Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Proto-Oncogene Protein c-fli-1: A member of the c-ets family of transcription factors that is preferentially expressed in cells of hematopoietic lineages and vascular endothelial cells. It was originally identified as a protein that provides a retroviral integration site for integration of FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS.Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.Leukemia Virus, Murine: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.Leukemia Virus, Feline: A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).Leukemia Virus, Bovine: The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Friend murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.Leukemia, Experimental: Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.AKR murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.Proviruses: Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute: Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Integrases: Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Proto-Oncogenes: Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc.Human T-lymphotropic virus 1: A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Abelson murine leukemia virus: A replication-defective strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) capable of transforming lymphoid cells and producing a rapidly progressing lymphoid leukemia after superinfection with FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; MOLONEY MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; or RAUSCHER VIRUS.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell: A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.Leukemia Virus, Gibbon Ape: A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia in the gibbon ape. Natural transmission is by contact.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Gene Products, tax: Transcriptional trans-acting proteins of the promoter elements found in the long terminal repeats (LTR) of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The tax (trans-activator x; x is undefined) proteins act by binding to enhancer elements in the LTR.Rauscher Virus: A strain of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS associated with mouse tumors similar to those caused by the FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. It is a replication-competent murine leukemia virus. It can act as a helper virus when complexing with a defective transforming component, RAUSCHER SPLEEN FOCUS-FORMING VIRUS.Retroviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.Leukemia, Lymphoid: Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Enzootic Bovine Leukosis: A lymphoid neoplastic disease in cattle caused by the bovine leukemia virus. Enzootic bovine leukosis may take the form of lymphosarcoma, malignant lymphoma, or leukemia but the presence of malignant cells in the blood is not a consistent finding.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive: Clonal hematopoetic disorder caused by an acquired genetic defect in PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS. It starts in MYELOID CELLS of the bone marrow, invades the blood and then other organs. The condition progresses from a stable, more indolent, chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC PHASE) lasting up to 7 years, to an advanced phase composed of an accelerated phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, ACCELERATED PHASE) and BLAST CRISIS.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Leukemia, T-Cell: A malignant disease of the T-LYMPHOCYTES in the bone marrow, thymus, and/or blood.RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.Gammaretrovirus: A genus of RETROVIRIDAE comprising endogenous sequences in mammals, related RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN, and a reptilian virus. Many species contain oncogenes and cause leukemias and sarcomas.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Mice, Inbred AKRAntigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Retroviridae Proteins, Oncogenic: Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell: Aggressive T-Cell malignancy with adult onset, caused by HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1. It is endemic in Japan, the Caribbean basin, Southeastern United States, Hawaii, and parts of Central and South America and sub-Saharan Africa.Radiation Leukemia Virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from radiation-induced lymphomas in C57BL mice. It is leukemogenic, thymotrophic, can be transmitted vertically, and replicates only in vivo.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Human T-lymphotropic virus 2: A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2 that can transform normal T-lymphocytes and can replicate in both T- and B-cell lines. The virus is related to but distinct from HTLV-1.Deltaretrovirus: A genus in the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of exogenous horizontally-transmitted viruses found in a few groups of mammals. Infections caused by these viruses include human B- or adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), and bovine leukemia (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS). The type species is LEUKEMIA VIRUS, BOVINE.Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma: A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Avian leukosis virus: The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Hylobates: A genus of the family HYLOBATIDAE consisting of six species. The members of this genus inhabit rain forests in southeast Asia. They are arboreal and differ from other anthropoids in the great length of their arms and very slender bodies and limbs. Their major means of locomotion is by swinging from branch to branch by their arms. Hylobates means dweller in the trees. Some authors refer to Symphalangus and Nomascus as Hylobates. The six genera include: H. concolor (crested or black gibbon), H. hoolock (Hoolock gibbon), H. klossii (Kloss's gibbon; dwarf siamang), H. lar (common gibbon), H. pileatus (pileated gibbon), and H. syndactylus (siamang). H. lar is also known as H. agilis (lar gibbon), H. moloch (agile gibbon), and H. muelleri (silvery gibbon).Terminal Repeat Sequences: Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.Gene Products, env: Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Leukemia, Feline: A neoplastic disease of cats frequently associated with feline leukemia virus infection.HTLV-I InfectionsMeasles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Mink Cell Focus-Inducing Viruses: Strains of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS discovered in 1976 by Hartley, Wolford, Old, and Rowe and so named because the viruses originally isolated had the capacity to transform cell foci in mink cell cultures. MCF viruses are generated by recombination with ecotropic murine leukemia viruses including AKR, Friend, Moloney, and Rauscher, causing ERYTHROLEUKEMIA and severe anemia in mice.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Gene Products, rex: Post-transcriptional regulatory proteins required for the accumulation of mRNAs that encode the gag and env gene products in HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The rex (regulator x; x is undefined) products act by binding to elements in the LONG TERMINAL REPEAT.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute: An acute myeloid leukemia in which 80% or more of the leukemic cells are of monocytic lineage including monoblasts, promonocytes, and MONOCYTES.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Leukemia, Hairy Cell: A neoplastic disease of the lymphoreticular cells which is considered to be a rare type of chronic leukemia; it is characterized by an insidious onset, splenomegaly, anemia, granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, little or no lymphadenopathy, and the presence of "hairy" or "flagellated" cells in the blood and bone marrow.Sarcoma Viruses, Murine: A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Genes, pX: DNA sequences that form the coding region for at least three proteins which regulate the expression of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The proteins are p21(x), p27(rex), and p40(tax). The tax (trans-activator x) and rex (regulator x) genes are part of pX but are in overlapping reading frames. X was the original designation for the sequences or region (at that time of unknown function) in the long open reading frame (lor) which is now called pX.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Leukemia, Radiation-Induced: Leukemia produced by exposure to IONIZING RADIATION or NON-IONIZING RADIATION.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Preleukemia: Conditions in which the abnormalities in the peripheral blood or bone marrow represent the early manifestations of acute leukemia, but in which the changes are not of sufficient magnitude or specificity to permit a diagnosis of acute leukemia by the usual clinical criteria.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Deltaretrovirus Infections: Infections caused by the HTLV or BLV deltaretroviruses. They include human T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED).Genes, env: DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.Retroviridae Proteins: Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Leukemia L1210Leukemia, B-Cell: A malignant disease of the B-LYMPHOCYTES in the bone marrow and/or blood.Mink: Carnivores of genus Mustela of the family MUSTELIDAE. The European mink, which has white upper and lower lips, was widely trapped for commercial purposes and is classified as endangered. The American mink, lacking a white upper lip, is farmed commercially.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.Genes, gag: DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Genes, pol: DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Avian myeloblastosis virus: A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Cat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein: Myeloid-lymphoid leukemia protein is a transcription factor that maintains high levels of HOMEOTIC GENE expression during development. The GENE for myeloid-lymphoid leukemia protein is commonly disrupted in LEUKEMIA and combines with over 40 partner genes to form FUSION ONCOGENE PROTEINS.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Giant Cells: Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Thymus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYMUS GLAND.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Leukemia P388: An experimental lymphocytic leukemia originally induced in DBA/2 mice by painting with methylcholanthrene.Integration Host Factors: Bacterial proteins that are used by BACTERIOPHAGES to incorporate their DNA into the DNA of the "host" bacteria. They are DNA-binding proteins that function in genetic recombination as well as in transcriptional and translational regulation.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Leukemia, Biphenotypic, Acute: An acute leukemia exhibiting cell features characteristic of both the myeloid and lymphoid lineages and probably arising from MULTIPOTENT STEM CELLS.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse: The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.BK Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.Viruses, Unclassified: Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.Cytarabine: A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)JC Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
"Proviral Integration Site for Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (PIM) Kinases Promote Human T Helper 1 Cell Differentiation". The ... PIM2 or Proviral Integrations of Moloney virus 2 is serine/threonine kinase that has roles in cell growth, proliferation, ... "Increased Expression of the hPim-2 Gene In Human Chronic lymphocytic Leukemia and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma". Leukemia & Lymphoma. ... The studies showed higher levels of expression in NHL over normal lymphocytes as well as in chronic lymphocytic leukemia over ...
"Putative tumor suppressor miR-145 inhibits colon cancer cell growth by targeting oncogene Friend leukemia virus integration 1 ... Zheng L, Pu J, Qi T, Qi M, Li D, Xiang X, Huang K, Tong Q (Feb 2013). "miRNA-145 targets v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 ... miR-145 is also involved in colon cancer and acute myeloid leukemia. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000276365 - Ensembl, May ... "Genome-wide identification of human microRNAs located in leukemia-associated genomic alterations". Blood. 117 (2): 595-607. doi ...
... proviral integration at the fli-1 locus also occurs in leukemias induced by the 10A1, Graffi, and Cas-Br-E viruses. Fli-1 ... "Identification of a common viral integration region in Cas-Br-E murine leukemia virus-induced non-T-, non-B-cell lymphomas". J ... Friend leukemia integration 1 transcription factor (FLI1), also known as transcription factor ERGB, is a protein that in humans ... and mapping of a common proviral integration site Fli-1 in erythroleukemia cells induced by Friend murine leukemia virus". Proc ...
Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) Murine leukemia virus (MLV), and xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) ... For most non-retroviral viruses, germline integration appears to be a rare, anomalous event, and the resulting EVEs are often ... EVEs are a rare source of retrospective information about ancient viruses. Many are derived from germline integration events ... with integration dates ranging from 10-85 million years ago. Ancient DNA Avian sarcoma leukosis virus (ASLV) Endogenous ...
... murine leukemia virus resulted in two cases of leukemia caused by activation of the LMO2 oncogene due to nearby integration of ... The recombinant retroviruses such as the Moloney murine leukemia virus have the ability to integrate into the host genome in a ... There is concern that insertional mutagenesis due to integration into the host genome might lead to cancer or leukemia. This ... Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a small virus that infects humans and some other primate species. AAV is not currently known to ...
This gene maps in a region, which include the mixed lineage leukemia and Friend leukemia virus integration 1 genes, where ...
Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; others include Feline leukemia virus ... gives rise to a concern that insertional mutagenesis due to integration into the host genome might lead to cancer or leukemia. ... Genus Deltaretrovirus; type species: Bovine leukemia virus; others include the cancer-causing Human T-lymphotropic virus ... Feline leukemia virus and Feline immunodeficiency virus infections are treated with biologics, including the only ...
Her main contributions are : First demonstration of a direct role for the Hepatitis B Virus in human liver cancer as an ... Molecular cloning of the PML-RAR oncoprotein responsible for Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL)[citation needed] Discovery of a ... insertional mutagen[citation needed] Discovery of the first retinoic acid receptor gene at an HBV integration site[citation ...
B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1). BMI1 is a polycomb ring finger oncogene. BMI1 (B lymphoma Mo ...
Takakuwa T, Luo WJ, Ham MF, Sakane-Ishikawa F, Wada N, Aozasa K (Mar 2004). "Integration of Epstein-Barr virus into chromosome ... "Activation of Maf/AP-1 repressor Bach2 by oxidative stress promotes apoptosis and its interaction with promyelocytic leukemia ... Ikeda T, Shibata J, Yoshimura K, Koito A, Matsushita S (Mar 2007). "Recurrent HIV-1 integration at the BACH2 locus in resting ...
Production of laboratory cell lines may involve passaging of tumours in mice.) Identical XMRV integration sites were also found ... Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is "a laboratory-derived mouse virus that was generated through ... Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus: Classification Xenotropic viruses (xenos Gr. foreign; tropos Gr. turning) were ... 2010). "Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus prevalence in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome or chronic ...
Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) Murine leukemia virus (MLV) and xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) ... Fujiwara, T.; Mizuuchi, K. (1988-08-12). "Retroviral DNA integration: structure of an integration intermediate". Cell. 54 (4): ... "Reactivated Virus May Contribute to ALS". Yolken R (June 2004). "Viruses and schizophrenia: a focus on herpes simplex virus". ... Viruses portal Avian sarcoma leukosis virus (ASLV) Endogenous viral element ERV3 HERV-FRD Horizontal gene transfer Jaagsiekte ...
Disruption of a single gene may also result from integration of genomic material from a DNA virus or retrovirus, and such an ... which occurs in chronic myelogenous leukemia, and results in production of the BCR-abl fusion protein, an oncogenic tyrosine ... One concern is that we may end up with thousands of vaccines to prevent every virus that can change our cells. Viruses can have ... In contrast, in slowly transforming viruses, the virus genome is inserted, especially as viral genome insertion is obligatory ...
... hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (hepatocellular carcinoma) and human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (T-cell leukemias). Bacterial ... Disruption of a single gene may also result from integration of genomic material from a DNA virus or retrovirus, leading to the ... Oncoviruses (viruses that can cause cancer) include human papillomavirus (cervical cancer), Epstein-Barr virus (B-cell ... Hodgkin disease, leukemias and cancers of the liver or kidney can cause a persistent fever. Some cancers may cause specific ...
Other intrinsic immune proteins have been discovered which block Murine leukemia virus (MLV), Herpes simplex virus (HSV), and ... Though this will not necessarily stop viral integration, the resulting progeny viral genomes are too riddled with mutations to ... If an HIVΔvif deletion mutant is created it will be able to infect a cell, but will produce non-viable progeny virus due to the ... Some viruses, however, have proven to be so deadly or refractory to conventional immune mechanisms that specific, genetically ...
... and T-cell Leukemia virus type I. As many as 20% of human tumors are caused by viruses. Some such viruses that are commonly ... gene either through the integration of DNA or RNA into the host genome. The tumor virus can alter expression on preexisting ... The retroviruses include T-cell Leukemia virus type I, HIV, and Rous Sarcoma Virus (RSV). The viral gene tax is expressed when ... T-cell Leukemia virus type I, and hepatitis B. Viral oncogenesis are most common with DNA and RNA tumor viruses, most ...
... a common MRV integration site in BXH2 myeloid leukemias, encodes a protein with homology to a lymphoid-restricted membrane ... This gene is similar to a mouse putative tumor suppressor gene that is frequently disrupted by mouse AIDS-related virus (MRV). ... "Entrez Gene: MRVI1 murine retrovirus integration site 1 homolog". Schlossmann J, Ammendola A, Ashman K, Zong X, Huber A, ... Therefore, this gene may be a myeloid leukemia tumor suppressor gene. Several alternatively spliced transcripts have been found ...
... viruses of the lytic cycle quickly produce more viruses, burst from the cell and infect more cells. Lysogenic viruses integrate ... Similar trials were restricted or halted in the USA when leukemia was reported in patients treated in the French X-SCID gene ... treatment with the adenovirus will require readministration in a growing cell population although the absence of integration ... The Herpes simplex virus is a human neurotropic virus. This is mostly examined for gene transfer in the nervous system. The ...
Artavanis-Tsakonas S, Rand MD, Lake RJ (1999). "Notch signaling: cell fate control and signal integration in development". ... Hsieh JJ, Nofziger DE, Weinmaster G, Hayward SD (1997). "Epstein-Barr virus immortalization: Notch2 interacts with CBF1 and ... "Regulation of CD23 expression by Notch2 in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia". Leuk. Lymphoma. 46 (2): 157-65. doi:10.1080/ ...
"PCR and serology find no association between xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) and autism". Mol Autism. 1 ( ... Garson, Jeremy A; Kellam, Paul; Towers, Greg J (2011). "Analysis of XMRV integration sites from human prostate cancer tissues ... "Absence of evidence of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related virus infection in persons with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and ... "No association of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related virus with prostate cancer or chronic fatigue syndrome in Japan". ...
Fisher-Adams, G; Wong, KK; Podsakoff, GM; Forman, S; Chatterjee, S (1996). "Integration of adeno-associated virus vector ... doi:10.1007/s00262-003-0415-6. Wong, KK; Chatterjee, S (2005). "Vaccine Development for Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia". Lancet. ... "INtegration of Adenoassociated Virus Vectors in CD34+ HUman Hemotopoietic Progenitor Cells After Transduction". Blood. 88. , ... Adeno-Associated Virus vectors can be used for stem cell gene therapy. Adenovirus' have a Baltimore classification of level I, ...
RNA virus. HCV Hepatocellular carcinoma. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma. HTLV-I Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. ... there seems to be no deterministic predictor of the site of integration.[37] After integration, the host's cell cycle loses ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... RNA viruses[edit]. Not all oncoviruses are DNA viruses. Some RNA viruses have also been associated such as the hepatitis C ...
... hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (hepatocellular carcinoma), and Human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (T-cell leukemias). Bacterial ... Feng, H; Shuda, M; Chang, Y; Moore, P. S. (2008). "Clonal integration of a polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinoma". ... The virus causes Adult T cell leukemia, a disease first described by Takatsuki and colleagues in Japan and other neurological ... Herpesviruses also cause cancer in animals, especially leukemias and lymphomas. Human T cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) was ...
"Murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase: structural comparison with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase". Virus Research. 134 (1-2 ... reflecting integration of the genomes of human endogenous retroviruses. Such integration events result in the presence of genes ... Retroviral RT proteins from HIV-1 and murine leukemia virus are the best-studied members of the family. Retroviral RT is ... Pathogenic examples include human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus, respectively. Both encode large multifunctional ...
MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus protein EVI1 (MECOM) also known as ecotropic virus integration site 1 protein homolog (EVI-1) or ... Since it was first identified in murine myeloid leukemia as a common site of retroviral integration into the chromosome, EVI1 ... Areas where retroviral integration into the human genome is favored such as EVI1 have very important implications for the ... EVI1 was first identified as a common retroviral integration site in AKXD murine myeloid tumors. It has since been identified ...
Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; others include Feline leukemia virus ... gives rise to a concern that insertional mutagenesis due to integration into the host genome might lead to cancer or leukemia. ... Genus Deltaretrovirus; type species: Bovine leukemia virus; others include the cancer-causing Human T-lymphotropic virus ... Feline leukemia virus and Feline immunodeficiency virus infections are treated with biologics, including the only ...
Friend leukemia virus integration 1), Authors: Laura M Vecchiarelli-Federico, Mehran Haeri, Yaacov Ben-David. Published in: ... Oncogene activation in myeloid leukemias by Graffi murine leukemia virus proviral integration.. ... FLI1 (Friend leukemia virus integration 1). Written. 2011-03. Laura M Vecchiarelli-Federico, Mehran Haeri, Yaacov Ben-David. ... Identification of a common viral integration region in Cas-Br-E murine leukemia virus-induced non-T-, non-B-cell lymphomas.. ...
Weitere Produktkategorien zu Friend Leukemia Virus Integration 1 Antikörper * 165 anti-Friend Leukemia Virus Integration 1 ... Am meisten referenzierte anti-Friend Leukemia Virus Integration 1 Antikörper. Show all anti-Friend Leukemia Virus Integration 1 ... Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Friend Leukemia Virus Integration 1 Kits (7) und Friend Leukemia Virus Integration 1 Proteine (7) ... Weitere Antikörper gegen Friend Leukemia Virus Integration 1 Interaktionspartner. Human Friend Leukemia Virus Integration 1 ( ...
Moloney murine leukemia virus integration protein produced in yeast binds specifically to viral att sites.. S Basu, H E Varmus ... The integration protein (IN) of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MuLV), purified after being produced in yeast cells, has been ... Moloney murine leukemia virus integration protein produced in yeast binds specifically to viral att sites. ... Moloney murine leukemia virus integration protein produced in yeast binds specifically to viral att sites. ...
... we identified four integrations into the myeloid/lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia 4 (MLL4) gene from 10 HCC patients with ... Determination of the cellular-virus DNA junction demonstrated that various lengths of the virus were integrated within 300 bp ... Chimeric hepatitis B virus X gene (HBx)/MLL4 transcripts and the HBx fusion proteins were detected. DNA microarray revealed ... of MLL4 gene is one of the preferential targets for HBV DNA integration into the MLL4 gene and the HBV DNA integration may be ...
Oncogene activation in myeloid leukemias by Graffi murine leukemia virus proviral integration.. ... Identification of a common viral integration region in Cas-Br-E murine leukemia virus-induced non-T-, non-B-cell lymphomas.. ... Erythroleukemia induction by Friend murine leukemia virus: insertional activation of a new member of the ets gene family, Fli-1 ... In addition, Fli-1 has been implicated in human leukemias, such as Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML), involving loss or fusion ...
... locus represents a common region for proviral integration and a putative oncogene involved in the induction of thymic lymphomas ... The Moloney leukemia virus integration 2 (MLVI2) locus represents a common region for proviral integration and a putative ... "The Human Homolog of the Moloney Leukemia Virus Integration 2 Locus (MLVI2) Maps to Band p14 of Chromosome 5." Genomics 5, (2 ... The Human Homolog of the Moloney Leukemia Virus Integration 2 Locus (MLVI2) Maps to Band p14 of Chromosome 5 ...
Friend-Murine Leukemia Virus Integration Site 3 Homolog, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and ... FIM3 (Friend-Murine Leukemia Virus Integration Site 3 Homolog) is an Uncategorized gene. ... three retroviral integration regions involved in mouse myeloblastic leukemias, are respectively located on chromosomes 6p23, ...
friend leukemia virus integration 1. GAPDH:. glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. HSC-70:. heat shock protein 70 ... Torchia EC, Boyd K, Rehg JE, Qu C, Baker SJ . EWS/FLI-1 induces rapid onset of myeloid/erythroid leukemia in mice. Mol Cell ... p16INK4A sensitizes human leukemia cells to FAS- and glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis via induction of BBC3/Puma and repression ... Myeloid cell leukemia-1 is associated with tumor progression by inhibiting apoptosis and enhancing angiogenesis in colorectal ...
... and Genomic DNA Mapping of Retroviral Integration Sites, Retroviral Scanning: Mapping MLV Integration Sites to Define Cell- ... moloney murine leukemia virus include Amplification, Next-generation Sequencing, ... Studying the Integration of Adult-born Neurons, High Throughput MicroRNA Profiling: Optimized Multiplex qRT-PCR at Nanoliter ... A Functional Genomics Tool for the Study of Positive-strand RNA Viruses, Using RNA-sequencing to Detect Novel Splice Variants ...
Friend leukemia integration 1 transcription factor. *Friend leukemia virus integration 1. *proto-oncogene Fli-1 ...
Murine leukemia virus- (MLV-), HIV-1-, and avian sarcoma leukemia virus-based (ASLV-based) vectors exhibit quite distinct ... murine leukemia virus; Pt, patient; RIS, retroviral integration site; SCID-X1, X-linked SCID; TSS, transcription start site. ... Factors affecting long-term stability of Moloney murine leukemia virus-based vectors. Virology. 171:331-341. View this article ... The presence of the gene closest to a virus integration site as identified by LAM-PCR analysis was determined in each ...
Proviral integration of Moloney virus-2). The aim of the present ... ... Despite extensive research in leukemia, intracellular events leading to prolongation of cell cycle and resistance to pro- ... Expression of Proviral Integration of Moloney Virus-2 (PIM2) Gene in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia and its Clinical ... Expression of Proviral Integration of Moloney Virus-2 (PIM2) Gene in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia and its Clinical ...
The Gag Cleavage Product, p12, is a Functional Constituent of the Murine Leukemia Virus Pre-Integration Complex Adi Prizan- ... Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Evades NKG2D-Dependent NK Cell Responses through NS5A-Mediated Imbalance of Inflammatory Cytokines ... Herpes Simplex Virus Reorganizes the Cellular DNA Repair and Protein Quality Control Machinery Sandra K. Weller ... Genetic and Structural Basis for Selection of a Ubiquitous T Cell Receptor Deployed in Epstein-Barr Virus Infection John J. ...
... to map the acquired proviral insertions in the chromosomal genome of feline lymphoid tumors induced by feline leukemia virus ( ... Leukemia Virus, Feline / genetics*. Lymphoma / virology*. Mutagenesis, Insertional. Proviruses / genetics*. Virus Integration* ... Previous Document: An enzymatic virus-like particle assay for sensitive detection of virus entry.. Next Document: Evaluation of ... to map the acquired proviral insertions in the chromosomal genome of feline lymphoid tumors induced by feline leukemia virus ( ...
1988) Sequence and spacing requirements of a retrovirus integration site. J Mol Biol 199(1):47-59. ... 2008) Stabilization of TM trimer interactions during activation of moloney murine leukemia virus Env. J Virol 82(5):2358-2366. ... 2007) The conserved His8 of the Moloney murine leukemia virus Env SU subunit directs the activity of the SU-TM disulphide bond ... Sequential activation of the three protomers in the Moloney murine leukemia virus Env. Mathilda Sjöberg, Robin Löving, Birgitta ...
B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1. BMP2. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 ... Artavanis-Tsakonas S, Rand MD, Lake RJ (1999) Notch signaling: cell fate control and signal integration in development. Science ... BMI-1 is highly expressed in M0-subtype acute myeloid leukemia. Int J Hematol 82:42-47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... cells in acute myeloid leukemia. Clin Cancer Res 11:2436-2444PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Friend leukemia virus integration 1. HCASMC. human coronary artery smooth muscle cell(s). HUVEC. human umbilical vein ... 3 exons and is transcribed in the antisense orientation from within the first intron of Friend leukemia virus integration 1 ( ...
1993) Integration of murine leukemia virus DNA depends on mitosis. EMBO J 12:2099-2108. ... Virus production.. All oncoretroviral vectors used were based on the Moloney murine leukemia virus. Gene expression was driven ... The migration and integration of new neurons into brain circuits is an essential process in vertebrate development. In mammals ... To address this question, we used two-photon in vivo imaging to observe the migration and integration of genetically labeled ...
Friend leukemia virus integration 1 [Source:HGNC Symbol;Acc:3749]. Mouse Orthologue:. Fli1. Mouse Description:. Friend leukemia ... Friend leukemia integration 1 transcription factor [Source:RefSeq peptide;Acc:NP_571423]. Human Orthologue:. FLI1. Human ...
Friend leukemia integration 1 transcription factor antibody. *Friend leukemia virus integration 1 antibody ... Friend leukemia integration 1 (FLI1) transcription factor antibody. * ...
... proviral integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus-1) [251]. Inhibition of miR-1-dependent downregulation of Pim-1 ... proviral integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus-1 (Pim-1). ... Leukemia, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 1064-1072, 2012. View at: Publisher Site , Google Scholar*L. Zhang, M. Zhou, G. Qin, N. L. ... human immunodeficiency virus trans-activating response RNA-binding protein (TRBP); argonaute 2 (Ago2); RNA-induced silencing ...
Integration of murine leukemia virus DNA depends on mitosis.. Roe T, Reynolds TC, Yu G, Brown PO. ... 3-end processing and kinetics of 5-end joining during retroviral integration in vivo. ...
Murine leukemia virus vector integration favors promoter regions and regional hot spots in a human T-cell line. . Biochem. ... Survival, integration, and differentiation of cardiomyocyte grafts: a study in normal and injured rat hearts. . Circulation 100 ... Retroviral vector integration deregulates gene expression but has no consequence on the biology and function of transplanted T ... Lentiviral vector transduction of NOD/SCID repopulating cells results in multiple vector integrations per transduced cell: risk ...
The mechanism by which Gag selectively incorporates unspliced gRNA into virus particles is poorly understood. Although Gag was ... The mechanism by which Gag selectively incorporates unspliced gRNA into virus particles is poorly understood. Although Gag was ... we found that the Gag protein of Rous sarcoma virus, an alpharetrovirus, undergoes transient nuclear trafficking. When the ... we found that the Gag protein of Rous sarcoma virus, an alpharetrovirus, undergoes transient nuclear trafficking. When the ...
Polycomb group gene B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site-1 (BMI1) is crucial to regulate the ... and B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site-1 pseudogene 1 (BMI1P1). The expressions of genes were ... A three-gene signature might predict prognosis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia Xin Zhu; 0000-0001-7351-8239 ... Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by infiltration of blood, bone marrow (BM) and other ...
  • AIDS-related lymphoma (ARL) is usually an AIDS-defining malignancy in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (medscape.com)
  • For example, the Epstein-Barr virus, which has been shown to be associated with various cancers, including Burkitt's lymphoma, can infect B lymphocytes via the CD21 receptor on B-cell surface [ 3 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • In a study with 48 patients who had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and lymphocytic leukemia, hPim-2 expression was analyzed using in-situ hybridization, quantitative RT-PCR and FACS analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • To determine the tolerability and efficacy (response rate) of dose adjusted bortezomib-EPOCH (DA B-EPOCH) chemotherapy combined with Raltegravir in patients with HTLV-1 associated leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Dermatologic manifestations are quite common in patients with adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma and myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis associated with infection with human T cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1). (ajtmh.org)
  • Shellam G. R., Hogg N. Gross - virus - induced lymphoma in the rat. (medkursor.ru)
  • Human T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma virus type-1 associated myeloneuropathies--a Caribbean perspective. (medscape.com)
  • It causes serious diseases in humans, including adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and an incapacitating neurological disease (HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis [HAM/TSP]) besides other afflictions such as uveitis, rheumatic syndromes, and predisposition to helminthic and bacterial infections, among others. (asm.org)
  • 83 ) identified human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) in a T-cell line from a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. (asm.org)
  • Consistently, Southern blot hybridization using an FeLV LTR-U3 probe specific for exogenous FeLV revealed the presence of at least 6 copies of exogenous FeLV proviruses at different integration sites in each cell line. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here, we have dissected the contribution of vector design and viral integration site selection (ISS) to oncogenesis using an in vivo genotoxicity assay based on transplantation of vector-transduced tumor-prone mouse hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. (jci.org)
  • They report that the lentiviral integration pattern and additional improvements in vector design reduce the genotoxic risk. (jci.org)
  • Retroviral insertion into the Notch1 locus has led to acceleration of tumorigenesis in mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV D )/c- myc transgenic mice and in MMTV/ neu transgenic mice ( 14 , 26 ). (asm.org)
  • The name XMRV was given because the discoverers of the virus initially thought that it was a novel potential human pathogen that was related to but distinct from MLVs. (wikipedia.org)
  • None of the infectious P-MLVs derive directly from Pmvs or Mpmvs , although these P-ERVs can contribute to the generation of intersubgroup recombinant viruses that have the distinctive P-MLV host range [ 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Raltegravir inhibits murine leukemia virus: implications for chronic fatigue syndrome? (virology.ws)
  • Initial reports erroneously linked the virus to prostate cancer and later to chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), leading to considerable interest in the scientific and patient communities, investigation of XMRV as a potential cause of multiple medical conditions, and public health concerns about the safety of the donated blood supply. (wikipedia.org)
  • The studies showed higher levels of expression in NHL over normal lymphocytes as well as in chronic lymphocytic leukemia over normal B-Cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a hematopoietic disorder originating from p210BCR/ABL -transformed stem cells, which begins as indolent chronic phase (CP) but progresses into fatal blast crisis (BC). (bloodjournal.org)
  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a hematopoietic disorder of multipotential stem cells, which exhibits excessive proliferation of immature and mature myeloid cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The first miRNAs implicated in cancer were miR-15a and miR-16-1, which are often deleted or down-regulated in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In contrast, non-enveloped viruses typically exit cells by cell lysis, and lipid membranes are not part of the released virions. (mdpi.com)
  • The largest segment, segment 1, contains an open reading frame with weak sequence homology to the influenza C virus PB1 subunit. (asm.org)
  • In 1970, an authoritative book entitled "Viruses and Cancer" was published by Sir Christopher Andrews, one of the discoverers of influenza virus. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • All samples were analyzed by culture for pathogenic bacteria and fungi and by PCR for rhinoviruses, adenoviruses, enteroviruses, influenza viruses A and B, parainfluenza viruses 1-3, respiratory syncytial virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human metapneumovirus. (cdc.gov)
  • Although the molecular mechanisms of reactivation have been extensively studied, gaps exist in our current knowledge concerning the processes by which these viruses establish, maintain, and emerge from latency. (frontiersin.org)
  • The RT-PCR of FFPE sections and sequencing of RT-PCR products are useful for molecular epidemiology of the virus when viral isolation from fresh samples is unsuccessful. (go.jp)
  • Arguably the most prominent and deadly virus discovered in the twentieth century is the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) due its causative role in the development of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (kenyon.edu)
  • Mechanisms underlying innate immunity and how viruses evade immune responses continue to be identified and provide fascinating insights into viral pathogenesis. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • The increasing appreciation of the role of viruses in cancer pathogenesis has not only already led to the development of two successful vaccines (against HBV and HPV) that prevent cancer, it has also directly contributed to many fundamental discoveries in cancer biology. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • The chapters in each volume are planned to supply information on a range of subjects from pathogenesis of the causative virus to vaccination, eradication, and rules regarding disease control. (indigo.ca)