A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.
Clonal hematopoetic disorder caused by an acquired genetic defect in PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS. It starts in MYELOID CELLS of the bone marrow, invades the blood and then other organs. The condition progresses from a stable, more indolent, chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC PHASE) lasting up to 7 years, to an advanced phase composed of an accelerated phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, ACCELERATED PHASE) and BLAST CRISIS.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.
A malignant disease of the T-LYMPHOCYTES in the bone marrow, thymus, and/or blood.
An acute myeloid leukemia in which 80% or more of the leukemic cells are of monocytic lineage including monoblasts, promonocytes, and MONOCYTES.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
A neoplastic disease of the lymphoreticular cells which is considered to be a rare type of chronic leukemia; it is characterized by an insidious onset, splenomegaly, anemia, granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, little or no lymphadenopathy, and the presence of "hairy" or "flagellated" cells in the blood and bone marrow.
A malignant disease of the B-LYMPHOCYTES in the bone marrow and/or blood.
The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.
Leukemia produced by exposure to IONIZING RADIATION or NON-IONIZING RADIATION.
Myeloid-lymphoid leukemia protein is a transcription factor that maintains high levels of HOMEOTIC GENE expression during development. The GENE for myeloid-lymphoid leukemia protein is commonly disrupted in LEUKEMIA and combines with over 40 partner genes to form FUSION ONCOGENE PROTEINS.
An experimental lymphocytic leukemia originally induced in DBA/2 mice by painting with methylcholanthrene.
An acute leukemia exhibiting cell features characteristic of both the myeloid and lymphoid lineages and probably arising from MULTIPOTENT STEM CELLS.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
Aggressive T-Cell malignancy with adult onset, caused by HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1. It is endemic in Japan, the Caribbean basin, Southeastern United States, Hawaii, and parts of Central and South America and sub-Saharan Africa.
A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)
An acute myeloid leukemia in which 20-30% of the bone marrow or peripheral blood cells are of megakaryocyte lineage. MYELOFIBROSIS or increased bone marrow RETICULIN is common.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.
Translation products of a fusion gene derived from CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION of C-ABL GENES to the genetic locus of the breakpoint cluster region gene on chromosome 22. Several different variants of the bcr-abl fusion proteins occur depending upon the precise location of the chromosomal breakpoint. These variants can be associated with distinct subtypes of leukemias such as PRECURSOR CELL LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA; LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE; and NEUTROPHILIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC.
The initial phase of chronic myeloid leukemia consisting of an relatively indolent period lasting from 4 to 7 years. Patients range from asymptomatic to those exhibiting ANEMIA; SPLENOMEGALY; and increased cell turnover. There are 5% or fewer blast cells in the blood and bone marrow in this phase.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
A leukemia/lymphoma found predominately in children and adolescents and characterized by a high number of lymphoblasts and solid tumor lesions. Frequent sites involve LYMPH NODES, skin, and bones. It most commonly presents as leukemia.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A rare, aggressive variant of MULTIPLE MYELOMA characterized by the circulation of excessive PLASMA CELLS in the peripheral blood. It can be a primary manifestation of multiple myeloma or develop as a terminal complication during the disease.
The phase of chronic myeloid leukemia following the chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC-PHASE), where there are increased systemic symptoms, worsening cytopenias, and refractory LEUKOCYTOSIS.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A lymphoid leukemia characterized by a profound LYMPHOCYTOSIS with or without LYMPHADENOPATHY, hepatosplenomegaly, frequently rapid progression, and short survival. It was formerly called T-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A chronic leukemia characterized by a large number of circulating prolymphocytes. It can arise spontaneously or as a consequence of transformation of CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with the cofactor CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain. Runx1 is frequently mutated in human LEUKEMIAS.
A leukemia affecting young children characterized by SPLENOMEGALY, enlarged lymph nodes, rashes, and hemorrhages. Traditionally classed as a myeloproliferative disease, it is now considered a mixed myeloproliferative-mylelodysplastic disorder.
A leukemia/lymphoma found predominately in children and young adults and characterized LYMPHADENOPATHY and THYMUS GLAND involvement. It most frequently presents as a lymphoma, but a leukemic progression in the bone marrow is common.
A rare acute myeloid leukemia in which the primary differentiation is to BASOPHILS. It is characterized by an extreme increase of immature basophilic granulated cells in the bone marrow and blood. Mature basophils are usually sparse.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A pathologic change in leukemia in which leukemic cells permeate various organs at any stage of the disease. All types of leukemia show various degrees of infiltration, depending upon the type of leukemia. The degree of infiltration may vary from site to site. The liver and spleen are common sites of infiltration, the greatest appearing in myelocytic leukemia, but infiltration is seen also in the granulocytic and lymphocytic types. The kidney is also a common site and of the gastrointestinal system, the stomach and ileum are commonly involved. In lymphocytic leukemia the skin is often infiltrated. The central nervous system too is a common site.
A hydrolase enzyme that converts L-asparagine and water to L-aspartate and NH3. EC
A receptor tyrosine kinase that is involved in HEMATOPOIESIS. It is closely related to FMS PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN and is commonly mutated in acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
A myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative disorder characterized by myelodysplasia associated with bone marrow and peripheral blood patterns similar to CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA, but cytogenetically lacking a PHILADELPHIA CHROMOSOME or bcr/abl fusion gene (GENES, ABL).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Immunological rejection of leukemia cells following bone marrow transplantation.
A replication-defective strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) capable of transforming lymphoid cells and producing a rapidly progressing lymphoid leukemia after superinfection with FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; MOLONEY MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; or RAUSCHER VIRUS.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
A receptor subunit that combines with CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130 to form the dual specificity receptor for LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR and ONCOSTATIN M. The subunit is also a component of the CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR RECEPTOR. Both membrane-bound and secreted isoforms of the receptor subunit exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. The secreted isoform is believed to act as an inhibitory receptor, while the membrane-bound form is a signaling receptor.
Conditions in which the abnormalities in the peripheral blood or bone marrow represent the early manifestations of acute leukemia, but in which the changes are not of sufficient magnitude or specificity to permit a diagnosis of acute leukemia by the usual clinical criteria.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Remnant of a tumor or cancer after primary, potentially curative therapy. (Dr. Daniel Masys, written communication)
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
A spectrum of disorders characterized by clonal expansions of the peripheral blood LYMPHOCYTE populations known as large granular lymphocytes which contain abundant cytoplasm and azurophilic granules. Subtypes develop from either CD3-negative NATURAL KILLER CELLS or CD3-positive T-CELLS. The clinical course of both subtypes can vary from spontaneous regression to progressive, malignant disease.
Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
Transcriptional trans-acting proteins of the promoter elements found in the long terminal repeats (LTR) of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The tax (trans-activator x; x is undefined) proteins act by binding to enhancer elements in the LTR.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain arsenic.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
An orally administered anthracycline antineoplastic. The compound has shown activity against BREAST NEOPLASMS; LYMPHOMA; and LEUKEMIA.
A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia in the gibbon ape. Natural transmission is by contact.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A member of the myeloid leukemia factor (MLF) protein family with multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms. In hematopoietic cells, it is located mainly in the nucleus, and in non-hematopoietic cells, primarily in the cytoplasm with a punctate nuclear localization. MLF1 plays a role in cell cycle differentiation.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (abl) originally isolated from the Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MuLV). The proto-oncogene abl (c-abl) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family. The human c-abl gene is located at 9q34.1 on the long arm of chromosome 9. It is activated by translocation to bcr on chromosome 22 in chronic myelogenous leukemia.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
A neoplastic disease of cats frequently associated with feline leukemia virus infection.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
An antineoplastic agent used in the treatment of lymphoproliferative diseases including hairy-cell leukemia.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
A lymphoid neoplastic disease in cattle caused by the bovine leukemia virus. Enzootic bovine leukosis may take the form of lymphosarcoma, malignant lymphoma, or leukemia but the presence of malignant cells in the blood is not a consistent finding.
An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
A form of systemic mastocytosis (MASTOCYTOSIS, SYSTEMIC) characterized by the presence of large numbers of tissue MAST CELLS in the peripheral blood without skin lesions. It is a high-grade LEUKEMIA disease with bone marrow smear of >20% MAST CELLS, multi-organ failure and a short survival.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
Cell surface receptors formed from the dimerization of LIF RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT with CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130. Although originally described as receptors for LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR these receptors also bind the closely-related protein ONCOSTATIN M and are referred to as both LIF receptors and type I oncostatin M receptors.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from radiation-induced lymphomas in C57BL mice. It is leukemogenic, thymotrophic, can be transmitted vertically, and replicates only in vivo.
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
A rare myeloproliferative disorder that is characterized by a sustained, mature neutrophilic leukocytosis. No monocytosis, EOSINOPHILIA, or basophilia is present, nor is there a PHILADELPHIA CHROMOSOME or bcr-abl fusion gene (GENES, ABL).
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
An antineoplastic compound which also has antimetabolite action. The drug is used in the therapy of acute leukemia.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A potent inhibitor of ADENOSINE DEAMINASE. The drug induces APOPTOSIS of LYMPHOCYTES, and is used in the treatment of many lymphoproliferative malignancies, particularly HAIRY CELL LEUKEMIA. It is also synergistic with some other antineoplastic agents and has immunosuppressive activity.
A genus in the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of exogenous horizontally-transmitted viruses found in a few groups of mammals. Infections caused by these viruses include human B- or adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), and bovine leukemia (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS). The type species is LEUKEMIA VIRUS, BOVINE.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
A neoplasm of prolymphocytes affecting the blood, bone marrow, and spleen. It is characterized by prolymphocytes exceeding 55% of the lymphoid cells in the blood and profound splenomegaly.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
Infections caused by the HTLV or BLV deltaretroviruses. They include human T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
A nitrogen mustard alkylating agent used as antineoplastic for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and others. Although it is less toxic than most other nitrogen mustards, it has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
Nucleosides containing arabinose as their sugar moiety.
An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.
A genus of RETROVIRIDAE comprising endogenous sequences in mammals, related RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN, and a reptilian virus. Many species contain oncogenes and cause leukemias and sarcomas.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Proto-oncogene protein bcr is a serine-threonine kinase that functions as a negative regulator of CELL PROLIFERATION and NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. It is commonly fused with cellular abl protein to form BCR-ABL FUSION PROTEINS in PHILADELPHIA CHROMOSOME positive LEUKEMIA patients.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Tetracyclic spiro-BENZAZEPINES isolated from the seeds of CEPHALOTAXUS. They are esters of the alkaloid cephalotaxine and may be effective as antineoplastic agents.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.

Activation of c-Abl tyrosine kinase requires caspase activation and is not involved in JNK/SAPK activation during apoptosis of human monocytic leukemia U937 cells. (1/3339)

Genotoxic stress triggers the activation of several sensor molecules, such as p53, JNK1/SAPK and c-Abl, and occasionally promotes the cells to apoptosis. We previously reported that JNK1/SAPK regulates genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis in p53-negative U937 cells by activating caspases. c-Abl is expected to act upstream of JNK1/SAPK activation upon treatment with genotoxic stressors, but its involvement in apoptosis development is still unclear. We herein investigated the kinase activities of c-Abl and JNK1/SAPK during apoptosis elicited by genotoxic anticancer drugs and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in U937 cells and their apoptosis-resistant variant UK711 cells. We found that the activation of JNK1/SAPK and c-Abl correlated well with apoptosis development in these cell lines. Unexpectedly, however, the JNK1/SAPK activation preceded the c-Abl activation. Moreover, the caspase inhibitor Z-Asp suppressed c-Abl activation and the onset of apoptosis but not the JNK1/SAPK activation. Interestingly, c-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibition by CGP 57148 reduced apoptosis without interfering with JNK1/SAPK activation. These results indicate that c-Abl acts not upstream of JNK1/ SAPK but downstream of caspases during the development of p53-independent apoptosis and is possibly involved in accelerating execution of the cell death pathway.  (+info)

Arsenic targets tubulins to induce apoptosis in myeloid leukemia cells. (2/3339)

Arsenic exhibits a differential toxicity to cancer cells. At a high concentration (>5 microM), As2O3 causes acute necrosis in various cell lines. At a lower concentration (0.5-5 microm), it induces myeloid cell maturation and an arrest in metaphase, leading to apoptosis. As2O3-treated cells have features found with both tubulin-assembling enhancers (Taxol) and inhibitors (colchicine). Prior treatment of monomeric tubulin with As2O3 markedly inhibits GTP-induced polymerization and microtubule formation in vitro but does not destabilize GTP-induced tubulin polymers. Cross-inhibition experiments indicate that As2O3 is a noncompetitive inhibitor of GTP binding to tubulin. These observations correlate with the three-dimensional structure of beta-tubulin and suggest that the cross-linking of two vicinal cysteine residues (Cys-12 and Cys-213) by trivalent arsenic inactivates the GTP binding site. Furthermore, exogenous GTP can prevent As2O3-induced mitotic arrest.  (+info)

Expression and function of leptin receptor isoforms in myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes: proliferative and anti-apoptotic activities. (3/3339)

The receptor for the gene product of the obesity gene, leptin, was recently reported to be expressed on murine and human hematopoietic progenitor cells. Therefore, we studied the expression of the leptin receptor, OB-R, in normal myeloid precursors, human leukemia cell lines, and primary leukemic cells using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. In normal hematopoiesis, OB-R was expressed in CD34(+) cells. Normal promyelocytes (CD34(-)33(+) and CD34(-)13(+)) expressed only very low levels of the short, presumably nonsignaling isoform. Both the long and short isoforms of OB-R were expressed in 10 of 22 samples from patients with newly diagnosed primary or secondary acute myeloid leukemia (AML), with a higher incidence of the long isoform in primary AML (87.6% v 28.6%; P =.01). The incidence of OB-R expression was higher in recurrent than in newly diagnosed AML (P <.001), and samples from four patients with refractory AML showed strong expression of both isoforms. Both OB-R isoforms were also expressed in newly diagnosed and recurrent acute promyelocytic leukemia cells but were essentially absent in samples of chronic or acute lymphocytic leukemia. In vitro growth of myeloid leukemic cell lines and of blasts from 14 primary AMLs demonstrated that recombinant human leptin alone induced low level proliferation, significantly (P <.05) increased proliferation induced by recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, interleukin 3, and stem cell factor in a subset of AML and increased colony formation (P <.005). Also, leptin reduced apoptosis induced by cytokine withdrawal in MO7E and TF-1 cells. Serum leptin levels correlated only with body mass index (P <. 001) and gender (P =.03). Results confirm the reported expression of leptin receptor in normal CD34(+) cells and demonstrate the frequent expression of leptin receptors in AML blasts. While normal promyelocytes lack receptor expression, leukemic promyelocytes express both isoforms. We also demonstrate proliferative effects of leptin alone and in combination with other physiologic cytokines, and anti-apoptotic properties of leptin. These findings could have implications for the pathophysiology of AML.  (+info)

Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor/diphtheria toxin receptor expression by acute myeloid leukemia cells. (4/3339)

Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is an EGF family member expressed by numerous cell types that binds to EGF receptor 1 (HER-1) or 4 (HER-4) inducing mitogenic and/or chemotactic activities. Membrane-bound HB-EGF retains growth activity and adhesion capabilities and the unique property of being the receptor for diphtheria toxin (DT). The interest in studying HB-EGF in acute leukemia stems from these mitogenic, chemotactic, and receptor functions. We analyzed the expression of HB-EGF in L428, Raji, Jurkat, Karpas 299, L540, 2C8, HL-60, U937, THP-1, ML-3, and K562 cell lines and in primary blasts from 12 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases, by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Northern blot and by the evaluation of sensitivity to DT. The release of functional HB-EGF was assessed by evaluation of its proliferative effects on the HB-EGF-sensitive Balb/c 3T3 cell line. HB-EGF was expressed by all myeloid and T, but not B (L428, Raji), lymphoid cell lines tested, as well as by the majority (8 of 12) of ex vivo AML blasts. Cell lines (except for the K562 cell line) and AML blasts expressing HB-EGF mRNA underwent apoptotic death following exposure to DT, thus demonstrating the presence of the HB-EGF molecule on their membrane. Leukemic cells also released a fully functional HB-EGF molecule that was mitogenic for the Balb/c 3T3 cell line. Factors relevant to the biology of leukemic growth, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), 1alpha,25-(OH)2D3, and especially all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), upregulated HB-EGF mRNA in HL-60 or ML-3 cells. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induced HB-EGF mRNA and acquisition of sensitivity to DT in one previously HB-EGF-negative leukemia case. Moreover, the U937 and Karpas 299 cell lines expressed HER-4 mRNA. This work shows that HB-EGF is a growth factor produced by primary leukemic cells and regulated by ATRA, 1alpha, 25-(OH)2D3, and GM-CSF.  (+info)

Systemic candidiasis with candida vasculitis due to Candida kruzei in a patient with acute myeloid leukaemia. (5/3339)

Candida kruzei-related systemic infections are increasing in frequency, particularly in patients receiving prophylaxis with antifungal triazoles. A Caucasian male with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML M1) developed severe and persistent fever associated with a micropustular eruption scattered over the trunk and limbs during induction chemotherapy. Blood cultures grew Candida kruzei, and biopsies of the skin lesions revealed a candida vasculitis. He responded to high doses of liposomal amphotericin B and was discharged well from hospital.  (+info)

Differential expression and phosphorylation of CTCF, a c-myc transcriptional regulator, during differentiation of human myeloid cells. (6/3339)

CTCF is a transcriptional repressor of the c-myc gene. Although CTCF has been characterized in some detail, there is very little information about the regulation of CTCF activity. Therefore we investigated CTCF expression and phosphorylation during induced differentiation of human myeloid leukemia cells. We found that: (i) both CTCF mRNA and protein are down-regulated during terminal differentiation in most cell lines tested; (ii) CTCF down-regulation is retarded and less pronounced than that of c-myc; (iii) CTCF protein is differentially phosphorylated and the phosphorylation profiles depend on the differentiation pathway. We concluded that CTCF expression and activity is controlled at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.  (+info)

High dose chemotherapy with busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and etoposide as conditioning regimen for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for patients with acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission. (7/3339)

We explored the combination of busulfan/cyclophosphamide/etoposide as conditioning regimen prior to bone marrow transplantation in 31 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission. The preparative regimen consisted of 16 mg/kg busulfan, 30-60 mg/kg VP-16, and 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide. With a median follow-up of 30.5 months (range, 5-60 months), 25 patients are alive in continuous complete remission. Estimated disease-free survival at 5 years is 80.5%. Death was due to transplant-related toxicity (graft-versus-host disease and cytomegalovirus infection, graft-versus-host disease and pneumonia, sepsis and mucositis, respectively). None of the patients have relapsed. As demonstrated by the results of this analysis, the conditioning regimen busulfan/cyclophosphamide/etoposide is effective and well tolerated in patients with AML in first complete remission. Main nonhematological toxicities were mucositis and hepatotoxicity. The low mortality and relapse rate appears to justify allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for patients with AML in first complete remission who have an HLA-identical donor. Whether this regimen offers a substantial improvement in disease-free and overall survival over presently used regimens warrants further investigation.  (+info)

A novel spliced form of SH2-containing inositol phosphatase is expressed during myeloid development. (8/3339)

SH2-containing Inositol Phosphatase (SHIP) is a 145 kD protein expressed in hematopoietic cells. SHIP is phosphorylated on tyrosine after receptor binding by several cytokines and has a negative role in hematopoiesis. We cloned a murine complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence for an isoform of SHIP with an internal 183 nucleotide deletion, encoding a protein 61 amino acids shorter than 145 kD SHIP. This deletion eliminates potential SH3-domain binding regions and a potential binding site for the p85 subunit of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase. Using polyclonal anti-SHIP antibodies, we and others have previously observed a 135 kD SHIP isoform that is coexpressed with 145 kD SHIP. Here, we used monoclonal antibodies raised against the region deleted in the spliced form to show that the product of the novel spliced SHIP cDNA is antigenically identical to the 135 kD SHIP isoform. Like 145 kD SHIP, 135 kD SHIP expression was induced on differentiation of bone marrow cells. After macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) stimulation of FDC-P1(Fms) myeloid cells, both 145 and 135 kD SHIP forms were tyrosine phosphorylated and could be coimmunoprecipitated with antibodies to Shc and Grb2. However, experiments showed only a weak association of 135 kD SHIP with p85. A potentially analogous 135 kD SHIP species also appears in human differentiated leukocytes.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Oncogene-dependent engraftment of human myeloid leukemia cells in immunosuppressed mice. AU - Kiser, M.. AU - McCubrey, J. A.. AU - Steelman, L. S.. AU - Shelton, J. G.. AU - Ramage, J.. AU - Alexander, R. L.. AU - Kucera, G. L.. AU - Pettenati, M.. AU - Willingham, M. C.. AU - Miller, M. S.. AU - Frankel, A. E.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported in part by the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society Grant No. 6114-99 (AEF), NIH CA76178 (AEF), NIH CA51025 (JAM) and the American Cancer Society Grant No. IRG-93-035-6 (GLK). The authors acknowledge the gift of SC-65461 and SC-50431 IL3 receptor agonist proteins from Dr Barbara Klein and Pharmacia, Inc. We thank Dr Douglas Case for input on statistical analyses.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - We have developed an in vivo model of differentiated human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) by retroviral infection of the cytokine-dependent AML cell line TF-1 with the v-Src oncogene. When injected either intravenously or intraperitoneally into ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important transducers of external signals for cell growth, survival, and other cellular responses including cell differentiation. Several MAPK cascades are known with the MEK1/2-ERK1/2, JNK, and p38MAPKs receiving most attention, but the role of MEK5-ERK5 in intracellular signaling deserves more scrutiny, as this pathway transmits signals that can complement ERK/2 signaling. We hypothesized that the ERK5 pathway plays a role in the control of monocytic differentiation, which is disturbed in myeloid leukemia. We therefore examined the cellular phenotype and key molecular events which occur when human myeloid leukemia cells, acute (AML) or chronic (CML), are forced to differentiate by vitamin D derivatives (VDDs). This study was performed using established cell lines HL60 and U937, and primary cultures of blasts from 10 patients with ML. We found that ERK5 and its direct downstream target transcription factor MEF2C are upregulated by 1,25D in parallel ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proteomic analysis of the response to cell cycle arrests in human myeloid leukemia cells. AU - Ly, Tony. AU - Endo, Aki. AU - Lamond, Angus I.. N1 - Wellcome Trust 083524/Z/07/Z, 097945/B/11/Z, 073980/Z/03/Z, 08136/Z/03/Z, and 0909444/Z/09/Z Angus I Lamond; European Research Council HEALTH-F4-2010-257082 Angus I Lamond; Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council BB/K003801/1 Angus I Lamond.. PY - 2015/1/2. Y1 - 2015/1/2. N2 - Previously, we analyzed protein abundance changes across a minimally perturbed cell cycle by using centrifugal elutriation to differentially enrich distinct cell cycle phases in human NB4 cells (Ly et al., 2014). In this study, we compare data from elutriated cells with NB4 cells arrested at comparable phases using serum starvation, hydroxyurea, or RO-3306. While elutriated and arrested cells have similar patterns of DNA content and cyclin expression, a large fraction of the proteome changes detected in arrested cells are found to reflect ...
Using deep sequencing (deepCAGE), the FANTOM4 study measured the genome-wide dynamics of transcription-start-site usage in the human monocytic cell line THP-1 throughout a time course of growth arrest and differentiation. Modeling the expression dynamics in terms of predicted cis-regulatory sites, we identified the key transcription regulators, their time-dependent activities and target genes. Systematic siRNA knockdown of 52 transcription factors confirmed the roles of individual factors in the regulatory network. Our results indicate that cellular states are constrained by complex networks involving both positive and negative regulatory interactions among substantial numbers of transcription factors and that no single transcription factor is both necessary and sufficient to drive the differentiation process ...
Description: Using deep sequencing (deepCAGE), the FANTOM4 study measured the genome-wide dynamics of transcription-start-site usage in the human monocytic cell line THP-1 throughout a time course of growth arrest and differentiation. Modeling the expression dynamics in terms of predicted cis-regulatory sites, we identified the key transcription regulators, their time-dependent activities and target genes. Systematic siRNA knockdown of 52 transcription factors confirmed the roles of individual factors in the regulatory network. Our results indicate that cellular states are constrained by complex networks involving both positive and negative regulatory interactions among substantial numbers of transcription factors and that no single transcription factor is both necessary and sufficient to drive the differentiation process. ...
Chemotherapy for induction of remission of childhood acute myeloid leukemia followed by marrow transplantation or multiagent chemotherapy: A report from the Childrens Cancer Group Academic Article ...
Data from a case-control study of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) including 187 matched case-control pairs were examined for evidence of associations between parental cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the subsequent development of childhood AML. The cases were stratified by French-American-British morphology in order to evaluate potential differences in risk based on this classification system. There was little evidence of any association between cigarette smoking by parents during the index pregnancy and childhood AML. There was some evidence of an increased risk of AML among children who were diagnosed at or before 2 years of age and whose mothers reported consuming alcohol during their pregnancies (odds ratio, 3.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.23 to 8.35). This finding appeared to be especially pronounced for AML with a monocytic component (M4/M5) (odds ratio, 9.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.25 to 394.5), but a cautious interpretation of these data are advised because of ...
Cenpu - Mlf1ip (untagged) - Mouse myeloid leukemia factor 1 interacting protein (Mlf1ip), (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Mutations in two metabolic enzymes-isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) have been responsible for 20 percent of all acute myeloid leukemias in the recent years
Background Description: Meisoindigo (Dian III; N-Methylisoindigotin; Natura-α) is a potential agent for acute myeloid leukemia. Meisoindigo is a synthetic modification of indirubin. It has been used for chronic myeloid leukemia in China with less toxicity. In the in vitro assay,PubMed ID:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22614157. ...
Also known as: Acute myelocytic leukemia / Acute myeloid leukemia / Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / Acute myelocytic leukaemia / Acute myeloblastic leukemia with failed remission / Leukaemia myeloblastic acute / AML / Non-lymphoblastic leukaemia acute / Non-lymphoblastic leukemia acute / Acute myeloid leukemia NOS / Myeloid leukaemia, acute / Leukaemias acute myeloid / Acute myeloblastic leukemia / Acute myeloblastic leukaemia / Leukemia myeloblastic acute / Acute granulocytic leukaemia / Acute granulocytic leukemia / Acute myeloid leukaemia / Myeloid leukemia, acute / Acute myeloid leukaemia NOS ...
Acute Myelocytic Leukemia (AML, Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia) - Pipeline Review, H2 2015 Acute Myelocytic Leukemia (AML, Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia) - Pipeline Review, H2 2015 Summary Global Markets - Market research report and industry analysis - 9304064
The multifunctional E4F1 protein was originally identified as a cellular target of the E1A adenoviral oncoprotein. Although E4F1 is implicated in several key oncogenic pathways, its roles in tumorigenesis remain unclear. Using a genetically engineered mouse model of myeloid leukemia (histiocytic sarcomas, HS) based on the genetic inactivation of the tumor suppressor Ink4a/Arf locus, we have recently unraveled an unsuspected function of E4F1 in the survival of leukemic cells. In vivo, genetic ablation of E4F1 in established myeloid tumors results in tumor regression. E4F1 inactivation results in a cascade of alterations originating from dysfunctional mitochondria that induce increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and ends in massive autophagic cell death in HS transformed, but not normal myeloid cells. E4F1 depletion also induces cell death in various human myeloid leukemic cell lines, including acute myeloid leukemic (AML) cell lines. Interestingly, the E4F1 protein is overexpressed in a large
CEBPA mutations in patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia: data analysis in a Chinese population Long Su, SuJun Gao, XiaoLiang Liu, YeHui Tan, Lu Wang, Wei Li Cancer Center, The First Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Peoples Republic of China Background: This study was aimed to explore the clinical characteristics and prognoses of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with CEBPA mutations. Patients and methods: Three hundred and forty-five patients with de novo AML were retrospectively analyzed with regard to CEBPA mutations, clinical characteristics, therapeutic responses, and long-term outcomes. Results: CEBPA mutations were detected in 59 patients (17.10%), with 47 cases harboring double mutations and 12 cases harboring single mutations. In those with a normal karyotype (NK), 44 cases (25.29%) were detected with CEBPA mutations. The following characteristics were observed in CEBPA-mutated patients: most (66.10%) of them were M1 or M2; they presented with higher peripheral white blood
Looking for information on Acute myelocytic leukemia? Medigest has all you need to know about Acute myelocytic leukemia - Symptoms and Signs, Causes, Treatments and definition
1. Thiede C, Steudel C, Mohr B, Schaich M, Schakel U, Platzbecker U. et al. Analysis of FLT3-activating mutations in 979 patients with acute myelogenous leukemia: association with FAB subtypes and identification of subgroups with poor prognosis. Blood. 2002;99:4326-35 2. Whitman SP, Archer KJ, Feng L, Baldus C, Becknell B, Carlson BD. et al. Absence of the wild-type allele predicts poor prognosis in adult de novo acute myeloid leukemia with normal cytogenetics and the internal tandem duplication of FLT3: a cancer and leukemia group B study. Cancer Res. 2001;61:7233-39 3. Mizuki M, Fenski R, Halfter H, Matsumura I, Schmidt R, Muller C. et al. Flt3 mutations from patients with acute myeloid leukemia induce transformation of 32D cells mediated by the Ras and STAT5 pathways. Blood. 2000;96:3907-14 4. Brandts CH, Sargin B, Rode M, Biermann C, Lindtner B, Schwable J. et al. Constitutive activation of Akt by Flt3 internal tandem duplications is necessary for increased survival, proliferation, and ...
Learn more about Chronic Myelocytic Leukemia at TriStar Southern Hills DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Chronic Myelocytic Leukemia (CML) - Epidemiology Forecast to 2025 Size and Share Published in 2017-09-20 Available for US$ 2750 at Researchmoz.us
Definition of acute myeloid leukemia in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is acute myeloid leukemia? Meaning of acute myeloid leukemia as a finance term. What does acute myeloid leukemia mean in finance?
Define Acute myeloid leukaemia. Acute myeloid leukaemia synonyms, Acute myeloid leukaemia pronunciation, Acute myeloid leukaemia translation, English dictionary definition of Acute myeloid leukaemia. Noun 1. acute myeloid leukemia - acute leukemia characterized by proliferation of granular leukocytes; most common in adolescents and young adults acute...
Acute Myelocytic Leukemia (AML, Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia) - Pipeline Review, H1 2017 Size and Share Published in 2017-06-30 Available for US$ 2500 at Researchmoz.us
Synonyms for Acute myeloid leukaemia in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Acute myeloid leukaemia. 1 synonym for acute myeloid leukemia: acute myelocytic leukemia. What are synonyms for Acute myeloid leukaemia?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sonic hedgehog antagonists induce cell death in acute myeloid leukemia cells with the presence of lipopolysaccharides, tumor necrosis factor-α, or interferons. AU - Lu, Frank Leigh. AU - Yu, Ching Chia. AU - Chiu, Huei Hsuan. AU - Liu, Hsingjin Eugene. AU - Chen, Shao Yin. AU - Lin, Shufan. AU - Goh, Ting Yi. AU - Hsu, Hsin Chih. AU - Chien, Chih Han. AU - Wu, Han Chung. AU - Chen, Ming Shan. AU - Schuyler, Scott C.. AU - Hsieh, Wu Shiun. AU - Wu, Mei Hwan. AU - Lu, Jean. PY - 2013/8. Y1 - 2013/8. N2 - Summary: Due to the development of drug resistance, the outcome for the majority of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (acute myelogenous leukemia; AML) remains poor. To prevent drug resistance and increase the therapeutic efficacy of treating AML, the development of new combinatory drug therapies is necessary. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is expressed in AML biopsies and is essential for the drug resistance of cancer stem cells of AML. AML patients are frequently infected by bacteria ...
BACKGROUND: We investigated the spectrum, frequency, and risk factors for renal, gastrointestinal, and hepatic late adverse effects in survivors of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) without relapse treated with chemotherapy alone according to three consecutive AML trials by the Nordic Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (NOPHO).. METHODS: A population-based cohort of children treated for AML according to the NOPHO-AML-84, -88, and -93 trials included 138 eligible survivors of whom 102 (74%) completed a questionnaire and 104 (75%) had a clinical examination and blood sampling performed. Eighty-five of 94 (90%) eligible sibling controls completed a similar questionnaire. Siblings had no clinical examination or blood sampling performed.. RESULTS: At a median of 11 years (range 4-25) after diagnosis, renal, gastrointestinal, and hepatic disorders were rare both in survivors of childhood AML and in sibling controls, with no significant differences. Ferritin was elevated in 21 (21%) AML ...
A myeloid sarcoma (chloroma, granulocytic sarcoma, extramedullary myeloid tumor), is a solid tumor composed of immature white blood cells called myeloblasts. A chloroma is an extramedullary manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia; in other words, it is a solid collection of leukemic cells occurring outside of the bone marrow. The condition now known as chloroma was first described by the British physician A. Burns in 1811, although the term chloroma did not appear until 1853. This name is derived from the Greek word chloros (green), as these tumors often have a green tint due to the presence of myeloperoxidase. The link between chloroma and acute leukemia was first recognized in 1902 by Dock and Warthin. However, because up to 30% of these tumors can be white, gray, or brown rather than green, the more correct term granulocytic sarcoma was proposed by Rappaport in 1967 and has since become virtually synonymous with the term chloroma. Currently, any extramedullary manifestation of acute myeloid ...
ReportsnReports added a new report on The Acute Myelocytic Leukemia Market report that delivers the clean elaborated structure of the Report comprising each and every business-related information of the market at a global level. The in-depth study on the current state which focuses on the major drivers and restraint...
The CNS involvement of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is more commonly manifest as meningeal involvement. Rarely it may present as intravascular tumor aggregates called granulocytic sarcoma which presents as intracranial hemorrhage. We are presenting a case of intracranial, intra-parenchymal granulocytic sarcoma (other names: chloroma, extramedullary myeloblastoma), presenting as acute hemiplegia without cerebral hemorrhage.
The cases, bibliography and associated comments included in this website and database have been provided by experts worldwide and reviewed by voluntary editorial working groups. The data and information is not guaranteed to be complete or to be fully up to date at any particular moment and it reflects the knowledge and views of the experts participating, not those of the World Health Organisation or the Italian National Transplant Centre.. ...
Among a series of myeloid leukemia cell lines, one (NFS-60) was found to have a rearrangement of the c-myb locus. The rearrangement involved the integration of a retrovirus into the region of the gene corresponding to the sixth exon of the avian c-myb locus. The insertion is associated with the production of a truncated RNA and the introduction of a terminator codon at the juncture of the long terminal repeat and the c-myb locus. The properties of the NSF-60 cells were compared with those of other myeloid cell lines, and the known sequence of differentiation induced by interleukin 3. Similar to other myeloid cell lines, the NFS-60 cells do not terminally differentiate in response to interleukin 3, granulocyte/macrophage, or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor suggesting that the cells are transformed with regard to their ability to differentiate. The NFS-60 cells are totally dependent on interleukin 3 for growth and maintenance of viability in vitro but also proliferate in response to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Retinoic acid-induced gene expression in normal and leukemic myeloid cells. AU - Murtaugh, Michael P.. AU - Dennison, Olivia. AU - Stein, Joseph P.. AU - Davies, Peter J.A.. PY - 1986/5/1. Y1 - 1986/5/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0022449402&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0022449402&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1084/jem.163.5.1325. DO - 10.1084/jem.163.5.1325. M3 - Article. C2 - 2871126. AN - SCOPUS:0022449402. VL - 163. SP - 1325. EP - 1330. JO - Journal of Experimental Medicine. JF - Journal of Experimental Medicine. SN - 0022-1007. IS - 5. ER - ...
Acute myeloid leukemia is also called acute myelocytic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, acute granulocytic leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, or sometimes just AML. It is most common in older people.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of FUS-ERG chimeric transcript in two cases of acute myeloid leukemia with t(16;21)(p11.2;q22) with unusual characteristics. AU - Kim, Juwon. AU - Park, Tae Sung. AU - Song, Jaewoo. AU - Lee, Kyung A.. AU - Hong, Duk Jin. AU - Min, Yoo Hong. AU - Cheong, June Won. AU - Choi, Jong Rak. PY - 2009/10/15. Y1 - 2009/10/15. N2 - Reciprocal t(16;21)(p11;q22) is a rare chromosomal abnormality in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The chimeric transcript FUS-ERG formed by this translocation which causes the replacement of RNA-binding domain of FUS (alias TLS) with the DNA-binding domain of ERG, and this event is thought to be responsible for leukemogenesis. Here we report two cases of AML with t(16;21)(p11.2;q22) showing unusual characteristics, and address the clinical, hematological, and molecular aspects of leukemia with t(16;21), along with a review of the literature.. AB - Reciprocal t(16;21)(p11;q22) is a rare chromosomal abnormality in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The ...
Treatment for Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Sewri West, Mumbai. Find Doctors Near You, Book Appointment, Consult Online, View Doctor Fees, Address, Phone Numbers and Reviews. Doctors for Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Sewri West, Mumbai | Lybrate
Ortho-topolin riboside induced cell apoptosis through ERS pathway and inhibited DNMT1 activity in acute myeloid leukemia cells, Li Wang, YanHong Zhao, Jiao Cheng, FanLin Lin, YingY
Chronic myeloid leukemia is the tumour that occurs in blood cells and bone marrow, which is the soft parts inside bones where blood cells are produced.
CML progresses gradually. It is often slow growing for many years. Eventually, it may transform itself into acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). This is a more aggressive type of leukemia. It progresses much more rapidly and is more serious.. Cancer occurs when cells in the body become abnormal. They divide without control or order. Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells and their parent cells. Leukemia cells do not function normally. They cannot do what normal blood cells do. In this case they can not fight infections. This means that the person is more likely to become infected with viruses or bacteria. The cancerous cells also overgrow the bone marrow. This forces other normal components, like platelets out. Platelets are needed to help the blood clot. As a results people with leukemia may bleed more easily.. ...
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the regulatory effect of microRNA-34b on the occurrence of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia and the underlying mechanism. PATIENTS
This phase II trial is studying how well cediranib maleate works in treating patients with relapsed, refractory, or untreated acute myeloid leukemia or
S100A8 and S100A9 are calcium-binding proteins predominantly expressed by neutrophils and monocytes and play key roles in both normal and pathological inflammation. Recently, both proteins were found to promote tumor progression through the establishment of premetastatic niches and inhibit antitumor immune responses. Although S100A8 and S100A9 have been studied in solid cancers, their functions in hematological malignancies remain poorly understood. However, S100A8 and S100A9 are highly expressed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and S100A8 expression has been linked to poor prognosis in AML. We identified a small subpopulation of cells expressing S100A8 and S100A9 in AML mouse models and primary human AML samples. In vitro and in vivo analyses revealed that S100A9 induces AML cell differentiation, whereas S100A8 prevents differentiation induced by S100A9 activity and maintains AML immature phenotype. Treatment with recombinant S100A9 proteins increased AML cell maturation, induced growth arrest, and
The majority of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients have a poor response to conventional chemotherapy. The survival of chemoresistant cells is thought to depend on leukemia-bone marrow (BM) microenvironment interactions, which are not well understood. The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis has been proposed to support AML growth but was not studied at the single AML cell level. We recently showed that T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells are highly motile in the BM; however, the characteristics of AML cell migration within the BM remain undefined. Here, we characterize the in vivo migratory behavior of AML cells and their response to chemotherapy and CXCR4 antagonism, using high-resolution 2-photon and confocal intravital microscopy of mouse calvarium BM and the well-established MLL-AF9-driven AML mouse model. We used the Notch1-driven T-ALL model as a benchmark comparison and AMD3100 for CXCR4 antagonism experiments. We show that AML cells are migratory, and in contrast with T-ALL, chemoresistant ...
Many studies have proposed that Siah1 genes are induced by p53 activation and may function as negative regulators of cell cycle progression, mediators of apoptosis, or tumor suppressors. Evidence for these hypotheses derives almost exclusively from gain-of-function studies in which p53 or Siah1 genes were overexpressed in transformed cell lines. In this study we have tested these models using a loss-of-function approach. We find no evidence to support a general role for Siah genes in a range of p53-mediated responses.. Previous reports have shown that transient overexpression of p53 in several different cell lines (32, 35) or activation of ts-p53 in immortalized MEF and mouse myeloid leukemic cell lines (1, 20, 43, 44, 47) induces Siah1 gene expression. Additionally, stable transfection of U937 cells with p21 increased SIAH1 mRNA levels (31, 32, 35) and enforced expression of SIAH1 or p21 induced the expression of an overlapping set of genes, supporting a model whereby Siah1 proteins function ...
Clinical trial for Acute myeloid leukemia | Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) , Safety and Effectiveness of Quizartinib in Children and Young Adults With Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) a Cancer of the Blood
ABSTRACT Background: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal malignant neoplasms of pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell described by the excessive proliferation of mature granulocytes and their precursors in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. It is characterized by the presence of Philadelphia chromosome, a translocation between chromosome 9 and 22 or BCR-ABL1 gene. Objectives: To evaluate clinical and hematological parameters in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia and to assess the risk stratification of these patients according to Sokal and European Treatment Outcome Study (EUTOS) scoring systems. Setting: This case series study conducted at Ibn-Sina Teaching Hospital/Outpatients Hematology Department from November 2019 to April 2020. Patients and methods: Total seventy patients with chronic myeloid leukemia included in this study. They involved 64 old cases and 6 new cases. The records of old cases were reviewed for clinical history, clinical examination, previous blood counts, bone marrow
Free Online Library: Acute myeloid leukemia diagnosis in the 21st century. by Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine; Health, general Acute myelocytic leukemia Cytochemistry Cytogenetics
TY - JOUR. T1 - ETV6-LPXN fusion transcript generated by t(11;12)(q12.1;p13) in a patient with relapsing acute myeloid leukemia with NUP98-HOXA9. AU - Abe, Akihiro. AU - Yamamoto, Yukiya. AU - Iba, Sachiko. AU - Kanie, Tadaharu. AU - Okamoto, Akinao. AU - Tokuda, Masutaka. AU - Inaguma, Yoko. AU - Yanada, Masamitsu. AU - Morishima, Satoko. AU - Mizuta, Shuichi. AU - Akatsuka, Yoshiki. AU - Okamoto, Masataka. AU - Kameyama, Toshiki. AU - Mayeda, Akila. AU - Emi, Nobuhiko. PY - 2016/3/1. Y1 - 2016/3/1. N2 - ETV6, which encodes an ETS family transcription factor, is frequently rearranged in human leukemias. We show here that a patient with acute myeloid leukemia with t(7;11)(p15;p15) gained, at the time of relapse, t(11;12)(q12.1;p13) with a split ETV6 FISH signal. Using 3′-RACE PCR analysis, we found that ETV6 was fused to LPXN at 11q12.1, which encodes leupaxin. ETV6-LPXN, an in-frame fusion between exon 4 of ETV6 and exon 2 of LPXN, did not transform the interleukin-3-dependent 32D myeloid ...
We investigated whether octogenarian patients with acute myeloid leukemia enrolled onto Cooperative Group clinical trials and treated with intensive induction therapy could be cured, and whether karyotype and selected molecular markers had any prognostic significance in these patients. Among 138 patients with cytogenetic results, normal karyotype was the most common (47.1%) followed by complex karyotype (14.5%) and sole +8 (9.4%). Among these patients, the relapse-free survival (RFS) rate at 1 year was 37% and 13% at 3 years, and the respective overall survival (OS) rates were 24% and 8%. Whereas the 90 patients who survived beyond 30 days had the same RFS rates, their 1-year and 3-year OS rates were 36% and 11%, respectively. Of the 66 patients surviving beyond 30 days who could be classified into the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) Genetic Groups, those in the Intermediate-I Group had better OS than patients in the Adverse Group (P=.01). Among patients with cytogenetically normal acute myeloid ...
Treatment protocols for acute myeloid leukemia are provided below, including a general treatment approach and treatment recommendations for relapsed or refractory disease. General treatment approach for acute myeloid leukemia Fit patients (< 60-65 years, select patients up to age 75 y) receive intensive therapy.
Recognizes a 33kDa glycoprotein, identified as Nucleophosmin (NPM). It is predominantly localized in the nucleus of cells in most tissues. NPM is involved in ribosomal assembly and rRNA transport. It is an abundant protein that is highly phosphorylated by Cdc2 kinase during mitosis. This phosphoprotein moves between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.It is thought to be involved in several processes including regulation of the ARF/p53 pathway. A number of genes are fusion partners, in particular the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene on chromosome 2. Mutations in exon 12 affecting the C-terminus of the protein are associated with an aberrant cytoplasmic location.Mutations in this gene are associated with acute myeloid leukemia.The antibody may be a useful aid for classification of acute myeloid leukemia.. ...
The FDA approved Idhifa (enasidenib) for adult patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who have a specific genetic mutation.
Drug tolerant leukemic cell subpopulations may explain frequent relapses in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), suggesting that these Relapse-Initiating Cells (RICs) persistent after chemotherapy represent bona fide targets to prevent drug resistance and relapse. We uncovered that the G-protein coup...
Cancers - Acute Myeloid Leukemia Support Group - Acute myeloid Leukemia, more popularly known by its abbreviated form AML, is a fast- evolving leukemia that affects both children and adults alike
Symptoms of acute myeloid leukemia can be divided into those caused by a deficiency of normally functioning cells, those due to the proliferation and infiltration of the abnormal leukemic cell populat... more
The percent of patients were shown as having a partial remission or better based on definitions of response in AML. Partial remission includes a decrease of at least 50% in the percentage of blasts to 5% to 25% in the bone marrow aspirate. Complete remission includes presence of less than 5% blasts in an aspirate sample with marrow spicules and with a count of at least 200 nucleated cells. The percent and 95% exact confidence intervals will be calculated ...
Acute myeloid (myelogenous, myelocytic, myeloblastic) leukemia (AML) consists of a group of malignant disorders characterized by the replacement of normal bone marrow with abnormal, primitive hematopoietic cells. Although the cure rate has improved, treatments are associated with notable morbidity and mortality.
Hypermethylation of distal-less homeobox 4 ( DLX4) has been increasingly identified in several cancers. Our study was aimed to determine the role of DLX4 methylation in regulating DLX4expression and...
Quantitative and qualitative changes in cellular actin were followed during differentiation of a myeloid leukemia cell line, namely Ml, which was inducible with conditioned medium (CM). During 3 d of incubation with CM, when the Ml cells differentiated to macrophages and lost their mitotic activity, the actin content, F-actin ratio in total actin, and the actin synthesis showed an increase. A greater difference before and after differentiation was found in the ability of G-actin to polymerize. Actin harvested from CM-treated cells showed a greater ability to polymerize, depending on the increased concentration of MgCl2 and/or KCl and proteins, as compared with the actin from untreated Ml cells. Actin harvested from the Mml cell line, a macrophage line, had a particularly high polymerizability with or without CM treatment. In contrast, the actin from the D- subline, which is insensitive to CM, showed almost no polymerization. ...
The purpose of this study is to compare the results in older patients who have newly diagnosed or secondary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and who are to
An open-label, dose-escalation study to assess the safety and pharmacokinetics (PK), to determine the dose limiting toxicity (DLT) and the recommended Phase 2 dose (RPTD), and to assess the preliminary efficacy of alvocidib with venetoclax when co-administered in participants with relapsed or refractory (R/R) acute myeloid leukemia (AML ...
Adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes abnormal myeloblasts (a type of white blood cell), red blood cells, or platelets. Childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes a large number of abnormal blood cells.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Meisheng Yu, Jishi Wang, Dan Ma, Shuya Chen, Xiaojing Lin, Qin Fang, Nana Zhe].
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)[edit]. With the defining translocation t(9;22);Philadelphia chromosome ... Myeloid hematological malignancy/leukemia histology (ICD-O 9590-9989, C81-C96, 200-208) ... They are related to, and may evolve into, myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia, although the myeloproliferative ... classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia: Rationale and important changes". Blood. 114 (5): 937-51. doi:10.1182/ ...
Myeloid. *Philadelphia chromosome t(9 ABL; 22 BCR). *Acute myeloblastic leukemia with maturation t(8 RUNX1T1;21 RUNX1) ... research has shown that somatic mutations are increasingly present throughout a lifetime and are responsible for most leukemia ...
Myeloid. *Philadelphia chromosome t(9 ABL; 22 BCR). *Acute myeloblastic leukemia with maturation t(8 RUNX1T1;21 RUNX1) ...
Myeloid. *Philadelphia chromosome t(9 ABL; 22 BCR). *Acute myeloblastic leukemia with maturation t(8 RUNX1T1;21 RUNX1) ... A case-control study on the area found that by 1986, leukemia was occurring in the children of Woburn, Massachusetts at a rate ... In the 1980s, a relatively high prevalence of pediatric leukemia cases in children living near a nuclear processing plant in ... Costas, K.; Knorr, R.S.; Condon, S.K. (2002). "A case-control study of childhood leukemia in Woburn, Massachusetts: the ...
Myeloid. *Philadelphia chromosome t(9 ABL; 22 BCR). *Acute myeloblastic leukemia with maturation t(8 RUNX1T1;21 RUNX1) ...
Myeloid. *Philadelphia chromosome t(9 ABL; 22 BCR). *Acute myeloblastic leukemia with maturation t(8 RUNX1T1;21 RUNX1) ...
Myeloid. *Philadelphia chromosome t(9 ABL; 22 BCR). *Acute myeloblastic leukemia with maturation t(8 RUNX1T1;21 RUNX1) ... "Chromosomes, Leukemias, Solid Tumors, Hereditary Cancers". atlasgeneticsoncology.org. Archived from the original on 28 January ... For a lymphoma or leukemia screening the technique used would be a bone marrow biopsy. ...
Myeloid. *Philadelphia chromosome t(9 ABL; 22 BCR). *Acute myeloblastic leukemia with maturation t(8 RUNX1T1;21 RUNX1) ... Overall, some 2-4% of multiple myeloma cases eventually progress to plasma cell leukemia.[41] ... plasma cell leukemia.[23][41][42] Thus, a fundamental genetic instability in plasma cells or their precursors leads to the ... Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance → smoldering multiple myeloma → multiple myeloma → plasma cell leukemia ...
Myeloid. *Philadelphia chromosome t(9 ABL; 22 BCR). *Acute myeloblastic leukemia with maturation t(8 RUNX1T1;21 RUNX1) ... Hematological malignancy/leukemia histology (ICD-O 9590-9989, C81-C96, 200-208). Lymphoid/Lymphoproliferative, Lymphomas/ ... Musilova, K; Mraz, M (2014). "MicroRNAs in B cell lymphomas: How a complex biology gets more complex". Leukemia. 29: 1004-17. ... and the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 8811 regimen;[14] these can be associated with rituximab.[14][15] In older patients ...
Myeloid. *Philadelphia chromosome t(9 ABL; 22 BCR). *Acute myeloblastic leukemia with maturation t(8 RUNX1T1;21 RUNX1) ...
Acute myeloid leukemia 2006-10-08 Alaska Mental Health Enabling Act 2008-01-16 ...
However, for other cancers such as acute myeloid leukemia, the reduced mortality of the autogenous relative to allogeneic HSCT ... 2005). "Myeloablative allografting for chronic lymphocytic leukemia: evidence for a potent graft-versus-leukemia effect ... 2005). "Myeloablative allografting for chronic lymphocytic leukemia: evidence for a potent graft-versus-leukemia effect ... It is most often performed for patients with certain cancers of the blood or bone marrow, such as multiple myeloma or leukemia. ...
Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). *Alkaptonuria. *Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. *Atransferrinemia. *Autism. * ...
Chronic myeloid leukemiaEdit. Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with the defining translocation t(9;22);Philadelphia chromosome ... They are related to, and may evolve into, myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia, although the myeloproliferative ... classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia: Rationale and important changes". Blood. 114 (5): 937-51. doi:10.1182/ ... All MPNs arise from precursors of the myeloid lineages in the bone marrow. The lymphoid lineage may produce similar diseases, ...
This "one-to-one and first-degree equation" allowed Chronic Myeloid Leukemia to be controlled by imatinib. The defective BCR- ... Sawyers, Charles L. (1999-04-29). "Chronic Myeloid Leukemia". New England Journal of Medicine. 340 (17): 1330-1340. doi:10.1056 ...
Löwenberg B, Downing JR, Burnett A (Sep 30, 1999). "Acute myeloid leukemia". N Engl J Med (Review). 341 (14): 1051-62. doi: ... Gassmann W, Winfried; Löffler H. (1995). "Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia". Leuk. Lymphoma. 18 Suppl 1: Leukemia and Lymphoma. ... Leukemia is a malignancy producing of white blood cells in bone marrow. It can be a serious disease if not treated early. ... These cancers include leukemias, lymphomas, and myelomas. These particular types of cancers can arise as defected mature cell ...
Leukemia (Chronic myeloid). 66.9% A While breast cancer in situ is not a true cancer (lacking the invasive nature of cancer), ... Map of leukemia mortality in black females in the U.S. 1950-94. ...
Experts in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (May 2013). "The price of drugs for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a reflection of the ... "Cancer Stat Facts: Leukemia - Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML)". Cancer.gov. Retrieved 17 April 2020.. ... "Leukemia - Chronic Myeloid - CML: Statistics , Cancer.Net". 26 June 2012. Archived from the original on 12 November 2014.. ... "Value of survival gains in chronic myeloid leukemia". Am J Manag Care. 18 (11 Suppl): S257-64. PMID 23327457. Archived from the ...
Predisposition of acute myeloid leukemia; skeletal abnormalities; radial hypoplasia and vertebral defect and other physical ... leukemia and brain tumors. In the Cowden syndrome there is a mutation on the PTEN gene, causing potential breast, thyroid or ...
... acute myeloid; 601626; FLT3 Leukemia, acute myeloid; 601626; KIT Leukemia, acute myeloid; 601626; LPP Leukemia, acute myeloid; ... JAK2 Leukemia, acute myeloid; 601626; MLF1 Leukemia, acute myeloid; 601626; NSD1 Leukemia, acute myeloid; 601626; SH3GL1 ... Leukemia, acute myeloid; 601626; AF10 Leukemia, acute myeloid; 601626; ARHGEF12 Leukemia, acute myeloid; 601626; CEBPA Leukemia ... acute myeloid; 601626; NUP214 Leukemia, acute myeloid; 601626; PICALM Leukemia, acute myeloid; 601626; RUNX1 Leukemia, acute ...
Chronic myeloid leukemia often presents with a high number of immature granulocytes in the peripheral blood. Abnormal ... Basophilia and eosinophilia can occur along with other white blood cell abnormalities in chronic myeloid leukemia and other ... Emadi, Ashkan; Law, Jennie (2018). "Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML)". Merck Manuals Professional Edition. Archived from the ... occur in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and acute leukemias of monocytic origin. Monocyte counts may be decreased ( ...
... chronic myeloid leukemia (CML); bipolar affective disorder; and other congenital disorders . In particular, the short stature ...
"Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)". Leukemia & Lymphoma Society. 2015-02-26. Retrieved 22 September 2019. "Chronic myelogenous ... For example, ionizing radiation is one cause of chronic myelogenous leukemia, although most people with CML have not been ... leukemia (CML) Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)". Medline Plus Medical Encyclopedia. U.S. National Library of Medicine. ...
... acute myeloid leukemia lub acute myelogenous leukemia, AML lub acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia, ANLL) - grupa chorób ... Age and acute myeloid leukemia: real world data on decision to treat and outcomes from the Swedish Acute Leukemia Registry. „ ... Acute myeloid leukemia in a patient with ataxia-telangiectasia: a case report and review of the literature. „Leukemia". 15 (10 ... Intensive postremission chemotherapy in adults with acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer and Leukemia Group B. „N Engl J Med". 331 ( ...
There have been reports of hairy cell leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and acute myeloblastic leukemia associated with ... Maloisel F, Oberling F (January 1992). "Acute myeloid leukemia complicating sarcoidosis". Journal of the Royal Society of ... Schiller G, Said J, Pal S (October 2003). "Hairy cell leukemia and sarcoidosis: a case report and review of the literature". ... Reich JM (January 1985). "Acute myeloblastic leukemia and sarcoidosis. Implications for pathogenesis". Cancer. 55 (2): 366-9. ...
"Chemotherapy for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia". cancer.org. American Cancer Society. February 22, 2016. Retrieved June 22, 2017. " ... "Chemotherapy for Childhood Leukemia". cancer.org. American Cancer Society. February 3, 2016. Retrieved June 22, 2017. " ... "Chemotherapy for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia". cancer.org. American Cancer Society. February 18, 2016. Retrieved June 22, 2017 ... and is used to treat some leukemias, lymphomas, and childhood cancers, as well as several other types of cancer and some non- ...
Controversy remains today whether this disorder is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndromes; however, ... May 2005). "Acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis: an entity distinct from acute megakaryoblastic leukemia". Mod. Pathol. 18 (5 ...
Recent studies have shown that the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene causes leukemia by rearranging and fusing with other genes ... Garcia-Manero G (November 2008). "Demethylating agents in myeloid malignancies". Current Opinion in Oncology. 20 (6): 705-10. ... Leukemia related genes are managed by the same pathways that control epigenetics, signaling transduction, transcriptional ... Mandal SS (April 2010). "Mixed lineage leukemia: versatile player in epigenetics and human disease". The FEBS Journal. 277 (8 ...
Melo, J. V. (1996). "The molecular biology of chronic myeloid leukaemia". Leukemia. 10 (5): 751-756. PMID 8656667.. ... Myeloid hematological malignancy/leukemia histology (ICD-O 9590-9989, C81-C96, 200-208) ... Chronic myelogenous leukemia. References[edit]. *^ a b c Wapner J. The Philadelphia Chromosome: A Genetic Mystery, a Lethal ... while p210 is generally associated with chronic myeloid leukemia but can also be associated with ALL and AML.[8] p230 is ...
... including acute myeloid leukemia[9] has also been described. References[edit]. *^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... 2007). "MN1 overexpression induces acute myeloid leukemia in mice and predicts ATRA resistance in patients with AML". Blood. ... "Conditional MN1-TEL knock-in mice develop acute myeloid leukemia in conjunction with overexpression of HOXA9". Blood. 106 (13 ... "MN1-TEL myeloid oncoprotein expressed in multipotent progenitors perturbs both myeloid and lymphoid growth and causes T- ...
... is used to treat cancers of the white blood system such as leukemias and lymphomas, including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma ... chronic lymphocytic leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, ...
Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). *Macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP; HLP, HGFLP). *Midkine (NEGF2) ...
In acute myeloid leukemia of infant twins fuses MLL with hCDCrel, a cell division cycle gene in the genomic region of deletion ...
"Studies on Leukemia in Mice: I: The Experimental Transmission of Leukemia". J. Exp. Med. 51: 659-73. doi:10.1084/jem.51.4.659. ... "RNAi screen identifies Brd4 as a therapeutic target in acute myeloid leukaemia". Nature. 478: 524-8. Bibcode:2011Natur.478.. ... In 2011, Christopher Vakoc discovers an important new drug target, BRD4, for a lethal form of Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML); ... E. Carleton MacDowell in 1928 discovered a strain of mouse called C58 that developed spontaneous leukemia - an early mouse ...
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia. *Chronic myeloid leukemia. *Clear-cell sarcoma. *Colorectal cancer. D. *Duodenal cancer ...
Of the various tumors of the blood and lymph, cancers of WBCs can be broadly classified as leukemias and lymphomas, although ... myeloid cells or lymphoid cells). These broadest categories can be further divided into the five main types: neutrophils, ... Blood cell dysfunction - megaloblastic anemia, myelodysplasia, marrow failure, marrow replacement, acute leukemia ... myeloid cells or lymphoid cells). These broadest categories can be further divided into the five main types: neutrophils, ...
Chen W, Rassidakis GZ, Medeiros LJ (2006). «Nucleophosmin gene mutations in acute myeloid leukemia.». Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. ... 2007). «Translocations and mutations involving the nucleophosmin (NPM1) gene in lymphomas and leukemias.». Haematologica. 92 (4 ...
... s for precision oncology are typically utilized in the molecular diagnostics of chronic myeloid leukemia, colon, ...
Leukemia. 8 (4): 652-8. PMID 8152260.. ... Myeloid blood cells and plasma. Hematopoiesis. Myelopoiesis. ( ...
"Up-regulation of WRN and DNA ligase III-alpha in chronic myeloid leukemia: consequences for the repair of DNA double-strand ... "Targeting abnormal DNA double-strand break repair in tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant chronic myeloid leukemias". Oncogene ...
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML or chronic myeloid leukaemia) is a disease where the blood cells proliferate out of control. ... This generally reflects early or premature release of myeloid cells from the bone marrow, the site where neutrophils are ...
Kampen, Kim R. (2012). "The discovery and early understanding of leukemia". Leukemia Research. 36 (1): 6-13. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Myeloid-derived suppressor cells: linking inflammation and cancer". The Journal of Immunology. 182 (8): 4499-4506. doi:10.4049 ... Virchow was the first to describe and christen diseases such as leukemia, chordoma, ochronosis, embolism, and thrombosis. He ... Virchow correctly identified the condition as a blood disease, and named it leukämie in 1847 (later anglicised to leukemia).[34 ...
... such as leukemia). It also differs between species. Orthologues of the 4 loci have been mapped in various species.[3][4] Each ... FcR interaction for myeloid leukocytes, and Ag-Ig-CD79 interaction for B cells. ...
Some of these indications include acute myeloid leukemia, follicular lymphoma, MALT lymphoma, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, ... They have also been shown to cause dose dependent G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in leukemia cell lines where the analogs showed 100 ... Orphan indications include diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and mantle cell lymphoma. Lenalidomide ... Leukemia. 24 (1): 22-32. doi:10.1038/leu.2009.236. PMC 3922408 . PMID 19907437. Thomas, Sheeba K.; Richards, Tiffany A.; Weber ...
... adult chronic myeloid leukemia, and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (the most common childhood cancer). ... Leukemia is a cancer of cells in the blood, and primarily affects the bone marrow where they are made. For most human leukemias ... Chronic myelogenous leukemia[edit]. Target: t(9;22) BCR-ABL Uses: MRD detection of the t(9;22) is considered standard of care ... Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)[edit]. Targets: t(15;17) PML-RARA, t(8;21) AML1-RUNX1T1 (AML-ETO), inv(16) ...
Przespolewski, A; Wang, ES (July 2016). "Inhibitors of LSD1 as a potential therapy for acute myeloid leukemia". Expert Opinion ...
The development of molecularly-targeted treatments for chronic myeloid leukemia, converting a fatal cancer into a manageable ...
... a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor for chronic myeloid leukemia". Leukemia Research. 34 (2): 129-134. doi:10.1016/j. ... "FDA Approves Tasigna for Treatment of Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Chronic Myeloid Leukemia". U.S. Food and Drug ... "Nilotinib for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia: An evidence-based review". Core Evidence. 4: 207-213. doi:10.2147/CE. ... Nilotinib, sold under the brand name Tasigna, is a medication used to treat chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) which has the ...
Often, leukemia may be suspected on the basis of low platelets and infections, and bone marrow biopsy may be performed. ... "Retroviral WASP gene transfer into human hematopoietic stem cells reconstitutes the actin cytoskeleton in myeloid progeny cells ... The majority of children with WAS develop at least one autoimmune disorder, and cancers (mainly lymphoma and leukemia) develop ...
"The Impact of FLT3 Mutations on the Development of Acute Myeloid Leukemias". Hindawi.com. Retrieved 2014-04-08. Xu, F; Taki, T ... Takahashi, S (2011-04-01). "Downstream molecular pathways of FLT3 in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia: biology and ... "Genomic and Epigenomic Landscapes of Adult De Novo Acute Myeloid Leukemia". New England Journal of Medicine. 368 (22): 2059- ... including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), and glioma. Crenolanib is an orally bioavailable ...
Infectious mononucleosis, acute myeloid leukemia, lymphoblastic lymphoma, aplastic anemia[3]. Treatment. Chemotherapy, stem ... Acute leukemias of ambiguous lineage *Acute undifferentiated leukemia. *Mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) with t(9;22)( ... a b c Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia at eMedicine *^ Bleyer WA (August 1988). "Central nervous system leukemia". Pediatric ... The management of leukemia in a pregnant person depends primarily on the type of leukemia. Acute leukemias normally require ...
... combining it with imatinib for treating chronic myeloid leukemia.[43][44] Zyleuton and zileuton CR cause elevations in liver ... Hu Y, Li S (2016). "Survival regulation of leukemia stem cells". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 73 (5): 1039-50. doi: ... peptide-leukotrienes have been shown to promote the growth of cultured human breast cancer and chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...
... or chronic megakaryocytic leukemia? Further thoughts on the nosology of the clonal myeloid disorders". Leukemia. 19 (7): 1139- ... The disease was also known as myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia and agnogenic myeloid metaplasia[36] The World Health ... Primary myelofibrosis can begin with a blood picture similar to that found in polycythemia vera or chronic myeloid leukemia. ... "Leukemia. 24 (6): 1128-1138. doi:10.1038/leu.2010.69. ISSN 0887-6924. PMC 3035972. PMID 20428194.. ...
The most common secondary neoplasm is secondary acute myeloid leukemia, which develops primarily after treatment with ... The drug was approved to treat acute myeloid leukemia, but has now been withdrawn from the market because the drug did not meet ... The overall effectiveness ranges from being curative for some cancers, such as some leukemias,[9][10] to being ineffective, ... In particularly large tumors and cancers with high white cell counts, such as lymphomas, teratomas, and some leukemias, some ...
Hematological malignancy/leukemia histology (ICD-O 9590-9989, C81-C96, 200-208). Lymphoid/Lymphoproliferative, Lymphomas/ ... myeloid. *Acute biphenotypic leukaemia. Lymphocytosis. *Lymphoproliferative disorders (X-linked lymphoproliferative disease. * ...
2001). „Mutation analysis of the origin recognition complex subunit 5 (ORC5L) gene in adult patients with myeloid leukemias ... 1998). „ORC5L, a new member of the human origin recognition complex, is deleted in uterine leiomyomas and malignant myeloid ...
If you are facing chronic myeloid leukemia, we can help you learn about the treatment options and possible side effects, and ... Treatment options for people with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) depend on the phase of their disease (chronic, accelerated, or ... If youve been diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), your treatment team will discuss your options with you. Its ... Targeted therapy drugs are the main treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but some patients might also need other ...
... acute myelogenous leukemia, acute granulocytic leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, or sometimes just AML. It is most ... Acute myeloid leukemia is also called acute myelocytic leukemia, ... Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). Acute myeloid leukemia is also ... About Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). Get an overview of acute myeloid leukemia and the latest key statistics in the US. ... Treating Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). If you are facing acute myeloid leukemia, we can help you learn about the treatment ...
Chronic myeloid leukemia is a slow-growing cancer of the blood-forming tissue (bone marrow). Normal bone marrow produces red ... medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/chronic-myeloid-leukemia/ Chronic myeloid leukemia. ... Chronic myeloid leukemia is a slow-growing cancer of the blood-forming tissue (bone marrow). Normal bone marrow. produces red ... Chronic myeloid leukemia occurs in about 1 in 555 individuals. It accounts for about 10 percent of all blood cell cancers ( ...
... is a quickly-forming type of the disease that may appear suddenly and cause symptoms such as fever, ... www.healthcentral.com/article/what-is-acute-myeloid-leukemia. LeukemiaLiving With. What Is Acute Myeloid Leukemia?. Elizabeth ... Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which involves a particular kind of white blood cell known as a myelocyte, comprises 32 percent ... Leukemia is a cancer in which many of the white blood cells produced in the bone marrow develop abnormally, and are unable to ...
Activating mutations in the FLT3 receptor can be detected in approximately 30 percent of acute myeloid leukemias and are ... Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is one of the most commonly mutated genes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). ... Table 1. Fms-like Tyrosine Kinase 3 Inhibitors Currently Being Studied in the Treatment of Leukemia Compound. Company. Trade ... Richard M. Stone, Adult Leukemia Program, Department of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ...
LEUKEMIA, ACUTE MYELOID; AML, Acute non lymphoblastic leukemia, myeloid leukemia, acute, LEUKEMIA, ACUTE MYELOID, ANLL, ... Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Leukemia, Acute Myeloid, Susceptibility to, Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), Leukemia, Acute Myelogenous, ... acute Myeloid Leukemia, Leukemia, Myelocytic, acute, acute myeloblastic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, Acute myelogenous ... acute myeloid leukemia myeloid leukemia that is characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal white blood cells that accumulate ...
... in 1889 to differentiate rapidly progressive and fatal leukemias from the more indolent chronic leukemias. The term myeloid ... Further advances in the understanding of acute myeloid leukemia occurred rapidly with the development of new technology. ... Pairing immunotherapy drug with chemotherapy proves beneficial for relapsed acute myeloid leukemia ... The term leukemia was coined by Rudolf Virchow, the renowned German pathologist, in 1856. As a pioneer in the use of the ...
The symptoms of Acute myeloid leukemia are usually slow in onset but may rapidly become severe as the number of immature white ... Acute Myeloid Leukemia Symptoms. News-Medical. 14 August 2020. ,https://www.news-medical.net/health/Acute-Myeloid-Leukemia- ... Acute Myeloid Leukemia Symptoms. News-Medical. https://www.news-medical.net/health/Acute-Myeloid-Leukemia-Symptoms.aspx. ( ... The symptoms of Acute myeloid leukemia are usually slow in onset but may rapidly become severe as the number of immature white ...
... is an aggressive cancer of the blood and bone marrow and is responsible for the largest number of leukemia deaths annually. ... Leukemia - Acute Myeloid - AML: Treatment Options. http://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/leukemia-acute-myeloid-aml/treatment-... ... Understanding acute myeloid leukemia (AML). AML is an aggressive cancer of the blood and bone marrow.1 AML prevents white blood ... Gene mutations and molecularly targeted therapies in acute myeloid leukemia: American Journal of Blood Research. 2013;3(1):29- ...
Among kids with leukemia, 20% have this type. With treatment, most recover. ... Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) happens when the body makes too many immature white blood cells. ... What Is Acute Myeloid Leukemia?. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) happens when the body makes too many immature white blood cells. ... What Causes Acute Myeloid Leukemia?. The cause of acute myeloid leukemia is unknown. Some medical conditions can increase a ...
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is cancer that starts inside bone marrow. This is the soft tissue in the center of bones that ... Acute myelogenous leukemia; AML; Acute granulocytic leukemia; Acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL); Leukemia - acute myeloid ( ... Adult acute myeloid leukemia treatment (PDQ) - health professional version. www.cancer.gov/types/leukemia/hp/adult-aml- ... Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is cancer that starts inside bone marrow. This is the soft tissue in the center of bones that ...
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder resulting from an acquired genetic aberration t(9;22)( ... Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patient Blast Crisis Blastic Phase Breakpoint Cluster Region These keywords ... P190BCR-ABL chronic myeloid leukemia: the missing link with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia? Leukemia 8:208-211PubMedGoogle ... Melo JV (1996a) The molecular biology of chronic myeloid leukemia. Leukemia 10:751-756PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Doctors also classify leukemias as lymphocytic or myeloid. CML is a myeloid leukemia. The classification depends on the bone ... Lymphocytic leukemias develop in the cells that turn into lymphocytes, whereas myeloid leukemias start in early myeloid cells. ... Chronic myeloid leukemia, or chronic myelogenous leukemia, is a type of cancer. It affects parts of the bone marrow that form ... Who gets chronic myeloid leukemia?. For many individuals, there are no obvious reasons why they develop CML. People cannot be ...
In a new study, researchers found that acute myeloid leukemia (AML) triggers blood vessel leakage in bone marrow, which ... acute myeloid leukemia.. Researchers may have found a way to improve treatment outcomes for patients with AML. ... is key to treating acute myeloid leukemia, an aggressive form of blood cancer, researchers have discovered. Read now ... A proof-of-concept study shows how a new compound selectively triggers cell suicide in acute myeloid leukemia cells without ...
acute myeloid leukemia (aml) pushes your bone marrow to make large numbers of abnormal blood cells. several aml treatments can ... "Other Drugs for Acute Myeloid Leukemia," "Radiation Therapy for Acute Myeloid Leukemia," "Stem Cell Transplant for Myeloid ... "Other Drugs for Acute Myeloid Leukemia," "Radiation Therapy for Acute Myeloid Leukemia," "Stem Cell Transplant for Myeloid ... What treatments work on acute myeloid leukemia (AML)?. ANSWER Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) pushes your bone marrow to make ...
Key Data Elements in Myeloid Leukemia.. Varghese J1, Holz C1, Neuhaus P1, Bernardi M2, Boehm A3, Ganser A4, Gore S5, Heaney M6 ... This work focusses on the field of myeloid leukemia (ML), where a semantic core of common data elements (CDEs) in routine and ... These CDEs (n = 227) were initially reviewed and commented by leukemia experts before they were systematically surveyed by an ...
... are considered to be effective treatment options for those with chronic myeloid leukemia. ... What is chronic myeloid leukemia?. Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a type of cancer that affects the bone marrow. It starts ... Managing Chronic Myeloid Leukemia with Medication. Medically reviewed by Helen Chen, MPH on January 24, 2017. - Written by ... If youve been diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukemia, its important to find a doctor who specializes in treating this type ...
In vivo, Ven-PegC showed potent reduction of leukemia burden and improved survival, compared with each agent alone, in a ... Since this novel mechanistically-rationalized regimen combines two drugs already in use in acute leukemia treatment, we plan a ... Complex karyotype acute myeloid leukemia (CK-AML) has a dismal outcome with current treatments, underscoring the need for new ... Acute myeloid leukemia. Venetoclax and pegcrisantaspase for complex karyotype acute myeloid leukemia. *Ashkan Emadi. ORCID: ...
... myeloid leukemia: a study of 35 cases. Leukemia 9(12): 1990-1996, 1995. * Zipursky A, Poon A, Doyle J: Leukemia in Down ... Acute promyelocytic leukemia. RECURRENT CHILDHOOD ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA GENERAL INFORMATION. This treatment information ... RECURRENT CHILDHOOD ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA. Despite second remission induction in about one half of children with acute myeloid ... UNTREATED CHILDHOOD ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA. The general principles of therapy for children and adolescents with acute myeloid ...
... for the treatment of adults with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia whose tumors express the CD33 antigen (CD33-positive ... for the treatment of adults with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia whose tumors express the CD33 antigen (CD33-positive ...
Treating acute myeloid leukemia takes a team of qualified health professionals. Learn about oncologists, radiologists, ... As you go through treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), youll have a team of health pros on your side. Some are ...
Chronic myeloid leukemia: mechanisms of blastic transformation.. Perrotti D1, Jamieson C, Goldman J, Skorski T. ... The BCR-ABL1 oncoprotein transforms pluripotent HSCs and initiates chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Patients with early phase ( ... In most patients, TKIs reduce the leukemia cell load substantially, but the cells from which the leukemia cells are derived ... BCR-ABL1-positive leukemia cells accumulate more DNA lesions, such as 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxoG), and DNA ...
NCCN Guidelines for Patients® , Chronic Myeloid Leukemia. 49 NCCN Guidelines for Patients ® : Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, 2018 ... acute myeloid leukemia (AML) A fast-growing cancer that causes too many immature white blood cells called myeloblasts to be ... chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) A slow-growing cancer that starts in the bone marrow and causes too many granulocytes to ... acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) A fast-growing cancer that causes too many immature white blood cells called lymphoblasts to ...
NCCN Guidelines for Patients® , Chronic Myeloid Leukemia. 12 NCCN Guidelines for Patients ® : Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, 2018 1 ... They often act like acute leukemia. Acute leukemia worsens very fast. Types of acute leukemia are AML ( a cute m yeloid l ...
... with a specific focus on lymphomas and leukemias. ... Acute Myeloid Leukemia Presenting as Acute Appendicitis. Sherri ... Peripheral smear, bone marrow biopsy, and surgical pathology of the appendix demonstrated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with ... While appendectomy is the treatment of choice for these patients, diagnosis and management of leukemia have a greater impact on ...
General treatment approach for acute myeloid leukemia Fit patients (< 60-65 years, select patients up to age 75 y) receive ... Treatment protocols for acute myeloid leukemia are provided below, including a general treatment approach and treatment ... Intensive postremission chemotherapy in adults with acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer and Leukemia Group B. N Engl J Med. 1994 Oct ... Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment Protocols Updated: Oct 12, 2017 * Author: Karen Seiter, MD; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD ...
Discover the factors that can influence a persons acute myeloid leukemia survival rate, such as their age or AML type. Also ... Acute myeloid leukemia, or AML, is a type of cancer that affects the bone marrow and blood. Learn about outlook and survival ... What is acute myeloid leukemia (AML)?. Acute myeloid leukemia, or AML, is a type of cancer that affects the bone marrow and ... More in Facing Acute Myeloid Leukemia. *. Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment Options: What to Ask Your Doctor ...
S. Weissmann, T. Alpermann, V. Grossmann et al., "Landscape of TET2 mutations in acute myeloid Leukemia," Leukemia, vol. 26, pp ... M. H. Saied, J. Marzec, S. Khalid et al., "Genome wide analysis of acute myeloid Leukemia reveal Leukemia specific methylome ... genetic alterations in acute myeloid Leukemia and confer adverse prognosis in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid Leukemia ... at diagnosis may induce FLT3-ITD at relapse in de novo acute myeloid Leukemia," Leukemia, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1044-1052, 2012. ...
... - The FDA approval of VENCLEXTA for newly- ... A Phase III Study of Venetoclax Plus Low-Dose Cytarabine in Previously Untreated Older Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia ( ... 11 Pettit K, Odenike O. Defining and treating older adults with acute myeloid leukemia who are ineligible for intensive ... 3 American Cancer Society (2019). Typical Treatment of Most Types of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (Except Acute Promyelocytic M3). ...
Acute myeloid leukemia. PTPN11 mutations are associated with poor outcomes across myeloid malignancies. *David M. Swoboda. ... The Clinical impact of PTPN11 mutations in adults with acute myeloid leukemia *Mansour Alfayez ... TP53 mutations in newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia: Clinicomolecular characteristics, response to therapy, and outcomes. ... Swoboda, D.M., Ali, N.A., Chan, O. et al. PTPN11 mutations are associated with poor outcomes across myeloid malignancies. ...
  • If you have chronic myeloid leukemia, tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy usually increases your chances of remission. (healthline.com)
  • Between 75% and 85% of children with AML (also called acute myelogenous leukemia, acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, or ANLL) can achieve a complete remission following appropriate induction chemotherapy. (meds.com)
  • Children with AML who have a white blood cell count (WBC) greater than 100,000 per cubic milliliter, secondary AML, and leukemic cells with a monosomy 7 karyotype have low remission induction rates, whereas children with leukemia cell chromosomal abnormalities t(8;21) and inv 16 have a high likelihood of achieving remission. (meds.com)
  • While appendectomy is the treatment of choice for these patients, diagnosis and management of leukemia have a greater impact on remission and survival. (hindawi.com)
  • Around 90 percent of people with an AML type known as acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) will go into remission after "induction" (first round) of chemo. (healthline.com)
  • In addition, patients who received Rydapt in combination with chemotherapy in the trial went longer (median 8.2 months) without certain complications (failure to achieve complete remission within 60 days of starting treatment, progression of leukemia or death) than patients who received chemotherapy alone (median three months). (fda.gov)
  • Remission means there are no longer any signs of leukemia. (drugs.com)
  • The goal of this phase it to kill any hidden leukemia cells and help you stay in remission. (drugs.com)
  • You're considered a leukemia survivor if you've completed treatment and are in remission. (everydayhealth.com)
  • In preliminary trial, 4 out of 9 people with acute myeloid leukemia had complete remission. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Molecular remission at the end of treatment is a necessary goal for a good outcome in ELN favorable-risk acute myeloid leukemia: a real-life analysis on 201 patients by the Rete Ematologica Lombarda network. (medindia.net)
  • Reduced Relapse Incidence with FLAMSA-RIC conditioning compared to Busulfan/Fludarabine for AML-patients in first or second complete remission - A Study from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the EBMT. (medindia.net)
  • In addition, we discuss how DC-based immunotherapy may be successfully integrated into current treatment strategies to promote remission and potentially cure myeloid leukemias. (frontiersin.org)
  • The introduction of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), pioneered a new approach to obtain remission in malignancies by restoring the terminal maturation of leukemia cells [4] . (plos.org)
  • Brincker, H. (1985) Estimate of overall treatment results in acute nonlymphocytic leukemia based on age-specific rates of incidence and of complete remission. (scirp.org)
  • The goals of induction therapy are to put your leukemia in remission and ensure you are healthy enough to go on to the next phase, consolidation therapy. (seattlecca.org)
  • HLA-mismatched microtransplant offers good complete remission rates in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia, according to a new study. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Other risk factors include previous chemotherapy or radiation treatments, history of childhood leukemia, previous diagnosis of a blood disorder, and potential exposure to certain chemicals like benzene. (healthcentral.com)
  • Doctors usually treat children who have acute myeloid leukemia with chemotherapy . (kidshealth.org)
  • Scientists may have identified a way to boost the effect of chemotherapy against one of the most common forms of leukemia in adults: acute myeloid leukemia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The team speculates that NO relaxed blood vessels in the bone marrow of the AML mice, enabling blood to leak through the normally tightly packed cells in the blood vessel walls, and allowing leukemia cells to evade chemotherapy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • When the vessels are leaky, bone marrow blood flow becomes irregular and leukemia cells can easily find places to hide and escape chemotherapy drugs," explains Passaro. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This not only prevented blood vessel leakage in bone marrow and restored normal blood flow, but it also allowed chemotherapy drugs to reach leukemia cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • American Cancer Society: "Chemotherapy for Acute Myeloid Leukemia," "Other Drugs for Acute Myeloid Leukemia," "Radiation Therapy for Acute Myeloid Leukemia," "Stem Cell Transplant for Myeloid Leukemia," "Typical Treatment of Most Types of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (Except Acute Promyelocytic M3). (webmd.com)
  • How can chemotherapy help with treating acute myeloid leukemia (AML)? (webmd.com)
  • ABBV ) today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has provided full approval to VENCLEXTA® (venetoclax) in combination with azacitidine, or decitabine, or low-dose cytarabine (LDAC) for the treatment of newly-diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in adults who are age 75 years or older, or who have comorbidities that preclude the use of intensive induction chemotherapy. (prnewswire.com)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Rydapt (midostaurin) for the treatment of adult patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who have a specific genetic mutation called FLT3, in combination with chemotherapy. (fda.gov)
  • ATLANTA - Treatment with the FLT3-targeted therapeutic gilteritinib (Xospata) improved survival for patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harboring a FLT3 mutation compared with standard chemotherapy regimens, according to results from the ADMIRAL phase III clinical trial presented at the AACR Annual Meeting 2019 , March 29-April 3. (aacr.org)
  • Treatment options for adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplant, and other medications. (oncolink.org)
  • Woo was enrolled in a clinical trial developed from a pediatric leukemia treatment, and he immediately began chemotherapy. (mdanderson.org)
  • He's researching ways to make chemotherapy more effective in children with high-risk leukemias. (stbaldricks.org)
  • This video highlights a phase II trial that tested the addition of nivolumab to combination induction chemotherapy of cytarabine and idarubicin for patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Older patients with acute myeloid leukemia had substantial misperceptions regarding the risks of their treatment, whether intensive or palliative chemotherapy, and the likelihood of cure. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Other chemotherapy agents, specifically epipodophyllotoxins and anthracyclines, have also been associated with treatment-related leukemias, which are often associated with specific chromosomal abnormalities in the leukemic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intensive postremission chemotherapy in adults with acute myeloid leukemia. (medscape.com)
  • 2 of 2 NCCN QUICK GUIDE tm Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, 2018 PAT-N-1019-1017 What are the treament options for accelerated CML? (nccn.org)
  • 49 NCCN Guidelines for Patients ® : Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, 2018 Dictionary Dictionary accelerated phase The second phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia progression, when the number of blast cells is increased. (nccn.org)
  • 2018. "Novel Agents for Acute Myeloid Leukemia. (mdpi.com)
  • Both ITD and TKD mutated sequences, however, transform the myeloid progenitor cell line 32D, suggesting that FLT3 mutations confer ligand-independent proproliferation signaling. (medscape.com)
  • [ 49 ] Finally, in a large study by the German-Austrian AML group that evaluated the association of different mutations with treatment outcomes and their role in guiding postremission therapy in patients with AML, the Flt3-ITD-positive leukemias were identified as the subtype that had a clear benefit of a consolidative transplant, indicating the importance of this genotype as a prognostic and predictive marker. (medscape.com)
  • Gene mutations and molecularly targeted therapies in acute myeloid leukemia: American Journal of Blood Research. (novartis.com)
  • Subtypes are based on specific changes in genes (mutations) and how the leukemia cells appear under the microscope. (medlineplus.gov)
  • TP53 mutations in newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia: Clinicomolecular characteristics, response to therapy, and outcomes. (nature.com)
  • PTPN11 mutations confer unique metabolic properties and increase resistance to venetoclax and azacitidine in acute myelogenous leukemia. (nature.com)
  • Targeted Drug Approved for Acute Myeloid Leukemia with IDH1 Gene Mutations was originally published by the National Cancer Institute. (cancer.gov)
  • Researchers have uncovered how mutations in a protein network drive several high-risk leukemias, offering new prospects for novel therapies. (eurekalert.org)
  • Based on studies in animals and in primary human leukemia cells, Tong and colleagues now report that mutations in either of two proteins, CBL and LNK/SH2B3, form a complex with JAK2 to disrupt JAK2 regulation and cause leukemia. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our studies in cells from leukemia patients strongly suggest that patients with mutations in any of the three proteins could benefit from ruxolitinib. (eurekalert.org)
  • In addition to the potential benefits of ruxolitinib, Tong said, the team's findings may lead researchers to develop novel leukemia drugs aimed at mutations in any of the three proteins in a precision medicine approach. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers have discovered mutations in a particular gene that affects the treatment prognosis for some patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), an aggressive blood cancer that kills 9,000 Americans annually. (nih.gov)
  • Their report poses interesting questions about whether common mutations in myeloid leukemias fit the usual categorization when found in the clinical context of a genetic syndrome, as well as whether a potential germline predisposition should be considered in patients with a previously unassociated congenital syndrome. (lww.com)
  • The most frequent subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is defined by mutations in the nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) gene. (jci.org)
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which is thought to require cooperation between pro-proliferative mutations and defects in myeloid differentiation, is the most common malignant myeloid disorder of progenitor cells in myeloid hematopoiesis [1] . (plos.org)
  • Analysis of FLT3-activating mutations in 979 patients with acute myelogenous leukemia: association with FAB subtypes and identification of subgroups with poor prognosis. (medscape.com)
  • CEBPA mutations in younger adults with acute myeloid leukemia and normal cytogenetics: prognostic relevance and analysis of cooperating mutations. (medscape.com)
  • Retrieved on August 14, 2020 from https://www.news-medical.net/health/Acute-Myeloid-Leukemia-Symptoms.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • Leukemia (2020). (nature.com)
  • PALM BEACH, Fla., Dec. 3, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a rare and heterogeneous blood cancer with a poor overall prognosis. (prnewswire.com)
  • AML is the most common form of acute leukemia in adults and is also responsible for the largest number of leukemia annual deaths. (novartis.com)
  • AML is one of the most common types of leukemia among adults. (medlineplus.gov)
  • UpToDate: "Patient education: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treatment in adults (Beyond the Basics). (webmd.com)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Mylotarg (gemtuzumab ozogamicin) for the treatment of adults with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia whose tumors express the CD33 antigen (CD33-positive AML). (fda.gov)
  • AML is the second most common leukemia type in adults. (healthline.com)
  • Rydapt was also approved today for adults with certain types of rare blood disorders (aggressive systemic mastocytosis, systemic mastocytosis with associated hematological neoplasm or mast cell leukemia). (fda.gov)
  • Among patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), treatment regimens and outcomes may differ among younger and older adults. (uptodate.com)
  • See 'Pretreatment evaluation and prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia in older adults' . (uptodate.com)
  • On July 20, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved ivosidenib (Tibsovo) for the treatment of adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that has a specific mutation in a gene called IDH1 . (cancer.gov)
  • It affects predominantly older adults with a median age at diagnosis of 66 years but also includes about 15% of children from birth to 19 years of age diagnosed with leukemia have acute myeloid leukemia. (prnewswire.com)
  • We conducted a retrospective analysis of 968 adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) on 5 recent Southwest Oncology Group trials to understand how the nature of AML changes with age. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is a predominant acute leukemia among adults, characterized by accumulation of malignantly transformed immature myeloid precursors. (mdpi.com)
  • Acute myeloid Leukemia, more popularly known by its abbreviated form - AML , is a fast- evolving leukemia that affects both children and adults alike. (medindia.net)
  • AML is the most common acute leukemia affecting adults, and its incidence increases with age. (phys.org)
  • The Beat AML Master Clinical Trial , led by the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society , will test multiple targeted therapies for patients with AML, one of the most deadly forms of blood cancer and the most commonly diagnosed form of leukemia in adults. (upmc.com)
  • A team of international scientists led by principal investigator Dr. Tak Mak at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, has identified a causative link between the product of a mutated metabolic enzyme and the onset of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), one of the most common types of leukemia in adults. (innovations-report.com)
  • Next-generation sequencing could be a powerful and independent predictor for relapse and survival among adults with acute myeloid leukemia. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Health Organization classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia. (springer.com)
  • Today, the prognosis for many patients with leukemia , myeloid disorders (including myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs)), or bone marrow failure conditions (such as aplastic anemia, large granular lymphocytic leukemia (LGL), or paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)) is very good. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Hematopathology has always been at the leading edge of the oncoming revolution in molecular diagnostics, and this is particularly true with regard to myeloid neoplasms, wherein molecular characteristics are invaluable in both categorization and prognostication. (lww.com)
  • Next, Nageshwar et al continue the discussion of myeloid neoplasms with a genetic predisposition, with a description of a young patient with an initial presentation suspicious for this condition, followed by transformation to chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and then acute myeloid leukemia. (lww.com)
  • Conceptually, these neoplasms can be divided into four different subsets (myeloid, lymphoid, mixed myelo-lymphoid, and histiocytic/dendritic neoplasms, see Figure 1 ) ( 5 , 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Myeloid neoplasms can be further grouped into acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic myeloid disorders depending on the percentage of bone marrow (BM) infiltration by immature blasts. (frontiersin.org)
  • Patient Experiences of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML): A Qualitative Study about Diagnosis, Illness Understanding, and Treatment Decision-Making. (novartis.com)
  • This treatment information summary on childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an overview of prognosis, diagnosis, classification, and treatment. (meds.com)
  • Ebb DH, Weinstein HJ: Diagnosis and treatment of childhood acute myelogenous leukemia. (meds.com)
  • The diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been transformed over the past 15 years from a disease defined, classed, and staged based on histologic characteristics alone to a disease classified largely based on genetic, genomic, and molecular characteristics. (medscape.com)
  • [ 3 ] For example, the finding of a translocation between chromosomes 15 and 17, or t(15;17), is associated with a diagnosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), a subtype of AML that is treated and monitored differently than other subtypes. (medscape.com)
  • Cleveland Clinic's Leukemia and Myeloid Disorders Program offers the highest-quality care for diagnosis and treatment of leukemia and myeloid disorders. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Our Leukemia and Myeloid Disorders Program offers specialized testing to uncover the genetics of each diagnosis and tailor treatments specifically to you. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Diagnosed with acute promyelocytic leukemia in April 2016, Emily has kept a sunny attitude, despite a devastating diagnosis and a risky treatment plan. (stbaldricks.org)
  • When looking for the right place to treat you for a diagnosis of leukemia, you want to know that you will be in highly skilled - and compassionate - hands. (dana-farber.org)
  • You are not alone-The CancerConnect Leukemia Community is the leading Social Media Application for Leukemia patients and caregivers seeking information, inspiration, and support in the wake of a cancer diagnosis. (cancerconnect.com)
  • Leukemia is a type of cancer that affects the body's white blood cells (WBCs). (kidshealth.org)
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia is a slow-growing cancer of the blood-forming tissue (bone marrow). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Leukemia is a cancer in which many of the white blood cells produced in the bone marrow develop abnormally, and are unable to perform their task of fighting infection. (healthcentral.com)
  • Doctors carefully look at the cancer cells and figure out the type and subtype of the leukemia. (kidshealth.org)
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is cancer that starts inside bone marrow. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia, or chronic myelogenous leukemia, is a type of cancer. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • CML is a type of cancer that starts in blood-forming cells of the bone marrow, called myeloid cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • AML is a form of cancer that can begin in myeloid cells, which are immature forms of white blood cells (except lymphocytes), red blood cells, or platelets. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • National Cancer Institute: "Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ) - Patient Version. (webmd.com)
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a type of cancer that affects the bone marrow. (healthline.com)
  • Pretreatment cytogenetic abnormalities are predictive of induction success, cumulative incidence of relapse, and overall survival in adult patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia: results from Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB 8461). (nature.com)
  • Relapse and survival after transplantation for complex karyotype acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation and the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. (nature.com)
  • acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) A fast-growing cancer that causes too many immature white blood cells called lymphoblasts to be made. (nccn.org)
  • chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) A slow-growing cancer that starts in the bone marrow and causes too many granulocytes to form. (nccn.org)
  • Acute myeloid leukemia , or AML, is a type of cancer that affects the bone marrow and blood. (healthline.com)
  • Late last week, FDA approved a new drug to treat acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the first treatment for Batten disease, and expanded the use of a current drug to treat liver cancer. (modernmedicine.com)
  • The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society (LLS) is the world's largest voluntary health agency dedicated to blood cancer. (lls.org)
  • 1 Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. (nih.gov)
  • This is Cancer.Net's Guide to Leukemia - Chronic Myeloid - CML. (cancer.net)
  • This is Cancer.Net's Guide to Leukemia - Acute Myeloid - AML. (cancer.net)
  • This type of leukemia affects 20% of kids with this cancer of the blood cells. (rchsd.org)
  • By analyzing the properties of the cancer cells, doctors can determine the type of leukemia a child has. (rchsd.org)
  • In chronic myeloid leukemia, the hyperactive Abl-kinase is targeted with drugs that bind to a specific part of the enzyme and block it, aiming to ultimately kill the fast-growing cancer cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), also called acute myelogenous leukemia or acute myelocytic leukemia, is a cancer of the white blood cells. (bidmc.org)
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia is a blood cancer where there are too many of a specific type of white blood cell called a granulocyte. (patientslikeme.com)
  • Acute Myeloid Leukemia is an extremely difficult cancer to treat but recently a better understanding of this stubborn disease and advancements in treating it have brought more hope and a renewed feeling of optimism to the Acute Myeloid Leukemia community. (cancersupportcommunity.org)
  • Such testing is widely used to guide treatment of the most common childhood cancer, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). (eurekalert.org)
  • Leukemia stem cells - the progenitors for the immature, cancerous blood cells - propagate AML, and also play a role in the cancer returning after treatment. (scienceblog.com)
  • The unique drug susceptibility patterns observed in leukemia stem cells and blast cells are leading the scientists to hope that patient-specific approaches could be developed against acute myeloid leukemia, with the goal of improving the outcomes for people with this form of blood cancer. (scienceblog.com)
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is cancer that starts inside bone marrow, the soft tissue inside bones that helps form blood cells. (drugs.com)
  • Although leukemia is the most common type of cancer among children, overall, it's a rare disease. (everydayhealth.com)
  • This PDQ cancer information summary has current information about the treatment of adult acute myeloid leukemia. (oncolink.org)
  • Adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes abnormal myeloblasts (a type of white blood cell), red blood cells, or platelets. (oncolink.org)
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a blood cancer. (cancersupportcommunity.org)
  • Two studies from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) program reveal details about the genomic landscapes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and endometrial cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • 13 MiR-29 family members have been shown to be down-regulated in high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), lung cancer, invasive breast cancer, and cholangiocarcinoma. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Leukemia is a cancer that begins in the inner part of the bone marrow and moves quickly into the blood from where it spreads to other parts such as the spleen, lymph nodes, liver, central nervous system and to the other organs of the body. (medindia.net)
  • JORGE CORTES is Deputy Chair, Department of Leukemia, and Professor of Medicine, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. (foyles.co.uk)
  • Dr. Cortes is the recipient of a variety of awards including the Merit Award (1995) from American Society of Clinical Oncology, the Upjohn Outstanding Research Award (1995) from M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, and was recently a Clinical Research Scholar for the Leukemia Lymphoma Society. (foyles.co.uk)
  • Carnosic acid regulates cell proliferation and invasion in chronic myeloid leukemia cancer cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Curcumin has anti-cancer activity against drug-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • PITTSBURGH - UPMC Hillman Cancer Center is the only cancer center in Pennsylvania and one of just 15 nationwide to offer a groundbreaking collaborative clinical trial for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). (upmc.com)
  • The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society and its collaborators recently presented the first data from this trial at a major cancer conference, the 60th American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting. (upmc.com)
  • The Beat AML trial at UPMC Hillman Cancer Center will be led by Michael Boyiadzis, M.D. , co-director of the acute leukemia program at UPMC Hillman Cancer Center. (upmc.com)
  • The Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center (DF/BWCC) Adult Leukemia Program 's team of specialists has extensive experience caring for patients with AML and are world leaders in advancing the treatment of leukemia. (dana-farber.org)
  • Our Leukemia Program offers you access to an experienced team of cancer experts, many of them recognized as national leaders in their field, who concentrate exclusively on patients with leukemia and related blood disorders. (dana-farber.org)
  • This work demonstrates the critical role N-Myc plays in Acute Myeloid Leukemia and maps out the cooperation with other genes that blunt N-Myc's apoptotic effects, thereby tipping the delicate balance between cell death and cancer," Grosveld said. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Data collected from cancer centers across the country show that people who begin their leukemia treatment at SCCA have higher survival rates on average than those who started treatment at other centers. (seattlecca.org)
  • In this interview we discuss a study that examined the risk of acute myeloid leukemia in thyroid cancer patients who have been treated with surgery and radioiodine therapy vs those treated with surgery alone. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells, characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal cells that build up in the bone marrow and blood and interfere with normal blood cell production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moffitt Cancer Center researchers say clinical trials for a new experimental drug to treat acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are very promising. (redorbit.com)
  • Acute myeloid leukemia is an aggressive blood cancer with very low rates of treatment success, especially in older patients," explained Jeffrey Lancet, M.D., senior member of the Department of Malignant Hematology and chief of the Leukemia Section at Moffitt. (redorbit.com)
  • Cancer and Leukemia Group B. N Engl J Med . (medscape.com)
  • Prognostic factors in childhood acute myelogenous leukemia. (meds.com)
  • Creutzig U, Ritter J, Schellong G: Identification of two risk groups in childhood acute myelogenous leukemia after therapy intensification in study AML-BFM-83 as compared with study AML-BFM-78. (meds.com)
  • This is important because treatments vary among different types of leukemia. (kidshealth.org)
  • Also, leukemia in older people tends to be more resistant to current treatments. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What treatments work on acute myeloid leukemia (AML)? (webmd.com)
  • Complex karyotype acute myeloid leukemia (CK-AML) has a dismal outcome with current treatments, underscoring the need for new therapies. (nature.com)
  • Data from patients with chronic myeloid leukemia, who reported starting treatments within the last 5 years. (patientslikeme.com)
  • These leukemias currently have few treatment options, so identifying the causative gene networks may lead to more effective targeted treatments," said Tong. (eurekalert.org)
  • A member of several medical societies, Dr. Cortes has served as a lecturer and the author/co-author of over 300 medical publications and abstracts and has greatly contributed to the search for effective treatments for leukemias. (foyles.co.uk)
  • Here, we summarize recent advances in DC-based active vaccination using LAAs and discuss this method as an attractive supplementary immunotherapeutic strategy in the context of current standard treatments for myeloid leukemias. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our doctors and scientists pioneered one of the most effective leukemia treatments - bone marrow transplant - and we advance new therapies every day. (seattlecca.org)
  • CBL family E3 ubiquitin ligases control JAK2 ubiquitination and stability in hematopoetic stem cells and myeloid malignancies" Genes and Development , published online June 13, 2017. (eurekalert.org)
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia patients had a significantly increased prevalence of prior malignancies and autoimmune disorders compared with the general population. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Acute and chronic myeloid leukemia (AML, CML) are hematologic malignancies arising from oncogene-transformed hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells known as leukemia stem cells (LSCs). (frontiersin.org)
  • Types include: Acute myeloid leukemia Chronic myelogenous leukemia Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm Hematological malignancies Myeloblast transient myeloproliferative disease This article includes a list of related items that share the same name (or similar names). (wikipedia.org)
  • The novel agent ivosidenib is well tolerated and induces durable responses in patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia and other hematologic malignancies. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Treatment protocols for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are provided below, including a general treatment approach and treatment recommendations for relapsed or refractory disease. (medscape.com)
  • The FDA approved Idhifa (enasidenib) for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who have a specific genetic mutation. (centerwatch.com)
  • Since this novel mechanistically-rationalized regimen combines two drugs already in use in acute leukemia treatment, we plan a clinical trial of the Ven-PegC combination in relapsed/refractory CK-AML. (nature.com)
  • It is possible that leukemias that relapsed after or were refractory to frontline treatment that included midostaurin were less dependent on FLT3 for their growth and therefore had less likelihood of responding to gilteritinib, he explained. (aacr.org)
  • Using markers on leukemia cells collected from the blood, bone marrow, and/or CSF, doctors can determine the type of leukemia a child has. (kidshealth.org)
  • In chronic myeloid leukemia, the bone marrow produces too many white blood cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If leukemia is suspected, you'll go through a bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, where a small amount of your bone marrow is removed and examined. (healthcentral.com)
  • The term 'myeloid' was coined by Neumann in 1869, as he was the first to recognize that white blood cells were made in the bone marrow (Greek: µυєλός, ''myelos'' = (bone) marrow) as opposed to the spleen. (news-medical.net)
  • The technique of bone marrow examination to diagnose leukemia was first described in 1879 by Mosler. (news-medical.net)
  • Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy will show if there are any leukemia cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If someone has leukemia, their bone marrow cells begin to behave abnormally. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These leukemia cells live longer than regular cells, meaning that they build up and overtake normal cells in the bone marrow. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In the chronic phase, fewer than 10% of the bone marrow and blood cells are leukemia cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In the accelerated phase, 10-19% of the bone marrow and blood cells are leukemia cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In the blastic phase, 20% or more of the bone marrow and blood cells are leukemia cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) pushes your bone marrow to make large numbers of abnormal blood cells. (webmd.com)
  • blast phase The final phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia, which has the highest number of blast cells in the blood and bone marrow and can be life-threatening. (nccn.org)
  • Peripheral smear, bone marrow biopsy, and surgical pathology of the appendix demonstrated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with nonsuppurative appendicitis. (hindawi.com)
  • The term " leukemia " refers to cancers of the bone marrow and blood cells. (healthline.com)
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia develops when a gene mutates and causes an enzyme to become hyperactive, causing blood-forming stem cells in the bone marrow to grow rapidly into abnormal cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) occurs when too many immature blood cells are produced by the bone marrow. (mdanderson.org)
  • Myeloid leukemia is a type of leukemia affecting myeloid tissue (bone marrow). (bionity.com)
  • Finding even one leukemia cell in 1,000 normal cells in bone marrow after the first or second round of therapy was associated with a worse prognosis and a greater risk of relapse or treatment failure. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cytogenetic studies performed on bone marrow in patients with AML play a crucial role in characterizing the leukemia, helping determine disease aggressiveness, response to treatment, and prognosis. (medscape.com)
  • Tests that examine the blood and bone marrow are used to detect (find) and diagnose chronic myelogenous leukemia. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Leukemia cells can build up in the bone marrow and blood so there is less room for healthy white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. (oncolink.org)
  • This type of myeloid leukemia also frequently produces deposits of fibrous tissue throughout the bone marrow . (wisegeek.com)
  • In adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the bone marrow makes abnormal cells. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • It begins in myeloid cells which are made in the spongy center of bones (bone marrow). (cancersupportcommunity.org)
  • The presence of short telomeres and a TERT mutation raises the possibility of a potential novel association between chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and short telomeres, illustrates the range of myeloid neoplasia possible in telomere biology disorders, and sheds light on the increasingly recognized challenging diagnostic scenario of clinically silent or phenotypically heterogeneous genetic disorders presenting with bone marrow failure and/or myelodysplasia. (lww.com)
  • Leukemia is a disease of the blood or bone marrow, which is characterized by increased numbers of abnormal white blood cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Acute leukemias are diagnosed either on the basis of presence of over 20% of blasts in the blood or in bone marrow or on the basis of presence of specific cytogenetic or molecular abnormalities [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Furazolidone (FZD) was shown to inhibit bone marrow transformation mediated by several leukemia fusion proteins, including AML1-ETO. (plos.org)
  • A bone marrow biopsy revealed that our precious 3-month-old had acute myeloid leukemia (AML) . (stbaldricks.org)
  • The underlying mechanism involves replacement of normal bone marrow with leukemia cells, which results in a drop in red blood cells, platelets, and normal white blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rarely, the first sign of leukemia may be the development of a solid leukemic mass or tumor outside of the bone marrow, called a chloroma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initially in CML, there is a gradual increase in mature, abnormal myeloid cells in the bone marrow. (cancerconnect.com)
  • Growth of leukemia outside the bone marrow or spleen. (cancerconnect.com)
  • When a person has AML, their myeloid cells mutate and form leukemic blasts. (healthline.com)
  • We experimentally validated that mature myeloid cells have the same genotype as leukemic blasts, demonstrating that there is not a complete block in differentiation. (pnas.org)
  • A very attractive way to treat myeloid leukemia, which is now called 'differentiation therapy', was proposed as in vitro studies have shown that a variety of agents stimulate differentiation of the cell lines isolated from leukemic patients. (mdpi.com)
  • One of the differentiation-inducing agents, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), which can induce granulocytic differentiation in myeloid leukemic cell lines, has been introduced into clinics to treat patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in which a PML-RARA fusion protein is generated by a t(15;17)(q22;q12) chromosomal translocation. (mdpi.com)
  • Since 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25D) is capable of inducing in vitro monocyte/macrophage differentiation of myeloid leukemic cells, clinical trials have been performed to estimate its potential to treat patients with AML or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). (mdpi.com)
  • Myeloid progenitors are a prominent source of DCs under homeostatic conditions, and it is now well established that LSCs and leukemic blasts can give rise to "malignant" DCs. (frontiersin.org)
  • These leukemia-derived DCs can express leukemia antigens and may either induce anti-leukemic T cell responses or favor tolerance to the leukemia, depending on co-stimulatory or -inhibitory molecules and cytokines. (frontiersin.org)
  • This review will concentrate on the role of DCs in myeloid leukemia immunotherapy with a special focus on their generation, application, and function and how they could be improved in order to generate highly effective and specific anti-leukemic CTL responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • The team also showed that myeloid cells that were genetically engineered to overexpress N-Myc became immortalized, or had an unlimited life span, and that this was associated with changes in levels of certain proteins known to occur when human myeloid cells become leukemic. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Finally, Grosveld's team showed that the transformation of a myeloid cell to a leukemic cell requires overexpression of Twist, a gene that normally inhibits apoptosis. (emaxhealth.com)
  • If you or someone you know has just been diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia, this short, simple guide can help. (cancer.org)
  • A study presented Saturday, Dec. 1, at the 60th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Hematology in San Diego looked at the drug response patterns of stem cells and blast cells taken from individual patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia. (scienceblog.com)
  • Honored Kid Sophie was just 3 months old when she was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia. (stbaldricks.org)
  • The addition of pegylated interferon-ɑ2b to dasatinib yielded promising results in a small trial of newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia patients. (cancernetwork.com)
  • The FDA has approved a fixed combination of daunorubicin and cytarabine (Vyxeos) for the treatment of newly diagnosed therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (AML) as well as AML with myelodysplasia-related changes. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Results of a randomized trial comparing idarubicin and cytosine arabinoside with daunorubicin and cytosine arabinoside in adult patients with newly diagnosed acute myelogenous leukemia. (medscape.com)
  • Researchers believe that additional genetic changes play a role in the progression of the chronic phase of chronic myeloid leukemia to the accelerated phase and blast crisis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The natural history of CML has a triphasic clinical course comprising of an initial chronic phase (CP), which is characterized by expansion of functionally normal myeloid cells, followed by an accelerated phase (AP) and finally a more aggressive blast phase (BP), with loss of terminal differentiation capacity. (genome.jp)
  • Karyotypic analysis predicts outcome of preremission and postremission therapy in adult acute myeloid leukemia: a Southwest Oncology Group/Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Study. (nature.com)
  • Tsunemine, H. and Takahashi, T. (2013) Gemtuzumab ozogamicin in the treatment of adult acute myeloid leukemia. (scirp.org)
  • A phase I/II study of intensive dose escalation of cytarabine in combination with idarubicin and etoposide in induction and consolidation treatment of adult acute myeloid leukemia. (medscape.com)
  • Treatment options are based on the main cell type-lymphoid or myeloid. (nccn.org)
  • The first test determines whether the blast phase involves myeloid or lymphoid blast cells. (lls.org)
  • A blood stem cell may become a myeloid stem cell or a lymphoid stem cell. (oncolink.org)
  • Acute myeloid leukemia is also called acute myelocytic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, acute granulocytic leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, or sometimes just AML. (cancer.org)
  • Doctors also classify leukemias as lymphocytic or myeloid. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Lymphocytic leukemias develop in the cells that turn into lymphocytes, whereas myeloid leukemias start in early myeloid cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 2 , 3 ] In contrast to acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), very few clinical, laboratory, or treatment factors have been consistently related to prognosis for children with AML. (meds.com)
  • It's known by a variety of names, including acute myelogenous leukemia and acute non-lymphocytic leukemia. (healthline.com)
  • Acute myeloid leukemia is similar to acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) , except that the ALL affects the lymphocytic white blood cells instead of the myeloid white blood cells. (bidmc.org)
  • Leukemia is divided into acute and chronic, and further subdivided into lymphocytic and myeloid [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Leukemia may affect red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. (oncolink.org)
  • These abnormal white blood cells, red blood cells, or platelets are also called leukemia cells or blasts. (oncolink.org)
  • Healthy myeloid cells form a balance of different blood cells: red cells, some types of white cells, and platelets. (cancersupportcommunity.org)
  • A novel risk classification scheme based on expression of 36 micro-RNA samples was able to identify pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia at high or low risk of experiencing treatment failure, according to a new analysis. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Patients with this form of myeloid leukemia often experience bleeding, swollen and painful gums, or rash-like eruptions on the skin. (wisegeek.com)
  • The term 'Chronic' refers to slowly evolving form of myeloid leukemia that may take years to progress. (medindia.net)
  • Unlike other forms of myeloid leukemia, M4 may also affect eosinophil development. (wisegeek.com)
  • There are two forms of myeloid leukemia chronic and acute. (medindia.net)
  • Maintenance therapy with TKIs following allogeneic HSCT is feasible and may improve outcomes in patients with high-risk Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia. (cancernetwork.com)
  • A rapid reduction in BCR-ABL transcript levels and the halving time of those levels are predictive of better outcomes in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Overexpression of miR-378 is frequent and may affect treatment outcomes in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. (medindia.net)
  • Today's news continues the progress of bringing more treatment options to patients with this devastating disease,' said Lee Greenberger , Ph.D., chief scientific officer of The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society. (prnewswire.com)
  • The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society is a 501(c)(3) organization, and all monetary donations are tax deductible to the fullest extent allowed by tax laws. (lls.org)
  • In addition, Tong is a Leukemia & Lymphoma Society Scholar. (eurekalert.org)
  • 2016. https://www.unboundmedicine.com/washingtonmanual/view/Washington-Manual-of-Medical-Therapeutics/602346/all/Acute_Myeloid_Leukemia. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), too many immature white blood cells (called myeloid blasts) are made. (kidshealth.org)
  • These cells, called myeloid blasts, can't mature into normal white blood cells. (kidshealth.org)
  • In AML, the myeloid stem cells usually become a type of immature white blood cell called myeloblasts (or myeloid blasts ). (oncolink.org)
  • A team led by Wei Tong, PhD, a hematology researcher at hildren's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP), reveals how mutated proteins cause several types of leukemia, particularly chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), both of which tend to have a poor prognosis as they progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). (eurekalert.org)
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematological malignancy with poor prognosis, and therefore there is a pressing need to develop drugs with excellent activity and fewer toxic side effects [2] . (plos.org)
  • l-Ascorbic acid may be of clinical benefit in Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndromes. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Chronic blood cancers, like chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), tend to progress more slowly. (kidshealth.org)
  • It accounts for about 10 percent of all blood cell cancers (leukemias). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The IDH gene mutation was initially discovered in brain cancers in 2008 by American scientists at Johns Hopkins in Baltimore and subsequently also linked to leukemia. (innovations-report.com)
  • We confirmed this model by interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and sequencing of purified cell populations from patients with AML, which showed that different leukemia-causing molecular abnormalities typically thought to block differentiation were consistently present in mature myeloid cells such as neutrophils and monocytes at similar levels to those in immature myeloid cells. (pnas.org)
  • These results will help establish flow cytometry testing for minimal residual disease as a routine tool for guiding therapy of acute myeloid leukemia and identifying patients early who are at risk of treatment failure," said Hiroto Inaba, M.D., Ph.D., an associate member of the Department of Oncology at St. Jude. (eurekalert.org)
  • The symptoms of Acute myeloid leukemia are usually slow in onset but may rapidly become severe as the number of immature white blood cells (blast cells) rises and overcrowds other cells in the blood. (news-medical.net)
  • What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Acute Myeloid Leukemia? (kidshealth.org)
  • A recent report from MarketsAndMarkets said that the leukemia therapeutics market is projected to reach USD 17.1 billion by 2024 from USD 12.3 billion in 2019, at a CAGR of 6.8% during the forecast period Market growth is largely driven by the rising prevalence of all types of leukemia including acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and increasing approvals of novel & innovative drugs and immunotherapies. (prnewswire.com)
  • These leukemia cells are abnormal and cannot mature into normal white blood cells. (kidshealth.org)
  • These lumps of leukemia cells (called chloromas) can develop anywhere in the body. (kidshealth.org)
  • Leukemia cells especially in AML can spread to the skin. (news-medical.net)
  • 1 As the leukemia spreads, infection, anemia or easy bleeding may occur due to a diminished number of healthy blood cells. (novartis.com)
  • But in leukemia, white blood cells turn cancerous and don't work as they should. (kidshealth.org)
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) happens when the body makes too many immature white blood cells. (kidshealth.org)
  • Acute myeloid leukemia develops quickly, and the cancerous cells multiply fast. (kidshealth.org)
  • These studies can see whether there's a mass of leukemia cells in the chest that could affect breathing or blood circulation. (kidshealth.org)
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder resulting from an acquired genetic aberration t(9;22)(q34;q11) (Philadelphia chromosome) in stem cells. (springer.com)
  • If someone has chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), they get ill frequently as their white blood cells do not work as they should. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In these leukemias, the abnormal cells are not completely mature and cannot fight infection as effectively as typical, fully mature white blood cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Further investigation revealed that the AML mice had significantly lower oxygen levels than the healthy mice, which the team speculates is down to increased oxygen absorption by leukemia cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • advanced phase A rating of chronic myelogenous leukemia, when the number of immature blood cells (blast cells) is high and it is causing symptoms. (nccn.org)
  • chronic phase The first phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia, when the number of white blood cells is higher than normal but may not cause symptoms. (nccn.org)
  • Myeloid cells are precursors to other blood cells. (healthline.com)
  • This causes large numbers of blood-forming stem cells to grow into an abnormal type of white blood cell, which gives rise to chronic myeloid leukemia. (eurekalert.org)
  • If something disrupts the normal regulation of JAK2 activity, JAK2 triggers the uncontrolled growth of marrow cells that give rise to a myeloid leukemia. (eurekalert.org)
  • Human cells with acute myeloid leukemia Dr. Lance Liotta laboratory, courtesy of NCI. (nih.gov)
  • Advances in rapid screening of leukemia cells for drug susceptibility and resistance are bringing scientists closer to patient-tailored treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). (scienceblog.com)
  • Research on the drug responses of leukemia stem cells may reveal why some attempts to treat are not successful or why initially promising treatment results are not sustained. (scienceblog.com)
  • The researchers found that leukemia stem cells and blast cells diverged in their drug susceptibility patterns, and also that these patterns differed from patient to patient. (scienceblog.com)
  • Blood smear from a patient with acute myeloid leukemia showing presence of several large, immature cells. (scienceblog.com)
  • For example, blast cells s responded in the test to the drugs most commonly used to treat patients, but none were effective against leukemia stem cells. (scienceblog.com)
  • The researchers did find 12 drugs from eight classes that seemed to preferentially target leukemia stem cells, compared to blast cells. (scienceblog.com)
  • The leukemia cells can spread outside the blood to other parts of the body, including the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord ), skin, and gums . (oncolink.org)
  • In myeloblastic leukemia, or M1, cells may or may not mature, but do exhibit some differentiation into the various types of granulocytic cells. (wisegeek.com)
  • Promyelocytic leukemia, or M3, typically is characterized by abnormal white cells that exhibit granulation and that range in maturity from myeloblasts to myelocytes. (wisegeek.com)
  • In CML, genetic changes cause myeloid cells to produce blood cells that grow out of control. (cancersupportcommunity.org)
  • A long-held tenet in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is that multiple genetic events produce a block in the differentiation of primitive myeloblast cells. (pnas.org)
  • In leukemias differentiation block occurs in early hematopoietic progenitors, and resulting malignant cells are named blast cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Transcriptome analysis after ectopic transfection of synthetic miR-29b into leukemia cells indicates that miR-29b target apoptosis, cell cycle, and proliferation pathways. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In Vivo Expansion of Co-Transplanted T Cells Impacts on Tumor Re-Initiating Activity of Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia in NSG Mice. (medindia.net)
  • Agaricus blazei extract inhibits human myeloid leukemia cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Ashwaganda induces programmed cell death in human myeloid leukemia cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Curcumin induces programmed cell death in chronic myeloid leukemia cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Active immunotherapy, aiming at the generation of leukemia-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs), may represent a powerful approach to target LSCs in the MRD situation. (frontiersin.org)
  • To fully activate CTLs, leukemia antigens have to be successfully captured, processed, and presented by mature dendritic cells (DCs). (frontiersin.org)
  • Consequently, active and passive immunotherapy approaches, such as peptide- and dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines using LAAs, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and the in vitro -generation of leukemia-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) for adoptive transfer have recently yielded promising results in pre-clinical models and clinical trials ( 1 - 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common malignant myeloid disorder of progenitor cells in myeloid hematopoiesis and exemplifies a genetically heterogeneous disease. (plos.org)
  • Importantly, FZD treatment of certain AML cells induced myeloid cell differentiation by morphology and flow cytometry for CD11b expression. (plos.org)
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) comes from a type of white blood cells called promyelocytes. (stbaldricks.org)
  • A gene called N-Myc leads a double life in certain white blood cells when it is overexpressed, helping to trigger acute myeloid leukemia (AML) under some conditions while triggering apoptosis, or cell suicide, under other conditions, according to results of a mouse study done by investigators at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Specifically, most myeloid cells over-expressing N-Myc died within 24 hours when they were deprived of an anti-apotosis, growth-promoting protein called IL-3. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is the abnormal growth of relatively mature myeloid (white blood) cells. (cancerconnect.com)
  • But in leukemia, WBCs turn cancerous and multiply when they shouldn't, resulting in too many abnormal WBCs, which then interfere with the body's ability to work as it should. (kidshealth.org)
  • Leukemias are acute or chronic depending on the abnormal cell's stage of maturity. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • now known as lysine methyltransferase 2A (KMT2A)] rearrangement-positive acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) are distinct diseases, although age of susceptibility (infancy or early childhood) and abnormal monocytosis are common clinical features. (springer.com)
  • In leukemia, a single WBC stem cell becomes abnormal and undergoes uncontrolled proliferation. (medindia.net)
  • The presence of the Philadelphia chromosome provides a target for molecular therapies in people with chronic myeloid leukemia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Significant progress in understanding the mechanisms leading to the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has led to the identification of numerous molecular abnormalities that may be responsible for leukemogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • An existing drug might be repurposed to treat these leukemias, and the new understanding of the molecular mechanisms at work may offer clues to other drugs yet to be developed. (eurekalert.org)
  • The discussion of molecular testing in myeloid leukemia is continued in Kroloff and colleagues' report, detailing its invaluable use in a posttransplant setting for monitoring chimerism and clonal evolution. (lww.com)
  • The canonical view of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is that it results from a combination of molecular events in a hematopoietic stem cell that block differentiation and drive proliferation. (pnas.org)
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with cytogenetics and molecular subtypes of acute myelogeneous leukemia (AML), but their impact on AML pathogenesis is poorly understood. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) remains a key model for the improved understanding of the pathophysiology of a malignancy at a molecular level and has been used by researchers to develop a variety of therapies and therapeutic assessment methods. (foyles.co.uk)
  • Restoration of miR-29b in AML cell lines and primary samples induces apoptosis and dramatically reduces tumorigenicity in a xenograft leukemia model. (bloodjournal.org)
  • American Society of Clinical Oncology: "Leukemia - Acute Myeloid - AML - Treatment Options. (webmd.com)
  • Hurwitz CA, Mounce KG, Grier HE: Treatment of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia: review of clinical trials of the past decade. (meds.com)
  • In spite of the recent approval of new promising targeted therapies, the clinical outcome of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains suboptimal, prompting the search for additional and synergistic therapeutic rationales. (jci.org)
  • In this Review we discuss the hurdles of finding suitable targets for AML immunotherapy, summarize the immune features of the leukemia microenvironment, review results obtained in clinical trials using novel strategies such as bispecific antibodies, cell therapies, and checkpoint blockade, and ultimately discuss how this information might translate into future developments. (jci.org)
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a complex hematological disease characterized by genetic and clinical heterogeneity. (mdpi.com)
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disorder that includes many entities with diverse genetic abnormalities and clinical features. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Guideline] NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Acute Myeloid Leukemia Version 2.2018. (medscape.com)
  • The 'acute' designation of AML means that it usually comes on suddenly and causes significant symptoms, creating a life-threatening situation," whereas chronic leukemias may take more time to develop and have milder symptoms. (healthcentral.com)
  • Wilhelm Ebstein introduced the term '''acute leukemia''' in 1889 to differentiate rapidly progressive and fatal leukemias from the more indolent chronic leukemias. (news-medical.net)
  • For hematological tumors especially, the demonstration of the graft-vs.-leukemia (GvL) effect of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT) and donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs), as well as the discovery of leukemia-associated antigens (LAAs) was of fundamental importance in order to translate, implement, and optimize immunotherapies against myeloid leukemias. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a relatively rare hematological malignancy with a constant incidence of approximately 90 new cases each year in Sweden (0.9 cases/100 000 inhabitants). (diva-portal.org)
  • When chronic myeloid leukemia is difficult to control with Gleevec® (imatinib) or other therapies, the white blood count begins to increase. (cancerconnect.com)
  • About half of people with chronic myeloid leukemia do not initially have any signs and symptoms and are diagnosed when a blood test is performed for another reason. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) , which involves a particular kind of white blood cell known as a myelocyte, comprises 32 percent of all adult cases, and is the second most common type of leukemia in children. (healthcentral.com)
  • As Virchow was uncertain of the cause of the white blood cell excess, he used the purely descriptive term 'leukemia' (Greek: 'white blood') to refer to the condition. (news-medical.net)
  • Aricò M, Biondi A, Pui CH. Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia Blood. (springer.com)
  • Myelogenous leukemia can also be further classified according to the type of blood cell affected. (wisegeek.com)
  • The word 'leukemia' means 'white blood,' and is used to indicate the high white blood cell counts of the disease. (medindia.net)
  • Occasionally, a person may show no symptoms, and the leukemia may be discovered incidentally during a routine blood test. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bedi A, Zehnbauer BA, Barber JP, Sharkis SJ, Jones RJ (1994) Inhibition of apoptosis by BCR-ABL in chronic myeloid leukemia. (springer.com)
  • Tualang honey produced a significant apoptosis effect on both acute and chronic leukemia cell lines. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a subtype of AML that occurs when parts of two genes stick together. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) - or the subtype acute promyelocytic leukemia - is highly complex, so it's important to be treated at a specialized center with expertise in AML. (seattlecca.org)
  • Apperley J (2007) Part I: mechanisms of resistance to imatinib in chronic myeloid leukaemia. (springer.com)
  • Barnes DJ, Palaiologou D, Panousopoulou E, Schultheis B, Yong AS, Wong A, Pattacini L, Goldman JM, Melo JV (2005) BCR-ABL expression levels determine the rate of development of resistance to imatinib mesylate in chronic myeloid leukemia. (springer.com)
  • A 5-year analysis of the DASISION trial showed that dasatinib continued to offer better responses than imatinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a neoplastic disease characterized by a reciprocal balanced translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22, namely the Philadelphia chromosome, which encodes the BCR-ABL1 fusion protein, a constitutively active tyrosine kinase. (frontiersin.org)
  • A study covering 4 decades of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in Sweden found dramatic improvements in life expectancy since the advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Patients with chronic myeloid leukemia who are treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors could be at increased risk of long-term cardiovascular toxicity. (cancernetwork.com)