrs.fr)
  • An amino-terminal fragment of the Friend murine leukemia virus envelope glycoprotein binds the ecotropic receptor. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • We have used this property to investigate the receptor binding capacities of deleted or truncated murine leukemia virus ecotropic envelope glycoproteins. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The susceptibility of these cells to ecotropic and amphotropic virus infection was determined. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • We observed that both membrane-bound and soluble forms of the gp70 245-amino-acid amino-terminal domain induced resistance to ecotropic virus, indicating that this fragment binds the ecotropic receptor. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Molecular Cloning of Infectious Ecotropic Murine Leukemia Virus AK7 fr" by Hillary D. White, William R. Green et al. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Molecular Cloning of Infectious Ecotropic Murine Leukemia Virus AK7 from an emv-14-positive AKXL-5 Mouse and the Resistance of AK7 to Recognition by Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes. (dartmouth.edu)
  • The AKXL-5 recombinant inbred mouse strain is positive for the endogenous ecotropic murine leukemia virus emv-14, the only emv present in its germ line. (dartmouth.edu)
  • This clone is novel in that it encodes a variant ecotropic murine leukemia virus that, when expressed in SC.Kb target cells, fails to be recognized efficiently by anti-AKR/Gross virus cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (dartmouth.edu)
  • An essential step in retrovirus infection is the binding of the virus to its receptor on a target cell. (rcsb.org)
  • In vitro studies have shown that lymphocyte infection produces tumor cell populations comprising three types of cells: stable productive cells, non-productive cells and cells which produced defective virus particles which are not infective. (wikipedia.org)
  • Curcuma longa L and purple sweet potato had a positive effect on immunomodulation in C57BL/6 mice induced by LP-BM5 leukemia retrovirus infection. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • It is not clear whether infection with this virus is a passenger of this condition (tired immune system with rapidly diving cells), or the causative agent of the disease and chronic activation. (virology.ws)
  • Using an expression library approach, we isolated a cDNA from HeLa cell RNA that conferred susceptibility to xenotropic envelope protein binding and virus infection when expressed in nonpermissive cells. (pnas.org)
  • and ( iii ) the recently discovered G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane-domain chemokine receptors required for HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus infection. (pnas.org)
  • We have now recovered a revertant of the virus after abortive infection of mouse cells and have determined the structure of the new virus. (asm.org)
  • A variety of defective clones were also isolated following infection of rat cells with Moloney virus. (caltech.edu)
  • The improved stability of the mutant MLV leads to increased virus production, titer, and infection efficiency. (illinois.edu)
  • The absence of VLPs in lysosomal degradative compartments and the detection of intracellular infectious activity suggested that these intracellular virus particles could participate in the MLV infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the absence of ZASC1 did not influence the timing of subsequent tumor progression or the types of tumors resulting from virus infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The success of infection of viruses that entered cells in mitosis was evidenced by their ability to reverse transcribe, their targeting to condensed chromosomes in the absence of radial microtubule network, and gene expression upon exit from mitosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Comparison of infection by N, B or NB -tropic viruses in interphase and mitotic human cells revealed reduced restriction of the N-tropic virus, for infection initiated in mitosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These can be engineered to contain reporter genes such as luciferase, enabling quantification of virus entry events upon pseudotyped particle infection with susceptible cells. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Pseudotyped particles can be used to complement native virus infection assays, especially regarding study of virus entry events. (bio-protocol.org)
  • My group's research focuses on studying various angles of the interplay between RNA viruses and host cells, in particular, dissecting mechanisms of innate immune responses to viral infection. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • I am focusing particularly on uncovering mechanisms by which these viruses are sensitive to, and evade from, interferon-mediated responses to infection. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • Integrated Friend murine leukemia virus copies were analyzed by the Southern blotting procedure in myeloblastic cell lines obtained after in vitro infection of long-term mouse bone marrow cultures. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Constitutive envelope gene expression prevents infection by interfering with the binding of viruses which recognize the same receptor. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • [6] Murine refers to the rodent family Muridae , which includes common household rats and mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphomas and high-level expression of murine leukemia viruses in CFW mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Moloney murine leukemia virus causes thymic leukemias when injected into newborn mice. (asm.org)
  • Insertional mutagenesis with Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) in c-myc and Pim-1 transgenic mice permits the identification of oncogenes that collaborate with the transgenes in lymphomagenesis. (eurekamag.com)
  • Moreover, they are potent inhibitors of spleen focus formation by Friend murine leukemia virus in mice. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Mice homozygous for the H-2{dollar}\sp{lcub}d{rcub}{dollar} haplotype at the major histocompatibility complex are markedly more susceptible to erythroleukemia induction by the Friend isolate of murine leukemia retrovirus (FV) than congenic mice homozygous for the H-2{dollar}\sp{lcub}b{rcub}{dollar} haplotype. (yu.edu)
  • Endogenous murine leukemia virus-related elements (MLVEs) are often overexpressed in primary mammary carcinomas of BALB/c mice. (uab.edu)
  • The human lung adenocarcinoma cell line EKVX produces an infectious xenotropic murine leukemia virus. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • A study reveals that research that reported patients with chronic fatigue syndrome carried these two viruses was wrong and that there is still no evidence for an infectious cause behind chronic fatigue syndrome. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Glycogag could be replaced, with respect to viral infectivity, by the unrelated S2 protein of equine infectious anemia virus. (nih.gov)
  • The unrelated S2 protein of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is functionally analogous to glycogag in our experiments. (nih.gov)
  • Production of infectious murine leukemia virus in vitro and expression of leukemia virus-induced membrane antigens did not appear to correlate with the presence of Ia8 or Thy-1.2 antigens or with the H-2 type of the cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Human cultures derived after mouse xenografting frequently contain and release highly infectious xenotropic MLV viruses. (nih.gov)
  • Altogether, our results showed that assembly of MLV could occur in part in intracellular compartments of infected murine cells and participate in the production of infectious viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • VanBrocklin, M & Federspiel, MJ 2000, ' Capsid-targeted viral inactivation can eliminate the production of infectious murine leukemia virus in vitro ', Virology , vol. 267, no. 1, pp. 111-123. (elsevier.com)
  • Of the 150 or so identified proviruses, only a few Xmvs, including Bxv1 (Xmv43), are known to encode infectious virus [8]. (chromoscience.com)
  • Here we have studied how the protomeric units of Moloney murine leukemia virus envelope protein (Env) are activated in relation to each other, sequentially or simultaneously. (pnas.org)
  • Cytoplasmic tail of Moloney murine leukemia virus envelope protein influences the conformation of the extracellular domain: implications for mechan. (nih.gov)
  • The NTD is essential for 3' processing and strand transfer, however determining its role in the integration process in lentiviruses and oncogenic viruses has been difficult due to the absence of the full-length structure of IN and the complexity of the protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions involved in the synaptic complex. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A virus consists of genetic material, which may be either DNA or RNA, and is surrounded by a protein coat and, in some viruses, by a membranous envelope. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In most viruses, DNA is transcribed into RNA, and then RNA is translated into protein . (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular biological analysis of three revertant clones isolated from the transformants showed that their morphological reversions were due to inactivation of the v-abl oncogene at multiple steps including transcription, translation or v-abl protein kinase activity itself without any change in structural gene expression of helper virus. (elsevier.com)
  • Collet, M. S. , and Erikson, R. L. , 1978, Protein kinase activity associated with the avian sarcoma virus Src gene product. (springer.com)
  • A radioimmunoassay specific for a murine leukemia virus structural protein, the gs antigen, detects an antigenic reactivity in normal murine cells in culture and natural tissues. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Virus Genes. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Point mutations introduced into the core site significantly shifted the disease specificity of the Moloney virus from thymic leukemia to erythroid leukemia (N.A. Speck, B. Renjifo, E. Golemis, T.N. Fredrickson, J.W. Hartley, and N. Hopkins, Genes Dev. (asm.org)
  • But no virus has the thousands of genes required by even the simplest cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Der, C. J., Krontiris, T. G. , and Cooper, G. M. , 1982, Transforming genes of human bladder and lung carcinoma cell lines are homologous to the ras genes of Harvey and Kisten sarcoma viruses. (springer.com)
  • The Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) is a gammaretrovirus that hijack host components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) for budding. (mdpi.com)
  • They have proven to be very useful tools used in research with many applications, such as enabling the study of entry pathways of enveloped viruses and to generate effective gene-delivery vectors. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Viral pseudotyped particles are very useful tools for studying the entry pathways that enveloped viruses use and for generating novel gene-delivery vectors. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Tailor, CS, Nouri, A & Kabat, D 2000, ' A comprehensive approach to mapping the interacting surfaces of murine amphotropic and feline subgroup B leukemia viruses with their cell surface receptors ', Journal of virology , vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 237-244. (elsevier.com)
  • The mouse retrovirus murine leukemia virus (MLV) has been linked to the development of spontaneous autoimmune disease. (virology.ws)
  • Thus cells incubated in parallel with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) pseudotyped MLV particles showed the same pattern of large rafts as cells incubated with A-MLV, but VSV-G pseudotyped MLV particles did not show any preference to attach to these large microdomains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These synthetic viral particles are safer surrogates of native viruses and acquire the tropism and host entry pathway characteristics governed by the heterologous envelope glycoprotein used. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Characterization of rauscher murine leukemia virus envelope glycoprotein receptor in membranes from murine fibroblasts. (jax.org)
  • This cleavage is essential for the Env incorporation into virus particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immature particles are released from the cell with the help of cellular "ESCRT" machines [23] and then mature as they separate PR viral polyproteins in the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • We devised an assay for viral entry in which virus particles deliver the Cre recombinase into cells, leading to the expression of a reporter. (nih.gov)
  • One clone produced virus with altered plaque morphology, while others failed to produce particles able to make plaques on XC cells. (caltech.edu)
  • The polyprotein Gag is sufficient for driving virus particle production by promoting assembly of immature capsid to the cellular membrane, budding, and release of the virus particles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These observations support the hypothesis that the virus hijacks the MVB production system to direct the budding and the release of virus particles [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this latter, the fusion of the endosomes with the plasma membrane leads to virus particles release in the extracellular space [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Viruses whose particles (virions) are surrounded by a lipid bilayer derived by budding from the cell membrane. (nap.edu)
  • Ia8, a cell membrane antigen controlled by gene(s) located in the I region of the H-2 complex, was found on 9 of 26 murine leukemia cell lines. (jimmunol.org)
  • Viruses offer the highest gene transfer capabilities but are not optimized as therapeutics. (illinois.edu)
  • Achievement of controlled but efficient gene delivery will, however, depend on a detailed insight into virus biology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • FIM3 (Friend-Murine Leukemia Virus Integration Site 3 Homolog) is an Uncategorized gene. (genecards.org)
  • From this peak fraction an R-U5 sequence indistinguishable from murine leukemia virus (MLV) was identified by particle-associated retrovirus RNA amplification (PARRA). (uzh.ch)
  • The basis for their generation lies in the capacity of some viruses, such as murine leukemia virus (MLV), to incorporate envelope glycoproteins of other viruses into a pseudotyped virus particle. (bio-protocol.org)
  • These synthetic enveloped viruses are derived from a parental virus, usually a rhabdovirus or a retrovirus, which forms the core of the particle that can incorporate in its membrane a wide range of viral envelope glycoproteins from heterologous viruses. (bio-protocol.org)
  • When a complete virus particle ( virion ) comes in contact with a host cell, only the viral nucleic acid and, in some viruses, a few enzymes are injected into the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Data from this assay showed that both the positive and the negative effects of glycogag and S2 upon MLV infectivity are exerted at the level of virus entry. (nih.gov)
  • Titration of N- and B-tropic murine leukemia viruses on sensitive and resistant cell lines has been studied by direct XC plaque assay and infective center assay. (caltech.edu)
  • The titration of cloned B-tropic virus by infective center assay on BALB/3T3 (Fv-1b/b) and NIH/3T3 (Fv-1n/n) cells gave one-hit patterns, with 100-fold less infected NIH/3T3 cells than BALB/3T3 cells. (caltech.edu)
  • For certain viruses the RNA is replicated by a viral enzyme ( transcriptase ) contained in the virion, or produced by the host cell using the viral RNA as a messenger. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this blinded, multi-site, prospective study we were able to detect sequences related to these viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we review the relationship of the human and mouse virus isolates and discuss the potential complications associated with the detection of MLV-like sequences from clinical samples. (chromoscience.com)
  • Cloning and characterization of subunits of the T-cell receptor and murine leukemia virus enhancer core-binding factor. (asm.org)
  • CBF binds to core sites in murine leukemia virus and T-cell receptor enhancers. (asm.org)
  • As Serinc5 may influence cellular phospholipid metabolism, it seems possible that all of these effects on virus entry derive from changes in the lipid composition of viral membranes. (nih.gov)
  • Further characterization of the defective cell lines should prove valuable for studies of the pathogenesis of murine AIDS. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Characterization of rauscher murine leukemia virus envelope glycoprote" by V S. Kalyanaraman, M G. Sarngadharan et al. (jax.org)
  • II Characterization of murine leukemia virus polypeptide (p 15) bearing interspecies reactivity. (duke.edu)
  • Raltegravir inhibits murine leukemia virus: implications for chronic fatigue syndrome? (virology.ws)
  • 3. Detection of viral antigen in normal murine cells and tissues. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The Friend virus (FV) is a strain of murine leukemia virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The strain of virus used to induce the leukemia, the H-2 type of the cells, and the techniques of leukemia cell propagation all appeared to influence the antigenic characteristics of the cell lines obtained. (jimmunol.org)
  • The results of this comprehensive survey found that the overall lipid content of these viruses mostly matched that of the plasma membrane, which was considerably different from the total lipid content of the cells. (asm.org)
  • Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) assembly has been long thought to occur exclusively at the plasma membrane. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, transfection of the virus-producing cells with a Serinc5 expression plasmid reduced the infectivity and entry capability of MLV carrying xenotropic MLV Env, particularly in the absence of glycogag. (nih.gov)
  • Zhao J, Luo XD, Da CL, Xin Y. Clinicopathological significance of B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion site 1 expression in gastric carcinoma and its precancerous lesion. (wjgnet.com)
  • Induced expression from the Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat during differentiation of human myeloid cells is mediated through its transcriptional enhancer. (asm.org)
  • Classification of the murine leukemia viruses. (jax.org)
  • Isolation of a recombinant murine leukemia virus utilizing a new primer tRNA. (asm.org)
  • The integration site was perfectly restored to the wild-type sequence, although the patch of DNA was overall only 80% homologous to Moloney murine leukemia virus. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, we are also establishing a research program to drive forward our understanding of host-virus interactions and the molecular pathogenesis of Flaviviruses such as Zika, Dengue or West-Nile viruses. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • The role of core binding factor in the pathogenesis of the Moloney murine leukemia virus. (dartmouth.edu)
  • The genomes of exogenous and endogenous murine leukemia viruses have been fully sequenced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structure of endogenous murine leukemia virus DNA in mouse genomes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Genetic editing of herpes simplex virus 1 and Epstein-Barr herpesvirus genomes by human APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases in culture and in vivo. (prolekarniky.cz)
  • Xenotropic and Other Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Viruses in Humans - Descarga este documento en PDF. (duhnnae.com)
  • Xenotropic viruses replicate or reproduce in cells other than those of the host species. (wikipedia.org)
  • or amphotropic (wild mouse viruses capable of infecting both mouse and heterologous species cells). (psu.edu)
  • Clones of cells were isolated from single virus-single cell infections of NIH/3T3 cells with Moloney murine leukemia virus. (caltech.edu)
  • The titration of B-tropic virus on DBA/2 cells (Fv-1n/n) was also a one-hit. (caltech.edu)
  • Comparable results were obtained by titrating the cloned N-tropic virus on congenic SIM (Fv-1n/n) and SIM.R (Fv-1b/b) cells or the Gross N-tropic virus on BALB/3T3 cells. (caltech.edu)
  • On that note, if I might speculate a little bit," she said, "This might even explain why vaccines would lead to autism in some children, because these viruses live and divide and grow in lymphocytes - the immune response cells, the B and the T cells. (leftbrainrightbrain.co.uk)
  • Poly(adenylic acid), poly(2'- O -methyladenylic acid), and poly(2'- O -ethyladenylic acid) moderately inhibit the synthesis of Moloney murine leukemia virus in cultured JLS-V9 cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Beside the virus budding events seen at the cell surface of infected cells, we observed that intracellular budding events could also occur inside the intracellular vacuoles in which many VLPs accumulated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transcriptional Silencing of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus in Human Embryonic Carcinoma Cells. (rockefeller.edu)
  • Because host cells do not have the ability to replicate "viral RNA" but are able to transcribe messenger RNA, RNA viruses must contain enzymes to produce genetic material for new virions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some viruses do not produce rapid lysis of host cells, but rather remain latent for long periods in the host before the appearance of clinical symptoms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Monoclonal Proliferation of Friend Murine Leukemia Virus-Transformed Myeloblastic Cells Occurs Early in the Leukemogenic Process. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • In contrast, a distinct pattern of integrated Friend murine leukemia virus copies was evident in the first non-differentiating immature myeloblastic cells appearing in cultures, suggesting a monoclonal origin of these cells. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Friend murine leukemia virus envelope glycoproteins bearing internal amino-terminal deletions, or a soluble 245-amino-acid gp70 amino-terminal fragment, were expressed in NIH 3T3 cells. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Dalla-Favera, R. , Wong-Staal, F. , and Gallo, R. C. , 1982, Oncogene amplication in promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 and primary leukaemic cells of the same patient. (springer.com)
  • emv-14 is of particular interest because spleen cells expressing emv-14 virus escape recognition by anti-AKR/Gross virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Following the filtration of xMuLV spiked solutions, LRV ≥5.25 log10 TCID50 was observed, as limited by the virus titre in the feed solution and sensitivity of the tissue infectivity test. (diva-portal.org)
  • Indeed, the depletion of PI(4,5)P 2 inhibits virus assembly and leads to an accumulation of Gag at late endosomes and multivesicular bodies ( 38 ). (asm.org)