Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and in some cats infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV).
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting cats of all ages and commonly found in catteries and zoos. Cats are often found carrying the virus but only a small proportion develop disease. Feline coronavirus and Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) are virtually the same virus in genetic and antigenetic terms, and are morphologically indistinguishable. Since they only differ in their disease potential (with FIPV causing a more serious illness), they are considered biotypes of each other.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia in the gibbon ape. Natural transmission is by contact.
A replication-defective strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) capable of transforming lymphoid cells and producing a rapidly progressing lymphoid leukemia after superinfection with FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; MOLONEY MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; or RAUSCHER VIRUS.
A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS isolated from fibrosarcoma in cats. The viruses are actually recombinant feline leukemia viruses (FeLV) where part of the genome has been replaced by cellular oncogenes. It is unique to individuals and not transmitted naturally to other cats. FeSVs are replication defective and require FeLV to reproduce.
A neoplastic disease of cats frequently associated with feline leukemia virus infection.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A strain of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS associated with mouse tumors similar to those caused by the FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. It is a replication-competent murine leukemia virus. It can act as a helper virus when complexing with a defective transforming component, RAUSCHER SPLEEN FOCUS-FORMING VIRUS.
Transcriptional trans-acting proteins of the promoter elements found in the long terminal repeats (LTR) of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The tax (trans-activator x; x is undefined) proteins act by binding to enhancer elements in the LTR.
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A highly contagious DNA virus infection of the cat family, characterized by fever, enteritis and bone marrow changes. It is also called feline ataxia, feline agranulocytosis, feline infectious enteritis, cat fever, cat plague, and show fever. It is caused by FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS or the closely related MINK ENTERITIS VIRUS or CANINE PARVOVIRUS.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A lymphoid neoplastic disease in cattle caused by the bovine leukemia virus. Enzootic bovine leukosis may take the form of lymphosarcoma, malignant lymphoma, or leukemia but the presence of malignant cells in the blood is not a consistent finding.
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Common coronavirus infection of cats caused by the feline infectious peritonitis virus (CORONAVIRUS, FELINE). The disease is characterized by a long incubation period, fever, depression, loss of appetite, wasting, and progressive abdominal enlargement. Infection of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage appears to be essential in FIP pathogenesis.
Clonal hematopoetic disorder caused by an acquired genetic defect in PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS. It starts in MYELOID CELLS of the bone marrow, invades the blood and then other organs. The condition progresses from a stable, more indolent, chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC PHASE) lasting up to 7 years, to an advanced phase composed of an accelerated phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, ACCELERATED PHASE) and BLAST CRISIS.
A species of PARVOVIRUS infecting cats with a highly contagious enteric disease. Host range variants include mink enteritis virus, canine parvovirus (PARVOVIRUS, CANINE), and raccoon parvovirus. After infecting their new hosts, many of these viruses have further evolved and are now considered distinct species.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A malignant disease of the T-LYMPHOCYTES in the bone marrow, thymus, and/or blood.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Viruses that produce tumors.
A genus of RETROVIRIDAE comprising endogenous sequences in mammals, related RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN, and a reptilian virus. Many species contain oncogenes and cause leukemias and sarcomas.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Aggressive T-Cell malignancy with adult onset, caused by HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1. It is endemic in Japan, the Caribbean basin, Southeastern United States, Hawaii, and parts of Central and South America and sub-Saharan Africa.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2 that can transform normal T-lymphocytes and can replicate in both T- and B-cell lines. The virus is related to but distinct from HTLV-1.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A genus in the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of exogenous horizontally-transmitted viruses found in a few groups of mammals. Infections caused by these viruses include human B- or adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), and bovine leukemia (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS). The type species is LEUKEMIA VIRUS, BOVINE.
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from radiation-induced lymphomas in C57BL mice. It is leukemogenic, thymotrophic, can be transmitted vertically, and replicates only in vivo.
A genus of the family HYLOBATIDAE consisting of six species. The members of this genus inhabit rain forests in southeast Asia. They are arboreal and differ from other anthropoids in the great length of their arms and very slender bodies and limbs. Their major means of locomotion is by swinging from branch to branch by their arms. Hylobates means dweller in the trees. Some authors refer to Symphalangus and Nomascus as Hylobates. The six genera include: H. concolor (crested or black gibbon), H. hoolock (Hoolock gibbon), H. klossii (Kloss's gibbon; dwarf siamang), H. lar (common gibbon), H. pileatus (pileated gibbon), and H. syndactylus (siamang). H. lar is also known as H. agilis (lar gibbon), H. moloch (agile gibbon), and H. muelleri (silvery gibbon).
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).
Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.
Carnivores of genus Mustela of the family MUSTELIDAE. The European mink, which has white upper and lower lips, was widely trapped for commercial purposes and is classified as endangered. The American mink, lacking a white upper lip, is farmed commercially.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Strains of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS discovered in 1976 by Hartley, Wolford, Old, and Rowe and so named because the viruses originally isolated had the capacity to transform cell foci in mink cell cultures. MCF viruses are generated by recombination with ecotropic murine leukemia viruses including AKR, Friend, Moloney, and Rauscher, causing ERYTHROLEUKEMIA and severe anemia in mice.
Post-transcriptional regulatory proteins required for the accumulation of mRNAs that encode the gag and env gene products in HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The rex (regulator x; x is undefined) products act by binding to elements in the LONG TERMINAL REPEAT.
A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).
An acute myeloid leukemia in which 80% or more of the leukemic cells are of monocytic lineage including monoblasts, promonocytes, and MONOCYTES.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
A neoplastic disease of the lymphoreticular cells which is considered to be a rare type of chronic leukemia; it is characterized by an insidious onset, splenomegaly, anemia, granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, little or no lymphadenopathy, and the presence of "hairy" or "flagellated" cells in the blood and bone marrow.
Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for at least three proteins which regulate the expression of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The proteins are p21(x), p27(rex), and p40(tax). The tax (trans-activator x) and rex (regulator x) genes are part of pX but are in overlapping reading frames. X was the original designation for the sequences or region (at that time of unknown function) in the long open reading frame (lor) which is now called pX.
Leukemia produced by exposure to IONIZING RADIATION or NON-IONIZING RADIATION.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Conditions in which the abnormalities in the peripheral blood or bone marrow represent the early manifestations of acute leukemia, but in which the changes are not of sufficient magnitude or specificity to permit a diagnosis of acute leukemia by the usual clinical criteria.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Infections caused by the HTLV or BLV deltaretroviruses. They include human T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED).
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A malignant disease of the B-LYMPHOCYTES in the bone marrow and/or blood.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Myeloid-lymphoid leukemia protein is a transcription factor that maintains high levels of HOMEOTIC GENE expression during development. The GENE for myeloid-lymphoid leukemia protein is commonly disrupted in LEUKEMIA and combines with over 40 partner genes to form FUSION ONCOGENE PROTEINS.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Tumors or cancer of the THYMUS GLAND.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
An experimental lymphocytic leukemia originally induced in DBA/2 mice by painting with methylcholanthrene.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
An acute leukemia exhibiting cell features characteristic of both the myeloid and lymphoid lineages and probably arising from MULTIPOTENT STEM CELLS.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A genus in the family FELIDAE comprising one species, Puma concolor. It is a large, long-tailed, feline of uniform color. The names puma, cougar, and mountain lion are used interchangeably for this species. There are more than 20 subspecies.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Genus of non-oncogenic retroviruses which establish persistent infections in many animal species but are considered non-pathogenic. Its species have been isolated from primates (including humans), cattle, cats, hamsters, horses, and sea lions. Spumaviruses have a foamy or lace-like appearance and are often accompanied by syncytium formation. SIMIAN FOAMY VIRUS is the type species.
Large, chiefly nocturnal mammals of the cat family FELIDAE, species Panthera leo. They are found in Africa and southern Asia.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2, closely related to the human HTLV-1 virus. The clinical, hematological, and histopathological characteristics of the disease in STLV-infected monkeys are very similar to those of human adult T-cell leukemia. Subgroups include the African green monkey subtype (STLV-I-AGM), for which the nucleotide sequence is 95% homologous with that of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1, and the Asian rhesus macaque subtype (STLV-I-MM), for which the nucleotide sequence is 90% homologous with that of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
Antigens associated with HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1.

Recombinant feline leukemia virus (FeLV) variants establish a limited infection with altered cell tropism in specific-pathogen-free cats in the absence of FeLV subgroup A helper virus. (1/376)

Feline leukemia virus subgroup B (FeLV-B) is commonly associated with feline lymphosarcoma and arises through recombination between endogenous retroviral elements inherited in the cat genome and corresponding regions of the envelope (env) gene from FeLV subgroup A (FeLV-A). In vivo infectivity for FeLV-B is thought to be inefficient in the absence of FeLV-A. Proposed FeLV-A helper functions include enhanced replication efficiency, immune evasion, and replication rescue for defective FeLV-B virions. In vitro analysis of the recombinant FeLV-B-like viruses (rFeLVs) employed in this study confirmed these viruses were replication competent prior to their use in an in vivo study without FeLV-A helper virus. Eight specific-pathogen-free kittens were inoculated with the rFeLVs alone. Subsequent hematology and histology results were within normal limits, however, in the absence of detectable viremia, virus expression, or significant seroconversion, rFeLV proviral DNA was detected in bone marrow tissue of 4/4 (100%) cats at 45 weeks postinoculation (pi), indicating these rFeLVs established a limited but persistent infection in the absence of FeLV-A. Altered cell tropism was also noted. Focal infection was seen in T-cell areas of the splenic follicles in 3/4 (75%) rFeLV-infected cats analyzed, while an FeLV-A-infected cat showed focal infection in B-cell areas of the splenic follicles. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the surface glycoprotein portion of the rFeLV env gene amplified from bone marrow tissue collected at 45 weeks pi showed no sequence alterations from the original rFeLV inocula.  (+info)

Feline leukemia virus long terminal repeat activates collagenase IV gene expression through AP-1. (2/376)

Leukemia and lymphoma induced by feline leukemia viruses (FeLVs) are the commonest forms of illness in domestic cats. These viruses do not contain oncogenes, and the source of their pathogenic activity is not clearly understood. Mechanisms involving proto-oncogene activation subsequent to proviral integration and/or development of recombinant viruses with enhanced replication properties are thought to play an important role in their disease pathogenesis. In addition, the long terminal repeat (LTR) regions of these viruses have been shown to be important determinants for pathogenicity and tissue specificity, by virtue of their ability to interact with various transcription factors. Previously, we have shown that, in the case of Moloney murine leukemia virus, the U3 region of the LTR independently induces transcriptional activation of specific cellular genes through an LTR-generated RNA transcript (S. Y. Choi and D. V. Faller, J. Biol. Chem. 269:19691-19694, 1994; S.-Y. Choi and D. V. Faller, J. Virol. 69:7054-7060, 1995). In this report, we show that the U3 region of exogenous FeLV LTRs can induce transcription from collagenase IV (matrix metalloproteinase 9) and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) promoters up to 12-fold. We also show that AP-1 DNA-binding activity and transcriptional activity are strongly induced in cells expressing FeLV LTRs and that LTR-specific RNA transcripts are generated in those cells. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases 1 and 2 (MEK1 and -2) by the LTR is an intermediate step in the FeLV LTR-mediated induction of AP-1 activity. These findings thus suggest that the LTRs of FeLVs can independently activate transcription of specific cellular genes. This LTR-mediated cellular gene transactivation may play an important role in tumorigenesis or preleukemic states and may be a generalizable activity of leukemia-inducing retroviruses.  (+info)

A putative cell surface receptor for anemia-inducing feline leukemia virus subgroup C is a member of a transporter superfamily. (3/376)

Domestic cats infected with the horizontally transmitted feline leukemia virus subgroup A (FeLV-A) often produce mutants (termed FeLV-C) that bind to a distinct cell surface receptor and cause severe aplastic anemia in vivo and erythroblast destruction in bone marrow cultures. The major determinant for FeLV-C-induced anemia has been mapped to a small region of the surface envelope glycoprotein that is responsible for its receptor binding specificity. Thus, erythroblast destruction may directly or indirectly result from FeLV-C binding to its receptor. To address these issues, we functionally cloned a putative cell surface receptor for FeLV-C (FLVCR) by using a human T-lymphocyte cDNA library in a retroviral vector. Expression of the 2.0-kbp FLVCR cDNA in naturally resistant Swiss mouse fibroblasts and Chinese hamster ovary cells caused substantial susceptibility to FeLV-C but no change in susceptibilities to FeLV-B and other retroviruses. The predicted FLVCR protein contains 555 amino acids and 12 hydrophobic potential membrane-spanning sequences. Database searches indicated that FLVCR is a member of the major-facilitator superfamily of transporters and implied that it may transport an organic anion. RNA blot analyses showed that FLVCR mRNA is expressed in multiple hematopoietic lineages rather than specifically in erythroblasts. These results suggest that the targeted destruction of erythroblasts by FeLV-C may derive from their greater sensitivity to this virus rather than from a preferential susceptibility to infection.  (+info)

The FeLV-945 LTR confers a replicative advantage dependent on the presence of a tandem triplication. (4/376)

Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), like other naturally occurring retroviruses, is characterized by a high degree of genetic diversity. FeLV-945 is a natural isolate derived from non-B-cell non-T-cell lymphomas classified anatomically as multicentric. FeLV-945 exhibits a unique structural motif in the LTR composed of a 21-bp tandem triplication downstream of a single copy of enhancer. The unique FeLV-945 LTR is precisely conserved among eight independent multicentric lymphomas collected in a geographic cluster. Previous studies using reporter gene constructs predict that the FeLV-945 LTR would confer a replicative advantage on the virus that contains it, particularly in primitive hematopoietic cells. Such an advantage may account for the precise conservation of the unique LTR sequence. To test that prediction, a set of recombinant, infectious FeLVs was developed that are isogenic other than the presence of the FeLV-945 LTR or mutations of it. Replication assays show that the FeLV-945 LTR confers a distinct growth advantage in K-562, FEA, and 3201 cells and implicate the 21-bp triplication in that function. Replacement of two copies of the triplicated element with random sequence greatly diminished the replicative capacity, thus implicating the triplicated sequence itself in LTR function. The 21-bp triplication was shown to contain specific nuclear protein binding sites, which may account for the selective pressure to conserve the sequence.  (+info)

X-ray diffraction study of feline leukemia virus fusion peptide and lipid polymorphism. (5/376)

The structural effects of the fusion peptide of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) on the lipid polymorphism of N-methylated dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine were studied using a temperature ramp with sequential X-ray diffraction. This peptide, the hydrophobic amino-terminus of p15E, has been proven to be fusogenic and to promote the formation of highly curved, intermediate structures on the lamellar liquid-crystal to inverse hexagonal phase transition pathway. The FeLV peptide produces marked effects on the thermotropic mesomorphic behaviour of MeDOPE, a phospholipid with an intermediate spontaneous radius of curvature. The peptide is shown to reduce the lamellar repeat distance of the membrane prior to the onset of an inverted cubic phase. This suggests that membrane thinning may play a role in peptide-induced membrane fusion and strengthens the link between the fusion pathway and inverted cubic phase formation. The results of this study are interpreted in relation to models of the membrane fusion mechanism.  (+info)

A comprehensive approach to mapping the interacting surfaces of murine amphotropic and feline subgroup B leukemia viruses with their cell surface receptors. (6/376)

Because mutations in envelope glycoproteins of retroviruses or in their cell surface receptors can eliminate function by multiple mechanisms, it has been difficult to unambiguously identify sites for their interactions by site-directed mutagenesis. Recently, we developed a gain-of-function approach to overcome this problem. Our strategy relies on the fact that feline leukemia virus subgroup B (FeLV-B) and amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MLV) have closely related gp70 surface envelope glycoproteins and use related Na(+)-dependent phosphate symporters, Pit1 and Pit2, respectively, as their receptors. We previously observed that FeLV-B/A-MLV envelope glycoprotein chimeras spliced between the variable regions VRA and VRB were unable to use Pit1 or Pit2 as a receptor but could efficiently use specific Pit1/Pit2 chimeras. The latter study suggested that the VRA of A-MLV and FeLV-B functionally interact with the presumptive extracellular loops 4 and 5 (ECL4 and -5) of their respective receptors, whereas VRB interacts with ECL2. We also found that FeLV-B gp70 residues F60 and P61 and A-MLV residues Y60 and V61 in the first disulfide-bonded loop of VRA were important for functional interaction with the receptor's ECL4 or -5. We have now extended this approach to identify additional VRA and VRB residues that are involved in receptor recognition. Our studies imply that FeLV-B VRA residues F60 and P61 interact with the Pit1 ECL5 region, whereas VRA residues 66 to 78 interact with Pit1 ECL4. Correspondingly, A-MLV VRA residues Y60 and V61 interact with the Pit2 ECL5 region, whereas residues 66 to 78 interact with Pit2 ECL4. Similar studies that focused on the gp70 VRB implicated residues 129 to 139 as contributing to specific interactions with the receptor ECL2. These results identify three regions of gp70 that interact in a specific manner with distinct portions of their receptors, thereby providing a map of the functionally interacting surfaces.  (+info)

Protein stabilization: a common consequence of mutations in independently derived v-Myc alleles. (7/376)

Myc is overexpressed in many cancers as a result of gene rearrangement or amplification, but coding sequence changes which cluster in the N-terminal transactivation domain also appear to play a role in tumour progression. The prototypic v-Myc gene of MC29 virus differs from avian c-Myc by a series of mutations, including a change at a regulatory phosphorylation site within the mutational hotspot (thr-61) which is known to potentiate transformation in vitro. We now show that the mutation at thr-61 stabilizes the v-Myc protein (turnover difference) and that this single mutation is both necessary and sufficient for the phenotype. A major involvement of the proteasome in Myc degradation was confirmed, but surprisingly, a dilysine motif adjacent to thr-61 proved not to be the ubiquitin target. Two other v-Myc genes which carry a mutation at thr-61 (avian MH2) or a large deletion encompassing this domain (feline T17) were found to be stabilized to a similar extent as MC29, showing that stabilization is a common feature of independently derived Myc oncogenes. These results suggest a common selective process in the genesis of these three viral oncoproteins and a mechanistic link with Jun, Fos and Myb oncoproteins which are also stabilized relative to their cellular counterparts.  (+info)

A novel truncated env gene isolated from a feline leukemia virus-induced thymic lymphosarcoma. (8/376)

We PCR amplified the exogenous feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-related env gene species from lymphosarcomas induced by intradermally administered plasmid DNA of either the prototype FeLV, subgroup A molecular clone, F6A, or a new molecular clone, FeLV-A, Rickard strain (FRA). Of the nine tumors examined, six showed the presence of deleted env species of variable sizes in the tumor DNA. One env mutant, which was detected in a FRA-induced thymic lymphosarcoma, had a large internal deletion beginning from almost the N-terminal surface glycoprotein (SU) up to the middle region of the transmembrane (TM) protein of the env gene. The deduced polypeptide of this truncated env (tenv) retained the complete signal peptide and seven amino acids of the N-terminal mature SU of FRA env gene, followed by eight amino acids from the frameshift in the TM region. To study the biological function of tenv, we used a murine retrovirus vector to produce amphotropic virions. Infection of feline fibroblasts (H927), human fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080), or human B-lymphoma cells (Raji) led to pronounced cytotoxicity, while the tenv virus did not induce significant cytotoxicity to feline T-lymphoma cells (3201B) or human T-lymphoma cells (CEM). Together, these results convincingly demonstrated that the genetic events that led to truncation in the env gene occurred de novo in FeLV lymphomagenesis and that such a product, tenv could induce cytotoxicity to fibroblastic and B-lymphoid cells but not to T-lymphoid tumor cells. This type of selective toxicity might be potentially important in the development of the neoplastic disease.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - A putative cell surface receptor for anemia-inducing feline leukemia virus subgroup C is a member of a transporter superfamily. AU - Tailor, Chetankumar S.. AU - Willett, Brian J.. AU - Kabat, David. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - Domestic cats infected with the horizontally transmitted feline leukemia virus subgroup A (FeLV-A) often produce mutants (termed FeLV-C) that bind to a distinct cell surface receptor and cause severe aplastic anemia in vivo and erythroblast destruction in bone marrow cultures. The major determinant for FeLV-C-induced anemia has been mapped to a small region of the surface envelope glycoprotein that is responsible for its receptor binding specificity. Thus, erythroblast destruction may directly or indirectly result from FeLV-C binding to its receptor. To address these issues, we functionally cloned a putative cell surface receptor for FeLV-C (FLVCR) by using a human T-lymphocyte cDNA library ...
Recently, we demonstrated that endogenous feline leukemia virus (enFeLV) loads may vary among cats of different populations and that FeLV-infected cats have higher enFeLV loads than uninfected cats. Thus, we hypothesized that enFeLV might influence the pathogenesis and outcome of FeLV infection. No significant difference in the infection outcome (regressive versus progressive infection) was observed between groups of cats with high or low enFeLV loads following FeLV-A challenge. However, cats with high enFeLV loads showed higher viral replication (plasma viral RNA and p27 antigen levels) than cats with low enFeLV loads in the early phase of the infection. The enFeLV transcription level varied at different time points, but no clear-cut pattern was observed. In conclusion, our results demonstrated an association between enFeLV loads and FeLV replication but not outcome of infection. enFeLV should be considered as an important confounder in experimental FeLV infection or vaccination studies. ...
Define feline leukemia virus. feline leukemia virus synonyms, feline leukemia virus pronunciation, feline leukemia virus translation, English dictionary definition of feline leukemia virus. n. Abbr. FeLV A retrovirus that primarily affects cats, is transmitted through saliva, and causes immunosuppression, anemia, cancers such as leukemia and...
BACKGROUND: Cats infected with exogenous feline leukemia virus (exFeLV) have a higher chance of lymphoma development than uninfected cats. Furthermore, an increased exFeLV transcription has been detected in lymphomas compared to non-malignant tissues. The possible mechanisms of lymphoma development by exFeLV are insertional mutagenesis or persistent stimulation of host immune cells by viral antigens, bringing them at risk for malignant transformation. Vaccination of cats against exFeLV has in recent years decreased the overall infection rate in most countries. Nevertheless, an increasing number of lymphomas have been diagnosed among exFeLV-negative cats. Endogenous feline leukemia virus (enFeLV) is another retrovirus for which transcription has been observed in cat lymphomas. EnFeLV provirus elements are present in the germline of various cat species and share a high sequence similarity with exFeLV but, due to mutations, are incapable of producing infectious viral particles. However, ...
Feline Leukaemia Virus p15E products available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Feline Leukaemia Virus p15E product catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
The Feline Leukemia virus is spread through bodily fluids. This means every thing from saliva and tears to urine and feces. Cats most commonly contract the disease through their normal habit of grooming one another. It is also possible for kittens to become infected by their mothers. This can happen either before birth or while the infant is nursing. Outdoor cats are at a higher risk due to the uncontrollable variables in their environment. Also, this disease can only survive in felines. This means that none of your other pets or your family is at any kind of risk. Feline Leukemia is devastating and damages your pets immune system. Fighting this cancer is important and there are ways to help. Learn the signs, symptoms and treatment of feline leukemia.. So how do you know if your cat is infected with Feline Leukemia? There are a few key signs that should point you in the right direction. First you need to pay attention to your cats habits. Signs and symptoms of Feline Leukemia can include ...
Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) is an incurable viral infection that eventually produces fatal illness in infected cats. Read our advice and guidance on caring for a cat with FeLV.
Atlas is a 4 year old male kitty, and he is FeLV (Feline Leukemia) positive. So what does that mean for him? Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) - What Is It? FeLV is a retrovirus that infects cats and is responsible for more deaths than any other organism. It is, unfortunately, not uncommon. FeLV is highly contagious and is easily spread once a cat has been in close contact with
The flvi-2 locus is a target of insertional mutagenesis in thymic lymphosarcomas induced by feline leukemia virus (FeLV). flvi-2 encodes the gene bmi-1, whose product is implicated as a myc-collaborator in the induction of B- and T-cell lymphoma. We have examined the involvement of flvi -2 and myc in natural and experimentally induced FeLV-positive feline lymphosarcomas which are heterogeneous in anatomical origin, geographic origin, and strain of FeLV involved. We further compared these findings with previous reports of novel FeLV env genes in the same tumors. The results show that proviral insertion at flvi-2 occurs commonly in natural and experimental feline thymic lymphosarcomas of diverse origins [52% overall], and that alterations in c-myc commonly accompany insertional mutagenesis of flvi-2 [54% overall]. However, 46% of tumors with flvi-2 insertions apparently lack involvement of c-myc. These observations support the hypothesis that interruption of flvi-2 may be an early event in a ...
Summary The neutralization of feline leukaemia virus could be enhanced by performing the reaction in hypotonic medium. Absorption of antibody by virus specific antigens was also made more sensitive under these conditions.
The Granby Animal Clinic, Inc.. FELINE LEUKEMIA At one time feline leukemia virus infection was one of the most common fatal diseases of cats. Because we can now protect cats with a leukemia virus vaccine, we are seeing fewer cases of the disease. However, it still remains a major cause of death in cats.. Leukemia means cancer of the white blood cells. This was the first disease associated with the feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and, thus, the source of its name. However, this virus causes many other fatal diseases including lymphoma, anemia and life-threatening infections due to immune suppression. The virus is primarily transmitted through saliva; however, it can also be transmitted through nasal secretions, blood, milk, and feces. The most common source of infection is social interactions including mutual grooming and sharing food and water bowls and litter boxes. Cats can also become infected via cat fights and infected mother cats can pass the virus to their kittens before and after birth. ...
Introduction The feline leukemia virus is a highly contagious retrovirus that can cause immunosuppression, secondary opportunistic infections and a number of neoplastic (cancerous) and hematologic (blood) abnormalities in cats. In fact, FeLV infection is one of the leading causes of death among companion felines and is
Cancer has always been one of the most challenging areas in both human and veterinary medicine.. One of the most common types of cancers in cats is Feline Leukemia, which is actually a result of a viral infection.. Luckily, with the right management this cancer may be prevented.. Feline Leukemia Virus (AKA FELV) is a virus belongs to the Retrovirus family.. The disease spreads easily either by a contact between a carrier cat to unexposed cat, or from a carrier pregnant queen to her kittens through the placenta or in the milk.. The virus can not be transmitted from cats to dogs, nor to humans.. The Feline Leukemia Virus attacks the bodys lymphoid tissue (part of the immune system) and may cause either Lymphosarcoma- tumors in various internal organs or leukemia (cancer of the white blood cells). The virus also leads to anemia and general weakness of the immune system, which alters the cats ability to fight any sort of infection.. The severity of the disease depends mainly on the timing of the ...
NOBIVAC Feline 1-HCP+ FeLV 25 ds Tray (Eclipse 3 + FeLV) Feline Leukemia-rhinotracheitis-calici-panleukopenia Vaccine Modified Live And Killed Virus. Eclipse* 3 + FeLV vaccine is a combination vaccine that unites the benefits of Eclipse* 3 and Fevaxyn* FeLV in one vaccination.. In summary, feline leukemia virus is a deadly disease with no known cure. Most cats will perish within three years of contracting the virus. Prevention is the best remedy. Keep your cats indoors and away from interacting with cats who have the virus. Have your kitten tested for the virus. If the test is negative, your kitten can be vaccinated against the virus.. ...
Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) is a transmittable RNA retrovirus that inhibits feline immune systems and predisposes its host to infections and diseases. Much is unknown about FeLV, including the nature and location of its insertion sites. Identifying insertion sites of the provirus can provide information about mechanisms of tumorigenesis and identifY new protooncogenes. To search for insertion sites, gene-specific primers were designed and a genome walking method was optimized for our application. Using the optimized process, blood and tissue samples were examined for FeLV provirus. The cat from which we received samples showed neurological symptoms before death; therefore, we hypothesized FeLV sequences would be present in brain tissue. We also hypothesized that brain sequences and insertion sites would differ from specific sequences found in blood and other tissue samples. Exogenous FeLV-B sequences were successfully amplified from blood, brain and lymph tissues and no differences were found between
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Sodium-phosphate symporter which seems to play a fundamental housekeeping role in phosphate transport by absorbing phosphate from interstitial fluid for normal cellular functions such as cellular metabolism, signal transduction, and nucleic acid and lipid synthesis. In vitro, sodium-dependent phosphate uptake is not siginificantly affected by acidic and alkaline conditions, however sodium-independent phosphate uptake occurs at acidic conditions. May play a role in extracellular matrix, cartilage and vascular calcification. Functions as a retroviral receptor and confers human cells susceptibility to infection to amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV), 10A1 murine leukemia virus (10A1 MLV) and some feline leukemia virus subgroup B (FeLV-B) variants. This gene encodes a member of the inorganic phosphate transporter family. The encoded protein is a type 3 sodium-dependent phosphate symporter that plays an important role in phosphate homeostasis by mediating cellular phosphate uptake. The encoded protein
Mouse anti Feline leukemia virus p27 antibody (M452), suitable for use in ELISA and Lateral Flow applications - The Native Antigen Company.
Feline leukemia virus symptoms may vary greatly depending upon a number of factors. There are two stages of the disease, and some cats will not display symptoms until long after initial infection.
Feline Leukemia Virus: What You Need to Know in Albion, NY . Country Lane Veterinary is your local Veterinarian in Albion serving all of your needs. Call us today at (585) 589-9835 for an appointment.
Feline leukemia is a frequent worry for cat owners. This is because feline leukemia is a contagious disease that can be passed from cat to cat.
FLVCR antibody [C3], C-term (feline leukemia virus subgroup C cellular receptor 1) for WB. Anti-FLVCR pAb (GTX106462) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
ELISA test (enzyme linked immunsorbent assay4) - this feline leukemia test detects virus antigen in whole blood, sperm, saliva and tears. A test kit is available for home and clinic use. The test takes about 10-20 minutes to perform. This test is more likely, the doctors say to detect weak, early or transient infections. Test sensitivity is very good3but less good on saliva and tears. I could not find a supplier of the home test kit on the internet when searching for 10 mins but found one after about 20 mins searching! (see the header picture). It is available from Amazon and is called the Assure FeLv Feline Leukemia Virus Antigen Test Kit 25 tests. It cost $259.99! It tests the cats saliva. It appears not to be available anywhere other than the USA. If the test is positive the cat may have a transient viremia. This may indicate the early stages of the disease or the cat may recover completely. A follow up IFA test is recommended by the Drs. and it will also confirm, if positive, that the cat ...
Feline Leukemia and Bladder Infections Q: My cat Raul tested positive about 1 month ago. He has a pale mouth and nose, has lost weight,and has cut down on eating. I noticed a odor coming from our basement that smelt like cat urine. Yesterday I actually saw him going bathroom right in front of me in the basement. I dont no how long this has been going on but I think it is fairly recent. Is this because of the leukemia or what?is there any thing to do to make him quit. I would appreciate it greatly if you could answer this question. If not thanks for taking time to read it. A: Mel-Cats with feline leukemia often have an increased susceptibility to bladder infections (actually to many infections). It would be best to be sure that this was not leading to the behavioral changes. Cats with feline leukemia also often have behavioral changes that do not always seem to have a specific physical cause. In some cases they may be too weak to make it to a litterpan in a location such as the second story of a ...
Does your cat need the feline leukemia vaccine? Learn more about the feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and about which cats should be vaccinated.
Most FeLV-positive cats become infected by direct contact with saliva or blood from the oral or nasal secretions of infected cats. This commonly occurs either through mutual cat-to-cat grooming, playing, shared water or food dishes, weeping wounds or cat bites. The virus is shed to a lesser extent in urine, feces and tears. FeLV can be transmitted through blood transfusions, and also in utero from an infected queen to her unborn kittens. Young newborns tend to be more susceptible than older cats to clinical disease and often contract the infection from the saliva of their infected mothers. Because this virus is not very hardy and is highly susceptible to environmental conditions such as heat and disinfectants, environmental contamination is an uncommon cause of FeLV infection.. However, not all cats exposed to FeLV become clinically ill. Some mount an effective immune response and eliminate the virus entirely. It appears that prolonged or repeated exposure to the virus is necessary for ...
Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) is a contagious retrovirus that is spread horizontally via saliva from infected cats. Disease induced by this virus is among the leading cause of death among pet cats. Numerous testing strategies have been developed, due to the implications of FeLV infection, that involve detection of group-specific antigens. Whether or not a particular test is effective for a given cat depends on the stage of infection within the animal. The pathogenesis of FeLV involves infection and replication of the virus in the oronasal lymphoid tissue. Infected lymphocytes then enter the peripheral circulation, producing viremia. This viremic stage is transient in many cats: 86% of adults and 20% of kitten eliminate the virus at this point. Infection is established in the bone marrow, infected neutrophils and platelets enter the circulation and bone marrow, infected neutrophils and platelets enter the circulation and produce a persistent viremia. The cat ultimately will shed the virus after ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Feline Leukaemia Virus p27 Antibody (PF12J-10A) [Biotin]. Validated: WB, ELISA, IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Virus. 100% Guaranteed.
FeLV invades and replicates in various cells, including cells in the cats immune system and blood-forming tissues. To replicate, the nucleic acid (genetic code) of FeLV inserts itself into the nucleic acid of the cells it has invaded. The result can be death of the cell or a mutation or change in its genetic code. Such a change can make the cell potentially cancerous; the cancerous change may not occur for months or years after infection.. Cancers can occur in a variety of tissues, organs and body sites, depending on the type and location of cells that have been infected with FeLV. Such cancers can involve any type of the circulating white blood cells (leukemia) or other cells of the blood-forming tissues. The most common tumor associated with FeLV is that of lymphoid cells known as lymphoma or lymphosarcoma. These tumors may occur at single or multiple sites in the body.. Although the development of cancer is one outcome of FeLV infection, other diseases more commonly develop. In many cats, ...
FeLV invades and replicates in various cells, including cells in the cats immune system and blood-forming tissues. To replicate, the nucleic acid (genetic code) of FeLV inserts itself into the nucleic acid of the cells it has invaded. The result can be death of the cell or a mutation or change in its genetic code. Such a change can make the cell potentially cancerous; the cancerous change may not occur for months or years after infection.. Cancers can occur in a variety of tissues, organs and body sites, depending on the type and location of cells that have been infected with FeLV. Such cancers can involve any type of the circulating white blood cells (leukemia) or other cells of the blood-forming tissues. The most common tumor associated with FeLV is that of lymphoid cells known as lymphoma or lymphosarcoma. These tumors may occur at single or multiple sites in the body.. Although the development of cancer is one outcome of FeLV infection, other diseases more commonly develop. In many cats, ...
FeLV invades and replicates in various cells, including cells in the cats immune system and blood-forming tissues. To replicate, the nucleic acid (genetic code) of FeLV inserts itself into the nucleic acid of the cells it has invaded. The result can be death of the cell or a mutation or change in its genetic code. Such a change can make the cell potentially cancerous; the cancerous change may not occur for months or years after infection.. Cancers can occur in a variety of tissues, organs and body sites, depending on the type and location of cells that have been infected with FeLV. Such cancers can involve any type of the circulating white blood cells (leukemia) or other cells of the blood-forming tissues. The most common tumor associated with FeLV is that of lymphoid cells known as lymphoma or lymphosarcoma. These tumors may occur at single or multiple sites in the body.. Although the development of cancer is one outcome of FeLV infection, other diseases more commonly develop. In many cats, ...
Feline leukemia (FeLV) is one of the leading causes of death in cats. This disease can cause cancer, but it also weakens the immune system, allowing other diseases to easily develop. Once the virus enters the cats body, there are three possible outcomes, all about equally probable. Its possible that the virus will be destroyed within 12 weeks by antibodies created by the immune system. In this case, the cat is not longer infected, and no longer contagious. Its also possible that the antibodies created will partially, but not completely, destroy the virus. In this case, the virus remains latent in the bone marrow and T-cells. Common cancer and other diseases may not develop, but the virus can be re-activated under stressful conditions. If the antibodies do not destroy the virus, the cat will develop feline leukemia and likely die in a year or less. ...
There are three main strains of FeLV, labeled A, B and C types, and cats that test positive for the virus may be infected with one, two or all three strains of the virus. FeLV-A affects 100% of all infected cats, causing a severe immunosuppression, or weakened immune system (this is why it is commonly referred to as feline or cat AIDS). This strain of the virus makes it easy for the cat to contract a large number of other infections, as well as being infected with the FeLV.. FeLV-B is present in about 50% of all infected cats. The B strain of the virus causes neoplastic disease damage, resulting in tumors and other abnormal tissue growths. More rare is the C strain of the virus, which only occurs in 1% of all infected cats, and causes low red blood cell counts, resulting in anemia. All 3 strains of the virus are contagious and can be spread through the urine, feces, tears, or saliva of an infected cat. Additionally, FeLV can be passed from a gestating (pregnant) cat, to her unborn ...
The feline leukemia virus is also known as FeLV greatly expanded among the world s cat population. leukemia in cats is not contagious to humans and other animal species. However in affected cats it ends up causing a deep depression of your immune system. You want to know more?
Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV). The feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is the causative agent of the most important fatal infectious disease complex of American domestic cats today. it is an RNA (ribonucleic acid) virus belonging to the family Retroviridae. Oncogenic (tumor-causing) retroviruses similar to FeLV have been identified in a number of animal species: cattle, domestic fowl, certain nonhuman primates, and rodents. The oncogenic retroviruses are commonly referred to as RIVA tumor viruses, or oncornaviruses (oncogenic RNA viruses).. Other retroviruses, known as lentiviruses, can produce noncancerous diseases in cats, sheep, goats, and horses. The feline lentivirus, known as feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) (see in later section), is the cause of an immunodeficiency syndrome similar to that produced in humans by the human immunodeficiency virus HIV, which causes AIDS.. Retroviruses carry with them an enzyme, reverse transcriptase. This enzyme is used to produce a DNA copy of the retroviral ...
Detection of Feline Leukemia Virus in Bone Marrow Using Polymerase Chain Reaction Erin Leigh Stimson Latent feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections, in which proviral DNA is integrated into host DNA, but not actively transcribed, are suspected to be associated with many diseases. Bone marrow is the suspected site of the majority of latent infections. The purpose of this study was to determine if polymerase chain reaction (PCR) could detect FeLV proviral DNA in bone marrow and provide a method of detecting latent infections. Blood and bone marrow samples from fifty cats and bone marrow from one fetus were collected; sixteen had FeLV-associated diseases. Serum ELISA, blood and bone marrow immunofluorescent antibody test (IFA), and blood and bone marrow PCR were performed on each cat, and IFA and PCR on bone marrow of the fetus. Forty-one cats were FeLV negative. Five cats and one fetus were persistently infected with FeLV. Four cats were discordant; two ELISA positive with other tests negative, ...
Mouse anti Feline Leukemia virus p27 antibody (7226), suitable for use in IFA, ELISA and Lateral Flow applications - The Native Antigen Company.
Broadening the use of antiretroviral therapy: the case for feline leukemia virus Willie M Greggs III1,3, Christine L Clouser1,2, Steven E Patterson1,4, Louis M Mansky1,2,3,4,51Institute for Molecular Virology, 2Department of Diagnostic and Biological Sciences, School of Dentistry, 3Comparative Molecular Biosciences Program, College of Veterinary Medicine, 4Center for Drug Design, Academic Health Center, 5Department of Microbiology, Medical School, University of Minnesota, MN, USAAbstract: Antiretroviral drugs have saved and extended the lives of millions of individuals infected with HIV. The major classes of anti-HIV drugs include reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, integrase inhibitors, and entry/fusion inhibitors. While antiretroviral drug regimens are not commonly used to treat other types of retroviral infections, there are instances where there is a perceived need for re-evaluation of the benefits of antiretroviral therapy. One case in point is that of feline leukemia virus (FeLV
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Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. The Merck Veterinary Manual was first published in 1955 as a service to the community. The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Veterinary Manual in the US and Canada and the MSD Manual outside of North America.. ...
Lymphosarcoma (lymphoma) is a malignant cancer originating in lymphocytes, which are found in lymph nodes and pretty much all the organs and tissues around the body. It is probably the most common type of cancer in cats and not uncommon in dogs. Like most cancers, middle-aged to older animals are most at risk. However, lymphoma is unique in that it can be associated with feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) infection in cats. Cats that are infected with FeLV can develop feline lymphoma as young as three years of age.. ...
Fortunately there is a simple blood test to tell you whether or not your pet is infected. If the test comes back positive then you will need to test again in about 12 weeks. It does happen that some cats are able to fight off the infection on their own. If this is the case then your re-test will be negative. However, if the second test is positive as well, then your cat has Feline Leukemia. Once this is confirmed you and your doctor will decide on a course of treatment. But you must always treat the animal as if they were contagious. This means quarantining them away from any other cats in the household, and changing all food and water bowls as well as setting up a new litter box ...
and also feline leukaemia virus- This is a serious and fatal disease, which we are unable to treat, so the vaccination is the only way to protect them. It is possible for your cat to have a vaccination that does not include feline leukaemia if you prefer. If your cat has not previously had the feline leukaemia vaccine and you would like them to have it, they will require two vaccines three weeks apart to start the course ...
Both Feline Leukemia and FIV ( cat aids) are scary diseases to cat owners. While many cats do just fine and wind up simply harboring the virus, others literally die. Both of these viruses suppress the cats immune system, allowing other diseases to come in and create serious illness and death.
Feline leukemia, unlike leukemia in humans, is not a form of cancer, but rather, a viral infection. Learn everything you need to know to keep your cat safe.
5 months ago we brought an older kitten (estimated age 9-12 months) into our home. She was a rescue who was fully vaccinated. She is a thin cat. A few days ago, we noticed that she was acting strange (not playing, lethargic.) The next morning, she was breathing heavier than normal so I took her to the vet. Long story short, she was diagnosed with feline leukemia, fluid on the lungs, and anemia. The vet started her on clindamycin and lasik orally. She was mildly improved yesterday but is the same today as yesterday. She will not eat but will drink cat broth and lick the gravy off of wet food if we bring the food to her (which we are doing approximately every 2 hrs or so during the day time.) She uses the litterbox, and will occasionally purr or attempt to play for a very short time ...
Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is one of the most important infectious viruses of cats. It was first discovered in cats with a form of leukemia, hence its name. FeLV is the cause of a variety of diseases, not just leukemia.
Feline Leukemia Virus: What You Need to Know in Greensboro, NC. Forest Oaks Animal Hospital is your local Veterinarian in Greensboro serving all of your needs. Call us today at (336) 697-7272 for an appointment.
What is Feline Leukemia Virus? Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) is a transmittable virus that can severely depress a cats immune system; predisposing them to a variety of infections and diseases, including anemia, kidney disease and lymphoma. FeLV is most commonly transmitted through direct contact with an infected cat (mutual grooming, bites/scratches, sharing litterboxes and sharing…
Ankara Üniversitesi Kütüphanesi, Ankara Üniversitesi Beşevler 10.Yıl Yerleşkesi (Tandoğan Yerleşkesi) Ord. Prof. Dr.Şevket Aziz KANSU Binası B GİRİŞİ Kat:5​ Beşevler/ ...
Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is passed from one cat to another through saliva, blood, and to some extent, urine and feces. The virus commonly causes anemia or lymphoma, but because it suppresses the immune system, it can also predispose cats to deadly infections.. Exposure to the feline leukemia virus doesnt have to be a death sentence; approximately 70% of cats who encounter the virus are able to resist infection or eliminate the virus on their own.. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) is a viral disease which affects the immune system of domestic cats, leaving the infected cat vulnerable to many other infections. The primary mode of transmission for FIV is through bite wounds. Cats in households with stable social structures where housemates do not fight are at little risk of acquiring FIV infections.. ...
ZAMBELLI, Anthony B.; CLIFT, Sarah J.; GERBER, David e SCHOEMAN, Johan P.. Hypercalcaemic multicentric lymphoma in a dog presenting as clitoromegaly. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. [online]. 2013, vol.84, n.1, pp.1-8. ISSN 2224-9435.. Clitoromegaly is a clinical manifestation of various local and systemic conditions in all species. The external genitalia are a very rare site of primary or metastatic lymphoma in canines, with only one previously-reported case in a dog and only sparse reports in the medical literature. Lymphoma is also very rare in dogs less than four years of age. This account reports on a T-cell multicentric lymphoma in a 16-month-old Basset hound presented primarily for clitoromegaly. The patient survived for 68 days with cyclophosphamide-vincristine-prednisolone therapy. The causes of clitoromegaly in all species, including humans, are tabulated with references.. ...
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There is no way to know for certain, by some experts estimate that the feral cat population in North America may equal or even exceed that of the owned cat population. Feral cats are not socialized to humans and avoid contact with people whenever possible. In contrast, stray cats are often those cats that have left a home or have been abandoned by their owners. These strays may have been socialized to humans at one time and will often approach people and may even allow petting. All cats, feral, stray and owned cats that simply roam the neighborhood are all members of the domestic species, Felis catus.. Traditionally, feral and stray cats are trapped whenever possible and then are taken to local animal shelters. Once at a shelter, if they are socialized to humans and have a calm disposition, some cats may be adopted out. However, the vast majority of these feral cats may be harboring diseases, such as Feline Leukemia, or they are totally wild and cannot be adopted out. These cats will often ...
Feline pneumonitis is caused by the organism Chlamydia psittaci. Signs of pneumonitis are similar to those of FVR and FCV.. Feline leukemia Virus ( FeLV ) - Feline Leukemia causes immunosuppression, major organ system degeneration and/or cancer. Signs of this disease are usually vague and include weight loss, decreased appetite, depression, vomiting and diarrhea. Cats can also get secondary infections because of the decreased immune system function. This virus is spread by casual contact between cats. This vaccination is recommended for cats that are outside unsupervised, cats that are in contact with outdoor cats and cats that live with FeLV positive cats.. Feline Infectious Peritonitis ( FIP ) - FIP can cause fluid congestion or aggressive organ destruction. The virus is spread in the feces and oronasal secretions. Unfortunately, this vaccination is not commonly recommended because it is not very effective.. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus ( FIV ) - Signs of FIV can be from direct viral effects ...
During the late 1960s and early 1970s, cell tumor biology researchers determined that synthetic RNA and feline leukaemia virus (FELV) template added to human type C viruses--those associated with cancers of the lymph nodes increased the rate of DNA production (and subsequent provirus and virus reproduction) as much as thirty times.(1) Such hybrid viruses, these researchers reported, may cause many cancers besides leukaemias and lymphomas, including sarcomas. Other NCI and Litton Bionetics teams reported modifying the fortieth discovered simian virus (SV40) by infusing it with nucleic acids from other species including FELV RNA, avian (i.e., chicken) myeloblastosis virus (AMV) RNA, associated with leukemia and sarcoma development, and mouse sarcoma RNA to: 1) make them carcinogenic, 2) prompt extreme immunosuppression in primates,(2,4,11) and 3) study RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (i.e., reverse transcriptase) and its relationship to human carcinogenesis,(6,11-14) For example, early work in ...
Maxs House. Lymphosarcoma In Cats. Mary Ann Vonderhaar and Wallace B. Morrison. Lymphosarcoma is a neoplasm of malignant lymphocytes in solid organs such as lymph nodes, bone marrow, or visceral organs such as the liver and spleen. Lymphosarcoma is usually amenable to chemotherapy protocols that are within the capabilities of most veterinary practices.. LYMPHOSARCOMA IN CATS Hematopoietic tumors are the most frequently occurring tumors in domestic cats, and they account for about 33% of all feline tumors. Lymphosarcoma accounts for up to 90% of the hematopoietic tumors in cats, with an estimated incidence of 200 cases/100,000 cats at risk. No increased prevalence has been reported for any sex or breed of cat. The usual age of cats at diagnosis is between 2 and 6 years. In many cases, lymphosarcoma in cats follows infection with the feline leukemia virus (FeLV). FeLV is a very immunosuppressive retrovirus that has been linked to the development of lymphosarcoma in both FeLV test-positive and ...
Vaccine-associated feline sarcoma: current perspectives Corey F Saba Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA Abstract: Feline injection site sarcomas (FISS; also known as vaccine-associated sarcomas) have been recognized for >20 years. Although uncommon, these tumors are iatrogenic, and vaccination against rabies and feline leukemia virus is perhaps the most common inciting cause. The exact etiopathogenesis is unknown, but it is widely accepted that inflammation induced by vaccines or other injections likely plays a critical role in tumor development. Injection site sarcomas are extremely locally invasive. Multimodal therapy, incorporating combinations of surgery, radiation therapy, and sometimes chemotherapy or immunotherapy, is recommended. However, tumor recurrences are common even with aggressive treatment, and many cats with FISS ultimately succumb to this devastating disease. While vaccination protocols play an
Clitoromegaly is a clinical manifestation of various local and systemic conditions in all species. The external genitalia are a very rare site of primary or metastatic lymphoma in canines, with only one previously-reported case in a dog and only sparse reports in the medical literature. Lymphoma is also very rare in dogs less than four years of age. This account reports on a T-cell multicentric lymphoma in a 16-month-old Basset hound presented primarily for clitoromegaly. The patient survived for 68 days with cyclophosphamide-vincristine-prednisolone therapy. The causes of clitoromegaly in all species, including humans, are tabulated with references ...
Street Paws opposes euthanizing any feral/street cat simply because he or she tests positive for FIV (feline immuno-deficiency virus) or FeLV (feline leukemia virus). If the cat shows no active signs of ill health, we believe he/she should be released back into his colony regardless of the test results. Because this is our policy, we do not test in the first place unless the cat does show signs of ill health and our veterinarian believes test results would be useful in diagnosis and treatment, or unless the cat is a candidate for adoption.. The reasons for these policies include the following:. 1. First and foremost, we do not euthanize positive, asymptomatic cats because we believe they have as much of a right to live as any being. Euthanasia is defined as the mercy killing of a suffering being, not imposed death for purposes of convenience or concern about possible future consequences. Too often, when it comes to feral cats and other animals, euthanasia is resorted to as a solution to whatever ...
Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is contagious among cats. Unlike many other viruses that enter specific cells in the body and destroy them, FeLV enters certain cells in a cats body and changes the cells genetic characteristics. This permits FeLV to continue reproducing within the cat each time infected cells divide. This allows FeLV to become dormant (inactive) in some cats, making disease transmission and prognosis (outlook) difficult to predict.. Rabies virus is dangerous and infects animals and humans worldwide. Rabies is generally fatal in all species, and any warm-blooded animal can become infected. Foxes, skunks, coyotes, and certain rodents spread the disease in many cases. Surprisingly, cats are more commonly involved in spreading rabies than dogs are. In fact, cats are the number-one domestic animal carrier of rabies in the United States. Read More ...
Leukemia is a cancer of blood cells, and it can show up within the circulatory system as well as in the bone marrow, where blood cells develop. Leukemia symptoms occur in both dogs and cats, and is especially common in cats, accounting for one-third or more of all feline cancer cases. Most --but not all -- cases of leukemia in cats are associated with infection by the feline leukemia virus (FeLV). Leukemia can affect dogs and cats of any age, but as with most ...
The Basics. Bringing a new kitten home is exciting. The following guidelines will help you and your kitten adjust to this big change in your lives.. Kittens can leave their mother and littermates after they have been weaned, usually at 8 to 10 weeks of age. Like human babies, kittens require special care, including veterinary care, feeding, and socialization. The best time to bring a kitten home is when you have at least 1 or 2 days to focus on helping him or her adjust to new surroundings.. To safely transport your new kitten home, youll need a carrier. Leaving mom is a big deal for your kitten; a carrier will help him or her feel more secure. Dont use another pets carrier because its smell could be stressful to your kitten. Place a towel in the carrier for warmth and to absorb urine in case of an accident. Carry an extra towel.. Before your kitten has contact with other cats, he or she must be tested for feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus, given a physical examination, ...
This cat was presented with a unilateral anterior uveitis with focal swelling of the iris. The photograph of the same eye shows a loss of detail of the optic disc due to severe cellular infiltrates (black arrows). The entire retina, especially around the optic disc, is edematous and detached. Intraretinal hemorrhage is also present. Feline leukemia virus was positive on serology. Histopathology on the globe demonstrated lymphosarcoma of the choroid, ciliary body and iris.. ...
Feline Lymphoma/Cancer Caregivers Guide, a guide for people who are faced with this type of feline cancer. We offer hope, treatment options, veterinary resources, actual ongoing case histories, support and anything else you may need to help guide you through the process of dealing with feline lymphoma.
Feline Lymphoma Caregivers Guide, a guide for people who are faced with this type of feline cancer. We offer hope, treatment options, veterinary resources, actual ongoing case histories, support and anything else you may need to help guide you through the process of dealing with feline lymphoma.
Felix Faust is a nineteen-year-old semi-genius who has just been accepted into a prestigious college. He discovered telekinesis at an early age and has used it discreetly for his own entertainment.Felix finds himself displeased and malcontent with everything he encounters in the school, except for one student. This other student shares Felixs gift, and is much stronger, capable of abilities Felix never thought possible. Now a new door opens for Felix as he is mentored and develops his psychic abilities, but this door also brings danger as malevolent forces set their eyes upon him. Tragedy and destruction follow Felix, leaving him no choice but to continue growing and fight back, but danger follows him every step of the way, and failure means death ...
NORTH GRAFTON, Mass. - Dr. Susan M. Cotter, DVM, whose early work in Feline Leukemia Virus shed light on viruses that cause leukemia and other neoplastic diseases-and paved the way for a better understanding of retroviruses such as AIDS-will be among five faculty members honored this weekend with emeritus designations by New Englands only veterinary school.
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Story about a cat called Maxwell and his battle with FeLV and his chronic eye problems, including corneal ulcers, entropion, and conjunctivitis. ...
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Gag polyprotein plays a role in budding and is processed by the viral protease during virion maturation outside the cell. During budding, it recruits, in a PPXY-dependent or independent manner, Nedd4-like ubiquitin ligases that conjugate ubiquitin molecules to Gag, or to Gag binding host factors. Interaction with HECT ubiquitin ligases probably link the viral protein to the host ESCRT pathway and facilitate release (By similarity).
Lymphoma (lymphosarcoma) in dogs is a cancer of lymphocytes.. Lymphocytes are white blood cells that play important roles in the immune system. They defend the body from pathogens (infectious agents) and foreign substances.. Types and Symptoms of Lymphoma in Dogs. Lymphoma can develop on any part of the body…. [Read more →]. ...
Business Standard News: Corporate Action: Felix Industries (FELIX) - Business Standard News and more from Business Standard News
Few infectious diseases of cats have the emotional and physical impact of Feline Retrovirus infections more commonly referred to as FIV and FeLv. Learn if your cat is at risk and how you can protect your cats and kittens by getting them vaccinated.
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Adoption Procedure: subject to meet and greet by all members of the household, application, home delivery, and upon final approval a contract.. Adoption Fees: includes spay or neutering, FVRCP (vaccines), FeLV/FIV testing (feline leukemia and feline AIDS), deworming, defleaing and microchip. One free vet exam at an approved VCA and discount coupons on supplies.. ...
and writes about feline-friendly hospitals, cat behavior and prevention of behavior problems, and recognizing and treating pain in cats. She has been active in the American Association of Feline Practitioners (AAFP) since 1982, and has served in every office, including President. She is most proud of her accomplishments in helping to establish guidelines for feline medicine, which include retrovirus testing, vaccinations, senior care, feline life stages, behavior, pain management, and feline handling guidelines (the latter published in 2011). Dr. Rodan was also an ambassador in the development of a specialist category in feline medicine. In 1995, she became one of the first board-certified feline practitioners. Her hospital is an AAHA-Accredited Feline Specialty Hospital. She and her team are involved in community service, including free spays and neuters for Friends of Ferals. Dr. Rodan also lectures to the public and staff members of the local shelter, Dane County Humane Society.. Dr. Rodan ...
Rakell missed the first nine games of the season with an abdomen injury, contract holdout and work visa issue. However, he was back on the ice on Monday, centring the third line with Antoine Vermette and Chris Wagner on his wing. Rakell, who had 43 points (20G / 23A) in 72 games last year, was also featured on the second power-play. Source: Eric Stephens 10/31/16, 2:57 pm EST. ...
There are many different things that could be a symptom of nursing home neglect. One of those things is the presence of ... Nursing Home Neglect
A bizarre case from a sheep-farming district of the Eastern Cape emphasises the problem with Shaun the Sheep and his prosecuting authority
We often hear about soldiers returning from war with traumatic brain injuries caused by explosives, but medical officials in ... Brain Injury
The two latest additions to our feral kitten collection went to the vet today and got a clean bill of health. Everyone at the vets office is telling me how I need to capture the rest of the litter, and the mother, and the other two litters and mothers in our neighborhood, and all the other stray cats in Nanticoke, and bring them in to get checked, and spayed, and neutered. As I handed out $114 per kitten for the initial checkup, which included Feline AIDS and Feline Leukemia tests, de-wormer, and an initial distemper shot, as well as a physical exam - a bargain, since I was expecting something more like $150 per cat - I could only smile, nod, and try to figure out how many days of overtime I will have to work to support these cats, when and if overtime becomes available again ...
Trapped a wild cat. Planned to TNR. Vet checked for feline leukemia and feline Aids and then spayed cat. We took her home and found she was not so wild. Her eyes are always dilated. Took her to an Opht...
Polish and Russian revolutionary Felix Dzerzhinsky (1877-1926) headed Cheka (the Soviet secret police) from 1917 to 1926. He was known as Iron Felix f...
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I have read that Lymphoma in cats is usually associates with Feline Leukemia. My cat, Daisy, has Lymphoma (based on bloodwork, a biopsy and x-ray), and we have 4 others cats. Daisy has had all her sh...
Where: 2070 Griffin Rd., Ft. Lauderdale, FL (16 minutes from 13th Floor Homes Tamarac communities.). When: Pet Adoptions Monday-Saturday, 10:30 A.M.-6:30 P.M. Sunday, 10:30 A.M.-6:00 P.M.. The Humane Society of Broward County is dedicated to providing shelter, aid, and responsible adoption services to the animals in their care. Their 33,000 square foot fully air-conditioned facility has the ability to house over 300 cats and dogs. Committed to educating the community, the organization encourages respect and kindness to animals through responsible ownership. Along with pet adoptions, the shelter also offers dog, cat, and rabbit behavior classes as well as dog obedience classes and crate training. Clinic services include low cost spay and neuter programs, vaccinations and micro chipping, as well as pet health information and resources. Adoption fees include spay/neuter, flea/tick treatment, deworming and preliminary vaccinations, heartworm test, microchip, Feline Leukemia test, one bag of Purina ...
id:13745,bid:62650,uid:0,title:Wonderful shelter,username:TeresaKline,rating:4,pros:Bonnie is very nice and helpful ,cons:As with all of us need more room,description:Have not physically been to this shelter but what impresses me is Bonnie is a very nice helpful lady and she was willing to take a cat from us-Pets Without Parents of MAson and Logan Counties of Il.-that was Feline Leukemia Positive.She has a room devoted to these cats and takes care of them and doctors them.She does not just put them down.A lot of rescues dont or are not capable of doing that.,date_added:1203993841,date_modified:null,is_external:1,external_site_name:zootoo,external_site_url:null,external_user_profile:null,status:1 ...
Ive always had cats in the house, even when I was a young cub. About 15 years ago, one of our cats contracted feline leukemia, and we had to euthanize him... it was the only humane thing to do. He was in horrible pain all the time. The last time I saw him was at the vets office. We had just been told our options, and after a good ten minutes of crying, we told them to do it. I held him one last time... and as he sat on my lap, mewling quietly in pain, he looked up at me and licked the tears off my face ...
Our state of the art in-house laboratory allows us to test a full array of internal organ functions, complete CBC, feline leukemia/FIV testing, intestinal parasite testing, and canine parvo testing as well. Because these tests are done in the hospital, we can have results within 30 minutes.. ...
Vaccinations available for rabies & distemper, bordetella, feline leukemia, heartworm, and more. Microchips availa ble. No appointment ncessary. Please bring your dogs on a non-retractable leash and all cats must be in a carrier. More info. ...
So yesterday morning Jeffreys toxin numbers went right back up to where they started. Hes home with us now and aside from everything we have to do to keep him healthy, you wouldnt know hes terminally ill. He also tested negative for FIV and feline leukemia, so that was a relief. I picked…
Low cost shots, spay/neuter, and wellness care for cats and dogs. Affordable vet clinic in Leesburg. Rabies | heartworm test | Feline Leukemia | & more.
Each pet boarding with Country Lane Kennels must provide proof of current veterinarian-administered vaccinations. Dogs: DHLPP, Rabies, and Bordatella; Cats: Rabies, Feline Leukemia and Distemper. We encourage you to have your dog treated with heart worm interceptor. Heart worm interceptor is also recommended to aid in the prevention of whip worm ...
Lymphoma in young cats occurs most frequently following infection with feline leukemia virus (FeLV) or to a lesser degree ... Withrow,2001 "Feline Leukemia Virus and Related Diseases: Introduction". The Merck Veterinary Manual. 2006. Retrieved 2007-01- ... Younger cats tend to have T-cell lymphoma and older cats tend to have B-cell lymphoma. Older cats tend to have gastrointestinal ... feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). These cats tend to have involvement of lymph nodes, spine, or mediastinum. Cats with FeLV ...
Comparative analysis of the genomes of feline leukemia viruses. In: W. Hardy, Jr., M. Essex, and A.J. McClelland, eds., Feline ... In: W. Hardy, Jr., M. Essex, and A.J. McClelland, eds., Feline Leukemia Virus, Elsevier North-Holland Inc., NY, pps. 335-344 ( ... In: W. Hardy, Jr., M. Essex, and A.J. McClelland, eds., Feline Leukemia Virus, Elsevier North-Holland Inc., NY, pps 345-352 ( ... Comparative analysis of the genomes of feline leukemia viruses. J. Virol. 35: 542-546 (1980). Rosenberg, Z.F., Snyder, H.W., Jr ...
In contrast, some infectious agents such as the Feline leukemia virus, are able to withstand immune responses and are capable ... "Discovery of drugs that possess activity against feline leukemia virus". Journal of General Virology. 93 (4): 900-905. doi: ... Once the virus has gained access to the host's cells, the virus' genetic material (RNA or DNA) must be introduced to the cell. ... Replication between viruses is greatly varied and depends on the type of genes involved in them. Most DNA viruses assemble in ...
Feline leukemia virus subgroup C receptor-related protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FLVCR1 gene (SLC49A1 ... "Entrez Gene: FLVCR feline leukemia virus subgroup C cellular receptor". Crielaard, Bart J.; Lammers, Twan; Rivella, Stefano ( ... Tailor CS, Willett BJ, Kabat D (1999). "A putative cell surface receptor for anemia-inducing feline leukemia virus subgroup C ... Brown JK, Fung C, Tailor CS (2006). "Comprehensive mapping of receptor-functioning domains in feline leukemia virus subgroup C ...
In the 2002-2003 capture season, feline leukemia virus was first observed in two panthers. Further analysis determined an ... "Epizootiology and Management of Feline Leukemia Virus in the Florida Puma". Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 44 (3): 537-552. doi: ... The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group" (PDF). Cat News. Special Issue 11: 33- ... Antigen analysis on select Florida panther populations has shown evidence of feline immunodeficiency virus and puma lentivirus ...
Another area is provided for cats with the Feline Leukemia Virus. "Enclosed decks on the main buildings provide indoor cats ... including a kitten house and two houses for cats with the Feline immunodeficiency virus. ... The cat sanctuary, located on six acres (2.4 hectares) of suburban farmland, has been described as "Club Med for cats". There ... "RAPS Cat Sanctuary". RAPS. "Squire visits the Richmond cat sanctuary" Archived 2014-10-19 at the Wayback Machine, Global BC, ...
Feline leukemia virus subgroup C cellular receptor family, member 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FLVCR2 gene. ... "Entrez Gene: Feline leukemia virus subgroup C cellular receptor family, member 2". NCBI. Wimer BM (Feb 1976). "Letter: ... Unlike the related protein feline leukemia virus subgroup C receptor 1 (FLVCR1), the protein encoded by this locus does not ... Brown JK, Fung C, Tailor CS (Feb 2006). "Comprehensive mapping of receptor-functioning domains in feline leukemia virus ...
A few examples of the virus are Moloney murine leukemia virus, xenotropic MuLB-related virus, feline leukemia virus, and feline ... Example species are the murine leukemia virus and the feline leukemia virus. They cause various sarcomas, leukemias and immune ... over 50 human cancer cell lines that were claimed to be linked to murine leukemia virus-related virus or murine leukemia virus ... In June 2002, researchers began testing animals for the presence of feline leukemia virus, since the concern arose that viral ...
Feline leukemia virus and Feline immunodeficiency virus infections are treated with biologics, including the only ... Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; others include Feline leukemia virus ... Genus Deltaretrovirus; type species: Bovine leukemia virus; others include the cancer-causing Human T-lymphotropic virus ... Genus Lentivirus; type species: Human immunodeficiency virus 1; others include Simian, Feline immunodeficiency viruses ...
Since a 2007 outbreak of feline leukemia virus (FeLV), wild lynxes are tested periodically for possible disease. September- ... Lynxes negative for feline leukemia but one positive for immunodeficiency virus]. Europa Press (in Spanish). La Informacion. ... "Management measures to control a feline leukemia virus outbreak in the endangered Iberian lynx". Animal Conservation. 12 (3): ... The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group" (PDF). Cat News. Special Issue 11: 45. ...
Quackenbush has worked with both gammaretrovirus (feline leukemia virus) and epsilonretrovirus (walleye dermal sarcoma virus) ... feline leukemia virus) makes them less lethal, and Epsilretrovirus (walleye dermal sarcoma virus) contains sequences that ... "Molecular cloning of a feline leukemia virus that induces fatal immunodeficiency disease in cats". Science. 239 (4842): 906-910 ... The research found that replication-defective strains of feline leukemia virus can cause deadly immunodeficiency syndrome in ...
"Evolution of feline leukemia virus variant genomes with insertions, deletions, and defective envelope genes in infected cats ... Rohn, Jennifer (1996). The evolution of feline leukemia virus in vivo: A model of understanding viral genetic determinants of ... "In vivo selection of long terminal repeat alterations in feline leukemia virus-induced thymic lymphomas". Virology. 206 (1): ... this Rohn was awarded a Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1996 from the University of Washington for work on Feline leukemia virus ...
... was a vaccine to protect domestic cats from infection by the feline leukemia virus. The company developed an effective vaccine ... "Isolation Via Transfection of Feline Leukemia Viruses from DNA of Naturally Occurring Feline Lymphomas". Virology. 115 (1): 203 ... "Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus Hall's Island: New Strain of Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus". Journal of Virology. 29 (1): 395-400. doi: ... "Construction of Recombinant Retroviruses that Express the Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type II and Human T Cell Leukemia Virus ...
1992). "Feline leukemia virus subgroup B uses the same cell surface receptor as gibbon ape leukemia virus". J. Virol. 66 (2): ... Rec1 for murine ecotropic virus, and GLVR1 for gibbon ape leukemia virus (see MIM 182090). These 3 proteins show no homology to ... Johann SV, Gibbons JJ, O'Hara B (1992). "GLVR1, a receptor for gibbon ape leukemia virus, is homologous to a phosphate permease ... 1991). "Localization of the human gene allowing infection by gibbon ape leukemia virus to human chromosome region 2q11-q14 and ...
A strain of canarypox virus modified to carry feline interleukin-2 is used to treat cats with fibrosarcoma. Retroviruses are ... The recombinant retroviruses such as the Moloney murine leukemia virus have the ability to integrate into the host genome in a ... Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is the first virus to be discovered. Viral vectors based on tobacco mosaic virus include those of ... This concern remained theoretical until gene therapy for ten SCID-X1 patients using Moloney murine leukemia virus resulted in ...
Specifically, the vaccine for feline leukemia virus should only be given to kittens and high risk cats. Feline rhinotracheitis/ ... These sarcomas have been most commonly associated with rabies and feline leukemia virus vaccines, but other vaccines and ... factors for the increase of VAS at this time were the introduction in 1985 of vaccines for rabies and feline leukemia virus ( ... "Vaccine-Associated Fibrosarcoma in Cats" from Pet Cancer Center 2006 Feline Vaccination Guidelines (Summary) Cat Vaccines Can ...
... s caused by feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus retroviral infections can be treated ... HIV is a virus that targets T cells of the immune system and, as a result, HIV infection can lead to progressively worsening ... An opportunistic infection is an infection caused by pathogens (bacteria, fungi, parasites or viruses) that take advantage of ... Contact with farm animals, especially those with diarrhea: source of Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium parvum Cat feces (e.g. ...
Cats appear to be relatively resistant to the organism, although experimental infections in kittens with feline leukemia virus ...
... caused by Feline Leukemia Virus and Feline immunodeficiency virus retroviral infections is treated with ... Another cause is infection with Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (and other subtypes of the Influenza A virus) and is then often ... Some malignancies that have spread to involve the bone marrow, such as leukemia or advanced Hodgkin's disease, also cause ... such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or chemotherapy. In B lymphocytopenia, there are too few B lymphocytes, ...
2020). "A tale of two viruses: the distinct spike glycoproteins of feline coronaviruses". Viruses. 12 (1): 83. doi:10.3390/ ... Defects in this gene appear to be a cause of various types of leukemia or lymphoma. AAP is also used by some viruses as a ... "Characterization of determinants involved in the feline infectious peritonitis virus receptor function of feline aminopeptidase ... receptor to which these viruses bind to and then enter cells. It is a receptor for human coronavirus 229E, feline coronavirus ...
Kasside leukeemiaviirus (Feline Leukemia Virus). *Kennelköha (Kennel cough). *Loomade veregrupid (Blood type (non-human)) ...
... immunodeficiency virus vaccines and to study leukemia because their natural predisposition to FIV and Feline leukemia virus. ... Cats are most commonly used in neurological research. In 2016, 18,898 cats were used in the United States alone, around a third ... The use of dogs and cats in research in the U.S. decreased from 1973 to 2016 from 195,157 to 60,979, and from 66,165 to 18,898 ... In the UK, just 198 procedures were carried out on cats in 2017. The number has been around 200 for most of the last decade. ...
Cats - Retinal dysplasia occurs in utero or in newborns infected with feline leukemia virus or feline panleukopenia, which ...
... such as Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV), feline leukemia virus (FLV), and feline sarcoma virus (FESV). This family also ... Matrix proteins are also components of beta-retroviruses such as Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV) and mouse mammary tumor virus ... "Atomic resolution structure of Moloney murine leukemia virus matrix protein and its relationship to other retroviral matrix ... Stansell E, Tytler E, Walter MR, Hunter E (May 2004). "An early stage of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus budding is regulated by the ...
... feline coronavirus, feline foamy virus, feline herpesvirus, feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus. Scottish ... The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group" (PDF). Cat News. Special Issue 11: 16- ... Daniels, M. J.; Golder, M. C.; Jarrett, O.; MacDonald, D. W. (1999). "Feline viruses in wildcats from Scotland". Journal of ... Since 2017, the Cat Classification Task Force of the Cat Specialist Group recognizes Felis silvestris silvestris as the valid ...
... such as searching for improved treatments and vaccines for feline leukemia virus and improving veterinary oncology. In 1655, ... Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), tuberculosis, Texas cattle fever, Classical swine fever (hog cholera), Heartworm and other ... Virus-typing of polio by Salk [6] Salk polio virus [7] History of polio vaccine ""the work on [polio] prevention was long ... In the 1940s, Jonas Salk used rhesus monkey cross-contamination studies to isolate the three forms of the polio virus that ...
VandeWoude studies viruses including Feline Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline Leukemia Virus, and Feline Foamy Virus that infect ... Susan (Sue) VandeWoude is a veterinarian and researcher in the United States, specializing in viral diseases of cats. She is ... She completed her post-doctoral fellowship at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, where she studied the virus ... both domestic cats and wild felids, such as bobcats and pumas. She has previously served as President of the American College ...
... including leukemia viruses, Epstein-Barr virus, human papilloma virus, hepatitis B, feline leukemia virus, and human T- ... Duesberg P "Inventing the AIDS Virus" Regnery, 1997. ISBN 0-89526-399-8] Pages 290-1. [Duesberg P "Inventing the AIDS Virus" ... Duesberg P "Inventing the AIDS Virus" Regnery, 1997. ISBN 0-89526-399-8] Page 90. Duesberg P "Inventing the AIDS Virus" Regnery ... "the typical virus reproduces by entering a living cell and commandeering the cell's resources in order to make new virus ...
Feline leukemia virus and Feline immunodeficiency virus infections are treated with biologics, including the only ... Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; others include Feline leukemia virus ... Genus Deltaretrovirus; type species: Bovine leukemia virus; others include the cancer-causing Human T-lymphotropic virus ... Genus Lentivirus; type species: Human immunodeficiency virus 1; others include Simian, Feline immunodeficiency viruses ...
白血病病毒(英语:Feline leukemia virus). *下泌尿道疾病(英语:Feline lower urinary tract disease) ... 威爾斯貓(英语:Cymric (cat)). 德文帝王貓(英语:Devon Rex). 拉波捲毛貓(英语:Laperm cat). 頓斯科伊貓(英语:Donskoy (cat)). 埃及猫. 欧洲短毛猫(英语:European Shorthair). 异 ... 泰国猫(英语:Thai (cat)). 传统波斯猫(英语:Traditional Persian cat). 東奇尼貓(英语:Tonkinese (cat)). 玩具虎貓
Hu Y, Li S (2016). "Survival regulation of leukemia stem cells". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 73 (5): 1039-50. doi: ... The gene promoter region of ALOX5 contains 8 GC boxes but lacks TATA boxes or CAT boxes and thus resembles the gene promoters ... and decreased survival in experimental models of respiratory syncytial virus disease, Lyme disease, Toxoplasma gondii disease, ... combining it with imatinib for treating chronic myeloid leukemia.[43][44] Zyleuton and zileuton CR cause elevations in liver ...
Immunodeficiency virus. *Infectious peritonitis. *Leukemia virus. *Lower urinary tract disease. *Panleukopenia. *Polydactyly ... The following list of cat breeds includes only domestic cat breeds and domestic × wild hybrids. The list includes established ... There is a lot of confusion surrounding the use of this name in the cat world, although it is always used to describe cats of ... The domestic short-haired and domestic long-haired cat types are not breeds, but terms used (with various spellings) in the cat ...
Ebola virus disease → 에볼라 출혈열 (B+). *Hand, foot and mouth disease → 수족구병 (C) ... Cat → 고양이 (B+). *Cheetah → 치타 (C). *Cougar → 퓨마 (D). *Jaguar → 재규어 (C) ... Leukemia → 백혈병 (D). *Lung cancer → 폐암 (E). *Lymphoma → 림프종 (E). *Prostate cancer → 전립선암 (E) ...
Cat owners' attitudes toward declawing. Anthrozoos 1991;4:192-197. *^ Landsberg GM. Feline scratching and destruction and the ... Immunodeficiency virus. *Infectious peritonitis. *Leukemia virus. *Lower urinary tract disease. *Panleukopenia. *Polydactyly ... Cat owners' attitudes toward declawing. Anthrozoos 1991;4:192-197. *^ Gaynor J. Chronic pain syndrome feline onychectomy. NAVC ... Without the ability to expose its claws, the cat is unable to wear down or groom its claws. For this reason, the cat ...
... hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (hepatocellular carcinoma) and human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (T-cell leukemias). Bacterial ... Veterinary oncology, concentrating mainly on cats and dogs, is a growing specialty in wealthy countries and the major forms of ... Oncoviruses (viruses that can cause cancer) include human papillomavirus (cervical cancer), Epstein-Barr virus (B-cell ... Epstein-Barr virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).[2] These factors act, at least partly, by changing the genes of a ...
A vertically transmitted infection is an infection caused by bacteria, viruses or, in rare cases, parasites transmitted ... A case-control study on the area found that by 1986, leukemia was occurring in the children of Woburn, Massachusetts at a rate ... The herpes simplex virus can cause microcephaly, microphthalmus (abnormally small eyeballs),[54] retinal dysplasia, ... If exposed to the rubella virus during the first four weeks, the risk of malformations is 47 percent. Exposure during weeks ...
Paul Chih-Hsueh Chen, Chin-Chen Pan, An-Hang Yang, Liang-Shun Wang ja Hung Chiang, Detection of Epstein-Barr virus genome ... O. A. Dearth, Late development of the thymus in the cat: Nature and significance of the corpuscles of Hassall and cystic ... Histopathology of the Thymus of Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Lymphoblastic Lymphoma in Complete Clinical ... CD4+CD8+ tümotsüütide polulatsioon oli HPAIV-infektsiooni (Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus infection) korral pea ...
Certain viruses such as hepatitis B and human papilloma virus have been found to cause cancer in humans. The first one shown to ... Cat. 1A. Known. A1. Cat. 1. Group 2A. Cat. 1B. Reasonably. suspected. A2. Cat. 2. ... Leukemia. *Hodgkin's lymphoma. *Light fuel oil. *Former use as solvent and fumigant ... Certain viruses can also act as carcinogens by interacting with DNA.. Nongenotoxins do not directly affect DNA but act in other ...
Immunodeficiency virus. *Infectious peritonitis. *Leukemia virus. *Lower urinary tract disease. *Panleukopenia. *Polydactyly ... "Cat Anatomy". cat-chitchat.pictures-of-cats.org. 9 July 2008.. *^ Lacquaniti, F.; Grasso, R.; Zago, M. (1 August 1999). "Motor ... The nose helps cats to identify territories, other cats and mates, to locate food, and for various other causes.[3] A cat's ... "Cat claw" redirects here. For the superhero, see Cat Claw. For the plant species, see Cat's claw. ...
Immunodeficiency virus. *Infectious peritonitis. *Leukemia virus. *Lower urinary tract disease. *Panleukopenia. *Polydactyly ... household pet cat registry, domestic cat registry, Savannah cat, Bengal cat, Persian cat, Maine Coon cat" (PDF). Tica.org. ... "Welcome to TICA - The International Cat Association, TICA cats, TICA pedigreed cats, pedigreed cats, pedigreed cats registry, ... Domestic cat (Felis catus). The Abyssinian /æbɪˈsɪniən/ is a breed of domestic short-haired cat (ድመት) with a distinctive " ...
... with murine and feline leukemia viruses as helpers. Int J Cancer 9, 383-392 PMID 4339414 ... 1976) Murine sarcoma virus defectiveness: serological detection of only helper virus reverse transcriptase in sarcoma virus ... 1998) Human immunodeficiency virus-2 infection in baboons is an animal model for human immunodeficiency virus pathogenesis in ... 1994) Pathogenic diversity of simian immunodeficiency viruses. Virus Res. 32, 183-203 PMID 8067053 ...
Clark Middleton, 63, American actor (Sin City, Snowpiercer, Twin Peaks), West Nile virus.[535] ... David Braley, 79, Canadian politician and sports team owner (BC Lions, Toronto Argonauts, Hamilton Tiger-Cats), Senator (2010- ... Louis Fortier, 66, Canadian biologist and oceanographer, leukemia.[527]. *Mike Foster, 90, American politician, Governor of ... Laleh Bakhtiar, 82, Iranian-American author, translator, and psychologist, leukemia.[199]. *Dana Baratta, 59, American ...
Immunodeficiency virus. *Infectious peritonitis. *Leukemia virus. *Lower urinary tract disease. *Panleukopenia. *Polydactyly ... Cats that were favored pets during the Chinese Song Dynasty were long-haired cats for catching rats, and cats with yellow-and- ... Ship's cat. Notes[edit]. *^ a b "Cats Domesticated Themselves, Ancient DNA Shows". 2017-06-19. Retrieved 2018-11-06.. .mw- ... "Hermitage Cats". Russian Life. Retrieved 21 December 2017.. *^ "A Chinese Cat-Market". Wesleyan Juvenile Offering. III: 110. ...
Cats are able to get infected by either consuming an infected bird or by contracting the virus from another infected cat. ... RNA virus. HCV Hepatocellular carcinoma. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma. HTLV-I Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... Further information: Influenza A virus subtype H7N9. Influenza A virus subtype H7N9 is a novel avian influenza virus first ...
... the name of a leukemia virus which carries a similar protein. The symbol BCR is derived from breakpoint cluster region, a gene ... Chronic myelogenous leukemia. References[edit]. *^ a b c Wapner J. The Philadelphia Chromosome: A Genetic Mystery, a Lethal ... Proliferative roles in leukemia[edit]. The BCR-ABL1 fusion gene and protein encoded by the Philadelphia chromosome affects ... and occasionally in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) as well as mixed-phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL). ...
Immunodeficiency virus. *Infectious peritonitis. *Leukemia virus. *Lower urinary tract disease. *Panleukopenia. *Polydactyly ... The Cat Fanciers' Association. 2010-07-04. Retrieved 2010-10-26.. *^ "Sphynx Cat Wear - clothes for Sphynx cats". sphynxcatwear ... The Sphynx cat is a breed of cat known for its lack of coat (fur). Hairlessness in cats is a naturally occurring genetic ... Allergies to cats are triggered by a protein called Fel d1, not cat hair itself. Fel d1 is a protein primarily found in cat ...
Immunodeficiency virus. *Infectious peritonitis. *Leukemia virus. *Lower urinary tract disease. *Panleukopenia. *Polydactyly ... Edwards, Alan (2005) [1999]. The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Cats Cat Breeds & Cat Care. Trevor Turner (Consultant) John Daniels ( ... Domestic cat (Felis catus). The Somali cat is often described as a long-haired Abyssinian; a product of a recessive gene in ... "Somali Cats , Somali Cat Breed Info & Pictures , petMD". www.petmd.com. Retrieved 2016-04-15.. ...
Diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease and bluetongue are caused by viruses.[209] Companion animals such as cats, dogs, and ... Bellon M, Nicot C. Telomerase: a crucial player in HTLV-I-induced human T-cell leukemia. Cancer genomics & proteomics. 2007;4(1 ... I: dsDNA viruses. II: ssDNA viruses. III: dsRNA viruses. IV: (+)ssRNA viruses. V: (−)ssRNA viruses. VI: ssRNA-RT viruses. VII: ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ...
... sometimes called patty feet or hamburger feet by cat lovers to distinguish them from thumb cat polydactyls. Ordinary mitten cat ... Immunodeficiency virus. *Infectious peritonitis. *Leukemia virus. *Lower urinary tract disease. *Panleukopenia. *Polydactyly ... Kangaroo Cats and Squittens Revealed (October 2006) *^ Robinson Roy (1999), "Genetics for Cat Breeders and Veterinarians", ... Such cats have also been called twisty cats; In the late 1990s, several were deliberately bred at Karma Farms, a horse farm and ...
Viruses that inhibit IFN signaling include Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV), dengue type 2 virus (DEN-2) and viruses of the ... leukemia and lymphomas including hairy cell leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, nodular lymphoma, and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma ... "Adult systemic cat scratch disease associated with therapy for hepatitis C". BMC Infectious Diseases. 7: 8. doi:10.1186/1471- ... Virus resistance to interferonsEdit. Many viruses have evolved mechanisms to resist interferon activity.[21] They circumvent ...
Diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease and bluetongue are caused by viruses.[208] Companion animals such as cats, dogs, and ... Bellon M, Nicot C. Telomerase: a crucial player in HTLV-I-induced human T-cell leukemia. Cancer genomics & proteomics. 2007;4(1 ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ... Quote: "Virus: virus (s.n. II), gen. sing. viri, nom. pl. vira, gen. pl. vīrorum (to be distinguished from virorum, of men)." ...
RNA virus. HCV Hepatocellular carcinoma. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma. HTLV-I Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. ... Cat-scratch disease Bartonella henselae Cellulitis usually Group A Streptococcus and Staphylococcus ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ...
RNA virus. HCV Hepatocellular carcinoma. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma. HTLV-I Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. ... ingestion of material contaminated with infected dog or cat feces (humans: dead-end host) ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. Human polyomavirus 2 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis ...
Case-control studies did not support an association with leukemia or lymphoma.[64] ... Operation Cat Drop. *Biomagnification. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Toxicological Profile: for DDT, DDE, and ...
Immunodeficiency virus. *Infectious peritonitis. *Leukemia virus. *Lower urinary tract disease. *Panleukopenia. *Polydactyly ... Domestic cat (Felis catus). The Ragamuffin is a breed of domestic cat. It is a variant of the Ragdoll cat and was established ... Legacy of the cat. Chronicle books, 2001. *^ Breed Standard: Ragamuffin Cat Fanciers Association Archived 2005-12-08 at the ... The first cat association to accept the breed at full show champion status was the United Feline Organization (UFO), and while ...
... is one of the most feared causes of disease in cats, being responsible for almost one-third of their cancer deaths. Learn more. ... Feline Leukemia Virus. Dr. Lila Miller, D.V.M., ASPCA. Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) is one of the most feared causes of disease ... When cats are infected with feline leukemia virus, they will test positive within a few days to a week, but if they are healthy ... The American Association of Feline Practitioners (AAFP) recommends that the feline leukemia status of every cat should be known ...
Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) is responsible for almost one-third of feline cancer-related deaths. Learn about the causes, ...
... a group of cat breeders, exhibitors, show judges, veterinarians, and other ailurophiles (cat lovers) throughout the world, ... representing most cat breeds and chat clubs worldwide. ... Brought to you by the Cat Fanciers Mailing List, ... Is there any risk in getting my cats vaccinated? 9537 My cat gets sick after it gets vaccinations. Why should I put my cat ... If I get my cat vaccinated, isnt there a chance that it will catch the virus from the vaccine? 6815 ...
Definition of feline leukemia virus. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... feline leukemia virus. Definition: five recognized subtypes; the most common infectious disease in domestic Felidae; another ... Viruses have poor environmental survival, so close cat contact is needed for agent transfer. Cogrooming and cat bites are ... common slow virus disease of cats also in the Retroviridae family is feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Symptoms of FeLV may ...
... human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-III/LAV) in the acquired immunodeficiency... ... Jarrett, O. (1974) Feline leukemia virus subgroups. In Feline Leukemia Virus, W.D. Hardy and A.J. McClelland, eds. Elsevier/ ... Lutz, H., N.C. Petersen, and G.H. Theilen (1983) Course of feline leukemia virus infection and its detection by enzyme-linked ... Luciw P., Parkes D., Van Nest G., Dina D., Hendrix K., Gardner M.B. (1986) Recombinant DNA Approaches to Feline Leukemia Virus ...
"Feline Leukemia Virus: A Cause of Immunodeficiency in Cats". "Feline Leukemia Virus Diseases". Archived from the original on ... in Cats Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) Overview, Types of FeLV Feline leukemia virus inhibits thiamine uptake, with pathological ... Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) from Veterinary Partner Signs And Symptoms Of Feline Leukemia Feline leukemia Treatments and ... Feline leukemia virus". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 8 January 2019. "Feline Leukemia Virus ...
... a group of cat breeders, exhibitors, show judges, veterinarians, and other ailurophiles (cat lovers) throughout the world, ... representing most cat breeds and chat clubs worldwide. ... Brought to you by the Cat Fanciers Mailing List, ...
Feline Leukemia Virus. The feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a slowly progressive virus that usually persists in cats bodies and ... In other cats the infection becomes persistent and these cats can excrete the virus, which may infect other cats. These cats ... Once infected, the virus travels through the bodys circulatory system and in some cats the virus fuses with the cats own ... Virus Transfer and Risks. Transfer of the virus can occur from mother to babies, between cats housed together, or in feral ...
feline leukemia virus synonyms, feline leukemia virus pronunciation, feline leukemia virus translation, English dictionary ... definition of feline leukemia virus. n. Abbr. FeLV A retrovirus that primarily affects cats, is transmitted through saliva, and ... causes immunosuppression, anemia, cancers such as leukemia and... ... Feline leukemia virus - definition of feline leukemia virus by ... Related to feline leukemia virus: Feline immunodeficiency virus. feline leukemia virus. n. Abbr. FeLV. A retrovirus that ...
Diagnosing Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) Feline leukemia viral infection is a significant disease among domestic cats. A number ... Read More Symptoms of Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) Acute infection with the feline leukemia virus typically lasts for up to 16 ... Feline leukemia virus has not been shown to be transmittable from infected cats to people. However, it reportedly can replicate ... Overview of Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV). Source: PetWave, Updated on December 22, 2015 ...
The virus is excreted in the saliva and tears, and possibly the urine and feces, of infected cats. Extensive cat-to-cat contact ... It is the one disease in cats that cannot be ignored. ... is required for the efficient spread, because the virus is ... the most important infectious disease agent producing fatal illness in domestic cats is the feling leukemia virus (FeLV). ... The virus is excreted in the saliva and tears, and possibly the urine and feces, of infected cats. Extensive cat-to-cat contact ...
... known as FeLV or simply cat leukemia, is the leading cause of death in household cats. Learn about the symptoms and treatment ... Feline Leukemia Virus Infection (FeLV) in Cats. Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a disease that impairs the cats immune system ... Treating minor signs of illness is especially important in a cat with known feline leukemia virus. Due to the virus, her body ... Cats with feline leukemia virus may have a normal lifespan if other illnesses can be prevented. ...
Check out this list of 5 most dangerous cat diseases from Animal Planet to learn more. ... Are you wondering what the most dangerous cat diseases are? ... Feline leukemia is a disease that spreads through urine, nose ... Any severe chronic illness can be a sign of feline leukemia.. Although there is no cure for feline leukemia, the disease is ... Some cats will immediately become ill upon contracting the virus; however, in other cats, symptoms of the disease will not ...
Too often, routine euthanasia is the prescription for cats with the Feline Leukemia Virus. Thats changing. Learn More ... But cats who test positive for feline leukemia (FeLV) dont fare as well in the hands of adoption groups. Is it time to… Learn ... Management of Feline Retrovirus Infections. Management of Feline Retrovirus Infections. Tiva Hoshizaki, BVSc October 2015. See ... Is automatically testing cats for FeLV/FIV the best course of action or use of available resources? Not necessarily, find out ...
Posted in Animal Rescue , Tagged Cat Hoarding, Cat Parasites, cat rescue, feline leukemia virus, South America, street cats, ... Tagged cat health problems, feline immunodeficiency virus, feline infectious peritonitis, feline leukemia virus , 27 Replies ... Posted in FIV , Tagged Feline Aids, feline leukemia virus, felv, FeLV cats, FIV, FIV cats , Leave a reply ... Tag Archives: feline leukemia virus. What is the difference between feline leukaemia and feline AIDS?. PoC Posted on May 29, ...
Feline leukemia virus infection: age-related variation in response of cats to experimental infection.. Hoover EA, Olsen RG, ... strain of feline leukemia virus (FeLV). Susceptibility to FeLV was judged by induction of a) FeLV group-specific antigens (gsa ... of cats inoculated at 2 weeks to 2 months of age, and in 15% of cats inoculated at 4 months or 1 year of age. Cats susceptible ... The disease in inoculated cats was influenced by virus strain; FeLV-R induced predominantly thymic lymphosarcoma, whereas FeLV- ...
Diagnosis of facial nerve ganglioneuroblastoma was made in a feline leukemia virus-positive 11-month-old cat. The cat had ... HARTMANN, K. Feline leukemia virus infection. In: GREENE, C. E. Infectious diseases of the dog and cat. 3.ed. St. Louis: ... We authors of the article entitled "Facial nerve ganglioneuroblastoma in a feline leukemia virus-positive cat" declared, for ... Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a retrovirus with global distribution. FeLV infection is associated with bone marrow ...
... causes a highly contagious and potentially fatal retroviral infection that weakens a cats immune system. Symptoms include pale ... Feline leukemia virus and Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are among the most common infectious diseases in cats. FeLV is ... Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) causes a highly contagious and potentially fatal retroviral infection that weakens a cats immune ... Cats with feline leukemia do not always appear sick! In the early stages of the disease, most cats show few signs; the only way ...
Early therapy of feline leukemia virus infection (FeLV-FAIDS) with 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine (PMEA).. Hoover EA1, ... in feline fibroblasts and prevented T lymphocyte killing at concentrations of 3 micrograms/ml. PMEA administered to cats at ... Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control. *Leukemia Virus, Feline/drug effects*. *Leukemia Virus, Feline/ ... Cats infected with molecularly cloned FeLV-FAIDS develop an immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by persistent antigenemia, ...
Feline leukemia virus p27 Mouse anti-Virus, Clone: HM190, Abnova 500ug ... Feline leukemia virus p27 Mouse anti-Virus, Clone: HM190, Abnova Mouse Monoclonal Antibody ...
Learn more about the feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and about which cats should be vaccinated. ... Does your cat need the feline leukemia vaccine? ... Once a cat contracts the virus, it cannot be cured, but keeping ... Feline leukemia virus is moderately contagious, generally transmitted when a cat comes into contact with saliva from an ... keeping sick cats separated from healthy cats can reduce the likelihood of transmission. Any new kitten or cat being introduced ...
... subgroup A inhibits thiamine uptake in cat cells, which may contribute to FeLV pathogenicity in both domestic and wild cats. ... Different species of cat susceptible to feline leukemia virus (FeLV). Above: The Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) on the ... Below: The domesticated cat (Felis catus), the primary global reservoir of feline leukemia virus. FeLV infection has also been ... Disruption of thiamine uptake and growth of cells by feline leukemia virus subgroup A. J Virol. Epub ahead of print. ...
... a group of cat breeders, exhibitors, show judges, veterinarians, and other ailurophiles (cat lovers) throughout the world, ... representing most cat breeds and chat clubs worldwide. ... Brought to you by the Cat Fanciers Mailing List, ... If your cat has tested positive, then you have a responsibility to take some action. FELINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS WILL NOT GO AWAY IF ... Sometimes putting an FeLV+ cat to sleep is the best option for the cat, especially if it has acute symptoms and is in pain. ...
anti-Feline Leukemia Virus, Clone: YCH, Novus Biologicals 0.1mg; Unlabeled Life Sciences:Antibodies:Primary Antibodies: ... Feline Leukemia Virus Monoclonal antibody specifically detects Feline Leukemia Virus in Virus samples. It is validated for ...
... a group of cat breeders, exhibitors, show judges, veterinarians, and other ailurophiles (cat lovers) throughout the world, ... representing most cat breeds and chat clubs worldwide. ... Brought to you by the Cat Fanciers Mailing List, ... virus to cats which are not infected. Often people do not have their cat tested for the presence of FeLV until the cat is ... One person on the internet said they had a cat which lived for 20 years with the virus, while others have given dates as long ...
Chromosome specimens of the lymphoid tumor-derived cell lines and normal cat lymphocytes wer ... This study was conducted to map the acquired proviral insertions in the chromosomal genome of feline lymphoid tumors induced by ... Leukemia Virus, Feline / genetics*. Lymphoma / virology*. Mutagenesis, Insertional. Proviruses / genetics*. Virus Integration* ... to map the acquired proviral insertions in the chromosomal genome of feline lymphoid tumors induced by feline leukemia virus ( ...
Infection with the Feline Leukemia Virus is one of the most classical diseases in veterinary medicine.Cats at highest risk are ... young kittens who are often infected by their mothers or by close contact with other infected cats. ... www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/generalized_conditions/feline_leukemia_virus_and_related_diseases/overview_of_feline_leukemia_virus_ ... Infection with the Feline Leukemia Virus is one of the most classical diseases in veterinary medicine. Cats at highest risk are ...
5 cats), followed by lymphoma (2 cats), anorexia (2 cats), and anemia (1 cat). These leading causes of death (FIP, lymphoma and ... Deceased cats averaged a lifespan of 469.1 days. Of the ten cats known to be deceased, the leading cause of death was feline ... Almost all (99%) FeLV cat adopters were happy with their cats, and 80% would be very likely to adopt a FeLV cat again. ... Average age of cat at intake was 1.20 years; average current age of the surviving cats is 39.89 months (3.32 years) at the time ...
The original FeLV virus outbreak strain is either still circulating or another domestic cat transmission event has occurred ... from both outbreaks and compared them with full-length genomes of FeLVs isolated from contemporary Florida domestic cats. ... had an outbreak of infection with feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in the early 2000s that resulted in the deaths of 3 animals. A ... Multiple Introductions of Domestic Cat Feline Leukemia Virus in Endangered Florida Panthers1 Elliott S. Chiu, Simona Kraberger ...
The original FeLV virus outbreak strain is either still circulating or another domestic cat transmission event has occurred ... from both outbreaks and compared them with full-length genomes of FeLVs isolated from contemporary Florida domestic cats. ... had an outbreak of infection with feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in the early 2000s that resulted in the deaths of 3 animals. A ... Prevalence of feline leukaemia virus and antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus and feline coronavirus in stray cats sent ...
  • Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) is one of the most feared causes of disease in cats, being responsible for almost one-third of their cancer deaths. (petfinder.com)
  • Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) is responsible for almost one-third of feline cancer-related deaths. (petfinder.com)
  • My cat recently passed away from FeLV. (fanciers.com)
  • Symptoms of FeLV may overlap with FIV, depending on potential complicating secondary processes (e.g., secondary bacterial invaders, neoplasia) or physiologic response to chronic slow virus infection (e.g., anemia). (drugs.com)
  • Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a retrovirus that infects cats. (wikipedia.org)
  • FeLV can be transmitted from infected cats when the transfer of saliva or nasal secretions is involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because FeLV is cat-to-cat contagious, FeLV+ cats should only live with other FeLV+ cats. (wikipedia.org)
  • FeLV is categorized into four subgroups, A, B, C and T. An infected cat has a combination of FeLV-A and one or more of the other subgroups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although it is thought that virus protein has to be present to induce lymphomas in cats, newer evidence shows that a high percentage of FeLV-Antigen negative lymphomas contain FeLV-DNA, indicating a "hit-and-run" mechanism of virus-induced tumor development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the virus has entered the cat, there are six stages to a FeLV infection[citation needed]: Stage One: The virus enters the cat, usually through the pharynx where it infects the epithelial cells and infects the tonsilar B-lymphocytes and macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cats infected with FeLV can serve as sources of infection of FeLV-A. Cats can pass the virus between themselves through saliva and close contact, by biting another cat, and (rarely) through a litter box or food dish used by an infected cat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once a cat has been infected with FeLV-A, additional mutated forms of the original FeLV-A virus may arise, as may FeLV subgroups B, C and T. In addition to domestic cats, some other members of Felidae are now threatened by FeLV (e.g. lynx and Florida panther). (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximately 0.5% of pet cats are persistently infected with FeLV, but many more pet cats (>35%) have specific IgG antibodies which indicate prior exposure and subsequent development of immunity instead of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a slowly progressive virus that usually persists in cats' bodies and interferes with normal immunity, with identified stages of infection. (canadianveterinarians.net)
  • Vaccinate cats living in the same environment as FeLV-positive cats, and vaccinate cats that go outside. (canadianveterinarians.net)
  • Talk to your veterinarian about precautions needed to keep your cat safe from FeLV virus, or to help manage an infected cat. (canadianveterinarians.net)
  • In fact, FeLV infection is one of the leading causes of death among companion felines and is responsible for more feline disease than any other identified infectious agent. (petwave.com)
  • Most FeLV-positive cats become infected by direct contact with saliva or blood from the oral or nasal secretions of infected cats. (petwave.com)
  • Because this virus is not very hardy and is highly susceptible to environmental conditions such as heat and disinfectants, environmental contamination is an uncommon cause of FeLV infection. (petwave.com)
  • However, not all cats exposed to FeLV become clinically ill. (petwave.com)
  • It is this latter group of cats that is most likely to develop blood abnormalities, anemia, cancer, chronic opportunistic infections or other diseases due to the progressive weakening of their immune systems caused by FeLV. (petwave.com)
  • It is responsible for the immunosuppression that makes FeLV-positive cats susceptive to so many other infections and illnesses. (petwave.com)
  • Subgroup B occurs in combination with subgroup A in about one-half of cats and appears to be responsible for FeLV-associated cancers. (petwave.com)
  • There is no fool-proof way to prevent FeLV infection, although keeping cats indoors and away from free-roaming strays is perhaps the best prevention. (petwave.com)
  • Uninfected (naïve) cats should be kept away from FeLV-positive cats and should not share their food and water bowls or litter boxes. (petwave.com)
  • There is an FeLV vaccine that may be useful in high-risk cats, such as those kept primarily or exclusively outdoors. (petwave.com)
  • New cats should not be introduced into multi-cat households or catteries without first being tested twice (3 months apart) with an IFA test (see, PetWave article on FeLV - Diagnosis and Test). (petwave.com)
  • In addition, cats should be tested for FeLV before being bred, and should not be used in a breeding program if they are FeLV-positive. (petwave.com)
  • People with weakened immune systems (such as those who are HIV-positive), and women who are pregnant or considering becoming pregnant, probably should avoid contact with FeLV-positive cats as a precautionary measure. (petwave.com)
  • Today, the most important infectious disease agent producing fatal illness in domestic cats is the feling leukemia virus (FeLV). (dailypress.com)
  • A cat infected with the FeLV virus may live for several weeks to months to years, depending on how advanced the disease is at the time of diagnosis. (dailypress.com)
  • The Cornell Feline Health Center states that there is no known association of FeLV with the AIDS virus in human beings, despite some biologic similarities in the virus. (dailypress.com)
  • Your veterinarian will begin to suspect FeLV if your cat begins to exhibit a chronic recurring illness. (dailypress.com)
  • Your veterinarian has several vaccines to prevent your cat from catching this FeLV virus. (dailypress.com)
  • Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a disease that impairs the cat's immune system and can cause cancer. (petmd.com)
  • The bad news is that most cats with FeLV live only a few years after their diagnosis. (petmd.com)
  • Cats with FeLV may not show any signs, even for years. (petmd.com)
  • A simple blood test is available to determine whether your cat has FeLV. (petmd.com)
  • Unfortunately, 85% of cats with FeLV die within three years of diagnosis. (petmd.com)
  • If your cat has no symptoms when she is diagnosed with FeLV, there is no treatment necessary apart from good at-home care. (petmd.com)
  • Keep FeLV-infected cats indoors and separated from healthy cats to prevent virus exposure and FeLV transmission. (petmd.com)
  • Is automatically testing cats for FeLV/FIV the best course of action or use of available resources? (maddiesfund.org)
  • But cats who test positive for feline leukemia (FeLV) don't fare as well in the hands of adoption groups. (maddiesfund.org)
  • See a comprehensive review of FeLV and FIV in shelters, covering the clinical signs, disease progression, and management of infected cats. (maddiesfund.org)
  • Shelters often perform FeLV/FIV tests to determine if these retroviruses are present within the cats that they care for. (maddiesfund.org)
  • Feline leukaemia virus disease complex (FeLV) is transmitted by infected saliva. (pictures-of-cats.org)
  • Today I'd like to discuss promising new medical breakthroughs in treating FIV, FeLV and FIP in cats. (pictures-of-cats.org)
  • Sixty-seven specific-pathogen-free cats of various ages (newborn, 2 wk, 1 mo, 2 mo, 4 mo, and 1 yr) were inoculated ip with either the Rickard (R) or the Kawakami-Theilen (KT) strain of feline leukemia virus (FeLV). (nih.gov)
  • Susceptibility to FeLV was judged by induction of a) FeLV group-specific antigens (gsa) in leukocytes, b) FeLV-related disease, c) antibody to feline oncornavirus-associated cell membrane antigen (FOCMA), and d) virus-neutralizing (VN) antibody. (nih.gov)
  • Persistent viremia and FeLV-related disease developed in 100% of cats inoculated as newborns, in 85% of cats inoculated at 2 weeks to 2 months of age, and in 15% of cats inoculated at 4 months or 1 year of age. (nih.gov)
  • Cats susceptible to FeLV leukemogenesis became persistently FeLV gsa-positive (viremic) at 4 weeks post inoculation and thereafter and produced little or no FOCMA or VN antibody. (nih.gov)
  • Cats that resisted leukemogenesis by FeLV all developed persistent FOCMA and VN titers and never became FeLV gsa-positive. (nih.gov)
  • Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a retrovirus with global distribution. (scielo.br)
  • Moreover, FeLV has oncogenic potential and causes various tumors in cats, such as lymphoma, leukemia, osteochondroma and olfactory neuroblastoma ( HARTMANN, 2006 ). (scielo.br)
  • This report describes a case of facial nerve ganglioneuroblastoma in a FeLV-positive 11-month-old cat and highlights the clinical, pathological and immunohistochemical features. (scielo.br)
  • Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) causes a highly contagious and potentially fatal retroviral infection that weakens a cat's immune system, making her susceptible to illness and secondary infection. (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • In a study of more than 18,000 cats, 2.3% of them were positive for FeLV. (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • Your veterinarian can run a simple test to see if your cat has been infected with FeLV. (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • If the result is negative, they may recommend protecting your cat from FeLV by having her vaccinated. (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • The AAFP recommends vaccinating all kittens (because their future lifestyle may change), cats that go outdoors, cats that have direct contact with cats of unknown status, and cats that live with FeLV-positive cats. (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • If you cat tests positive for FeLV, it is NOT a death sentence! (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • Make sure your cat is tested for FeLV, that you limit her exposure to other cats you don't know, and talk to your veterinarian about whether or not your cat should be vaccinated against FeLV. (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • A: Feline Leukemia Virus, or FeLV, is a virus that is known to occur specifically in cats only. (localvets.com)
  • A: FeLV can be transmitted through contact with the mucus, saliva, feces, urine, and blood of an infected cat. (localvets.com)
  • Q: What exactly does FeLV do to cats? (localvets.com)
  • A: FeLV can cause a wide variety of diseases, and it is difficult to tell if a certain illness that occurs in a cat is related to the virus. (localvets.com)
  • Another type of treatment that is administered to cats with FeLV is steroid treatment. (localvets.com)
  • Q: What are the chances that a cat will survive FeLV if no treatment is administered? (localvets.com)
  • A: Some cats are naturally immune to FeLV. (localvets.com)
  • This means that 65% of all cats that are exposed to FeLV will eventually survive. (localvets.com)
  • Early therapy of feline leukemia virus infection (FeLV-FAIDS) with 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine (PMEA). (nih.gov)
  • Cats infected with molecularly cloned FeLV-FAIDS develop an immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by persistent antigenemia, decline in circulating CD4+ T lymphocytes, and impaired T-cell-dependent immune responses and opportunistic infection. (nih.gov)
  • We found that PMEA inhibited replication of FeLV-FAIDS by greater than or equal to 50% at concentrations of greater than or equal to 0.5 microgram/ml (1.63 microM) in feline fibroblasts and prevented T lymphocyte killing at concentrations of 3 micrograms/ml. (nih.gov)
  • PMEA administered to cats at dosages of greater than or equal to 6.25 mg/kg/day from 0 to 49 days after FeLV-FAIDS infection prevented the development of persistent antigenemia and the induction of immunodeficiency disease. (nih.gov)
  • These results indicate PMEA to be a potent antiretroviral agent effective in aborting fatal progression of FeLV-FAIDS infection when therapy is initiated at the time of virus exposure. (nih.gov)
  • Contrary to what its name implies, feline leukemia (abbreviated as FeLV or sometimes referred to as "feleuk") is not a blood cancer - although it can cause cancer affecting the blood. (vetstreet.com)
  • Once a cat contracts the virus, it cannot be cured, but keeping a cat current on his vaccinations will prevent disease associated with FeLV. (vetstreet.com)
  • Ideally, cats should be tested for FeLV infection before their initial vaccination and when there is a possibility that they have been exposed to FeLV since they were last vaccinated.Only FeLV negative cats should be vaccinated. (vetstreet.com)
  • There is no known alternative to annual FeLV vaccination for cats with sustained risk of exposure to the virus. (vetstreet.com)
  • Because FeLV is transmitted through contact, keeping sick cats separated from healthy cats can reduce the likelihood of transmission. (vetstreet.com)
  • During that time, the new cat should be tested for FeLV and monitored closely for any signs of illness. (vetstreet.com)
  • Different species of cat susceptible to feline leukemia virus (FeLV). (fredhutch.org)
  • FeLV infection has also been reported in the jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi) and could very well afflict populations of one or more of the six other species of Felis, which are even more closely related to domesticated cats than are pumas and lynx. (fredhutch.org)
  • Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a horizontally transmitted retrovirus that can cause disorders of hematopoiesis, a term that describes development of the different cellular components of blood. (fredhutch.org)
  • Cats infected with FeLV may exhibit immune suppression, anemia, lymphomas and leukemias (Willett and Hosie, 2013). (fredhutch.org)
  • FeLV-A, the most abundant subgroup, is transmitted between cats during natural infections. (fredhutch.org)
  • Subgroups B, C and T arise de novo from FeLV-A within infected cats through recurrent mutation and/or by recombination with 'endogenous' retroviruses that have been integrated into the genome of domesticated cats. (fredhutch.org)
  • Chronically infected cats often possess a mixture of FeLV-A and one or more of the other subgroups. (fredhutch.org)
  • Thiamine, known also as vitamin B 1 , is an essential nutrient for all mammals, yet it was unclear if the interaction between FeLV-A and the newly-characterized feline thiamine transporter contributes to the pathologies resulting from FeLV-A infection. (fredhutch.org)
  • To test the effects of FeLV-A on thiamine uptake and growth of feline cells, Drs. Mendoza and Overbaugh teamed up with Dr. Dusty Miller, who leads his own lab group in the Human Biology Division. (fredhutch.org)
  • Thus, to fully understand potential interactions between FeLV infection and thiamine uptake, Mendoza cloned and sequenced the cat ortholog corresponding to the second transporter (THTR2) as part of his Ph.D. thesis research. (fredhutch.org)
  • He then tested whether feline THTR2 (feTHTR2) could function as a receptor for FeLV-A. He expressed feTHTR2 in cultured mouse fibroblasts and showed that these cells did not allow the entry of FeLV-A. In the same experiment, mouse fibroblasts expressing feline THTR1 (feTHTR1) were highly permissive of FeLV-A infection. (fredhutch.org)
  • Thus, feTHTR1 and feTHTR2 both function in thiamine uptake at levels similar to that of human THTR1, but only feTHTR1 functions as a cell-entry receptor for FeLV-A in cats. (fredhutch.org)
  • To understand which feline cells might be most susceptible to the inhibitory and possibly toxic effects of FeLV-A on thiamine uptake, the authors examined the expression patterns of feTHTR1 and feTHTR2 in several different cat tissues. (fredhutch.org)
  • Finally, Mendoza examined the effects of FeLV infection on growth of a feline embryonic fibroblast cell line (AH927) that naturally expresses feTHTR1 but not feTHTR2. (fredhutch.org)
  • Often people do not have their cat tested for the presence of FeLV until the cat is noticeably sick, and by this time the FeLV-related disease may have progressed too far for the cat to recover. (fanciers.com)
  • This study was conducted to map the acquired proviral insertions in the chromosomal genome of feline lymphoid tumors induced by feline leukemia virus (FeLV). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Chromosome specimens of the lymphoid tumor-derived cell lines and normal cat lymphocytes were subjected to fluorescence in situ hybridization and tyramide signal amplification, using an exogenous FeLV-A genome as a probe. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) is a deadly disease that can be prevented through regular vaccinations. (petsblogs.com)
  • T here are three main strains of FeLV, labeled A, B and C types, and cats that test positive for the virus may be infected with one, two or all three strains of the virus. (petsblogs.com)
  • FeLV-A affects 100% of all infected cats, causing a severe immunosuppression, or weakened immune system (this is why it is commonly referred to as feline or cat AIDS). (petsblogs.com)
  • This strain of the virus makes it easy for the cat to contract a large number of other infections, as well as being infected with the FeLV. (petsblogs.com)
  • FeLV-B is present in about 50% of all infected cats. (petsblogs.com)
  • Additionally, FeLV can be passed from a gestating (pregnant) cat, to her unborn kittens. (petsblogs.com)
  • model of care and adoption of FeLV-positive cats (FeLV cats) and assessed the experiences of their adopters. (maddiesfund.org)
  • Results showed that 90% of the FeLV-positive cats remain alive 12 months after adoption and the average age of surviving cats is 3.32 years thus far, exceeding the commonly industry-cited 2-3 year lifespan for FeLV cats. (maddiesfund.org)
  • The majority (65%) of FeLV cat adopters felt that APA! (maddiesfund.org)
  • Almost all (99%) FeLV cat adopters were happy with their cats, and 80% would be very likely to adopt a FeLV cat again. (maddiesfund.org)
  • and, to survey adopters of FeLV cats, regarding their expectations, experiences and satisfaction, at the time of adoption, and at 6 months and 12 months following adoption. (maddiesfund.org)
  • Diagnosis of the 100 study cats was performed, basic demographics of the tested FeLV cats were documented, such as the average age of FeLV cats at time of intake and concurrent health condition. (maddiesfund.org)
  • Part 2 of the study collected information about expectations and overall experiences of adopters of FeLV cats via surveys at the time of adoption, 6 and 12 months post-adoption, or when the cat became deceased. (maddiesfund.org)
  • The survey also tracked cat survival time and aimed to quantify the satisfaction of the adoption experience, perceived health of the adopted cat, and desire to adopt another FeLV cat. (maddiesfund.org)
  • Their experience was compared to that of a control group of surveyed FeLV-negative cat adopters. (maddiesfund.org)
  • These leading causes of death (FIP, lymphoma and anemia) match data seen in the greater FeLV cat population at APA! (maddiesfund.org)
  • The first survey conducted at adoption showed that 68% of the respondents that adopted FeLV cats did not plan on adopting a FeLV cat before coming to APA! (maddiesfund.org)
  • but that only 7% felt concerned about living with a FeLV cat. (maddiesfund.org)
  • The second survey at conducted at 6 months post-adoption showed that 99% of adopters were happy with their FeLV cats and 80% would be very likely to adopt a FeLV cat again. (maddiesfund.org)
  • The third survey conducted at 12 months post-adoption showed no significant differences with regard to satisfaction and attachment between the group of adopters of FeLV cats and the control group, with both groups rating happiness and attachment to their cats as very high. (maddiesfund.org)
  • s model and can be crucial to the welfare of FeLV cats in shelters. (maddiesfund.org)
  • Despite an overall shorter lifespan, the survey responses indicate that adopters of FeLV cats report high satisfaction with their decision. (maddiesfund.org)
  • These results encourage shelters to place FeLV cats for adoption and provide educational opportunities for their adopters when possible. (maddiesfund.org)
  • The endangered Florida panther ( Puma concolor coryi ) had an outbreak of infection with feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in the early 2000s that resulted in the deaths of 3 animals. (cdc.gov)
  • We characterized FeLV genomes isolated from Florida panthers from both outbreaks and compared them with full-length genomes of FeLVs isolated from contemporary Florida domestic cats. (cdc.gov)
  • Phylogenetic analyses identified at least 2 circulating FeLV strains in panthers, which represent separate introductions from domestic cats. (cdc.gov)
  • The original FeLV virus outbreak strain is either still circulating or another domestic cat transmission event has occurred with a closely related variant. (cdc.gov)
  • Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a common pathogenic infectious disease responsible for high mortality rates for domestic cats, particularly before development of effective vaccines in the 1980s ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Virulent FeLV-B, the most common novel variant, arises after recombination between FeLV-A and endogenous FeLV (EnFeLV) present in the domestic cat genome and resulted in altered cellular tropism ( 1 , 7 - 10 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Horizontal transmission of FeLV-B is rare in domestic cats and is believed to require co-transmission with FeLV-A as a helper virus because of its replication-defective nature ( 11 , 12 ). (cdc.gov)
  • FeLV prevalence in domestic cats is variable (prevalence range 3%-18%) ( 13 - 16 ). (cdc.gov)
  • FeLV cases, the source was believed to be domestic cats, which serve as the dominant primary host. (cdc.gov)
  • The presence of FeLV genetic sequences in the germline results in recombination between exogenous FeLV and FeLV-A during domestic cat infections and in emergence of more deleterious subgroups (i.e. (cdc.gov)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of a region of the FeLV env gene during this outbreak indicated a single circulating FeLV strain, likely following introduction of the virus from a domestic cat ( 24 ). (cdc.gov)
  • This was the first disease associated with the feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and, thus, the source of its name. (ctvsh.com)
  • Because large quantities of the FeLV are shed in cat saliva, puncture wounds associated with fighting result in injection of the virus into other cats. (ctvsh.com)
  • therefore, it may yield a false negative result in cats who are in the early stage of FeLV infection. (ctvsh.com)
  • Instead of the two possible outcomes described above (i.e., we get sick or we get well), there are four possible outcomes for cats with FeLV. (ctvsh.com)
  • The majority of cats infected with FeLV will die within three years of contracting this virus. (allivet.com)
  • As the name implies, FeLV is a virus that can severely suppress a cat's immune system. (allivet.com)
  • FeLV is one of the chief causes of lymphoma or anemia in cats. (allivet.com)
  • Kittens and young adult cats are most susceptible to contracting FeLV. (allivet.com)
  • However, cats that share water and food bowls, or litter boxes increase their chances of getting FeLV. (allivet.com)
  • What symptoms does a cat with FeLV have? (allivet.com)
  • Cats infected with FeLV will exhibit one or more of the following signs: pale gums, yellow in the whites of the eyes or mouth, enlarged lymph nodes, loss of appetite, weight loss, lethargy, fever, or diarrhea. (allivet.com)
  • Your veterinarian will be able to test your cat for FeLV by performing a blood test. (allivet.com)
  • While FeLV cannot be prevented 100%, the chances of a cat contracting the virus can be greatly reduced. (allivet.com)
  • Nobivac Feline 2-FeLV 25 ds tray vaccine is recommended for the vaccination of healthy cats as an aid in the prevention of lymphoid tumors caused by, and diseases associated with, feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection. (allivet.com)
  • NOBIVAC Feline 1-HCP+ FeLV 25 ds Tray (Eclipse 3 + FeLV) Feline Leukemia-rhinotracheitis-calici-panleukopenia Vaccine Modified Live And Killed Virus. (allivet.com)
  • Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) remains one of the most important infectious diseases of cats globally. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • All cats should be tested for FeLV before vaccination. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Almost all naturally infected cats are originally infected by FeLV-A, the original, archetypical form of the virus. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Additional mutated forms of the original FeLV-A subtype as well as FeLV-B, FeLV-C, or FeLV-T may develop in infected cats. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Viruses of all four subgroups are detected (but cannot be distinguished) by commonly used FeLV diagnostic test kits. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • FeLV is a serious worldwide disease of the feline world that was first diagnosed in the 1960's. (lbah.com)
  • It is not understood why some cats can make antibodies to FeLV and never get it, while others succumb to the virus. (lbah.com)
  • There are no specific set of symptoms that tell us for certainty that a cat has FeLV. (lbah.com)
  • Cats that have FeLV are susceptible to other diseases, notably FIA (Feline Infectious Anemia). (lbah.com)
  • Cats that are anemic due to FeLV need their red blood cells checked every 3 months on a routine basis. (lbah.com)
  • This report from our laboratory is from a cat that is very ill with FeLV. (lbah.com)
  • This is because feline leukemia, or FeLV as it sometimes known, is a contagious disease that can be passed from cat to cat. (floppycats.com)
  • Many cats that test positive for feline leukemia appear perfectly healthy and it is impossible to diagnose FeLV by simply looking at a cat. (floppycats.com)
  • It is also the reason for recommending that any sick cat be retested for FeLV, regardless of the previous FeLV status. (floppycats.com)
  • He should be housed separate from other cats or only with other cats that are positive for FeLV also. (floppycats.com)
  • The vaccine will not protect a FeLV positive cat. (floppycats.com)
  • Feline leukemia virus symptoms are brought on by the presence of the feline leukemia virus (FeLV). (cat-lovers-only.com)
  • Among other conditions, cats with FeLV may commonly develop anemia. (cat-lovers-only.com)
  • As you can see, FeLV is a serious cat health issue and keeping the virus out of cat populations is of primary concern. (cat-lovers-only.com)
  • Even vaccinated cats may be at risk of contracting the disease, so keeping your cat indoors and preventing the introduction of FeLV positive cats is the first line of defense. (cat-lovers-only.com)
  • What is FeLV or Feline Leukemia Virus? (best-cat-tips.com)
  • FeLV is a virus that suppresses a cat's immune system, leaving the cat unable to fight off infections. (best-cat-tips.com)
  • About one third of cats are infected briefly and then the virus is eliminated and no FeLV related disorders develop. (best-cat-tips.com)
  • One third of the cats infected can't eliminate the virus but do not usually develop FeLV related diseases, however, they do become carriers of the disease and can pass it to other cats. (best-cat-tips.com)
  • The remaining third of infected cats go on to develop full blown FeLV related diseases which eventually ends in death. (best-cat-tips.com)
  • FeLV is found in a cat's saliva, urine and other body fluids and is typically passed from cat to cat by direct contact, including mutual grooming, biting and sneezing. (best-cat-tips.com)
  • If your cat is prone to chronic or recurrent infections FeLV may be the cause. (best-cat-tips.com)
  • The second test is IFA (Immunoflourescence assay) This test detects FeLV antigens in the white blood cells of a cat. (best-cat-tips.com)
  • There are certain measures you should take if you are dealing with an FeLV infected cat. (best-cat-tips.com)
  • There are certain preventative measures you can take to protect your cat against FeLV. (best-cat-tips.com)
  • First you should ask your vet about vaccinating your cat against FeLV. (best-cat-tips.com)
  • Third, have any new cat you plan on bringing into your household tested for FeLV before you bring him home. (best-cat-tips.com)
  • Fourth, don't crowd too many cats into one household, since cats in multi-cat household have an increased risk of for FeLV. (best-cat-tips.com)
  • FeLV), virus causing fatal illness in domestic cats. (britannica.com)
  • The most common cause of serious illness in domestic cats, FeLV initiates a breakdown in the animal's immune system, increasing its susceptibility to other diseases. (britannica.com)
  • A cat that is infected with FeLV has only a 17 percent chance of surviving more than three years. (britannica.com)
  • Approximately 4 to 13 percent of all cats tested are positive for FeLV, including roughly 60 million cats in the United States. (britannica.com)
  • The virus received its name because leukemia, a malignancy of the white blood cells, was one of the first diseases associated with FeLV infection. (britannica.com)
  • Although the virus generally invades the white blood cells, infection with FeLV does not always result in leukemia, nor are all cases of leukemia in felines caused by viral infection. (britannica.com)
  • however, FeLV-positive cats do have a high probability of contracting any of a number of serious diseases. (britannica.com)
  • Outdoor cats are nearly three times more likely to get the virus than indoor cats, most likely because cats that roam outside have a higher probability of coming into contact with, and fighting, cats that carry FeLV. (britannica.com)
  • Furthermore, FeLV-positive pregnant females can transmit the virus to their kittens in utero. (britannica.com)
  • At some point, however, approximately half of these cats succumb to FeLV-related illnesses. (britannica.com)
  • We determined prevalence to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in feral cats ( Felis catus ) on Mauna Kea Hawaii from April 2002 to May 2004. (unl.edu)
  • FeLV is the cause of a variety of diseases, not just leukemia. (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • Like all viruses, FeLV is a tiny microorganism consisting of nucleic acid and a few proteins and glycoproteins in a simple structure. (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • FeLV is specific to members of the cat family and does not pose a risk to other species of animals or people. (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • In many cats, FeLV infection results in a moderate to severe suppression of the immune system. (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • Another common occurrence in FeLV-infected cats is the development of a profound and life-threatening anemia . (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • Studies have shown that 80-90% of FeLV-infected cats will die within three to four years of initial diagnosis. (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • Direct contact between cats is the most frequent method of FeLV infection. (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • A cat with FeLV sheds a large quantity of the virus in its saliva as well as in other bodily fluids such as nasal secretions, urine and feces. (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • However, FeLV is not a highly contagious virus, and transmission generally requires a prolonged period of close contact between infected and susceptible cats. (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • Another potential source of infection occurs when a pregnant cat infected with FeLV gives birth. (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • In this situation, the kittens may be born with FeLV virus or, more likely, are infected when their mother grooms them. (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • What happens when a cat is exposed to FeLV? (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • Not all cats exposed to FeLV will develop persistent infections. (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • This immunity is successful in eliminating the virus in approximately 30% of the adult cats exposed to FeLV. (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • During the period when FeLV was replicating inside those cats' cells, there may have been cell changes that could lead to disease later in life. (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • Following infection, these cats become persistently and permanently infected with the virus and are at the highest risk of developing FeLV-related disease. (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • It is these permanently infected cats that are primarily responsible for the transmission of FeLV to other cats. (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • The recombinant retrovirus, MoFe2-MuLV (MoFe2), was constructed by replacing the U3 region of Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) with homologous sequences from the FeLV-945 LTR. (asm.org)
  • Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a naturally occurring gammaretrovirus that infects the domestic cat. (asm.org)
  • Natural FeLV infections in the domestic cat are associated with malignant and proliferative diseases, including lymphomas and leukemias of lymphoid, myeloid, or erythroid origin, as well as degenerative diseases, including anemia ( 40 ). (asm.org)
  • The objective of this work was to study the immunosuppressive activity of the envelope protein (p15E) of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and evaluate the effect of its abolition on the efficacy of a vaccine against FeLV. (asm.org)
  • As a result of the introduction of the mutated envelope sequence into a previously well characterized canarypox virus-vectored vaccine (ALVAC-FeLV), the frequency of vaccine-induced FeLV-specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing cells was increased, whereas conversely, the frequency of vaccine-induced FeLV-specific interleukin-10 (IL-10)-producing cells was reduced. (asm.org)
  • Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a gammaretrovirus responsible for fatal diseases in cats. (asm.org)
  • FeLV infection has a major impact on cat life expectancy ( 1 ), and the virus remains one of the major feline pathogens. (asm.org)
  • The prevalence of FeLV infection in cats has been reduced by the management of infected animals and vaccination but is still high in some populations ( 5 - 7 ). (asm.org)
  • Feline Leukemia Virus antibody LS-C527509 is a biotin-conjugated goat polyclonal antibody to cat Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV). (lsbio.com)
  • RESULTS: We examined the FeLV expression in cats that have developed malignant lymphomas and discussed the possible mechanisms that could have induced malignant transformation. (uzh.ch)
  • FeLV, Feline Leukemia Virus, is a deadly disease that affects domestic cats and some wild ones as well. (thepetwiki.com)
  • There are 3 main types of FeLV, A, B and C. Infection of one, two or all three can occur in a cat. (thepetwiki.com)
  • A is in all FeLV diagnosed cats. (thepetwiki.com)
  • Half of all cats infected with FeLV result in B, tumors and other abnormal growths. (thepetwiki.com)
  • Feline leukemia viruses carrying transduced v-myc genes (myc-FeLV) induce tumors of clonel origin, suggesting that activated myc alone is not sufficient for tumorgenesis. (gla.ac.uk)
  • In contrast to HIV, efficacious vaccines for a cat retrovirus, feline leukemia virus (FeLV), are commercially available. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Reassessment of feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) vaccines with novel sensitive molecular assays. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Detection of antibodies to the feline leukemia Virus (FeLV) transmembrane protein p15E: an alternative approach for serological FeLV detection based on antibodies to p15E. (semanticscholar.org)
  • FeLV tends to become a persistent infection and depresses the immune system of cats. (michigananimalhospital.com)
  • FeLV is an important cause of anemia in cats and can cause cancers of several types. (michigananimalhospital.com)
  • Because cats may become persistently infected, carrying the virus for long periods before showing any clinical signs, your cat may have been exposed to FeLV without you realizing it. (michigananimalhospital.com)
  • The immune system becomes suppressed, making the FeLV-infected cat more susceptible to chronic or recurrent infections. (michigananimalhospital.com)
  • Changes in genetic code due to FeLV infection may eventually give rise to cancer such as leukemia, lymphosarcoma or other tumors. (michigananimalhospital.com)
  • There is currently no specific treatment for FeLV-infected cats. (michigananimalhospital.com)
  • Most FeLV-infected cats will eventually die of diseases related to their infection or will require humane euthanasia. (michigananimalhospital.com)
  • Approximately 30% of cats infected with FeLV will eliminate the virus and will not contract the disease. (michigananimalhospital.com)
  • Some FeLV-infected cats may not show signs of disease for months or even years. (michigananimalhospital.com)
  • FeLV vaccines have been specially developed so that they do not contain any infective virus material. (michigananimalhospital.com)
  • Signs depend on the type of infection: FeLV-A, FeLV-B, or FeLV-C. Cats found with the virus can be infected with one, two, or all three types. (petmd.com)
  • Occurs in all cats infected with FeLV. (petmd.com)
  • Occurs in about 50 percent of FeLV-infected cats, and causes tumors and other abnormal tissue growths. (petmd.com)
  • The least common type, occurring in about 1 percent of FeLV-infected cats. (petmd.com)
  • LTCI is the first USDA-approved treatment aid for osteoarthritis in dogs and the first USDA-approved treatment aid for cats infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and/or feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). (tcyte.com)
  • Veterinarians and cat owners have anxiously awaited development of a viable treatment for Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) and Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) for decades. (tcyte.com)
  • A message of hope repudiates the sad, commonly heard refrain of "There is nothing to be done for a cat with FeLV or FIV. (tcyte.com)
  • LTCI (Lymphocyte T-Cell Immunomodulator) is the first USDA-approved treatment aid for cats infected with FeLV and FIV, and the associated symptoms of lymphopenia, opportunistic infection, anemia, granulocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia. (tcyte.com)
  • Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is linked to most forms of LSA except for the gastrointestinal (GI) form. (aspca.org)
  • The disease caused by the FeLV is deadly in cats but may be prevented through vaccination. (vetinfo.com)
  • Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is responsible for the majority of household cat deaths. (heartlandah.com)
  • Outdoor cats and cats in multiple-cat environments are considered the most at-risk for contracting FeLV, a virus spread through warm fluids, such as nasal secretions, saliva, urine, or a mother's milk. (heartlandah.com)
  • Because of their impaired immune system, cats with FeLV are also highly susceptible to various general infections. (heartlandah.com)
  • Please inquire about the vaccination if you consider your cat to be at-risk, as FeLV is often fatal. (heartlandah.com)
  • If you believe your pet has contracted FeLV or you have any questions about the virus, feel free to contact our office at your earliest convenience. (heartlandah.com)
  • Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), a retrovirus, so named because of the way it behaves within infected cells. (ovshosp.com)
  • FeLV-infected cats are found worldwide, but the prevalence of infection varies greatly depending on their age, health, environment, and lifestyle. (ovshosp.com)
  • In the United States, approximately 2 to 3% of all cats are infected with FeLV. (ovshosp.com)
  • Atlas is a 4 year old male kitty, and he is FeLV (Feline Leukemia) positive. (lonestarvetcare.com)
  • FeLV is a retrovirus that infects cats and is responsible for more deaths than any other organism. (lonestarvetcare.com)
  • FeLV is highly contagious and is easily spread once a cat has been in close contact with another infected cat. (lonestarvetcare.com)
  • The cats actively shed virus (primarily in saliva and feces), and are likely to become ill with FeLV-related disease. (lonestarvetcare.com)
  • A FeLV-positive cat may experience a number of symptoms after they contract the virus. (lonestarvetcare.com)
  • There is a simple blood test that can be run to know whether or not your cat is FeLV positive. (lonestarvetcare.com)
  • There is currently no successful treatment to reverse the FeLV virus once a cat has been infected. (lonestarvetcare.com)
  • In order to prevent your cat from contracting Feline Leukemia Virus, make sure your cat does not come in contact with FeLV positive cats- this is particularly important if you allow your cat outdoor access. (lonestarvetcare.com)
  • All cats that are allowed outdoor access should stay current with their FeLV vaccination, and it's not a bad idea for indoor cats as well. (lonestarvetcare.com)
  • The prognosis for a FeLV-positive cat is variable- it really depends what type of infection they have, and how much supportive care they are able to receive when they need it. (lonestarvetcare.com)
  • A FeLV-positive cat can have a depressed immune system, therefore they can contract common (secondary) illnesses easier than others. (lonestarvetcare.com)
  • All FeLV-positive cats should be indoor only, and in a one-cat-household (unless housed with other FeLV-positive cats). (lonestarvetcare.com)
  • Because of this, a new, healthy cat can be brought safely into a "contaminated" house within days of the departure of an FeLV-infected cat. (lonestarvetcare.com)
  • Kittens are much more susceptible to FeLV infection than are adult cats and therefore are at the greatest risk of infection if exposed. (eastsideanimal.net)
  • Because of this, common bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi that usually do not affect healthy cats can cause severe illness in FeLV-infected cats. (eastsideanimal.net)
  • Cats can be FeLV tested, and then vaccinated if they are negative. (eastsideanimal.net)
  • FeLV vaccination of infected cats does not affect the carrier state, the capacity to infect other cats or the development of disease in the infected cats. (eastsideanimal.net)
  • All kittens or adult cats that test negative by the first ELISA screening test - but with a known or suspected exposure to FeLV - should be retested. (eastsideanimal.net)
  • This is done to rule out possible negative results obtained during incubation of the FeLV virus. (eastsideanimal.net)
  • Multi-cat households with FeLV positive cats should be maintained as a closed colony. (eastsideanimal.net)
  • Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) is an unpleasant and potentially very serious infection of cats, but also is very interesting in its behavior. (hubpages.com)
  • Because of the cancer-causing potential of this virus, some cats with lymphoma will test positive for FeLV. (hubpages.com)
  • When FeLV was first discovered in the 1960s, a very large percentage of cats with lymphoma did indeed have concurrent FeLV infection. (hubpages.com)
  • However, with successful containment of infection in recent decades as well as the availability of effective vaccines the incidence of FeLV infection in lymphoma in cats has decreased dramatically. (hubpages.com)
  • Amazingly, every domestic cat is born with a copy of an ancient FeLV strain incorporated into their genetic makeup. (hubpages.com)
  • This endogenous FeLV (eFeLV) must have infected ancestors of our pet cats thousands of years ago, but a balance has been struck between the host cat and its eFeLV such that this strain is no longer a cause of disease in our pets. (hubpages.com)
  • Cats with all forms of lymphoma that test positive for FeLV unfortunately have a poor prognosis. (hubpages.com)
  • Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a γ-retrovirus belonging to group of retroviruses, together with FIV. (animalabs.com)
  • Specifically, FeLV-A viruses represent the naturally occurring, horizontally transmissible subgroup spread cat-to-cat in nature. (animalabs.com)
  • FeLV-B, C and T are thought not to be horizontally transmissible in nature, but arise de novo within the infected animal by mutation of FeLV-A and/or by recombination between FeLV-A and endogenous FeLV-related elements in the cat genome. (animalabs.com)
  • Generally, FeLV-infected are 62-times more likely to develop lymphoma or leukemia than non-infected cats. (animalabs.com)
  • The largest source of FeLV infection are persistently viremic asymptomatic cats. (animalabs.com)
  • Regressively infected cats do not shed FeLV and are not infectious to others, but regressive infection can be reactivated. (animalabs.com)
  • FeLV infection decreases life expectancy, but with proper care cats with FeLV can live for years. (animalabs.com)
  • Prevalence of FeLV infection is about 2% in healthy cats and up to about 30% in high-risk or sick cats in the USA. (animalabs.com)
  • Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) was first recognized in 1964. (blogspot.com)
  • Although widespread testing and vaccination has markedly decreased the rate of infection over the last 20 years, the ability of infected cats to readily shed and transmit FeLV through saliva ensures that this virus will continue to plague cat owners, breeders, and veterinarians for many years to come. (blogspot.com)
  • Repeated exposure to a cat that is known to be infected with FeLV greatly increases the risk of contracting the virus. (blogspot.com)
  • These cats frequently succumb to a FeLV-associated illness in a few months or years. (blogspot.com)
  • These cats are at little risk of developing FeLV-associated diseases. (blogspot.com)
  • What can happen if a cat is infected with the FeLV? (petoskeyveterinarian.com)
  • Outcome 1 occurs about 40% of the time after a cat is challenged by the FeLV. (petoskeyveterinarian.com)
  • The FeLv virus commonly affects bone marrow causing. (yahoo.com)
  • House of Dreams cares for many cats who carry the Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV), because we believe they deserve a chance at a rich, happy life. (kittydreams.org)
  • That makes an FeLV-positive cat more susceptible to diseases other cats normally fight off. (kittydreams.org)
  • Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection is responsible for more deaths among cats than any other infectious disease. (kitpcr.com)
  • Most of us have heard of Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV), a fatal and contagious disease of cats. (windinghillvet.com)
  • So even if your new cat or kitten has tested negative for FeLV, MAKE SURE TO RE-TEST a month later. (windinghillvet.com)
  • If your cat should develop a new illness suggestive of FeLV, is responding poorly to treatment, or has vague, nonspecific symptoms. (windinghillvet.com)
  • Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) is one of the more common infectious diseases diagnosed in cats. (smalldoorvet.com)
  • Otherwise healthy cats who become infected with FeLV and remain positive can still live several years longer, assuming there are no additional complications or secondary infections. (smalldoorvet.com)
  • How Did My Cat Get FeLV? (smalldoorvet.com)
  • FeLV makes it difficult for the body to protect itself against infection from bacteria and other viruses. (smalldoorvet.com)
  • This type of "vertical" transmission (from mother cat to kitten) is a very common cause of FeLV infection. (smalldoorvet.com)
  • However, the virus may become reactivated at any time, resulting in the typical clinical signs of FeLV infection. (smalldoorvet.com)
  • First discovered in the 1960s, feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a transmittable RNA retrovirus that can severely inhibit a cat's immune and causes certain types. (parspets.com)
  • Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) and Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) are both caused by retroviruses that are similar to, but not the same as, the virus that causes human AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). (icvsasia.com)
  • An individual cat may contract both FeLV and FIV. (icvsasia.com)
  • The Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) and Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) infection status of all cats should be known. (icvsasia.com)
  • The International Center for Veterinary Services (ICVS), together with the American Association of Feline Practitioners (AAFP), an organization of veterinarians with a special interest in the health of cats, urges you to have your cat tested for FeLV and FIV. (icvsasia.com)
  • Please speak with your ICVS veterinarian about having your cat tested to help determine the risk for FeLV and/or FIV infection. (icvsasia.com)
  • Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is contagious among cats. (glencoeanimalhospital.com)
  • Unlike many other viruses that enter specific cells in the body and destroy them, FeLV enters certain cells in a cat's body and changes the cells' genetic characteristics. (glencoeanimalhospital.com)
  • This permits FeLV to continue reproducing within the cat each time infected cells divide. (glencoeanimalhospital.com)
  • This allows FeLV to become dormant (inactive) in some cats, making disease transmission and prognosis (outlook) difficult to predict. (glencoeanimalhospital.com)
  • FeLV is killed by many disinfectants and does not live for very long in the environment, so contact with an infected cat is necessary for disease spread. (glencoeanimalhospital.com)
  • Not every cat that becomes infected with FeLV develops clinical signs or long-term complications associated with the virus. (glencoeanimalhospital.com)
  • Still other cats become carriers of the disease or experience various illnesses and immune suppression before eventually dying of FeLV-associated complications. (glencoeanimalhospital.com)
  • Because there are several stages of disease and not every cat handles FeLV infection the same way, diagnosis is not always straightforward. (glencoeanimalhospital.com)
  • Because FeLV infection can have many clinical presentations, your veterinarian may want to test your cat if he or she seems to be ill-especially if a fever is present. (glencoeanimalhospital.com)
  • Cats that go outside or live with other cats are at greater risk for exposure to FeLV compared with cats that stay indoors and have limited contact with other cats. (glencoeanimalhospital.com)
  • If risk for exposure is low, your veterinarian may not recommend the FeLV vaccine for your cat. (glencoeanimalhospital.com)
  • Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) is a serious disease. (blogspot.com)
  • FeLV mostly infects cats younger than 4 months old. (blogspot.com)
  • Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a horizontally transmitted virus that causes a variety of proliferative and immunosuppressive diseases in cats. (scienceexchange.com)
  • The receptor cDNA was isolated using a gene transfer approach, which involved introducing sequences from a feline cell line permissive to FeLV-A into a murine cell line that was not permissive. (scienceexchange.com)
  • This feline cDNA conferred susceptibility to FeLV-A when reintroduced into nonpermissive cells, but it did not render these cells permissive to any other FeLV subgroup. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Moreover, these cells specifically bound FeLV-A-pseudotyped virus particles, indicating that the cDNA encodes a binding receptor for FeLV-A. The feline cDNA shares approximately 93% amino acid sequence identity with the human thiamine transport protein 1 (THTR1). (scienceexchange.com)
  • The human THTR1 receptor was also functional as a receptor for FeLV-A, albeit with reduced efficiency compared to the feline orthologue. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are contagious, untreatable diseases in cats. (vetstreet.com)
  • Like FeLV, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is also contagious among cats, and a cat can be infected with FIV for many years without showing any clinical signs of illness. (vetstreet.com)
  • How Do Cats Become Infected With FeLV and FIV? (vetstreet.com)
  • Like FeLV, FIV is also transmitted through contact with saliva from an infected cat. (vetstreet.com)
  • FeLV and FIV are both killed by common disinfectants and don't live for very long in the environment, so contact with an infected cat is generally necessary for disease transmission between cats. (vetstreet.com)
  • Like cats with FeLV infection, FIV-positive cats don't always show clinical signs. (vetstreet.com)
  • Some FeLV-positive cats also go on to develop bone marrow problems and certain cancers. (vetstreet.com)
  • When cats infected with FeLV or FIV continue to spend time outside, they are at increased risk for exposure to other viruses, parasites, and infections that their bodies may be unable to handle. (vetstreet.com)
  • Additionally, they are likely to sustain wounds (through cat fights or other trauma) that may become infected or fail to heal properly due to the compromised immune function associated with FeLV or FIV infection. (vetstreet.com)
  • Most veterinarians recommend keeping FeLV- or FIV-positive cats indoors, which not only helps protect cats from injuries and other infections but also reduces the likelihood that these cats will transmit FeLV or FIV to other cats. (vetstreet.com)
  • FeLV infection can be complicated to diagnose because there are several stages of disease and not every cat handles FeLV infection the same way. (vetstreet.com)
  • FeLV is transmitted by prolonged close contact with an infected cat. (hofah.com)
  • Kittens can be born with FeLV or acquire the virus through their mother's milk. (hofah.com)
  • The Feline Leukemia Virus, or FeLV, is the second leading cause of death in cats, especially those in feral colonies. (cw35.com)
  • If you have a FeLV-positive cat or kitten, they should not be allowed to socialize with other negative cats! (cw35.com)
  • Cats persistently infected with FeLV are themselves sources of infection. (crotonanimalhospital.com)
  • The only sure way to protect cats is to prevent their exposure to FeLV-infected cats. (crotonanimalhospital.com)
  • Consider FeLV vaccination of uninfected cats. (crotonanimalhospital.com)
  • From 2002 through 2005, an outbreak of feline leu- the fate of the population increased as signs of inbreeding kemia virus (FeLV) occurred in Florida panthers ( Puma and loss of genetic diversity were reported. (cdc.gov)
  • Not of sperm abnormalities, and increased incidence of heart associated with FeLV outcome were the genetic heritage defects relative to other puma populations and felids in of the panthers (pure Florida vs. Texas/Florida crosses) general ( and co-infection with feline immunodefi ciency virus. (cdc.gov)
  • In 1995, faced with the compounding ef- netic analysis of panther FeLV, designated FeLV-Pco, de- fects of reduced genetic variation, probable depression of termined that the outbreak likely came from 1 cross-spe- numbers from inbreeding, and evidence of compromised cies transmission from a domestic cat. (cdc.gov)
  • The FeLV-Pco virus health, wildlife managers released 8 female Texas pumas was closely related to the domestic cat exogenous FeLV-A into southern Florida to increase genetic variation and ame- subgroup in lacking recombinant segments derived from liorate the physiologic effects of inbreeding. (cdc.gov)
  • In the early 1990s, concern over strains isolated from the 2001-2005 outbreak and compare them with FeLV strains isolated from domestic cats. (cdc.gov)
  • Objective: To determine the potential mechanisms for disease potentiation where feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection of persistently feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-infected cats results in more severe FIV disease and increased mortality than FIV infection of specific pathogen-free cats. (elsevier.com)
  • To examine whether persistent FeLV infection can cause the deletion of a suppressive T-lymphocyte population, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures from persistently FeLV-infected cats were infected with FIV and monitored for FIV antigen levels. (elsevier.com)
  • Results: Macrophages were the predominant target of FIV infection and were disseminated in a similar pattern in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues of both FIV-infected and FeLV/FIV-coinfected cats. (elsevier.com)
  • FIV antigen production was similar upon in vitro infection of PBMC from FeLV-infected and uninfected cats. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions: Neither direct virus/virus interactions, such as FeLV/FIV pseudotype formation or transactivation of the FIV LTR in FeLV-infected cells, nor deletion of a regulatory cell subset from the blood of FeLV-infected cats, was found to be the mechanism of disease potentiation. (elsevier.com)
  • Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) is a transmittable RNA retrovirus that inhibits feline immune systems and predisposes its host to infections and diseases. (emich.edu)
  • Exogenous sequences in the brain indicate the presence of cellular receptors recognizable by FeLV-B. This is significant because previous research suggested that brain cells have a resistance to the virus. (emich.edu)
  • Furthering knowledge of mechanisms and locations of insertion can lead to a more complete understanding of FeLV disease progression, ultimately leading to the development of more effective treatments, conserving the health of domesticated and large endangered feline species. (emich.edu)
  • Mouse anti Feline leukemia virus p27 monoclonal antibody (clone M452) is specific for the p27 of FeLV (anti gag). (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • Mouse anti Feline leukemia virus p27 antibody (M452) reacts with the p27 of FeLV. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • The feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is the causative agent of the most important fatal infectious disease complex of domestic cats. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • Young kittens are especially susceptible to FeLV infection while with increasing age cats become more resistant to infection. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • FeLV exists in four immunologically closely-related subtypes: A, B, C, and T. As well as the so-called exogenous FeLV, two forms of endogenous (enFeLV) gamma retroviruses are also known in the domestic cat: the endogenous feline leukaemia virus and the RD114 virus. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • Gp70 is the target for neutralising antibodies in recovered cats and is an essential component of FeLV vaccines ( Willett and Hosie, 2013 ). (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • The prevalence of FeLV in cats has decreased significantly in the past 25 years since the development of an effective vaccine and more accurate testing procedures ( Cornell University, 2016 ). (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • Its utility as a diagnostic marker for FeLV viraemia is only possible because cats do not appear to respond serologically to the protein, an observation that has led to speculation that cats may be largely immunologically tolerant to p27 through exposure to endogenously expressed FeLV Gag ( Willett and Hosie, 2013 ). (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • FeLV (Feline Leukemia Virus) is spread from cat to cat by bodily secretions. (blvdvet.net)
  • The FeLV blood test is an effective way to screen any new cat or kitten of this deadly disease before they are introduced to your home. (blvdvet.net)
  • Testing and vaccination have definitely decreased the incidence of FeLV infection and disease, but the outdoor feral cat population will always be a source FeLV. (blvdvet.net)
  • FIV is frequently confused with the feline leukemia virus (FeLV), which also attacks the immune system. (mercola.com)
  • But FeLV can be spread through casual contact between cats, and while cats with FIV can have normal life spans, those with FeLV often die within three years of becoming infected. (mercola.com)
  • Use the first pet-side test to accurately screen for FIV, FeLV, and feline heartworm infection in just 10 minutes. (idexx.com)
  • Gain further insight into your feline patients' health with FeLV Quant RealPCR and Feline Cardiopet proBNP, available from IDEXX Reference Laboratories . (idexx.com)
  • WITNESS® FeLV is a convenient, easy-to-use, in-house test that detects the presence of the feline leukemia virus antigen that is found in high levels in infected cats. (piccardmeds4pets.com)
  • FIV Ab + FeLV Ag Combined Rapid Test is a combined cassette to differentially diagnose the presence of Feline Immunodeficiency antibody and Feline Leukemia Virus antigen in cat's blood. (uabig.com)
  • Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a retrovirus that, like feline immunodeficiency virus (another retrovirus), produces an enzyme known as reverse transcriptase, which allows the retrovirus to inject duplicates of its own genetic matter into the cells it has corrupted. (thevethosp.com)
  • Though closely related, because a number of the diseases triggered by feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and FeLV are similar, they differ in many ways. (thevethosp.com)
  • For the purpose of this article, we will focus specifically on FeLV, which is the most common cause of cancer in cats, and may cause blood disorders or weaken a feline's immune system, leading to infection and secondary diseases. (thevethosp.com)
  • In the early stages of FeLV (primary viremia), many cats show no signs of disease. (thevethosp.com)
  • Cats that are ill, very young, very old or that have a compromised immune system and are thus at high risk for infection are more likely to develop FeLV, but still the condition is not too common. (thevethosp.com)
  • Cats that have entered secondary viremia experience progressive FeLV infection and will likely have the virus for the rest of their life. (thevethosp.com)
  • There are two kinds of blood tests that can be performed to detect FeLV, and they identify a protein element of the virus that travels through the bloodstream. (thevethosp.com)
  • These ladies have been raising funds for the purpose of mass testing all those in our care for Feline Leukaemia /Aids (FelV) and Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV). (uitsig.org.za)
  • Because the virus doesn't always manifest symptoms right away, any new cat entering a household-and any sick cat-should be tested for FeLV. (uitsig.org.za)
  • How Do Cats Get FeLV? (uitsig.org.za)
  • It should be noted that healthy cats over three months of age and vaccinated for FeLV are highly unlikely to contract the virus from another cat. (uitsig.org.za)
  • Most veterinarians and shelter professionals use the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test, which detects antigen to the FELV virus in the bloodstream. (uitsig.org.za)
  • What Happens to Cats Who Are Infected With FeLV? (uitsig.org.za)
  • FeLV weakens an animal's immune system and predisposes cats to a variety of infections and diseases, including anemia, kidney disease and lymphosarcoma, a highly malignant and fatal cancer of the lymph system. (uitsig.org.za)
  • Which Cats Are Prone to FeLV? (uitsig.org.za)
  • Cats who live with an infected cat, cats who are allowed outdoors where they may be bitten by an infected cat, and kittens who are born to a mother who is FeLV positive are most at risk for infection. (uitsig.org.za)
  • My Cat Has FeLV. (uitsig.org.za)
  • another common slow virus disease of cats also in the Retroviridae family is feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). (drugs.com)
  • Retrovirus vaccines are in the limelight now more than ever before due to the etiologic involvement of retroviruses, human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-III/LAV) in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) of man (1,5) and HTLV-I in certain human lymphomas (14). (springer.com)
  • Comparison of risk factors for seropositivity to feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus among cats: a case-case study. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Slater, "Prevalence of feline leukemia virus infection and serum antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus in unowned free-roaming cats," Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A recent study of a specific feline leukemia virus , which also causes fatal feline immunodeficiency syndrome, led scientists to conclude that current laboratory procedures may not be isolating the more virulent strains of HIV, thus misleading researchers (SN: 2/27/88, p.133). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Feline leukemia virus and Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are among the most common infectious diseases in cats. (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS, is also a retrovirus. (britannica.com)
  • Evidence of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline Leukemia Virus, and" by Raymond M. Danner, Daniel M. Goltz et al. (unl.edu)
  • Vaccination of cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus, using a recombinant feline leukemia virus vaccine. (semanticscholar.org)
  • All retroviruses, including feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), produce an enzyme, reverse transcriptase, which permits them to insert copies of their own genetic material into that of the cells they have infected. (ovshosp.com)
  • Feline Immunodeficiency Virus, or FIV, is a member of a family of viruses called Retroviruses. (felinedocs.com)
  • Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) is a disease specific to cats and very similar to HIV in humans. (pethealthinfo.org.uk)
  • Although FIV is not contagious to humans, FIV has some similarities to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and has been used to help researchers better understand HIV. (vetstreet.com)
  • The feline immunodeficiency virus or FIV is a very common infectious disease. (mercola.com)
  • Screen all cats to detect specific antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in feline serum, plasma or anticoagulated whole blood. (idexx.com)
  • Though it's considered a non-core vaccine, this vaccine is highly recommended by the American Association of Feline Practitioners for all kittens. (vetstreet.com)
  • Adapted from the Feline Retrovirus Management Guidelines, American Association of Feline Practitioners, 2008. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Testing is recommended under several circumstances, according to the AAFP (American Association of Feline Practitioners) Retrovirus Guidelines . (floppycats.com)
  • The retroviral guidelines published by the AAFP (American Association of Feline Practitioners) suggest that veterinarians be aggressive in the diagnosis and treatment early in the course of disease. (tcyte.com)
  • Easily implement feline health protocols as recommended by the AAFP (American Association of Feline Practitioners) and the American Heartworm Society . (idexx.com)
  • Feline leukemia is caused by a retrovirus that only infects members of the feline family. (petfinder.com)
  • A retrovirus that primarily affects cats, is transmitted through saliva, and causes immunosuppression, anemia, cancers such as leukemia and sarcomas, and other disorders. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • a retrovirus, mainly affecting cats, that depresses the immune system and leads to opportunistic infections, lymphosarcoma, and other disorders. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The feline leukemia virus is a highly contagious retrovirus that can cause immunosuppression, secondary opportunistic infections and a number of neoplastic (cancerous) and hematologic (blood) abnormalities in cats. (petwave.com)
  • It is caused by a retrovirus ( FIV is also caused by a retrovirus) that is spread from cat to cat by saliva and respiratory secretions. (lbah.com)
  • Endogenous feline leukemia virus (enFeLV) is another retrovirus for which transcription has been observed in cat lymphomas. (uzh.ch)
  • Retrovirus-induced feline pure red blood cell aplasia: pathogenesis and response to suramin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Feline leukemia virus, a retrovirus, is a common infection of cats. (eastsideanimal.net)
  • A retrovirus is a ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus with a reverse transcriptase enzyme that allows the genetic information of the virus to become part of the genetic information of the host cell upon replication. (mercola.com)
  • Gibbon-ape leukemia virus (GaLV) is an oncogenic, type C retrovirus that has been isolated from primate neoplasms, including the white-handed gibbon and woolly monkey. (wikipedia.org)
  • These include cross-species transmission of the retrovirus present within a species of East Asian rodent or bat, and the inoculation or blood transfusion of a MbRV-related virus into captured gibbons populations housed at medical research institutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1971, phylogenetic analysis of the Leukemia-inducing retrovirus, lead to the identification of GaLV-SEATO, published within De Paoli et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cats are also susceptible to infections by other organisms because of the immunosuppressive nature of the infection, and commonly succumb to other diseases. (petfinder.com)
  • If not defeated by the animal's immune system, the virus weakens the cat's immune system which can lead to diseases which can be lethal. (wikipedia.org)
  • This virus causes damage to the immune system of cats, and it reduces the cats' ability to fight against diseases. (localvets.com)
  • This will make the cats more susceptible to many different types of diseases. (localvets.com)
  • Infection with the Feline Leukemia Virus is one of the most classical diseases in veterinary medicine. (marvistavet.com)
  • We often use the term "leukemia" rather loosely to include all of the diseases associated with the virus, even though most are not cancers of the blood. (ctvsh.com)
  • This virus causes many other fatal diseases, in addition to leukemia. (ctvsh.com)
  • What diseases are caused by the Feline Leukemia Virus? (ctvsh.com)
  • When the immune system is suppressed, the cat becomes susceptible to many diseases it would ordinarily resist and mild diseases, such as respiratoryinfections, may become fatal. (ctvsh.com)
  • After a variable period of time these cats will probably develop one of the diseases associated with the virus. (lbah.com)
  • These symptoms are quite variable though, and are also present with other diseases like hyperthyroidism , liver disease , sugar diabetes , kidney disease , and feline hyperthyroidism , so a correct diagnosis is important. (lbah.com)
  • Because of that, many of the feline leukemia virus symptoms that appear in an infected cat are due to secondary infections, conditions, and diseases. (cat-lovers-only.com)
  • This not only results in feline leukemia but in various types of cancer and other chronic diseases. (best-cat-tips.com)
  • Read on for information about diseases and other medical inflictions that frequently impact cats. (aspca.org)
  • Proliferative and degenerative diseases may occur in any of the tissues invaded by the virus, or the virus may be indirectly responsible for other illnesses because of its immunosuppressive effect. (eastsideanimal.net)
  • In other cats, the virus produces cancerous diseases, such as lymphosarcoma and leukemia. (kitpcr.com)
  • Outdoor cats, unneutered males, and those with other diseases also have a higher risk of infection. (smalldoorvet.com)
  • When a group of cats (often outdoor feral cats) come in close contact for a prolonged period of time, fight, mate, and share food, they also share diseases like Feline Leukemia Virus. (lazypawvet.com)
  • Both viruses depress the immune system opening the door to secondary infections and diseases. (icvsasia.com)
  • Cats tend to show signs of disease as young adults, usually from maturity to about five years of age, although the virus is often acquired when they are kittens. (canadianveterinarians.net)
  • Young kittens and cats exposed to infected cats should be retested in four months, even if initial tests results were negative. (canadianveterinarians.net)
  • Young kittens are at highest risk of contracting the disease since their immune system is not as well developed as that of an adult cat. (canadianveterinarians.net)
  • Kittens are much more susceptible to the virus, as are males and cats that have outdoor access. (petmd.com)
  • Mother cats can pass the disease along to their kittens, and kittens are more likely to contract the disease than adult cats. (animalplanet.com)
  • Cats at highest risk are young kittens who are often infected by their mothers or by close contact with other infected cats. (marvistavet.com)
  • Other less frequent routes of viral spread include sharing food and water bowls, cats grooming each other, and transmission from mother to kittens before birth. (ctvsh.com)
  • Kittens born to mothers that have the virus are infected in the womb. (lbah.com)
  • Feline leukemia can also be passed from a pregnant mother cat to her kittens. (floppycats.com)
  • All kittens should be tested for feline leukemia, especially if their mother's feline leukemia virus status is unknown. (floppycats.com)
  • Some veterinarians recommend vaccinating all kittens for feline leukemia because kittens tend to be more susceptible to the disease than mature cats. (floppycats.com)
  • Stray cats and kittens of infected mothers are also at an increased risk. (best-cat-tips.com)
  • Kittens and immune-compromised cats are more susceptible to the disease. (lonestarvetcare.com)
  • Feline Leukemia is spread from mother to kittens - so if there are no new kittens, the spread of Feline Leukemia decreases. (felinedocs.com)
  • As an avid cat rescuer in New York City, she's seen many of the cats and kittens she's rescued test positive for feline leukemia virus. (blogspot.com)
  • This particular scraggly bunch - a mother and her four kittens just taken off the street - all had upper respiratory infections, and all were at increased risk for having the virus. (blogspot.com)
  • horizontal" transmission), and from a mother cat to her kittens ("vertical" transmission). (blogspot.com)
  • The virus is present in high amounts in the saliva and milk of infected queens, and transmission from an infected queen to her kittens is believed to be the most significant source of infection", says Dr. Michael Stone, board certified internist at the Cumming School for Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University. (blogspot.com)
  • FeLV+ mothers can also pass the virus to their kittens. (kittydreams.org)
  • Infected female cats can also pass the virus along to a fetus during pregnancy, and to nursing kittens through milk. (smalldoorvet.com)
  • Some cats may test positive on blood tests when they are young kittens but test negative later on if their immune system has been able to eliminate the infection. (glencoeanimalhospital.com)
  • Spaying your cat not only stops her from having unwanted kittens, it also can have health benefits for your cat herself. (pethealthinfo.org.uk)
  • Cat 'flu is a common disease which often affects kittens and elderly cats. (pethealthinfo.org.uk)
  • Cats' nutritional requirements change according to their lifestage, from kittens through to adults and senior cats. (pethealthinfo.org.uk)
  • Kittens (or captured stray cats) should be tested. (cw35.com)
  • Rates rise significantly - 13% or more - in young kittens and cats that are ill, or otherwise at high risk of infection. (crotonanimalhospital.com)
  • Transmission can also take place from an infected mother cat to her kittens, while they are nursing or even before they are born. (crotonanimalhospital.com)
  • The infection can also be passed from an infected mother cat to her kittens during birth or feeding, but this is a relatively rare event, as is transmission through sexual contact. (mercola.com)
  • Kittens born to FIV-positive mother cats often test positive for several months after birth. (mercola.com)
  • Young kittens and cats less than one year of age are most susceptible to the virus. (uitsig.org.za)
  • Virus shedding occurs in saliva, tears, and excrement. (drugs.com)
  • Young newborns tend to be more susceptible than older cats to clinical disease and often contract the infection from the saliva of their infected mothers. (petwave.com)
  • If an effective immune response eventually kicks in, some of these cats will become latent carriers, while others will become persistently infected and will shed the virus continually in their saliva and other body secretions. (petwave.com)
  • The virus is excreted in the saliva and tears, and possibly the urine and feces, of infected cats. (dailypress.com)
  • Feline leukemia is a disease that spreads through urine, nose discharge and saliva. (animalplanet.com)
  • Feline leukemia virus is moderately contagious, generally transmitted when a cat comes into contact with saliva from an infected cat (via social behaviors, such as mutual grooming and sharing food or water bowls). (vetstreet.com)
  • All 3 strains of the virus are contagious and can be spread through the urine, feces, tears, or saliva of an infected cat. (petsblogs.com)
  • The virus is passed from cat to cat through blood, urine, feces, and saliva. (allivet.com)
  • ELISA can also be used to detect the virus in saliva and tears but is not as reliable as bloodstream detection. (best-cat-tips.com)
  • The virus is transmitted via the saliva, blood, and tears of infected cats. (britannica.com)
  • The virus is shed in saliva and nasal discharges from an infected cat. (michigananimalhospital.com)
  • by the saliva of infected cats contaminating the eye, mouth, and nose membranes of non-infected cats via licking. (eastsideanimal.net)
  • A large percentage of the cats that are exposed to the virus will have latent (hidden) infections and will be capable of transmitting the disease in saliva, tears, and urine. (eastsideanimal.net)
  • The bone marrow becomes infected, as do the salivary glands, and many virus particles are shed in the saliva. (blogspot.com)
  • Virus is shed in very high quantities in saliva and nasal secretions. (yahoo.com)
  • The primary mode of transmission is through saliva, although the virus can also be shed through an infected cat's urine, nasal secretions, feces, and milk. (smalldoorvet.com)
  • Feline leukemia is generally transmitted through contact with saliva from an infected cat. (glencoeanimalhospital.com)
  • Still others will be carriers, never getting sick themselves but able to infect other cats through their nasal secretions and saliva. (blogspot.com)
  • Feline leukemia virus Butch Jack saliva, his vitriol pleasantly. (aquatoria.info)
  • Saliva and blood can spread the virus and cat fights are a cats greatest risk of catching this cancer causing disease. (blvdvet.net)
  • The vaccination of adult cats is based on risk. (canadianveterinarians.net)
  • however, it is important to test your cat before initial vaccination, as he may already be infected. (petmd.com)
  • While all cats are at risk, lifestyle, sex, and vaccination status all play an important part in reducing exposure to this contagious disease. (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • Any cat for which vaccination against feline leukemia is being considered should be tested prior to vaccination. (floppycats.com)
  • Vaccination may be considered for cats that spend time outdoors and are likely to socialize with other cats. (floppycats.com)
  • Vaccination of cats against exFeLV has in recent years decreased the overall infection rate in most countries. (uzh.ch)
  • Does my cat need to have a blood test before vaccination? (michigananimalhospital.com)
  • If you are concerned that your cat is experiencing an abnormal reaction in the hours or days following any vaccination, please call us. (michigananimalhospital.com)
  • Vaccination is not recommended for cats that are exclusively indoors. (michigananimalhospital.com)
  • Veterinarians usually suggest the vaccination for outdoor cats or cats in multiple-cat households. (heartlandah.com)
  • Vaccination is recommended for high-risk cats only. (eastsideanimal.net)
  • Prevention is consisted of separating infected cats from healthy ones, keeping cats indoors and vaccination of high-risk populations. (animalabs.com)
  • Despite advances in diagnosis and vaccination, this virus remains one of the most lethal, contagious infections affecting domestic cats. (blogspot.com)
  • Vaccination can aid in the prevention of disease associated with feline leukemia. (glencoeanimalhospital.com)
  • Following this, the feline will need an annual vaccination for intestinal and respiratory viruses. (thevethosp.com)
  • If I get my cat vaccinated, isn't there a chance that it will catch the virus from the vaccine? (fanciers.com)
  • Is the vaccine expensive and how often do my cats need to be vaccinated? (fanciers.com)
  • Mathes, L.E., M.G. Lewis, and R.G. Olsen (1980) Immunoprevention of feline leukemia: Efficacy testing and antigenic analysis of soluble tumor-cell antigen vaccine. (springer.com)
  • Though it is not a core vaccine, it is recommended for cats at risk for exposure to this dangerous disease. (vetstreet.com)
  • This body of veterinarians meets and determines guidelines for which cats should be tested regularly for the feline leukemia viruse and how the vaccine should be used. (marvistavet.com)
  • While no vaccine is 100% effective, research has discovered that vaccinated cats may develop a short-term infection after exposure to the disease, they rarely develop the disease in its clinical form. (petsblogs.com)
  • Because we can now protect cats with a leukemia virus vaccine, we are seeing fewer cases of the disease. (ctvsh.com)
  • There is a vaccine available for feline leukemia which may be considered for your cat, depending on your cat's lifestyle and risk of exposure. (floppycats.com)
  • Classical inactivated or subunit vaccines ( 15 ) as well as a canarypox virus-vectored vaccine ( 16 ) have been widely used and have contributed to the reduction in the prevalence of productive infection. (asm.org)
  • Midnight tested negative for Feline Leukemia Virus because she rarely came in contact with Mella and was up to date on her Feline Leukemia Virus vaccine. (lazypawvet.com)
  • This vaccine protects cats from becoming sick if they come in contact with an infected cat. (lazypawvet.com)
  • In order to protect your cat from Feline Leukemia Virus, make sure your cat is up to date on their Feline Leukemia Virus vaccine. (lazypawvet.com)
  • The most common cancers include leukemia and lymphoma. (petfinder.com)
  • Poiesz, B.J., R.W. Ruscetti, A.F. Gazdar, P.A. Bunn, J.D. Minna, and R.C. Gallo (1980) Detection and isolation of type C virus particles from fresh and cultured lymphocytes of a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. (springer.com)
  • Cats may develop primary leukemia/lymphoma. (canadianveterinarians.net)
  • Dominance of highly divergent feline leukemia virus A progeny variants in a cat with recurrent viremia and fatal lymphoma," Retrovirology, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The most common syndrome leading to death is a progressive anemia as the bone shuts down and loses its ability to produce red blood cells but general immune suppression can result and the virus' ability to induce a cancer called "lymphoma" is well known. (marvistavet.com)
  • Lymphoma (also called "lymphosarcoma") is the most common cancer associated with the feline leukemia virus. (marvistavet.com)
  • Of the ten cats known to be deceased, the leading cause of death was feline infectious peritonitis (5 cats), followed by lymphoma (2 cats), anorexia (2 cats), and anemia (1 cat). (maddiesfund.org)
  • The gammaretroviruses represent a group of mammalian oncogenic retroviruses typically associated with the induction of leukemia and lymphoma in the natural host. (asm.org)
  • Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV), a prototype gammaretrovirus, induces a T-lymphoblastic lymphoma of the thymus in virtually 100% of susceptible neonatal mice, with a latency of 3 to 4 months. (asm.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Cats infected with exogenous feline leukemia virus (exFeLV) have a higher chance of lymphoma development than uninfected cats. (uzh.ch)
  • Lymphosarcoma or lymphoma (LSA), is one of the most common type of cancer in cats. (aspca.org)
  • Lymphoma can arise spontaneously, as it probably does in most cases, or following infection with the feline leukemia virus . (hubpages.com)
  • Because of the many sites which can be affected by lymphoma, the range of symptoms seen in cats is very large, ranging from paralysis (spinal cord extranodal form) to vomiting (alimentary), palpable lumps under the skin (multicentric), or breathing difficulties (mediastinal). (hubpages.com)
  • Lymphoma is on the list of differential diagnoses for cats presenting to veterinarians with these and other signs, and diagnosis relies on first visualizing and then identifying the tumor using some combination of exploratory, imaging, and/or biopsy techniques. (hubpages.com)
  • Because of its diverse nature, feline lymphoma has various different treatment options depending on its location and other factors such as the general health of the patient. (hubpages.com)
  • The most common means of diagnosing feline leukemia is with a blood test that tests for antigen to the feline leukemia virus. (floppycats.com)
  • All surveys in the field are based on the detection of p27 antigen in the blood and measure mainly the prevalence of persistently antigenemic cats. (asm.org)
  • These cats test negative for circulating viral antigen. (lonestarvetcare.com)
  • These cats test negative for the antigen, but the virus can be detected in a small percentage of blood cells by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a type of blood test. (lonestarvetcare.com)
  • These cats test negative for the antigen, but test positive with PCR- similar to regressive infections. (lonestarvetcare.com)
  • Progressive infections are those in which virus replication occurs, so both viral antigen and genetic material can be detected in the blood of these cats. (lonestarvetcare.com)
  • These cats are antigen-negative but PCR-positive. (smalldoorvet.com)
  • and the group specific antigen (gag) gene coding for the structural proteins of the virus. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • Evaluate all cats for feline heartworm disease by identifying heartworm antigen in feline serum, plasma or anticoagulated whole blood. (idexx.com)
  • Diagnosis of facial nerve ganglioneuroblastoma was made in a feline leukemia virus-positive 11-month-old cat. (scielo.br)
  • Although many cats succumb within 3 yr of diagnosis, others remain clinically healthy for multiple years. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Should your cat receive a diagnosis of cancer, you may wish to consult a veterinary oncologist, often employed by specialty veterinary practices and teaching hospitals. (aspca.org)
  • period he is actively 'shedding' the virus , and that usually happens before diagnosis is even made. (yahoo.com)
  • 85% of persistently infected cats (i.e., cats that are unable to eliminate the infection) die within 3 to 5 years of diagnosis. (smalldoorvet.com)
  • On a more hopeful note, a feline leukemia diagnosis does not always indicate an automatic death sentence: 70% of cats seem capable of resisting or eliminating the virus on their own. (smalldoorvet.com)
  • It can take a different period of time for each cat to begin showing signs of illness after receiving their diagnosis. (lazypawvet.com)
  • Some cats will become sick only months after diagnosis, and some cats won't become sick for years. (lazypawvet.com)
  • At the time of her diagnosis, Mella was strong, active, and healthy aside from her positive Feline Leukemia Virus test. (lazypawvet.com)
  • If the aforementioned symptoms present, it is important to take your cat to a feline veterinarian for diagnosis and treatment. (thevethosp.com)
  • Latent carriers do not shed virus and are thus not contagious, and may rid themselves of the infection eventually. (petfinder.com)
  • You will find that this virus is so contagious and deadly among cats that your veterinarian will require that your cat be tested and vaccinated before leaving it at his hospital. (dailypress.com)
  • These infected cats are not viremic (and therefore not contagious), but may be infectious through blood transfusion. (lonestarvetcare.com)
  • The latently infected cells do have the potential for the virus to re-activate, but the cats are not contagious as long as the infection remains latent. (lonestarvetcare.com)
  • During the abortive stage, the cat seems to clear the infection and is likely no longer contagious. (smalldoorvet.com)
  • It is unclear, however, whether these cats truly eliminate all of the virus from their system, and they may or may not remain contagious. (smalldoorvet.com)
  • As long as the infection remains latent, the cats are not contagious. (smalldoorvet.com)
  • Feline leukemia is a contagious, untreatable disease that can be fatal. (glencoeanimalhospital.com)
  • However, predicting which cats can transmit the disease is complicated because some cats that are contagious don't develop signs of infection. (glencoeanimalhospital.com)
  • The discovery of a contagious oncogenic gammaretrovirus in sub-human primates stimulated a great deal of research into the pathogenesis of GaLV and its origins including the virus' intermediate host, which is currently disputed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The third outcome is that the immune system is incapable of mounting a good response and the cat persistently tests positive (is viremic) and eventually becomes sick. (petfinder.com)
  • The cat can fight off the infection and become totally immune, can become a healthy carrier that never gets sick itself but can infect other cats, or a mid-level case in which the cat has a compromised immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stage Four: The main point in the infection- where the virus can take over the body's immune system and cause viremia. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the cat's immune system does not fight off the virus, then it progresses to: Stage Five: The bone marrow becomes infected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here the virus will probably break out and cause disease later in life, after the cat has been stressed or medicated with drugs that suppress the immune system. (dailypress.com)
  • A: When the virus enters a cat's body system, it will make its way to the first immune system, which is the lymph tissue. (localvets.com)
  • Cats that have a strong immune system may be able to withstand this initial attack and eliminate the virus. (localvets.com)
  • At the later stage of the infection, a cat may show signs of a weakened immune system, which include gingivitis, stomatitis, abscesses, oral ulcers, and wounds that do not heal. (localvets.com)
  • Since the Feline leukemia virus can compromise a cat's immune system, the virus can leave a cat exposed to deadly infections. (allivet.com)
  • If the immune system is not able to stop the problem at this stage, the virus spreads to white blood cells that circulate in the body. (lbah.com)
  • The virus weakens the immune system and various problems of a chronic nature (anemia, infections, etc.) develop. (lbah.com)
  • This highly dangerous and usually deadly virus affects the feline immune system . (cat-lovers-only.com)
  • the aggressive nature of the virus simply overwhelms the animal's immune system. (britannica.com)
  • Because of the weakened immune system, cats are susceptible to other types of infection. (thepetwiki.com)
  • These widespread, incurable viruses-like HIV/AIDS in humans-suppress the immune system and increase the risk of other infections resulting from pathogens (like fungi, which cause ringworm) and bacteria (such as those causing stomatitis and upper respiratory disease). (tcyte.com)
  • These viruses like to live in the cells of the immune system. (felinedocs.com)
  • We don't know what triggers one cat to stay healthy and another to activate the virus so it causes trouble, but we think that if we keep them as healthy as possible, their immune system can better keep the virus at bay. (felinedocs.com)
  • They are more likely to fight with stranger cats and spread the disease, as well as being more likely to get sick from things that could be a real problem if your immune system goes on the blink. (felinedocs.com)
  • The virus causes profound suppression of the cat's immune system. (blogspot.com)
  • Progressive infection - the immune system fails to contain the virus. (blogspot.com)
  • This test turns positive within a few days of infection and, in some cases, may later turn negative if the cats immune system eliminates the infection. (petoskeyveterinarian.com)
  • Many cats suffer from suppression of the immune system and other illnesses, depending on which organ is involved. (kitpcr.com)
  • Feline leukemia attacks the immune system, which in turn weakens the cat's ability to fight off other infections and illnesses. (smalldoorvet.com)
  • In very few cases, the cat's immune system is able to fight off the virus before they begin showing signs of sickness. (lazypawvet.com)
  • The immune system of some cats can eliminate the infection before the cat becomes sick. (glencoeanimalhospital.com)
  • Fighting off the feline leukemia virus "is all up to the individual cat's immune system," explains Dr. Patti. (bestfriends.org)
  • The funny thing is, when a cat comes through the other side having won the battle against feline leukemia, she usually has a pretty powerful immune system. (bestfriends.org)
  • Jessica has such a robust immune system these days that she has become a regular blood donor at the Sanctuary, helping other cats. (bestfriends.org)
  • Feline AIDS works much like the human variety, weakening cats' immune system and making them susceptible to infections of the skin, eyes, nose, mouth and urinary tract as well as more serious ailments like cancer and kidney failure. (mercola.com)
  • Everyday environmental pathogens that don't affect a healthy animal can cause serious illness in a cat with a compromised immune system. (mercola.com)
  • That rate does, however, drastically spike to 13 percent or more if the feline exhibits the aforementioned risk factors (e.g., age, illness and weakened immune system). (thevethosp.com)
  • Because opportunistic infections can result due to the cat's weakened immune system (caused by the virus), fluids or nutritional supplements may be implemented. (thevethosp.com)
  • Younger cats are more susceptible to this virus, and resistance develops as your cat ages. (lbah.com)
  • The ability of this virus to cause immunosupression makes cats more susceptible to Demodex and Scabies . (lbah.com)
  • They also are susceptible to developing leukemia and other forms of cancer. (cat-lovers-only.com)
  • Male cats are more likely to become infected than female cats and younger cats are more susceptible to infection than older cats. (best-cat-tips.com)
  • White, or light colored, cats are more susceptible to squamous cell carcinoma. (aspca.org)
  • Certain breeds are prone to specific cancers, but cats with white ears and heads are particularly susceptible to skin cancer . (aspca.org)
  • Perform twice yearly or more frequent health assessments of sick cats as directed by your veterinarian. (canadianveterinarians.net)
  • But it is impossible for your veterinarian to tell you how long any particular cat will survive. (dailypress.com)
  • If your cat is ill, your veterinarian will first rule out other infections such as bacterial, parasitic, viral or fungal. (petmd.com)
  • Your cat may be hospitalized for severe secondary infections, low red-blood cell count, weight loss with muscle loss, or other symptoms as your veterinarian sees fit. (petmd.com)
  • You will need to monitor your cat for symptoms of infection and keep in touch with the veterinarian regarding follow-up treatment and testing. (petmd.com)
  • Any new kitten or cat being introduced into the home should be examined by a veterinarian as soon as possible and separated from all other household pets for a quarantine period. (vetstreet.com)
  • Any problems should be reported to your veterinarian before introducing the new cat to your other pets. (vetstreet.com)
  • If your cat experiences one or more of these symptoms, take it to a veterinarian right away. (allivet.com)
  • For medical advice about your cat, please see your veterinarian. (cat-lovers-only.com)
  • It is important to take your cat to your veterinarian if any evidence of disease is noted. (aspca.org)
  • Contact your veterinarian immediately if your cat shows any of the clinical signs mentioned on the list above. (aspca.org)
  • You've gotten the results of a blood test and your veterinarian has just told you that your cat tested positive for FIV. (felinedocs.com)
  • Your veterinarian may suggest testing periodically as long as your cat is potentially exposed to infected cats. (icvsasia.com)
  • Ask your veterinarian about how to protect your cat from this disease. (glencoeanimalhospital.com)
  • Depending on the symptoms the cat is exhibiting, a veterinarian will prescribe medication to treat those symptoms. (thevethosp.com)
  • My cats are indoors-only. (fanciers.com)
  • Keep sick/actively infected cats indoors and isolated. (canadianveterinarians.net)
  • Cats indoors! (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A cat with feline leukemia should be kept strictly indoors and away from uninfected cats. (petmd.com)
  • Keeping cats indoors, restricting exposure to other cats, maintaining a clean living environment and ensuring your cat is vaccinated can all help prevent feline leukemia. (animalplanet.com)
  • If you do not feel you are capable of emotionally dealing with having an FeLV+ cat (or cannot keep the cat indoors), but do not want to put the cat to sleep, there are other alternatives which are discussed below. (fanciers.com)
  • Keep your cat indoors. (allivet.com)
  • Keep your cats indoors and away from interacting with cats who have the virus. (allivet.com)
  • The cat should be housed indoors. (floppycats.com)
  • Cats that live indoors and whose risk is minimal do not need to be vaccinated. (floppycats.com)
  • First, keep your cat indoors to reduce the risk of your cat contracting secondary infections and to also prevent your cat from infecting others. (best-cat-tips.com)
  • Secondly, keep your cat indoors at all times if possible. (best-cat-tips.com)
  • Keeping your cat indoors will protect her from certain skin cancers caused by repeated sun exposure and sunburn. (aspca.org)
  • Current treatment includes spaying or neutering an infected cat and keeping them indoors, away from other cats. (heartlandah.com)
  • If not, then keeping them indoors until they are older will drastically reduce their chances of encountering the virus and becoming infected. (blogspot.com)
  • Of course, cats that stay indoors for their whole lives (the preferred method! (blogspot.com)
  • Keep cats indoors, away from potentially infected cats that might bite them. (crotonanimalhospital.com)
  • That's why keeping your cat indoors is the best way to avoid the virus. (mercola.com)
  • What is the difference between feline leukaemia and feline AIDS? (pictures-of-cats.org)
  • Feline leukaemia virus: Half a century since its discovery. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Virologist initially suggested that GaLV was related to murine leukaemia virus (MLV) detected in Southeast Asian rodents. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in 2016 the Mammal Review published "Is gibbon ape leukaemia virus still a threat? (wikipedia.org)
  • Feline leukemia is caused by a virus in the class of viruses known as retroviruses. (floppycats.com)
  • The retroviruses are a group of unique RNA viruses that carry an enzyme called reverse transcriptase. (britannica.com)
  • Many retroviruses are associated with cancers, including avian sarcoma and human T-cell leukemia. (britannica.com)
  • Our results suggest that a persistent stimulation of host immune cells is not an appropriate mechanism responsible for malignant transformation caused by feline endogenous retroviruses. (uzh.ch)
  • Endogenous retroviruses: do they influence the susceptibility and pathogenesis of exogenous feline leukemia virus infection? (uzh.ch)
  • Clinical aspects of feline retroviruses: a review. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Jarrett, W., L. Mackey, O. Jarrett, H. Laird, and C. Hood (1974) Antibody response and virus survival in cats vaccinated against leukemia. (springer.com)
  • In contrast to placebo treated controls, cats successfully treated with PMEA contained viral infection, developed neutralizing antibody, and resisted a second virulent virus challenge without further therapy. (nih.gov)
  • Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against feline leukemia virus p27. (fishersci.com)
  • This antibody reacts with p27 of feline leukemia virus. (fishersci.com)
  • Feline Leukemia Virus Monoclonal antibody specifically detects Feline Leukemia Virus in Virus samples. (fishersci.com)
  • An antibody test will be performed by your vet to see if there are antibodies to the virus present in your cat's blood. (mercola.com)
  • A positive test result indicates that an unvaccinated cat has been circulating FIV antibody and therefore is likely infected. (idexx.com)
  • The symptoms of feline leukemia infection can be very vague and non-specific, including vomiting, loss of appetite and weight, lethargy, anemia, etc. (petfinder.com)
  • More rare is the C strain of the virus, which only occurs in 1% of all infected cats, and causes low red blood cell counts, resulting in anemia. (petsblogs.com)
  • It manifests primarily through profound anemia, malignancies, and immunosuppression and infects domestic cats and other species of Felidae. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Anemia can occur because the virus attacks the bone marrow and prevents the production of red blood cells. (lbah.com)
  • Some signs or symptoms your cat may exhibit include fever, loss of appetite, depression, anemia, swollen glands in the neck or abdomen, difficulty breathing, or difficulty swallowing and eating. (best-cat-tips.com)
  • Bone lesions in cats with anemia induced by feline leukemia virus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A complete blood count is done to determine if the cat has anemia or other blood disorders. (petmd.com)
  • If the cat is in the late stages and has anemia (low red blood cell count), a blood transfusion may be necessary. (thevethosp.com)
  • There is no treatment or cure for feline leukemia. (petmd.com)
  • Although there is no cure for feline leukemia, the disease is easily preventable. (animalplanet.com)
  • According to Greene's infectious disease text, the death rate for healthy, persistently viremic cats in multicat households is 50% in 2 years and 80% in 3 years, although there are also indications that many cats given appropriate care may survive for several years. (petfinder.com)
  • In general, around 1-2% of the cat population is persistently infected with this virus, and many more are exposed. (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • For cats that are persistently infected, their life expectancy is typically between two and a half and three years. (lonestarvetcare.com)
  • Progressively infected cats remain persistently viremic. (animalabs.com)
  • This is the most desired outcome because it means that the cat will not become persistently infected with the virus. (petoskeyveterinarian.com)
  • It is inexplicable that these writers do not recognize that a chimp's failure to contract AIDS from HIV no more addresses the consequences of HIV infection in humans than does the human failure to contract feline leukemia virus indicate that cats cannot contract leukemia either. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some medications have shown promise in treating feline leukemia, including antivirals used in human AIDS treatment. (petmd.com)
  • Sometimes they even call it Feline AIDS. (felinedocs.com)
  • how necessary are feline aids and leukemia viruses for indoor cats? (yahoo.com)
  • Some veterinary clinics use ELISA tests to check for circulating virus protein. (canadianveterinarians.net)
  • One test, the ELISA, will detect the virus in its very early stages. (dailypress.com)
  • Under rarer circumstances, a cat can harbor the feline leukemia virus in the bone marrow, appear perfectly healthy and test negative on both tests (or test positive on an ELISA test and negative on the IFA test. (floppycats.com)
  • Feline leukemia is diagnosed though blood tests including an ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) or IFA (indirect immunofluoresence) test. (hofah.com)
  • Cats that clear infectious virus from the plasma will be negative by virus isolation, ELISA, immunochromatography, and IFA, but will remain positive by provirus PCR and are considered regressively infected. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • A small proportion (2-3 %) of cats remains positive by ELISA and immunochromatography although no infectious virus can be isolated from plasma. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • Some cats mount an ineffective or incomplete immune response and become viremic, meaning that the virus replicates in their lymphoid tissue and bone marrow and enters circulation. (petwave.com)
  • Molecular cytogenetic analysis of feline leukemia virus insertions in cat lymphoid tumor cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • After infection, the virus starts initially to replicate in the local lymphoid tissue in the oropharyngeal area. (animalabs.com)
  • In cats with progressive infection extensive virus replication occurs, first in the lymphoid tissues, followed by the bone marrow and mucosal and glandular epithelial tissues. (animalabs.com)
  • In addition, the virus can transform healthy lymphoid cells (cells involved in the immune response) into malignant cancerous cells. (blogspot.com)
  • Nevertheless, an increasing number of lymphomas have been diagnosed among exFeLV-negative cats. (uzh.ch)
  • Cases of malignant lymphomas and leukemias were not described in gibbons until the 1960s, when several cases of haematopoietic neoplasia were reported in a single colony of white-handed gibbons housed at the SEATO research facility in Bangkok, Thailand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the virus, her body may be unable to appropriately respond to minor infections and other illnesses. (petmd.com)
  • This means that the infected cat is less able to defend itself against a wide range of infections that would not normally cause a problem in healthy cats. (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • Abortive infections are those in which the exposed cat produces an effective and early immune response. (lonestarvetcare.com)
  • Regressive infections are those in which viral replication is limited, so a small population of virus-infected cells remain. (lonestarvetcare.com)
  • It is the most common cause of cancer in cats, may cause various blood disorders, and may lead to a state of immune deficiency that hinders a cat's ability to protect itself against other infections. (eastsideanimal.net)
  • That means that cats start getting sick from infections that don't ordinarily bother a cat with a normal ability to fight off disease. (felinedocs.com)
  • It quickly became known as one of the most deadly infections to affect domestic felines. (blogspot.com)
  • Often, the secondary infections are what become harmful to the cat. (smalldoorvet.com)
  • Therefore, FIV-infected cats tend to develop clinical signs related to secondary (related) infections and not necessarily due to FIV. (vetstreet.com)
  • Epidemics of feline leukemia in shelters do not occur, but leukemia is a problem largely because it can be undetected in healthy carriers of the virus and because it is still a fatal disease. (petfinder.com)
  • Feline leukemia virus infection was, until recently, the most common fatal disease of cats. (ctvsh.com)
  • If you have any questions about any symptoms your cat might have, or whether it needs to be vaccinated, please call your veterinary hospital. (dailypress.com)
  • According to the Merck Veterinary Manual, veterinarians rarely see cases of feline leukemia among vaccinated cat populations. (animalplanet.com)
  • An 11-month-old neutered male crossbred cat was referred to a veterinary clinic hospital. (scielo.br)
  • As a cat parent, it is important to recognize the signs and symptoms of common illnesses so you can seek veterinary help for your feline friend in a timely manner if necessary. (aspca.org)
  • Dr. Brown, founder of the NOVA Cat Clinic and co-founder of the NOVA Cat Clinic, received his Doctor of Veterinary Medicine degree in 1986 from the University of Illinois. (felinedocs.com)
  • Dr. Brown enjoys continuing education and regularly attends seminars and conferences across the country focusing on the advancement in feline veterinary care. (felinedocs.com)
  • Dr. Brown also utilizes on-line discussion groups and veterinary networks to assist the clinic in maintaining the highest level of care and providing the newest treatments available in feline medicine. (felinedocs.com)
  • For these cats especially, proper veterinary care is vital. (smalldoorvet.com)
  • The average age of infection is 3 years and male cats may have a higher prevalence of infection than female cats. (hofah.com)
  • It appears that prolonged or repeated exposure to the virus is necessary for infection, especially in otherwise healthy adult cats. (petwave.com)
  • When indicated, a single dose is given one year following the last dose of the initial series, and then annually in cats determined to have a sustained risk of exposure. (vetstreet.com)
  • Cats that have minimal exposure to other cats are at significantly less risk of getting this disease. (lbah.com)
  • Only cats that are at risk of exposure to feline leukemia should be vaccinated. (floppycats.com)
  • This will greatly reduce your cat's risk of exposure to the virus. (best-cat-tips.com)
  • Despite exposure to these infectious agents, feral cats remain abundant throughout the Hawaiian Islands. (unl.edu)
  • Although the majority of cats will test positive within several weeks, the final retest of negative cats should be no sooner than 90 days post-exposure. (eastsideanimal.net)
  • Abortive exposure - after exposure, the cat mounts an effective immune response, and the virus is presumably eliminated from the body. (blogspot.com)
  • Newer research, however, suggests that most cats actually remain infected for life following exposure to the virus. (blogspot.com)
  • Six-eight weeks after exposure, the virus goes from the bloodstream to actually enter the blood cells themselves and infect the blood cells. (windinghillvet.com)
  • Cats that go outside are at increased risk for exposure to feline leukemia. (glencoeanimalhospital.com)
  • Because of territorial behavior and related aggression of cats (particularly male cats) roaming outside tends to increase the risk for exposure to FIV. (vetstreet.com)
  • If you know or suspect your kitty might have been exposed (bitten, most likely) by an FIV-infected cat, or even an unknown cat, you should have your pet retested 60 days after exposure. (mercola.com)
  • Lutz, H., N.C. Petersen, and G.H. Theilen (1983) Course of feline leukemia virus infection and its detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and monoclonal antibodies. (springer.com)
  • Many cats that get exposed to the virus develop antibodies and are able to fight it off. (lbah.com)
  • Most cats ( 60-80%) make antibodies at this stage to prevent further replication of the virus. (lbah.com)
  • If these antibodies are not made, the virus spreads through the circulation to the bone marrow, where it will remain for the rest of the cats life. (lbah.com)
  • In the fourth type of response, after stimulating an initial immune response, during which antibodies are generated, the virus hides in a portion of the cat's epithelial cells (a type of cell found in many tissues of the body). (britannica.com)
  • In some immunocompetent cats viral replication may be terminated because of high levels of neutralizing antibodies. (animalabs.com)
  • However, since it takes eight to 12 weeks (and sometimes longer) after infection for measurable levels of antibodies to appear, there is a chance a cat that tests negative is actually incubating the virus. (mercola.com)
  • If your cat does test positive for feline leukemia, he should be retested in 6-10 weeks. (floppycats.com)
  • Many cats that test positive for feline leukemia will appear perfectly healthy. (floppycats.com)
  • Because cats who test positive for Feline Leukemia should never come in contact with any other cats to prevent the spread of the disease, Mella became a strictly indoor cat and moved in with my grandmother, who has no other cats. (lazypawvet.com)
  • Cogrooming and cat bites are common transmission routes. (drugs.com)
  • Cat leukemia is usually contracted from cat-to-cat transmission (e.g., bites, close contact, grooming and sharing dishes or litter pans). (petmd.com)
  • Transmission of different virus strains is indicated by orange or red arrows. (cdc.gov)
  • Avoid transmission to other cats by preventing access to outdoors and other uninfected cats in household. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Close, extended contact between animals is required for transmission because the virus is extremely unstable outside of the host. (britannica.com)
  • Other opportunities for transmission occur when cats groom each other. (britannica.com)
  • Primarily a disease in younger cats, the virus doesn't always manifest symptoms, so it is important to have your cat tested regularly to prevent transmission and progression. (aspca.org)
  • Bites from infected cats are the primary mode of transmission. (mercola.com)
  • One of the biggest controversies surrounding the disease for shelters is whether or not feral cat trap neuter release (TNR) programs and shelters should perform routine screening tests for the virus, and how to handle the apparently healthy cats that test positive. (petfinder.com)
  • For these reasons, cats may be safely held in shelters with minimal risk of disease spread, but only if they are housed in individual cages, and rules about proper sanitation and washing hands between handling cats are strictly enforced. (petfinder.com)
  • Subgroup A is the most common and is present in all cats with observable disease and viremia (presence of the virus in circulation). (petwave.com)
  • Feline leukemia viral infection is a significant disease among domestic cats. (petwave.com)
  • It is the one disease in cats that cannot be ignored. (dailypress.com)
  • Cats can catch the disease through bites, sharing food and water bowls, and from simply living together. (animalplanet.com)
  • however, in other cats, symptoms of the disease will not manifest for several weeks. (animalplanet.com)
  • Bites, sharing water or food bowls and cat-to-cat grooming can spread the disease. (pictures-of-cats.org)
  • Feline leukemia is a very common disease. (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • It is often called the "friendly cat" disease as it is commonly spread from cat to cat through casual contact, such as grooming or sharing food or water. (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • To find out more about this disease and how you can keep your cat healthy, visit http://www.kittytest.com/ . (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • In fact, some cats can seem perfectly healthy, but retain the ability to transmit the disease to others. (vetstreet.com)
  • The B strain of the virus causes neoplastic disease damage, resulting in tumors and other abnormal tissue growths. (petsblogs.com)
  • In summary , feline leukemia virus is a deadly disease with no known cure. (allivet.com)
  • Cats that are carriers of the disease may not have any symptoms. (lbah.com)
  • Find out the facts about this disease, what symptoms a cat exhibits, treatment, and how to prevent it from affecting your cat. (best-cat-tips.com)
  • Cats can be infected for a long period of time before they show any signs of disease. (best-cat-tips.com)
  • It is also recommended that an infected cat does not live with any non-infected cats in order to prevent the spread of the disease. (best-cat-tips.com)
  • no cases have been reported in wild cats nor in dogs, and the disease is not transmittable to humans. (britannica.com)
  • However, it is important to distinguish between the feline leukemia virus and the disease known as feline leukemia. (britannica.com)
  • What disease does the virus cause? (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • Hyperesthesia Syndrome in cats is known by several names - self-mutilation syndrome, rolling skin syndrome, twitchy cat disease. (thepetwiki.com)
  • Diabetes in cats is a complex disease caused by either a lack of the hormone insulin or an inadequate response to insulin. (aspca.org)
  • This protects other cats from becoming infected, as well as protecting your cat from developing any disease or illness they may come into contact with. (heartlandah.com)
  • During the early stages of infection, it is common for cats to exhibit no signs of disease at all. (eastsideanimal.net)
  • Cats that don't fight don't spread the disease. (felinedocs.com)
  • It causes a serious incurable infectious disease in cats. (animalabs.com)
  • If Mella had found a loving owner earlier in life who had kept her away from unknown cats or made sure she was vaccinated , she wouldn't have contracted the disease. (lazypawvet.com)
  • There is no indication that cats can spread this disease to people or be infected by the human version. (icvsasia.com)
  • Blood tests detect the disease in many cats, but for other cats, the bone marrow must be examined to confirm infection. (glencoeanimalhospital.com)
  • This word had an emotional punch like no other and helps explain the popularity of vaccinating cats against this disease. (blogspot.com)
  • Additionally, studies have shown that although cats in the vaccinated groups do not develop disease, they very often become carriers, shedding the virus that can then infect other cats. (blogspot.com)
  • As cats get older, they suffer from a variety of conditions including arthritis, heart disease, hyperthyroidism, chronic renal failure and hypertension. (pethealthinfo.org.uk)
  • Chronic renal failure in cats also known as kidney disease. (pethealthinfo.org.uk)
  • Cats are dying at an alarming rate of kidney disease, diabetes. (shirleys-wellness-cafe.com)
  • The disease typically stays latent for years, with cats becoming ill later in life. (mercola.com)
  • FIV is a feline-specific virus, so you don't need to be concerned about catching the disease from your cat. (mercola.com)
  • However, over weeks, months or even years, when the cat is in later stages of the disease (secondary viremia), the infected cat's health may deteriorate to the point at which he or she has recurrent illness punctuated with phases of wellness. (thevethosp.com)
  • Dietary changes may also be suggested if the feline has diarrhea, kidney disease or chronic muscle loss. (thevethosp.com)
  • It is one of the most commonly diagnosed causes of disease and death in domestic cats. (uitsig.org.za)
  • Outdoor cats who get into fights with other cats can transmit the disease through bites and scratches. (uitsig.org.za)
  • Most veterinarians include a screen for feline leukemia as part of the routine tests a cat gets during her lifetime. (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • The virus is shed to a lesser extent in urine, feces and tears. (petwave.com)
  • urine, feces, and milk from infected cats. (yahoo.com)
  • Cats with feline leukemia virus may have a normal lifespan if other illnesses can be prevented. (petmd.com)
  • Feline Leukemia Virus can make cats very sick because it causes "immunosuppression", which means cats with Feline Leukemia Virus can easily catch illnesses which healthy cats would be able to resist. (lazypawvet.com)
  • Because an infected cat can catch a variety of different illnesses, symptoms differ depending on the individual. (lazypawvet.com)
  • In the case of latent carriers, the virus establishes itself in the bone marrow and may escape detection via routine testing. (petfinder.com)
  • In this phase, the virus replicates and is released four to seven days later in infected neutrophils, and sometimes lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils (all white blood cells formed in the bone marrow). (wikipedia.org)
  • Once infected, the virus travels through the body's circulatory system and in some cats the virus fuses with the cat's own genes and becomes dormant in the bone marrow (as a provirus). (canadianveterinarians.net)
  • An immunofluorescent assay (IFA) on blood smear or bone marrow samples is also used for testing cells for leukemia virus. (canadianveterinarians.net)
  • Subgroup C is uncommon and occurs together with subgroup A in cats that develop nonregenerative anemias and bone marrow complications. (petwave.com)
  • According to research done at the Cornell Feline Health Center, a significant percentage of cats that are exposed to the virus develop an immunity and do not carry the virus in their blood stream and bone marrow. (dailypress.com)
  • If the virus survives, it will go on to attack the bone marrow, which contains the red and white blood cells. (localvets.com)
  • White blood cells and platelets that are normally made in the bone marrow pick up this virus and bring it back into the circulation. (lbah.com)
  • The virus continues to reproduce, spreading via the bloodstream to other parts of the body such as lymph nodes, intestines and bone marrow. (thepetwiki.com)
  • In those cats that do not develop immunity, the virus spreads to the bone marrow. (eastsideanimal.net)
  • There is no effective treatment for the myeloproliferative (bone marrow) form of leukemia. (eastsideanimal.net)
  • Viral replication occurs near the site of entry of the virus, but the infection is contained and the virus does not invade the bone marrow. (blogspot.com)
  • Most people associate the word leukemia with cancer, because in humans it refers to a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. (smalldoorvet.com)
  • In other cats, the virus can "hide" in the bone marrow, where it is difficult to detect until it begins to cause problems later in life. (glencoeanimalhospital.com)
  • If your cat is ill, feline leukemia makes it difficult for the cat's body to respond to treatment. (petmd.com)
  • The behavior of the feline leukemia virus in the cat's body is not so black or white. (ctvsh.com)
  • When the cat's body doesn't produce enough insulin or the organism doesn't have the capacity to assimilate all the glucose from the cat's blood, the cat will have diabetes. (vetinfo.com)
  • McERV, detected within Mus caroli, and Mus dunni endogenous virus (MDEV) isolated from the earth-coloured mouse (Lieber et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treating minor signs of illness is especially important in a cat with known feline leukemia virus. (petmd.com)
  • Before setting out the signs of feline leukemia a little background information may help. (pictures-of-cats.org)
  • These cats can spread the virus to other cats easily because they show no signs of illness. (lbah.com)
  • Monitor your cat closely for signs of illness. (floppycats.com)
  • Affected cats may develop various clinical signs, and there is a progressive deterioration in their health over time. (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • When you notice these signs of aging in your cat, it's probably time for a visit to your vet. (thepetwiki.com)
  • If your cat isn't showing any signs of illness when the test is done, with good care, it's very likely that you will have a healthy, happy cat for years. (felinedocs.com)
  • There is a long asymptomatic phase, in which cats do not show clinical signs. (animalabs.com)
  • During this stage of viral replication, cats may show signs of illness - fever, lethargy, diarrhea, and lymph node enlargement. (blogspot.com)
  • Here are 5 signs for you to check that your cat is in good health. (pethealthinfo.org.uk)
  • This article discusses the common signs and symptoms of diabetes in cats. (pethealthinfo.org.uk)
  • Cats can be infected and show no signs. (uitsig.org.za)
  • Cats are also suspected of spreading feline leukemia virus to a mountain lion in California and infecting the endangered Florida panther with feline distemper. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hypotheses for feline leukemia virus outbreaks in Florida panthers, Florida, USA. (cdc.gov)
  • The Florida panther ( Puma concolor coryi ) is the only mia viruses (FeLVs). (cdc.gov)
  • However, these vaccines pose a number of economic and safety problems, primarily because of the tissue culture requirement for growing viruses. (springer.com)
  • Several vaccines are commercially available to prevent infection but no effective treatment has emerged for positive cats. (marvistavet.com)
  • This is especially true for cats that are free of parasites , are current on their routine vaccines, and are fed a good diet. (lbah.com)
  • Using three different strategies, CISs in MoFe2-induced tumors were identified at six loci, none of which had been previously reported as CISs in tumors induced by either parent virus in wild-type animals. (asm.org)
  • The Leukemias are cancers of the white blood cells. (ctvsh.com)
  • Such cancers can involve any type of the circulating white blood cells (leukemia) or other cells of the blood-forming tissues. (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • Some reports estimate that 30% of all reported cat cancers are due to LSA. (aspca.org)
  • Feline leukemia has been linked to the development of certain cancers in cats. (glencoeanimalhospital.com)
  • Any severe chronic illness can be a sign of feline leukemia. (animalplanet.com)
  • Not all cats who are infected actually contract any illness. (best-cat-tips.com)
  • During this period of virus challenge, the cat may actually develop a mild form of illness. (petoskeyveterinarian.com)
  • The same bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi that may be found in the everyday environment - where they usually do not affect healthy animals - can cause severe illness in those with weakened immune systems. (crotonanimalhospital.com)
  • In addition, long waiting periods do not have to be observed before adopting a new cat into a household that previously housed a leukemia positive cat. (petfinder.com)
  • When cats are infected with feline leukemia virus, they will test positive within a few days to a week, but if they are healthy and immunocompetent, they will rid themselves of the virus within about 2 weeks and then test negative. (petfinder.com)
  • Although my cat has tested positive, it is healthy in all other respects. (fanciers.com)
  • How long does a cat who tests positive have to live? (fanciers.com)
  • Is it possible for a cat to test negative when it really is positive? (fanciers.com)
  • My cat has tested positive. (fanciers.com)
  • So some cats who test positive can later test negative? (fanciers.com)
  • What will happen to my cat now that it has tested positive? (fanciers.com)
  • These cats do not test positive on routine clinic tests and may appear normal for a while. (canadianveterinarians.net)
  • Avoid breeding cats that test positive for the virus. (canadianveterinarians.net)
  • IF the IFA test is positive, there is little or no chance the cat will recover. (dailypress.com)
  • But, I will say, if you have two or more successive truly positive tests, it does not necessarily mean your cat will die anytime soon. (dailypress.com)
  • Animal organizations have done a pretty good job of destigmatizing FIV-positive cats, and adopters have begun welcoming them into their families in larger numbers than could have been imagined 20 years ago. (maddiesfund.org)
  • This presentation reviews indications and proper technique for test performance as well as interpretation of results and implications for cats who test positive. (maddiesfund.org)
  • Ganglion cells were positive for neurofilament, neuron-specific enolase, S100, and glial fibrillary acidic protein by immunohistochemistry, while neuroblasts were positive for vimentin, S100, neuron-specific enolase and feline leukemia virus. (scielo.br)
  • The mere fact of testing positive is not enough to merit putting a cat to sleep, although there may be other significant factors involved which do make putting the cat to sleep the best option. (fanciers.com)
  • If your cat has tested positive, then you have a responsibility to take some action. (fanciers.com)
  • Once positive, the IFA test usually means that the cat has a permanent infection. (ctvsh.com)
  • A cat who tests IFA positive is only rarely able to successfully eliminate the virus. (ctvsh.com)
  • What Happens if My Cat Tests Positive for Feline Leukemia? (floppycats.com)
  • He can test positive but be able to mount an immune response which is adequate to rid himself of the virus. (floppycats.com)
  • Subsequent tests for feline leukemia will remain positive. (floppycats.com)
  • If your cat does test positive for the feline leukemia virus and is healthy otherwise, there are several precautions which should be taken. (floppycats.com)
  • It is important to realize that not all cats that test positive become sick. (michigananimalhospital.com)
  • Cats with positive results to an IFA test are unlikely to cure themselves and usually have unfavorable prognosis. (heartlandah.com)
  • If a cat gets exposed to FIV, it takes about 2 months before a test will be positive. (felinedocs.com)
  • Cats that are positive for FIV should stay inside. (felinedocs.com)
  • A positive test for Feline Leukemia is not necessarily a death sentence. (yahoo.com)
  • How long to Feline Leukemia positive cats normally live? (yahoo.com)
  • We are one of the only area shelters with facilities for Feline Leukemia positive (FeLV+) kitties. (kittydreams.org)
  • We were heartbroken to also learn that Mella's Feline Leukemia Virus blood test results were positive. (lazypawvet.com)
  • Similarly, some cats may test negative at one point and test positive later on, as the virus progresses through various stages in the body. (glencoeanimalhospital.com)
  • When she arrived, she tested positive for feline leukemia . (bestfriends.org)
  • Most cats exposed to the virus actually fight it off without ever testing positive. (bestfriends.org)
  • What's uncommon, though, is when a cat tests positive and is still able to fight it off and later test negative. (bestfriends.org)
  • Some FIV-positive cats can live a relatively normal life span after becoming infected. (vetstreet.com)
  • Some FIV-positive cats experience a progressive deterioration of their health. (mercola.com)
  • In other cats the infection becomes persistent and these cats can excrete the virus, which may infect other cats. (canadianveterinarians.net)
  • It is at this stage that the virus can be shed and infect other cats. (lbah.com)
  • It generally affects older dogs, horses, rarely cats, but can occur in young pets as well. (thepetwiki.com)
  • It affects all breeds, though it is more common in males and typically occurs in felines aged one to six years old. (heartlandah.com)
  • The virus only affects cats and cannot be transmitted to humans, dogs, or any other animal. (heartlandah.com)
  • Feline leukemia virus affects a cat in many ways. (crotonanimalhospital.com)
  • Feline leukemia is most commonly spread by direct oronasal contact between cats and through mutual grooming and shared contaminated water bowls and litter boxes. (petfinder.com)
  • This commonly occurs either through mutual cat-to-cat grooming, playing, shared water or food dishes, weeping wounds or cat bites. (petwave.com)
  • It's odd to imagine that so many cats would live in unison with each other considering the expression we commonly use of "cat fights" but these do. (uitsig.org.za)
  • The two pictures on this page show us the satellite-dish ears of the serval, a lanky, medium-sized wild cat species. (pictures-of-cats.org)
  • In the laboratory, cells from a much wider range of species can be infected by some strains of the virus. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • EnFeLV provirus elements are present in the germline of various cat species and share a high sequence similarity with exFeLV but, due to mutations, are incapable of producing infectious viral particles. (uzh.ch)
  • will feline leukemia effect other species of animals? (yahoo.com)
  • These viruses are species-specific. (icvsasia.com)
  • In addition, have your kitten or cat tested. (allivet.com)
  • Have your kitten tested for the virus. (allivet.com)
  • If the test is negative, your kitten can be vaccinated against the virus. (allivet.com)
  • Anytime you add a new cat to the household, whether a kitten or adult, they should first be tested for the virus (and then vaccinated, if tested negative). (lonestarvetcare.com)
  • It is spread between cats in bodily secretions, and so can be passed on through grooming, shared feeding bowls, or from mother to kitten. (hubpages.com)
  • Immunity to the virus is more likely to develop in the adult cat than in the kitten. (petoskeyveterinarian.com)
  • The virus can spread from mother to kitten, even in the womb. (blvdvet.net)
  • Some mount an effective immune response and eliminate the virus entirely. (petwave.com)
  • In a second type of response, the cat does not eliminate the virus but remains permanently infected. (britannica.com)
  • Approximately 70% of cats are unable to mount an effective immune response and eliminate the virus. (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • These cats may go on to eliminate the virus completely. (lonestarvetcare.com)
  • Most infected cats eliminate the virus and become immune. (eastsideanimal.net)
  • The main means of transmitting the virus is through cat fights. (ctvsh.com)
  • However, most cats contract FIV through bite wounds sustained during fights with FIV-infected cats rather than through social behaviors. (vetstreet.com)
  • Stage Two: The virus enters the blood stream and begins to distribute throughout the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infected cats can be detected with a simple in-clinic blood test. (marvistavet.com)
  • Leukemia" means cancer of the white blood cells. (ctvsh.com)
  • These white blood cells spread the virus to lymph nodes in the rest of the body. (lbah.com)
  • During the latency period the cat appears perfectly normal, and standard blood tests for the virus will yield false negative results. (britannica.com)
  • Evaluation of a novel haematology analyser for use with feline blood. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In some situations, it may be necessary to confirm infection with the virus through repeated blood testing at a later date. (michigananimalhospital.com)
  • by passing infected blood to non-infected cats. (eastsideanimal.net)
  • My staff and I drew blood from all five felines, and after ten tense minutes, I had the test results Theresa wanted to hear: all five cats tested negative, and nowcould be placed for adoption. (blogspot.com)
  • One of the issues with the virus is that it can take a month to show up on a blood test. (windinghillvet.com)
  • Infection: The virus infects tonsils and lymph nodes first, and then goes into the blood. (windinghillvet.com)
  • Once the virus is inside the blood cells, it is no longer detectable by routine testing. (windinghillvet.com)
  • In adult cats with infected blood cells, the infection can become regressive or progressive. (windinghillvet.com)
  • Fleas are small, black blood-sucking insects that measure 1-3mm in length and are one of the most common parasites found on cats. (pethealthinfo.org.uk)
  • This viral infection is responsible for too many deaths in household cats, affecting all breeds. (petmd.com)