Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A genus of plant viruses in the family CLOSTEROVIRIDAE. Transmission is by whiteflies. Lettuce infectious yellows virus is the type species.
The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines derived from edible plants. Transgenic plants (PLANTS, TRANSGENIC) are used as recombinant protein production systems and the edible plant tissue functions as an oral vaccine.
Members of spacecraft crew including those who travel in space, and those in training for space flight. (From Webster, 10th ed; Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.
Condition in which no acceleration, whether due to gravity or any other force, can be detected by an observer within a system. It also means the absence of weight or the absence of the force of gravity acting on a body. Microgravity, gravitational force between 0 and 10 -6 g, is included here. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
The natural satellite of the planet Earth. It includes the lunar cycles or phases, the lunar month, lunar landscapes, geography, and soil.
An independent Federal agency established in 1958. It conducts research for the solution of problems of flight within and outside the Earth's atmosphere and develops, constructs, tests, and operates aeronautical and space vehicles. (From U.S. Government Manual, 1993)
Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.
Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.
Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.
Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The mechanical process of cooling.
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
Small sensory organs which contain gustatory receptor cells, basal cells, and supporting cells. Taste buds in humans are found in the epithelia of the tongue, palate, and pharynx. They are innervated by the CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE (a branch of the facial nerve) and the GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE.
Substances used to create an impression, or negative reproduction, of the teeth and dental arches. These materials include dental plasters and cements, metallic oxide pastes, silicone base materials, or elastomeric materials.
Procedure of producing an imprint or negative likeness of the teeth and/or edentulous areas. Impressions are made in plastic material which becomes hardened or set while in contact with the tissue. They are later filled with plaster of Paris or artificial stone to produce a facsimile of the oral structures present. Impressions may be made of a full complement of teeth, of areas where some teeth have been removed, or in a mouth from which all teeth have been extracted. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.
Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).
A plant species of the family APIACEAE. The stalks are a food source.
Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.
Semi-synthetic complex derived from nucleic-acid free viral particles. They are essentially reconstituted viral coats, where the infectious nucleocapsid is replaced by a compound of choice. Virosomes retain their fusogenic activity and thus deliver the incorporated compound (antigens, drugs, genes) inside the target cell. They can be used for vaccines (VACCINES, VIROSOME), drug delivery, or gene transfer.
A subclass of GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS containing one or more sugars within their head group connected directly to a ceramide moiety. They consist of monoglycosyl-, and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)

Lettuce infectious yellows virus: in vitro acquisition analysis using partially purified virions and the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. (1/301)

Virions of lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV; genus Crinivirus) were purified from LIYV-infected plants and their protein composition was analysed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. Virion preparations contained the major capsid protein (CP), but the minor capsid protein (CPm), p59 and the HSP70 homologue were also identified by immunoblot analysis. Immunogold labelling analysis showed that CP constituted the majority of the LIYV virion capsid, but CPm was also part of the capsid and localized to one end of the virion, similar to the polar morphology seen for viruses in the genus Closterovirus. p59 and the HSP70 homologue were not detected on virions by immunogold labelling, but were always detected in virion preparations by immunoblot analysis. Purified LIYV virions were used for in vitro acquisition analysis with Bemisia tabaci whiteflies and were efficiently transmitted to plants. Infectivity neutralization analyses were done using antisera to the LIYV-encoded CP, CPm, p59 and HSP70 homologue. Only antiserum to the CPm effectively neutralized LIYV transmission by B. tabaci. These data suggest that the LIYV-B. tabaci transmission determinants are associated with purified virions, and that the LIYV virion structural protein CPm is involved in transmission by B. tobaci.  (+info)

Comparison of phylloquinone bioavailability from food sources or a supplement in human subjects. (2/301)

Phylloquinone (K) absorption was assessed in 22- to 30-y-old human subjects consuming a standard test meal [402 kcal (1682 kJ), 27% energy from fat]. The absorption of phylloquinone, measured over a 9-h period as the area under the curve (AUC), was higher (P < 0.01) after the consumption of a 500- microgram phylloquinone tablet [27.55 +/- 10.08 nmol/(L. h), n = 8] than after the ingestion of 495 microgram phylloquinone as 150 g of raw spinach [4.79 +/- 1.11 nmol/(L. h), n = 3]. Less phylloquinone (P < 0.05) was absorbed from 50 g of spinach (AUC = 2.49 +/- 1.11 nmol/(L. h) than from 150 g of spinach. Absorption of phylloquinone from fresh spinach (165 microgram K), fresh broccoli (184 microgram K) and fresh romaine lettuce (179 microgram K) did not differ. There was no difference in phylloquinone absorption from fresh or cooked broccoli or from fresh romaine lettuce consumed with a meal containing 30 or 45% energy as fat.  (+info)

A plant-derived edible vaccine against hepatitis B virus. (3/301)

The infectious hepatitis B virus represents 42 nm spherical double-shelled particles. However, analysis of blood from hepatitis B virus carriers revealed the presence of smaller 22 nm particles consisting of a viral envelope surface protein. These particles are highly immunogenic and have been used in the design of hepatitis B virus vaccine produced in yeast. Upon expression in yeast, these proteins form virus-like particles that are used for parenteral immunization. Therefore, the DNA fragment encoding hepatitis B virus surface antigen was introduced into Agrobacterium tumerifacience LBA4404 and used to obtain transgenic lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cv. Burpee Bibb expressing envelope surface protein. Mice that were fed the transgenic lupin tissue developed significant levels of hepatitis B virus-specific antibodies. Human volunteers, fed with transgenic lettuce plants expressing hepatitis B virus surface antigen, developed specific serum-IgG response to plant produced protein.  (+info)

Effects of green fluorescent protein or beta-glucuronidase tagging on the accumulation and pathogenicity of a resistance-breaking Lettuce mosaic virus isolate in susceptible and resistant lettuce cultivars. (4/301)

The RNA genome of a resistance-breaking isolate of Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV-E) was engineered to express the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) or beta-glucuronidase (GUS) fused to the helper-component proteinase (HC-Pro) to study LMV invasion and spread in susceptible and resistant lettuce cultivars. Virus accumulation and movement were monitored by either histochemical GUS assays or detection of GFP fluorescence under UV light. The GFP- and GUS-tagged viruses spread systemically in the susceptible lettuce cultivars Trocadero and Vanguard, where they induced attenuated symptoms, compared with the wild-type virus. Accumulation of the GFP-tagged virus was reduced but less affected than in the case of the GUS-tagged virus. Systemic movement of both recombinant viruses was very severely affected in Vanguard 75, a lettuce cultivar nearly isogenic to Vanguard but carrying the resistance gene mo1(2). Accumulation of the recombinant viruses in systemically infected leaves was either undetectable (GUS-tag) or erratic, strongly delayed, and inhibited by as much as 90% (GFP-tag). As a consequence, and contrary to the parental virus, the recombinant viruses were not able to overcome the protection afforded by the mo1(2) gene. Taken together, these results indicate that GUS or GFP tagging of the HC-Pro of LMV has significant negative effects on the biology of the virus, abolishing its resistance-breaking properties and reducing its pathogenicity in susceptible cultivars.  (+info)

A heterogeneous population of defective RNAs is associated with lettuce infectious yellows virus. (5/301)

Preparations of dsRNAs and virion RNAs extracted from Nicotiana clevelandii plants infected with the bipartite Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV) were found to contain multiple LIYV RNA species. In addition to the two LIYV genomic RNAs, three types of RNAs were observed: (a) 3' coterminal subgenomic RNAs; (b) RNAs containing LIYV RNA 1 or RNA 2 5' terminus but lacking the 3' terminus; and (c) RNAs with both LIYV RNA 2 3' and 5' termini but each with a central extensive deletion, a structure typical of defective RNAs (D RNAs). No D RNA-like RNAs were detected for LIYV RNA 1. A reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) strategy was used to clone from virion RNAs several LIYV RNA 2 D RNAs as cDNAs. Nucleotide sequence analysis of 43 cloned cDNAs showed in some D RNAs the presence of a stretch of 1-5 nt in the junction site that is repeated in the genomic RNA 2 in the two positions flanking the junction site or in close proximity. Some D RNAs contained in the junction site one or several extra nucleotides not present in the LIYV genomic RNA 2. Two of the cloned cDNAs were used to generate in vitro transcripts, and infectivity studies showed that both D RNAs were replication competent in protoplasts when coinoculated with LIYV RNAs 1 and 2 or with only LIYV RNA1. Neither D RNA showed obvious effects upon LIYV RNA 1 and RNA 2 accumulation in coinfected protoplasts. These data suggest that LIYV infections contain a heterogeneous population of LIYV RNA 2 D RNAs, and some are encapsidated into virions.  (+info)

Asynchronous accumulation of lettuce infectious yellows virus RNAs 1 and 2 and identification of an RNA 1 trans enhancer of RNA 2 accumulation. (6/301)

Time course and mutational analyses were used to examine the accumulation in protoplasts of progeny RNAs of the bipartite Crinivirus, Lettuce infectious yellow virus (LIYV; family Closteroviridae). Hybridization analyses showed that simultaneous inoculation of LIYV RNAs 1 and 2 resulted in asynchronous accumulation of progeny LIYV RNAs. LIYV RNA 1 progeny genomic and subgenomic RNAs could be detected in protoplasts as early as 12 h postinoculation (p.i.) and accumulated to high levels by 24 h p.i. The LIYV RNA 1 open reading frame 2 (ORF 2) subgenomic RNA was the most abundant of all LIYV RNAs detected. In contrast, RNA 2 progeny were not readily detected until ca. 36 h p.i. Mutational analyses showed that in-frame stop codons introduced into five of seven RNA 2 ORFs did not affect accumulation of progeny LIYV RNA 1 or RNA 2, confirming that RNA 2 does not encode proteins necessary for LIYV RNA replication. Mutational analyses also supported that LIYV RNA 1 encodes proteins necessary for replication of LIYV RNAs 1 and 2. A mutation introduced into the LIYV RNA 1 region encoding the overlapping ORF 1B and ORF 2 was lethal. However, mutations introduced into only LIYV RNA 1 ORF 2 resulted in accumulation of progeny RNA 1 near or equal to wild-type RNA 1. In contrast, the RNA 1 ORF 2 mutants did not efficiently support the trans accumulation of LIYV RNA 2. Three distinct RNA 1 ORF 2 mutants were analyzed and all exhibited a similar phenotype for progeny LIYV RNA accumulation. These data suggest that the LIYV RNA 1 ORF 2 encodes a trans enhancer for RNA 2 accumulation.  (+info)

Metabolite profiling of sesquiterpene lactones from Lactuca species. Major latex components are novel oxalate and sulfate conjugates of lactucin and its derivatives. (7/301)

Wounding leaves or stems of Lactuca species releases a milky latex onto the plant surface. We have examined the constituents of latex from Lactuca sativa (lettuce) cv. Diana. The major components were shown to be novel 15-oxalyl and 8-sulfate conjugates of the guaianolide sesquiterpene lactones, lactucin, deoxylactucin, and lactucopicrin. The oxalates were unstable, reverting to the parent sesquiterpene lactone on hydrolysis. Oxalyl derivatives have been reported rarely from natural sources. The sulfates were stable and are the first reported sesquiterpene sulfates from plants. Unusual tannins based on 4-hydroxyphenylacetyl conjugates of glucose were also identified. Significant qualitative and quantitative variation was found in sesquiterpene lactone profiles in different lettuce varieties and in other Lactuca spp. The proportions of each conjugate in latex also changed depending on the stage of plant development. A similar profile was found in chicory, in which oxalyl conjugates were identified, but the 8-sulfate conjugates were notably absent. The presence of the constitutive sesquiterpene lactones was not correlated with resistance to pathogens but may have a significant bearing on the molecular basis of the bitter taste of lettuce and related species. The induced sesquiterpene lactone phytoalexin, lettucenin A, was found in the Lactuca spp. but not in chicory.  (+info)

Contamination of foods by food handlers: experiments on hepatitis A virus transfer to food and its interruption. (8/301)

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an important pathogen which has been responsible for many food-borne outbreaks. HAV-excreting food handlers, especially those with poor hygienic practices, can contaminate the foods which they handle. Consumption of such foods without further processing has been known to result in cases of infectious hepatitis. Since quantitative data on virus transfer during contact of hands with foods is not available, we investigated the transfer of HAV from artificially contaminated fingerpads of adult volunteers to pieces of fresh lettuce. Touching the lettuce with artificially contaminated fingerpads for 10 s at a pressure of 0.2 to 0.4 kg/cm(2) resulted in transfer of 9.2% +/- 0.9% of the infectious virus. The pretreatments tested to interrupt virus transfer from contaminated fingerpads included (i) hard-water rinsing and towel drying, (ii) application of a domestic or commercial topical agent followed by water rinsing and towel drying, and (iii) exposure to a hand gel containing 62% ethanol or 75% liquid ethanol without water rinsing or towel drying. When the fingerpads were treated with the topical agents or alcohol before the lettuce was touched, the amount of infectious virus transferred to lettuce was reduced from 9.2% to between 0.3 and 0.6% (depending on the topical agent used), which was a reduction in virus transfer of up to 30-fold. Surprisingly, no virus transfer to lettuce was detected when the fingerpads were rinsed with water alone before the lettuce was touched. However, additional experiments with water rinsing in which smaller volumes of water were used (1 ml instead of 15 ml) showed that the rate of virus transfer to lettuce was 0.3% +/- 0.1%. The variability in virus transfer rates following water rinsing may indicate that the volume of water at least in part influences virus removal from the fingerpads differently, a possibility which should be investigated further. This study provided novel information concerning the rate of virus transfer to foods and a model for investigating the transfer of viral and other food-borne pathogens from contaminated hands to foods, as well as techniques for interrupting such transfer to improve food safety.  (+info)

204. The intermarket class hybrid seed of claim 203 wherein the female lettuce plant is an Iceberg lettuce plant and the male lettuce plant is a Romaine lettuce plant; or wherein the female lettuce plant is an Iceberg lettuce plant and the male lettuce plant is a Green Leaf lettuce plant; or wherein the female lettuce plant is an Iceberg lettuce plant and the male lettuce plant is a Red Leaf lettuce plant; or wherein the female lettuce plant is an Iceberg lettuce plant and the male lettuce plant is a Batavia lettuce plant; or wherein the female lettuce plant is an Iceberg lettuce plant and the male lettuce plant is a Butter lettuce plant; or wherein the female lettuce plant is a Romaine lettuce plant and the male lettuce plant is an Iceberg lettuce plant; or wherein the female lettuce plant is a Romaine lettuce plant and the male lettuce plant is a Green Leaf lettuce plant; or wherein the female lettuce plant is a Romaine lettuce plant and the male lettuce plant is a Red Leaf lettuce plant; or ...
A lettuce cultivar, designated 40-0401159-B, is disclosed. The invention relates to the seeds of lettuce cultivar 40-0401159-B, to the plants of lettuce cultivar 40-0401159-B and to methods for producing a lettuce plant by crossing the cultivar 40-0401159-B with itself or another lettuce cultivar. The invention further relates to methods for producing a lettuce plant containing in its genetic material one or more transgenes and to the transgenic lettuce plants and plant parts produced by those methods. This invention also relates to lettuce cultivars or breeding cultivars and plant parts derived from lettuce cultivar 40-0401159-B, to methods for producing other lettuce cultivars, lines or plant parts derived from lettuce cultivar 40-0401159-B and to the lettuce plants, varieties, and their parts derived from the use of those methods. The invention further relates to hybrid lettuce seeds, plants, and plant parts produced by crossing cultivar 40-0401159-B with another lettuce cultivar.
9. A method of producing a hybrid lettuce seed comprising crossing a first parent lettuce plant with a second parent lettuce plant and harvesting the resultant hybrid lettuce seed, wherein said first parent lettuce plant or said second parent lettuce plant is the lettuce plant of claim 1 or a method of producing a lettuce cultivar containing a combination of traits including resistance against downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) races B1:1 to B1:27 as well as strain FR10.021, resistance against currant-lettuce aphid (Nasonovia ribis-nigri), resistance against Lettuce Mosaic Virus (LMV), incised apical margin of the fourth leaf, light green to yellow green fourth leaf, deep incision of the margin, deeply dentate indentation of the margin, strong undulation of the apical margin, very light green mature leaf colour, and moderately glossy leaves, comprising: crossing a mother lettuce plant with a father lettuce plant to produce a hybrid seed; growing said hybrid seed to produce a hybrid plant; selfing ...
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is a common consumed vegetable and a major source of income and nutrition for small farmers in Mexico. This crop is infected with at least nine viruses: Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus (MiLBVV), Lettuce big-vein associated virus (LBVaV), both transmitted by the soil-borne fungus Olpidium brassicae; Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV), Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV), Lettuce mottle virus (LMoV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Bidens mosaic virus (BiMV), and Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) (1). From March to May 2012, a disease on lettuce was observed in the south region of Mexico City displaying mild to severe mosaic, leaf deformation, reduced growth, slight thickening of the main vein, and plant death. At the beginning of the epidemic there were just a few plants with visible symptoms and 7 days later the entire crop was affected, causing a loss of 93% of the plants. It was estimated by counting the number of severely affected or dead plants ...
Abstract: One of the most important problems in horticultural seed science and technology nowadays is looking for new methods to improve seed quality. Especially interesting are the ones, in which compounds of natural origin are used. One of such groups is ethereal oils from plants. The commercial seed samples of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. Dumka) were soaked in 9 different treatments of 5% alcoholic solution of camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora L.) ethereal oil and 9 different treatments of 5% alcoholic solution of patchouli plant (Pogostemon cablin Benth.) ethereal oil. Then the seeds were routinely tested for seed germination, the length of the received seedlings was also measured and the seeds health status was evaluated. The tested ethereal oils had no effect on the germination of lettuce seeds. However, soaking the seeds in the ethereal oils solutions did decrease the percentage of dead seeds in the tested samples. Soaking of the seeds in the ethereal oils solutions also increased the ...
Lactuca serriola is the wild progenitor of cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa), and can be affected by lettuce downy mildew, one of the most serious diseases of lettuce.[15] L. serriola has shown resistance to the plant pathogen Bremia lactucae, the cause of the disease.[15] This pathogen is able to undergo sexual reproduction, and once virulent strains have been produced, can undergo rapid asexual reproductive cycles.[16] As a result, there are many strains, which vary in virulence.[16]. Resistance to Bremia lactucae in Lactuca serriola is due to Dm genes, or single dominant genes.[16] Nine of the dominant genes that confer resistance are Dml, Dm, Dm3, Dm6, Dml4, Dml5, DmlO, Dm5/8, Dm10, Dm4, Dm7, Dm11, and Dm13.[15] These genes are mapped in four linkage groups, so the genes within each group will be more likely to be inherited together.[15] Lactuca serriola and B. lactucae have a gene-for-gene relationship,[17] meaning that each resistance gene in the plant is associated with a specific gene ...
The Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC), along with provincial public health partners, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) and Health Canada continue to investigate an outbreak of Escherichia coli O157 that is linked to romaine lettuce. Since the most recent outbreak update on December 14 was issued, 10 additional cases have been added to this outbreak bringing the total case count to 40.. Illnesses linked to romaine lettuce continue to be reported to PHAC, these illnesses indicate that contaminated romaine lettuce may still be on the market (including in restaurants, grocery stores and any establishments that serve food). There appears to be an ongoing risk of E. Coli infections associated with the consumption of romaine lettuce and individuals in Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland and Labrador are advised to consider consuming other types of lettuce, instead of romaine lettuce, until more is known about the outbreak and the cause of contamination. At this ...
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is a popular vegetable that is widely grown and consumed throughout the world. China is the largest producer of lettuce, contributing 55% to the worlds total production by weight. By contrast, the United States contributes only about 16% to total lettuce production worldwide. The primary type of lettuce produced and consumed in China is a stem lettuce (L. sativa L. var. angustana), while in the U.S. there are three main lettuce types produced: iceberg (L. sativa L. var. capitata), romaine (L. sativa L. var. longifolia), and leaf (L. sativa L. var. crispaa). These three lettuces account for 54.1%, 30.1%, and 15.8% of U.S. production, respectively.(40). Lettuce comes in a variety of colors, sizes and shapes. Romaine lettuce is exceptionally crisp, slightly bitter, and is characterized by long, narrow leaves with thick ribs. In addition, the leaves are typically upright to form an elongated head (top of the head may or may not close over the inner leaves) with ...
Lettuce Plants - Mix: If youve never grown your own lettuce plants to experience that fresh from the garden taste, try our mixed pack: five superb varieties to provide a range of colou…
Phytochrome regulates lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids) seed germination via the control of the endogenous level of bioactive gibberellin (GA). In addition to the previously identified LsGA20ox1, LsGA20ox2, LsGA3ox1, LsGA3ox2, LsGA2ox1, and LsGA2ox2, five cDNAs were isolated from lettuce seeds: LsCPS, LsKS, LsKO1, LsKO2, and LsKAO. Using an Escherichia coli expression system and functional assays, it is shown that LsCPS and LsKS encode ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase and ent-kaurene synthase, respectively. Using a Pichia pastoris system, it was found that LsKO1 and LsKO2 encode ent-kaurene oxidases and LsKAO encodes ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase. A comprehensive expression analysis of GA metabolism genes using the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction suggested that transcripts of LsGA3ox1 and LsGA3ox2, both of which encode GA 3-oxidase for GA activation, were primarily expressed in the hypocotyl end of lettuce seeds, were expressed at much lower levels than the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lettuce, a shallow-rooted crop, and Lactuca serriola, its wild progenitor, differ at QTL determining root architecture and deep soil water exploitation. AU - Johnson, W. C.. AU - Jackson, L. E.. AU - Ochoa, O.. AU - Van Wijk, R.. AU - Peleman, J.. AU - St. Clair, D. A.. AU - Michelmore, Richard W. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Wild plant species are often adapted to more stressful environments than their cultivated relatives. Roots are critical in exploiting soil resources that enable plants to withstand environmental stresses, but they are difficult to study. Cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and wild L. serriola L. differ greatly in both shoot and root characteristics. Approximately 100 F(2:3) families derived from an interspecific cross were evaluated in greenhouse and field experiments. In the greenhouse, root traits (taproot length, number of laterals emerging from the taproot, and biomass) and shoot biomass were measured 4 weeks after planting. In the field, plants were ...
3. Carotenoids. Carotenoids are antioxidants which protect your cells from damage. Carotenoids are especially important for the health and protection of your eyes. Romaine lettuce specifically contains the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin. These carotenoids are thought to prevent ocular diseases such as Macular Degeneration. Additionally, the carotenoid nutrition found in romaine lettuce can also reduce some of the adverse effects of smoking (if you were formerly a smoker). Carotenoids can repair damaged tissue.. 4. Vitamin C. Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant. Romaine lettuce contains 24mg of vitamin C per serving. This essential antioxidant found in romaine lettuce protects your body from foreign invaders and promotes healthy tissue growth. In addition to strengthening your immune system, vitamin C is thought to reduce inflammation in the body and increase your pain threshold. This is especially important if you are an athlete and/or suffer from chronic pain.. 5. Saponins. Saponins are ...
Lettuce Plants - OutREDgeousThe lettuce so easy to grow they grew it in space!OutREDgeous is the first lettuce plant to be grown from seed, harvested and eaten in space! Lettuce Outredgeous is so easy to grow that its out of this world! Weve been struggling not to burst with excitement over this lettuce since the day we heard about it and now were bringing it to your garden!This stunning, red romaine lettuce variety is a great colour for adding to salads and has sweet crunch - and did we mention that its been grown in space? Harvest late May-late October. Height 20-30cm (8-12
Identification and screening of cultivars rich in bioactive phytoconstituents can be potentially useful to make nutrient-dense dishes and in medicinal formulations. In this study, we have identified, characterized and quantified caffeoylquinic acids, dicaffeoylquinic acid, dicaffeoyltartaric acid, kaempferol conjugates, quercetin malonylglucoside, sesquiterpene lactones, and cyanidin in 22 lettuce cultivars at mature and bolting stages using UPLC-PDA-Q-TOF-HDMS, UPLC, and HPLC. The composition and contents of the studied metabolites and antioxidant activity varied significantly and depend on leaf color, cultivar type and stage of maturity. The main phenolic acid components of lettuce were quinic and tartaric acid derivatives, whereas kaempferol derivatives were the dominant flavonoids. The sum of the content of phenolic acids ranged from 18.3 to 54.6 mg/100 g DW and 15.5 to 54.6 mg/100 g DW, whereas the sum of the contents of flavonoids ranged from 9.2 to 25.9 mg/100 g DW and 14.9 to 83.0 mg/100 g DW in
Also known as cos lettuce, romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa) stands at attention in your garden with its elongated, narrow, stiff foliage. Like all lettuce, romaine is a cool-weather crop that grows ...
In a hilarious piece in yesterdays New York Sun, Paul Lukas discovers that some fancy-pants chefs love iceberg lettuce, too. Im not ashamed to admit that I love iceberg lettuce. Its cool, its crisp, and its a perfect foil for blue cheese dressing. Dont get me wrong. I love a fresh, peppery arugula salad picked that morning from somebodys garden. But I dont much care for wilted organic arugula grown 3,000 miles from my house and picked two weeks before it finds its way into my hands. I also hate iceberg lettuce that is more brown than light green with tons of droopy outer leaves. Cmon, admit it. You like iceberg lettuce, too. Heres a great blue cheese dressing...
Glycine, the simplest amino acid in nature and one of the most abundant free amino acids in soil, is regarded as a model nutrient in organic nitrogen studies. To date, many studies have focused on the uptake, metabolism and distribution of organic nitrogen in plants, but few have investigated the nutritional performance of plants supplied with organic nitrogen. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), one of the most widely consumed leafy vegetables worldwide, is a significant source of antioxidants and bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, ascorbic acid and tocopherols. In this study, two lettuce cultivars, Shenxuan 1 and Lollo Rossa, were hydroponically cultured in media containing 4.5, 9, or 18 mM glycine or 9 mM nitrate (control) for 4 weeks, and the levels of health-promoting compounds and antioxidant activity of the lettuce leaf extracts were evaluated. Glycine significantly reduced fresh weight compared to control lettuce, while 9 mM glycine significantly increased fresh weight compared to 4.5 or 18 mM
d on magainin 2, an antimicrobial peptide from the African clawed toad, into lettuce in an attempt to enhance disease resistance. Magainin 2 was found to be non-toxic to lettuce seedlings in vitro at 50 µg/ml. In vitro experiments indicated that magainin was toxic to three important pathogens of lettuce, Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (causal agent of soft rot), Pseudomonas marginalis (causal agent of soft rot) and Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians (responsible for leaf spot of lettuce). Preliminary studies suggested that three fungal lettuce pathogens, Sclerotinia minor (causal agent of lettuce drop), S. sclerotiorum (causal agent of lettuce drop) and Botrytis cinerea (responsible for Botrytis and grey mold), were insensitive to magainin at 50 µg/ml. Transformation of lettuce was attempted using Agrobacterium strain AGLI containing the binary vector pBINMgA, and Agrobacterium strain EHA105 carrying either binary vector pBINMgB, pBINMgC or pBINMgD. These vectors each encoded one of four ...
Citation: Mccreight, J.D. 2005. New sources of lettuce aphid resistance in lettuce. Hortscience 40(4) p. 1109. Interpretive Summary: N/A Technical Abstract: Lettuce aphid (Nasonovia ribisnigri Mosley) is a recent insect pest to lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production in the U.S. The single dominant gene, Nr, conditions resistance to the lettuce aphid in Lactuca virosa accession IVT280 from The Netherlands and is available in a limited number of commercial lettuce cultivars. New and genetically unique sources of resistance are sought to broaden the genetic base for resistance to the lettuce aphid. Approx. 1200 lettuce PI lines were evaluated for resistance to lettuce aphid in greenhouse tests using a strain of lettuce aphid obtained from commercial lettuce in Salinas Valley, Calif. In 2002, plants were individually infested with five 24-hr nymphs per plant (controlled protocol), and the numbers of aphids per plant were counted 10 to 14 days post-infestation (dpi). Beginning in 2003, plants were ...
Resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in Lactuca serriola first appeared in the northern Yorke Peninsula in South Australia in 1994, with resistance soon observed at a number of additional sites. The rapid appearance of resistance at many sites could be attributed to a number of independent selection events or to movement of resistant seed from the original field. ISSRs were used to genotype plants collected in 1999 and 2004 from roadsides or fields in an attempt to determine the importance of these two factors in the spread of herbicide resistance in L. serriola. In 1999 and 2004, chlorsulfuron-resistant L. serriola plants were found in both fields and roadsides with resistant plants being more frequent in fields than roadsides and more frequent in 2004 than in 1999. Genetic relationships generated using UPGMA analysis indicated the presence of more than one genotype within the herbicide resistant populations sampled for both years and suggested independent selection as well as movement of ...
by: Rob Santich MNHAA. Since its development from wild species, the lettuce in all its ingredient. It is thought that the first cultivated crop varieties has become the worlds most popular salad originated in or around the Mediterranean basin. The supporting evidence for this is the existence of a transitional, nearly wild species of lettuce. The morphology of this nearly wild species indicates that it originates from Lactuca serriola, commonly called pricking lettuce, in reference to the bristly stems and leaf margins. Cooking oil is extracted from the seeds of Lactuca serriola to this day, as it was in ancient Egypt. The second piece of compelling evidence is found in the tombs of the ancient Egyptians.. Archaeologists have discovered tomb paintings of bundles of prickly lettuce and these have been dated to be 4,500 years old1.. The first written records of lettuce cultivation and consumption was by the first ancient Greek historian, Herodotus. He recorded that lettuce appeared on the tables ...
There is 1 calorie in a 1/4 leaf of romaine Endive, Chicory, Escarole or Romaine Lettuce. Get full nutrition facts and other common serving sizes of Endive, Chicory, Escarole or Romaine Lettuce including 1 leaf, endive and 1 leaf, escarole.
After nearly three months, the romaine lettuce outbreak appears to be over, federal health officials announced Wednesday. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said in an updated food safety report that it is no longer advising that people avoid romaine lettuce from the Salinas Valley growing region in California. Since Nov. 22, the CDC and the Food and Drug Administration have told consumers to avoid the lettuce from California as they investigated multistate E. coli
Agricultural managers are continually looking for ways to increase production while at the same time reduce costly inputs. One such way is an integration of two or more crops or production systems. Sustainability is a key word in our world today and one component of sustainability is the reduction of waste and the reuse of all available resources and refuse. Aquaponics is the combination of plant production and fish production whereby the byproducts of one system are used as an input for the other, thereby creating a symbiotic effect. One such system that has been used and shows promise is the combination of intensive production of tilapia (Oreochromis spp) and greenhouse production of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Monoculture systems have traditionally relied on proven methods and inputs. However, in cross-cultural systems, what has proven to be standard practice for one production system may actually be harmful to the other production system. In intensive tank culture of fish, it is a common ...
Most lettuce leaves are green, but some are red. Most lettuce leaves taste bitter. Some kinds of lettuce grow in a head shape like cabbage, while the leaves of some kinds grow more loosely.. The five main cultivars are: green leaf, red leaf, cos, crisphead, and stem lettuce.[2]. Common varieties are Romaine, iceberg, and butter lettuce.. The name of the plant in English, lettuce, and in Latin, lactuca, come from lactis, the Latin word for milk, because the juice of the plant looks like milk.. ...
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is an annual plant of the daisy family, Asteraceae. It is most often grown as a leaf vegetable, but sometimes for its stem and seeds. Lettuce is most often used for salads, although it is also seen in other kinds of food, such as soups, sandwiches and wraps; it can also be grilled. One variety, the woju, or asparagus lettuce (celtuce), is grown for its stems, which are eaten either raw or cooked. In addition to its main use as a leafy green, it has also gathered religious and medicinal significance over centuries of human consumption. Europe and North America originally dominated the market for lettuce, but by the late 20th century the consumption of lettuce had spread throughout the world. World production of lettuce and chicory for calendar year 2013 was 24.9 million tonnes, over half of which came from China. Lettuce was first cultivated by the ancient Egyptians who turned it from a weed whose seeds were used to produce oil, into a food plant grown for its succulent leaves
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is an annual plant of the daisy family, Asteraceae. It is most often grown as a leaf vegetable, but sometimes for its stem and seeds. Lettuce is most often used for salads, although it is also seen in other kinds of food, such as soups, sandwiches and wraps; it can also be grilled. One variety, the woju, or asparagus lettuce (celtuce), is grown for its stems, which are eaten either raw or cooked. In addition to its main use as a leafy green, it has also gathered religious and medicinal significance over centuries of human consumption. Europe and North America originally dominated the market for lettuce, but by the late 20th century the consumption of lettuce had spread throughout the world. World production of lettuce and chicory for calendar year 2013 was 24.9 million tonnes, over half of which came from China. Lettuce was first cultivated by the ancient Egyptians who turned it from a weed whose seeds were used to produce oil, into a food plant grown for its succulent leaves
How to Trim Lettuce. Frequent trims keep lettuce plants healthy and productive. The trims provide an ongoing harvest and slow down seed production. Once a lettuce plant produces seeds, it stops leaf growth and the remaining leaves become bitter. Only loose-leaf varieties benefit from and require trimming, since head ...
Madelinetosh Tosh Sock Lettuce Leaf Scarf Kit - Scarf and Shawls Kits - A light, airy scarf that uses a simple lace pattern and only one skein of Tosh Sock! This design is free from the. Madelinetosh Tosh Sock Lettuce Leaf Scarf Kit - Scarf and Shawls Kits are available now at Jimmy Beans Wool with Free U.S. Flat Rate shipping for orders over $75, $4 U.S. Flat Rate shipping on all other orders!
Calories in Garbanzo Mediterranean Grill Wheat Pita, Hummus, Romaine Lettuce,Vegetable Salad, Light Rice, Chicken Shwarma, Garlic Sauce. Find nutrition facts for Garbanzo Mediterranean Grill Wheat Pita, Hummus, Romaine Lettuce,Vegetable Salad, Light Rice, Chicken Shwarma, Garlic Sauce and over 2,000,000 other foods in MyFitnessPal.coms food database.
Calories in Chipotle Build Your Own Romaine Lettuce (Salad). Find nutrition facts for Chipotle Build Your Own Romaine Lettuce (Salad) and over 2,000,000 other foods in MyFitnessPal.coms food database.
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention continues to warn against eating any romaine lettuce harvested from the central coastal growing regions of Northern and Central California amid a multi-state outbreak of E. coli illnesses linked to romaine lettuce. The agency also reported on Thursday that nine additional people
Author(s): Huo, Heqiang; Henry, Isabelle M; Coppoolse, Eric R; Verhoef-Post, Miriam; Schut, Johan W; de Rooij, Han; Vogelaar, Aat; Joosen, Ronny VL; Woudenberg, Leo; Comai, Luca; Bradford, Kent J | Abstract: Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds exhibit thermoinhibition, or failure to complete germination when imbibed at warm temperatures. Chemical mutagenesis was employed to develop lettuce lines that exhibit germination thermotolerance. Two independent thermotolerant lettuce seed mutant lines, TG01 and TG10, were generated through ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis. Genetic and physiological analyses indicated that these two mutations were allelic and recessive. To identify the causal gene(s), we applied bulked segregant analysis by whole genome sequencing. For each mutant, bulked DNA samples of segregating thermotolerant (mutant) seeds were sequenced and analyzed for homozygous single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Two independent candidate mutations were identified at different physical positions in the
Small plot studies were conducted from 1999-2001 to examine the population abundance and control of the lettuce aphid on winter and spring head lettuce crops. In each year, Seven, 0.25 acre planting of head lettuce were established beginning in Sep-Oct with final harvest occurring in April. Replicated plots within several planting were treated with an Admire treatment at planting, a side dress application of Platinum post-planting or allowed to remain untreated. Lettuce aphids were first detected in our experimental area in December in PD 3 in 2001, but in 2002 first occurred in lettuce almost 2 months later (Feb 21). Similarly, lettuce aphid abundance was much greater in 2001 than in 2002, probably a result of temperature difference. Temperature had an important influence upon lettuce aphid development based on our field observations. Population appeared to increase in early March when the average daily temperature was about 65 E F. We observed a sharp decline in population abundance in April ...
I have a red leaf (prize head) lettuce and wanted to know in order to obtain viable seeds do I need 2 plants? In other words are lettuce plants self germinating? I think you meant self-pollonating, and most lettuce are. Is this plant a hybrid? Was it the only lettuce you or your neighbors
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Lettuce seedlings get their first taste of full-on springtime sunshine. Next stop, into the ground in the greenhouse. I wouldnt call this hardening off, some
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. European patent No. 0 942 643, having the title Multileaf lettuce, based on European patent application No. 98935398.2 (filed as an international application published as WO 99/03329) was opposed on several grounds as set forth in Article 100 EPC.. II. The appeal is from opponent 01 (hereinafter appellant) and concerns the interlocutory decision of the opposition division that the patent could be maintained in amended form on the basis of auxiliary request II filed during oral proceedings before it.. Claim 1 of auxiliary request II read:. 1. Multileaf lettuce plant of the genus Lactuca of a particular type having the heritable monogenic recessive multileaf characteristic, which plant is obtainable by conventional crossing-in using a plant of line RZ 97.41561 having the deposit accession number NCIMB 40877 and a second plant, said multileaf plant having at least 1.5 times as many leaves at the ready-to-harvest stage as a lettuce plant of the same type and ...
Chapter 2: Germination and Growth of Radish (Raphanus sativus) and Lettuce (Lactuca sativus) Exposed to Arsenite and Arsenate in Hydroponic Growth Solution Little information is available on the survival, uptake, and dry mass production of vegetable seedlings and maturing plants in arsenic enriched environments. Such information is however very important to many vegetable growers in areas of subsistent agricultural like Bangladesh or home-gardeners in closer proximity of As sources such as metal smelters. Accordingly we conducted research investigating (i) the germination and radical formation of radish and lettuce seeds at varying As (V) and As (III) concentrations and (ii) radish and lettuce plants in solution culture. Seed germination studies demonstrated that 0.1mM and 0.025mM are toxic threshold levels of As (III and V) for radishes and lettuce, respectively, while As (V) is more toxic to radish seeds than As (III). Arsenic (III and V) impacted both germination and radical development in ...
The effects of ozone exposure on lettuce leaves were investigated by means of gas exchange, modulated chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidants systems. High ozone concentration decreased the rate of photosynthesis at light saturation level and changes in stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. However, an increase in intercellular CO2 concentration indicated a decrease in the carboxylation efficiency. These data agreed with a reduction of non-cyclic electron flow and lower capacity to reduce the quinone pool. Ozone affected the ascorbate pool and decreased ascorbate peroxidase activity, increased lipid peroxidation, altered membrane properties and reduced the development of non-photochemical quenching ...
River Ranch of Salinas, CA has recalled whole head romaine lettuce because of potential Salmonella contamination.. The bulk-packed lettuce , with no individual labeling, had the lot code 13816 291. It was distributed from Oct. 23 -26 to multiple states.. Wholesaler Keany Produce Co. of Landover, MD River Ranch sent a letter to its customers saying the voluntary recall was a precautionary measure due to an isolated instance, during a routine U.S. Department of Agriculture test of one sample, conducted by the New York State Health Department.. The California Department of Public Health has released an information notice with a link to an in-state distribution list.. To date here have been no reported illnesses associated with the lettuce.. © Food Safety News ...
Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV)-Most isolates can infect and are seed-borne in cultivars containing the mol gene. A reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based test was developed for the specific detection of LMV-Most isolates. Based on the complete genome sequences of three LMV isolates belonging respectively to the Most type, the Common type and neither of these two types, three different assays were compared: (i) presence of a diagnostic restriction site in the region of the genome encoding the variable N-terminus of the capsid protein, in the 3 end of the genome, (ii) RT-PCR using primers designed to amplify a cDNA corresponding to a portion of the P1 coding region, in the 5 end of the genome and (iii) RT-PCR using primers designed to amplify a central region of the genome. The assays were performed against a collection of 21 isolates from different geographical origins and representing the molecular variability of LMV. RT-PCR of the central region of the genome was ...
Lactuca serriola, Prickly Lettuce. NameThatPlant.net currently features 3729 plants and 22,993 images. For many plants, the website displays maps showing physiographic provinces within the Carolinas and Georgia where the plant has been documented.
www.whitsons.com, Happy Spring! Whitsons is pleased to present our vegetable of the month for the month of May, Lettuce. Lettuce is in season and will be featured in schools this month. So just why is lettuce so good for you? Aside from its great taste and large varieties, lettuce is packed with many nutrients as well! Lettuce is high in Vitamin A, which is important for healthy vision and can help protect you from becoming sick. It is also a good source of Vitamin C as well. Vitamin C is necessary for strong bones and teeth, and helps heal cuts and scrapes. Romaine lettuce is high in potassium and fiber which is also beneficial for protecting the heart.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The wound response in fresh-cut lettuce involves programmed cell death events. AU - Iakimova, Elena T.. AU - Woltering, Ernst J.. PY - 2018/7. Y1 - 2018/7. N2 - In this work, the involvement of programmed cell death (PCD) in the wound-induced postharvest browning disorder and senescence in butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) fresh-cuts was studied. At the wounded (cut, bruised) sites, rapid browning, loss of chlorophyll and massive cell death, accompanied with accumulation of reactive oxygen species and increased electrolyte leakage occurred in a narrow strip of tissue adjacent the injury. The dead cell morphology (protoplast and nuclei shrinkage) together with the biochemical and physiological changes resembled necrotic PCD type. With a slight delay post-wounding, senescence associated with similar cell death features was initiated in distant non-wounded sites. In addition to necrotic PCD, both in wounded and senescing tissue, the appearance of empty cell corpses was ...
Romaine lettuce. If my memory serves me correctly, Romaine is the foundation for the well-respected Caesar salad, which is essentially the lettuce accom...
Objectif: Au Niger, lagriculture maraîchère réalisée dans les zones urbaines et péri-urbaines utilise les eaux usées souvent très souillées par la matière fécale humaine et animale pour lirrigation. Cette étude a évalué la prévalence et la diversité des Salmonella isolées de la laitue dans différents sites maraichers du Niger.. Méthodologie et résultats: Des prélèvements des échantillons de laitue (Lactuca sativa L.) ont été réalisés dans des jardins maraîchers à travers toutes les régions du Niger. Lanalyse microbiologique a été faite selon la norme ISO 6579:2002. La production des laitues a pour principale source darrosage, les eaux des caniveaux (41,67%). Les échantillons de laitue ont montré une forte prévalence de Salmonella dans certaines régions allant jusquà 56%. Les Salmonella isolées sont dominées par le sérogroupe B (34,43%), suivi des Salmonella spp (18,85%) et du Sérogroupe C (13,11%). Les souches ont montré une résistance : ...
Before you buy a Caesar salad, make sure you know where the romaine lettuce was harvested to avoid an E. coli infection, the CDC advises.
Fresh leafy greens like lettuce can be consumed raw and are susceptible to foodborne pathogens if they become contaminated. Recently, the number of reported pathogenic foodborne outbreaks related to leafy greens has increased. Therefore, it is important to try to alleviate the human health burden associated with these outbreaks. Processing of fresh-cut lettuce, including washing, is a step in the supply chain that needs to be well controlled to avoid cross-contamination. Current measures to control the quality of lettuce during washing include the use of chemicals like chlorine; however, questions regarding the safety of chlorine have prompted research for alternative solutions with peracetic acid (PAA). This study evaluates the effectiveness of a PAA (c.a. 75 mg/L) solution on the reduction of a commensal E. coli strain during the washing of fresh-cut lettuce. Experiments were performed at the laboratory scale and validated at the industrial scale. We observed that the use of PAA was not ...
Romaine lettuce has been determined to be the likely source of an E. coli outbreak in Miramichi in April that caused more than 20 people to get sick.
Bacteria of the faba bean (Vicia faba L.)/Orobanche spp. root environment were evaluated for their potential use as biocontrol agents for the parasitic weed. Bacteria were isolated mainly from the rhizosphere of faba bean as well as from diseased Orobanche underground structures and an Orobanche -suppressive soil from three districts of northern Tunisia. Out of 351 bacterial isolates, 337 were tested for pathogenicity in an inverted pyramidal-shape screening programme including a Lactuca sativa L. seedlings bioassay, root-chamber and pot experiments. In preselection screening on L. sativa seedlings, 37 isolates (11%) showed a strong growth inhibitory effect, of which 70 and 84% also had a significant suppressive activity on the pre-emergence structures of O. foetida and O. crenata, respectively, in root-chamber experiments. Among five bacterial isolates selected for pot trials, strain Bf7-9 of Pseudomonas fluorescens showed high biocontrol activity against both species of Orobanche and ...
Pseudomonas cichorii is a Gram-negative soil bacterium that is pathogenic to plants. It has a wide host range, and can have an important economical impact on lettuce, celery and chrysanthemum crops. P. cichorii was first isolated on endives (Cichorium endivia), from which it derives its name. It produces 6-aminopenicillanic acid. Based on 16S rRNA analysis, P. cichorii has been placed in the P. syringae group. Pseudomonas cichorii is non-host specific as it does not infect just one host. Its host range includes lettuce, pepper, celery, coffee, wheat, basil and several other host plants. Symptoms of the causal agent vary depending on the host and the area of the plant infected. In general, pseudomonas cichorii is seen to cause leaf blighting and spotting. The first appearance of symptoms involves a water soaked lesion that develops at the edge of the leaf, midvein or randomly across the leaf These lesions progressively turn black or brown and may be surrounded by yellow halos. These lesions also ...
Increases longevity - Though sea lettuce is consumed worldwide, it is especially popular in Okinawan in Japan and Crete in Greece. Perhaps it is coincidental, but the residents of these two locations are well-known for their longevity. The Okinawa Centenarian Study, for example, found that the residents of Okinawa are 82 percent less likely than the average American to suffer from coronary heart disease. Moreover, a study published in the September 2008 edition of the British Medical Journal found that the morality rate of those who favor a Mediterranean diet is nine percent lower than those who favor the standard Western diet. Seafood - including sea vegetables like sea lettuce - dominate the diets of these people, so it is possible that these mineral-rich foods are responsible for such long-term healthfulness.. Rich in vitamins - Nutrition-wise, sea lettuce almost covers the entire vitamin spectrum. 100 grams of this green seaweed provide us with 221 micrograms of vitamin A, 10 milligrams of ...
Most Caesars contain anchovy paste, not to mention a ton of fat and calories. Ive eliminated the croutons since I hate them (with a passion), and cut...
I saw Bobby Flay make this salad on one of his grilling specials on the Food Network. I made it last night, and wow was it ever delicious. It has become... ...
Download this Green Cos Lettuce At Hydroponics Vegetable Farm photo now. And search more of the webs best library of royalty-free stock images from iStock.
Lettuce Wraps Recipes containing ingredients bell pepper, broccoli, capers, carrots, cashews, celery, cilantro, coriander, fennel, garlic, green onions, lettuce
Aceptado 10 Marzo 2010.. Resumen. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Ss) y Sclerotinia minor (Sm) afectan severamente más de 400 especies de plantas, y pueden causar reducciones en rendimiento por arriba del 50%. Con el propósito de obtener microorganismos potenciales para el control de ambos patógenos, se realizó el aislamiento de cepas de Trichoderma a partir de muestras de suelo con diferente uso agrícola y forestal. Setenta y un aislados fúngicos de Trichoderma (IBA) fueron obtenidos a través de técnica de trampas con esclerocios. Subsecuentemente, se evaluó su capacidad micoparasítica sobre micelio y esclerocios de ambos fitopatógenos mediante cultivos duales in vitro. Los más altos porcentajes de colonización (,90%) de las cepas de Trichoderma sobre Ss y Sm fueron observados para los aislamientos IBA 3, IBA 4, IBA 38, e IBA 54. En general, la habilidad de los aislamientos de Trichoderma para parasitar y degradar esclerocios fue agresiva en los aislamientos IBA 3, IBA 4, IBA 23, IBA 38, ...
There are 23 calories in 3 cups of shredded or chopped Lettuce. Get full nutrition facts and other common serving sizes of Lettuce including 1 small leaf and 1 medium leaf.
Originally, Death by Lettuce was going to be a book; one of those inspirational tales told by a cancer survivor which instills hope in every other person with thyroid cancer. Its spine would be pink and the title would be in a hand written font. There would be a cartoon lettuce with sharp pointy teeth about to eat a little curly haired cartoon character of myself. It would be something Oprah would pick up, and I would go on her show and become a model poster child for thyroid cancer awareness. Things changed, and I dont have the attention span to make an awe inspiring book right now, and I still fear it would read like a Steinbeck novel.. Originally the blog was basically my open journal to rant and rave about having to deal with cancer. Its been evolving. While I still have the random rants when I need to, Im looking more at more practical issues and problems facing cancer, and in particular young adult thyroid cancer patients. Im reviewing resources that are out there for us. And I want to ...
Originally, Death by Lettuce was going to be a book; one of those inspirational tales told by a cancer survivor which instills hope in every other person with thyroid cancer. Its spine would be pink and the title would be in a hand written font. There would be a cartoon lettuce with sharp pointy teeth about to eat a little curly haired cartoon character of myself. It would be something Oprah would pick up, and I would go on her show and become a model poster child for thyroid cancer awareness. Things changed, and I dont have the attention span to make an awe inspiring book right now, and I still fear it would read like a Steinbeck novel.. Originally the blog was basically my open journal to rant and rave about having to deal with cancer. Its been evolving. While I still have the random rants when I need to, Im looking more at more practical issues and problems facing cancer, and in particular young adult thyroid cancer patients. Im reviewing resources that are out there for us. And I want to ...
A Recipe for Asparagus Risotto With Lettuce Recipe that contains Arborio rice,Butter,Parmesan cheese,asparagus,butter,chicken stock,garlic,lettuce,lig
Scallion vs Lettuce - In-Depth Nutrition Comparison. Compare Scallion to Lettuce by vitamins and minerals using the only readable nutrition comparison tool.
A new study from Ohio State University provides the first laboratory evidence that certain antioxidants found in dark leafy green vegetables can indeed help prevent cataracts.
Download this Plate Of Sauteed Leafy Greens With Shallots photo now. And search more of the webs best library of royalty-free stock images from iStock.
The salad bed is thriving. Lettuces, onions, radishes are enjoying the cooler weather - so am I. Everything was fertilized this past weekend. Irrigation occurs about every other day. Its so nice not to have to get up at dark:30 and irrigate. I was getting out there and misting everything around 5:30. Now an occasional watering using the drip line does the trick.. Im harvesting the lettuce by pulling the lowest leaves as needed and allowing the rest of the plant to remain and grow. So far so good. As the onions are thinned they are chopped and used like chives. Since it freezes around here in December, this bed will be covered by a covered wagon type device with the hope that the lettuce and company will continue to provide salad throughout the winter.. A head of lettuce in the grocery store is ~$2. A packet of seeds cost slightly more at ~$2.50. Each packet contains ~250 seeds. At $0.01 a head for home grown nutritious lettuce its well worth growing your own. Sure theres the costs of water, ...
Arizona Revised Statutes features Arizona state laws on agriculture, alcoholic beverages, banks, children, criminal law, trusts and estates, education, elections, insurance, labor, marital and domestic relations, property, public health, taxation, trade and commerce.
If you prefer not to kill slugs and snails in your garden, you can add them to your compost heap.. As many a hosta or pea plant can testify, snails and slugs eat plants and leaves so can help break down plant matter in a compost heap. Theyre not as good as worms but if you dont fancy killing them after theyve eaten your lettuce seedlings, harness them for good instead of evil by adding them to your compost bin.. Do keep in mind though that youre basically giving them a safe place to live and eat - and their children & grandchildren will probably venture back into your garden… ...
Making good sandwiches makes you the moment to utilize your creative talents in the kitchen once more. Whenever providing all the nutrients needed for your wholesome living, Sandwiches can be created as an all the meal. Use your imagination as well as sandwich including herbs such as fresh basil fresh, cilantro as well as leaves parsley, in order to create a healthful powerhouse by. In addition it gives an appealing look and has virtually no calories; Fresh watercress gives a sandwich a good nippy taste. Do you know an answer to a following question. Did you see that watercress is a proper source of beta iron, carotene, potassium as well as calcium? Fresh chives, which contain sulphur oil, fresh romaine lettuce, is lower in calories and lofty in fiber. Spinach which is full of vitamin an and folate. Try to choose the murky green leafy lettuce. An excellent quite low calorie source of when crconsuming your sandwiches, vitamin Try using sandwich style sliced dill pickles or cucumbers sliced as or ...
Anyway, back to Buttercup - The vet did do a fecal float using one of Piggys stools - Buttercup would not cooperate in giving a sample - and said that anything Buttercup had would show up in Piggys stool as well. The fecal float showed of Piggys stool showed that stool was normal, and she did not address Buttercups squeaking/straining. Rather, she told me that Bcups soft stools were most likely the result of an intolerance to one of the veggies I was feeding (green and red leaf lettuce, romaine lettuce, green bell peppers, cilantro, occasional zucchini, and a little bit of carrot each week). She instructed me to cut vegetables out entirely until her stool firmed up and then start re-introducing them one by one. I felt bad cutting out veggies and thought that maybe the mushy stools were due to too many veggies as opposed to an intolerance to just one, so instead started to slowly decrease the amounts that were given in the hopes that at a certain point the stools would get better. Eventually ...
The acetone extract shows antibacterial activity against organisms like Salmonella typhimurium and Morganella morganii (Singh and Gopal Nath, 1999). Shows allelopathic activity on lettuce (Fujii et al., 2003). The fruit is known as wild olives and eaten. Fleshy outer portion of fruit is edible. Wood is used for small packing cases, ...
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Throwing up is not a good thing, they are sick and if you can afford it, you need to take them to a vet. Guinea Pigs are considered an exotic pet, some vets do not treat them, so call around.Are you giving your Guinea pigs Vitamin C drops in their water daily? This is very very important for their health. Thier bodies do not produce Vitamin C.I hope you are not feeding them head lettuce this will make them very ill.They love carrots, romaine lettuce, and baby spinach leaves.Also, regarding their bedding material. I hope you are not using cedar chips; this can be toxic to small animals who are in an inclosed area. Pine chips are so much better. You can purchase the pine chips at Walmart.AnswerUm...well you know nothing good ever comes of throwing up! ;) I hope you know Guinea Pigs are not like Hamsters. Hamsters dont really need Vitamin C. Actually, it hurts them if you give them it! (Dont give hamsters citrus fruits!) But Guinea Pigs need it. Thats why ever Guinea owner puts 2 drops of Vitamin C
lettuce salad with tomato, cheese and vegetables - buy this Royalty Free Stock Photo on Food Cheese Vegetable Nutrition Vegetarian diet Diet Bowl.
Blue Apron Spaghetti Bolognese w/ Butter Lettuce Salad & Creamy Italian Dressing. 0.5 meal kit contains 770 calories, 67g net carbs, 13g sugar, and 31g fat. Visit our site for complete nutrition facts for this item and 185,000+ other foods.
The outbreak investigation was coordinated by the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration (DVFA) in cooperation with Statens Serum Institut (SSI) and The National Food Institute at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU-FOOD). The Danish Regional Food Control Offices, under the DVFA, conducted separate local outbreak investigations. An outbreak was considered a part of the meta-outbreak if the outbreak occurred in Denmark in March-April 2016 after consumption of green coral lettuce from France.. Local outbreak investigations were conducted via contact to outbreak venues and kitchens responsible for the catering to establish the circumstances of the outbreaks. Further investigations were then done to establish attack rate and food exposure details. Stool sample kits were distributed directly to patients by the local investigators where possible. Patients were encouraged to send in two separate stool samples to the SSI. Stool samples analysis was performed at the SSI and food sample analysis ...
Preheat the oven to 200°F. Remove the tuna from the refrigerator 30 minutes before baking.. Season the tuna on both sides with the fennel seed and salt. Put the tuna in a deep ovenproof baking dish just large enough to hold it. Add the thyme, bay leaf, garlic, and peppercorns. Pour in enough olive oil just to cover the tuna. Bake until a few white dots (coagulated protein) appear on the surface of the fish and the flesh just begins to flake when probed with a fork, 30 to 40 minutes. The tuna should still be slightly rosy inside. Remove from the oven and let cool to room temperature in the oil.. Make the dressing: In a bowl, whisk together the olive oil (cooled), vinegar, capers, oregano, garlic, and salt and pepper to taste. Add the chickpeas and let them marinate for 30 minutes.. With a slotted spatula, lift the tuna out of the olive oil and onto a plate.. Put the lettuce in a large salad bowl. Tear the larger outer leaves in half, if desired, but leave the pretty inner leaves whole. Tear the ...
Enjoy galleries showing almonds, arugula, garlic, gelatin, grated emmental cheese, lettuce, milk, mustard, red pepper, salmon, sausages, sweet pepper powder, tomato paste, appetizer, supper, boiling, frying, kneading , and sneak peek in CookArr, a cooking blog.
Abstract: Etiology of a Mosaic Disease of Radish and Lettuce and Sequencing of the Coat Protein Gene of the Causal Agent in Saudi Arabia
... lettuce; coriander Bánh ướt - rice noodle sheets, eaten with nước chấm, fried shallots and a side of chả lụa (Vietnamese pork ...
... lettuce, kiwi, snap beans, and onions. It is also used on turf on golf courses. Two common fungi that vinclozolin is used to ... lettuce, 24,779; nectarines, 1,449; onions, 829; peaches, 15,203; plums, 163; raspberries, 3,247; and strawberries, 41,006. In ...
"Iceberg Lettuce". Poetry. January 1999. "One Afternoon". Poetry. July-August 2007. "Tea Party". Poetry. July 2006. The Zoo. ...
The seeds of lettuce have also been used to relieve pain.[medical citation needed] Lettuce seed was listed as an anaesthetic in ... "Lettuce opium" was used by the ancient Egyptians, and was introduced as a drug in the United States as early as 1799.[citation ... Accordingly, lettuce opium fell from favor, until publications of the hippie movement began to promote it in the mid-1970s as a ... Trojanowska, A. (2005). "Lettuce, lactuca sp., as a medicinal plant in polish publications of the 19th century". Kwart Hist ...
"Radichetta Lettuce". seeds-organic.com. Retrieved 1 February 2017. Chicory on UoF "RADICHETTA LETTUCE (CATALOGNA) (52 DAYS ... The lettuce-like plants can grow up to 1 foot tall. It is cold tolerant, and is slow to bolt, in spring. The young leaves can ... It can be eaten raw as a salad green (similar to a lettuce), or on sandwiches, and can also be used as a garnish. It has a soft ... "LETTUCE RADICHETTA/BARBA DI FRATE". seedsofitaly.com. Retrieved 1 February 2017. ...
Drying the leaves for the salad is important as salad dressings and oils do not stick well to wet lettuce or salad leaves. ... Lettuce spinners. Salad washers. Whatever they're calling them, our group of paper towel diehards approached those plastic tubs ... A report at the time estimated that the money spent on a month's supply of paper towel reserved for drying lettuce could easily ... Another product was a wire lettuce dryer designed for use in the sink. A basket was fixed with suction cups to the bottom of ...
Reasoning for that theory is that green lettuce salad is a dish of primarily Western origins.[not in citation given (See ... Simon Kander, published as early as 1910, includes a simple "Lettuce salad" with chopped onion and French or German dressing; ... With intimations of Asian-style lettuce salads appearing by the 1950s and into the 1970s, publishers like California's Sunset ... Though many variations exist, common features of most Chinese chicken salads contain: cut romaine lettuce and cabbage (or other ...
Isn't lettuce brave? I like electrons, hello please!" Loss of goal - Failure to follow a train of thought to a natural ...
... "lettuce." The style overall suggests a parody of formal poetry. He uses allegories and near-rhymes: "those" and "Rose"; "us" ... and "lettuce"; "visions" and "prisons," and so on. The form would be considered an imperfect ballad stanza, with the first and ...
On 10 August 2015 an OSSI-Pledged red romaine lettuce variety called 'Outredgeous' bred by farmer-breeder Frank Morton became ... Hamilton, Lisa M (Summer 2014). "Linux for Lettuce". Virginia Quarterly Review. Retrieved 26 February 2016. Wall, Tim (22 April ...
Cota has a small economy mainly based on agriculture; cabbage and lettuce. Juan Pablo Forero, professional cyclist (in Spanish ...
"Green String Lettuce". Seaweeds of Alaska. Retrieved March 23, 2013. Hayden, H.S.; Blomster, J.; Maggs, C.A.; Silva, P.C.; ...
Many areas in the Salinas and Pajaro Valleys are unable to grow lettuce due to the high levels of Verticillium dahliae in the ... Lettuce) Lantana spp. (Lantana) Larix spp. (larch) Liquidambar styraciflua (Sweet gum) Lunaria annua (Honesty) (+) Malus spp. ( ...
While at Magdalene he wrote a musical, Share My Lettuce, which was produced in London in 1957 by Michael Codron, and performed ... "Share My Lettuce". The Guide to Musical Theatre. Retrieved 27 November 2015. "About us". HistoryWorld. Retrieved 14 February ...
Malheur wire-lettuce. Fact Sheet. USFWS. Gottlieb, L.D. (2004). "Rethinking classic examples of recent speciation in plants". ...
Visually, the size and shape of the leaves varies greatly, from the large lettuce-like leaves of the Mammoth basil and Lettuce ... "Lettuce Leaf Basil". Observations. The Tucson Gardener. Archived from the original on 2010-01-08. Retrieved 2006-12-31. "Basil ...
Taco Bell's tainted lettuce was later traced, via packaging, to farms in the Central Valley of California, although no specific ... "Lettuce & Leafy Greens Prod. & Harvest BP Draft" (PDF). PDF. June 13, 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 2, ... The Taco John's E. coli outbreak was traced to contaminated lettuce sold in foods at Taco John's restaurants that were supplied ... In 2006, there were several outbreaks of foodborne illness from spinach and lettuce contaminated by E. coli O157:H7. The ...
For example, the currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, is believed to have spread from New Zealand to Tasmania in this ... "Scientist battles lettuce aphid". Landline. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved January 1, 2007. R. L. Blackman; V. ...
"Best Bacon, Lettuce, and Tomato Sandwich Recipe". CDkitchen. Retrieved 5 December 2010. "Bacon, Lettuce, & Tomato Sandiwch". ...
A mesclun mix is described as comprising baby leaves of lettuces and other greens, and often herbs, in a wide range of leaf ... The traditional mix usually includes chervil, arugula, leafy lettuces and endive, while the term may also refer to an ... Mesclun can be an extraordinary lettuce mixture: rocket, much like the rugola (arugula) found in Italian markets; chervil; ... mâche, or lamb's lettuce; and oak leaf. On occasion, baby curly endive (chicory) or young dandelion greens find their way into ...
Slug and Lettuce, Harvester). Attracting such national retail chain stores and restaurants to a community can prevent this type ...
Taking its common name from its lettuce-like appearance, the lichen grows in the tree canopy but falls to the forest floor, ... Lobaria oregana, also known as lettuce lichen and as Oregon lungwort, is a species of foliose lichen occurring in North ... "Lettuce Lichen (Lobaria Oregana)." INaturalist.org, www.inaturalist.org/taxa/55538-Lobaria-oregana.,}} Lobaria oregana in Index ...
"Fact files: Sea lettuce". The Blue Planet. BBC. Archived from the original on February 20, 2011. Retrieved 2008-08-10. Mason, ... Ulva lactuca, a green alga, also known as sea lettuce, is occasionally eaten as green laver, which is regarded as inferior to ...
Water lettuce is often used in tropical aquariums to provide cover for fry and small fish. It is also helpful as it outcompetes ... Water lettuce is among the world's most productive freshwater aquatic plants and considered an invasive species. In waters with ... Severe overgrowth of water lettuce can block gas exchange at the air-water interface, reducing the oxygen in the water and ... Pistia can be controlled by mechanical harvesters that remove the water lettuce from the water and transport it to disposal on ...
... sea lettuce (Ulva sp.), dead man's fingers (Codium fragile) and occasionally wireweed (Sargassum muticum). Growth of these ...
... is a species of wild lettuce known by the common names Canada lettuce, Canada wild lettuce, tall lettuce, ... "medicinal herbs: CANADA LETTUCE - Lactuca canadensis". www.naturalmedicinalherbs.net. Retrieved 2016-11-06. "Wild Lettuce ... Lactuca is a genus of flowering plants in the Asteraceae family that is commonly referred to as "lettuce". The genus contains ... "Lactuca canadensis (Canada Lettuce) - Practical Plants". practicalplants.org. Retrieved 2016-11-06. Shelton, Angela L.; Inouye ...
Rowe, Aaron (2006-12-07). "Super Lettuce Turns Sour Sweet". Wired Magazine. Archived from the original on 2008-08-31. Retrieved ...
They eat lettuce in captivity. This article incorporates public domain text from the reference and CC-BY-3.0 text from the ...
"Listeria Found in Lettuce, Too". Abcnews.go.com. 2011-09-30. Retrieved June 21, 2013. Associated Press (October 18, 2011). "25 ... On September 30, 2011, a random sample of romaine lettuce taken by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration tested positive for ... listeria on lettuce shipped on September 12 and 13 by an Oregon distributor to at least two other states-Washington and Idaho. ...
Lettuce, John (28 May 2001). "MS-built UK 'Government Gateway' locks out non-MS browsers". The Register. Retrieved 2006-11-23. ...
Romaine lettuce. If my memory serves me correctly, Romaine is the foundation for the well-respected Caesar salad, which is ... Romaine lettuce. If my memory serves me correctly, Romaine is the foundation for the well-respected Caesar salad, which is ... iceberg lettuce. Caesar salad. Behind the scenes at a supermarket produce department. Green Iguana Diet. ... Unless you are using the lettuce for garnish, it is advisable that you not include the tough ribs or veins of the leaves as ...
People should avoid eating romaine lettuce until health officials can determine the cause of E. coli food infections, Consumer ... "Even though we cant say with 100 percent certainty that romaine lettuce is the cause of the E. coli outbreak in the U.S., a ... Fifty-eight people have gotten sick from the E. coli bacteria over the past seven weeks, possibly from eating romaine lettuce, ... Consumers Advised to Avoid Romaine Lettuce for Now. Its the likely cause of E. coli food poisoning, Consumer Reports suspects ...
The invention relates to the seeds of lettuce cultivar 40-0401159-B, to the plants of lettuce cultivar 40-0401159-B and to ... This invention also relates to lettuce cultivars or breeding cultivars and plant parts derived from lettuce cultivar 40-0401159 ... to methods for producing other lettuce cultivars, lines or plant parts derived from lettuce cultivar 40-0401159-B and to the ... The invention further relates to methods for producing a lettuce plant containing in its genetic material one or more ...
Im not ashamed to admit that I love iceberg lettuce. Its cool, its crisp, and its a perfect foil for blue cheese dressing. ... I also hate iceberg lettuce that is more brown than light green with tons of droopy outer leaves. Cmon, admit it. You like ... Paul Lukas discovers that some fancy-pants chefs love iceberg lettuce, too. ... iceberg lettuce, too. Heres a great blue cheese dressing... ... You like iceberg lettuce, too. Heres a great blue cheese ...
There is growth in popularity of different types of lettuces from Romaine to head and leaf-type lettuces, mainly due to the ... Ideal Lettuce-Growing Conditions. Lettuce seeds wont sprout when soil temperatures are above 80°F but they will start to ... When lettuce is mentioned, many think of the standard iceberg lettuce found in supermarkets and restaurant salads. That is ... Thanks to ongoing research on lettuce traits, there are some techniques to extend the sprouting for lettuce seeds into the ...
Kinds of lettuce[change , change source]. Most lettuce leaves are green, but some are red. Most lettuce leaves taste bitter. ... You can grow lettuce during winter in a greenhouse.[1]. Eating lettuce[change , change source]. In some countries, it is often ... Growing lettuce[change , change source]. Lettuce can be grown in many parts of the world, including Europe, Asia, and North ... History of lettuce[change , change source]. Wild lettuce plants were eaten by the Romans and Egyptians. The ancient Greeks were ...
... make sure you know where the romaine lettuce was harvested to avoid an E. coli infection, the CDC advises. ... Is romaine lettuce back on grocery shelves?. Yes. Retailers are stocking shelves with romaine lettuce again. Consumers are ... Hydroponically- and greenhouse-grown romaine lettuce is also safe to eat. What do I do if I think I have an E. coli infection? ... Romaine lettuce that was harvested outside of Central Coast growing regions of northern and central California is safe to eat. ...
If youve never grown your own lettuce plants to experience that fresh from the garden taste, try our mixed pack: five superb ... Lettuce Plants - All Sorts Mix. Enjoy that fresh from the garden taste!. If youve never grown your own lettuce plants to ... Lettuce Plants - All Sorts Mix. Enjoy that fresh from the garden taste!. If youve never grown your own lettuce plants to ... LETTUCE - Should there be more than one seedling in the plug pinch out the weakest. Plant out in a sunny or lightly shaded spot ...
Salinas Grower Recalls Romaine Lettuce By News Desk , November 11, 2010. River Ranch of Salinas, CA has recalled whole head ... The bulk-packed lettuce , with no individual labeling, had the lot code 13816 291. It was distributed from Oct. 23 -26 to ... To date here have been no reported illnesses associated with the lettuce. ...
... of Cos or Romaine Lettuce, raw. Youd need to walk 2 minutes to burn 8 calories. Visit CalorieKing to see calorie count and ... How long would it take to burn off 8 Calories of Cos or Romaine Lettuce, raw? ... Where do the calories in Cos or Romaine Lettuce, raw come from? ...
T 1348/11 (Multileaf lettuce/RIJK ZWAAN) of 15.1.2016. European Case Law Identifier:. ECLI:EP:BA:2016:T134811.20160115. ... 1. Multileaf lettuce plant of the genus Lactuca of a particular type having the heritable monogenic recessive multileaf ... This meant that any potential infringer, having a lettuce plant of the multileaf phenotype, could not determine whether or not ... In view of this construction of claim 1, any potential infringer could, for a given multileaf lettuce plant, determine by means ...
Germination: 6 to 10 days at 50 to 70 F. Plant seeds 1/2 of an inch deep with 12 inches between rows This lettuce has a ... AAS Winner! Package contains 5 grams, approximately 2,850 Buttercrunch Lettuce Seeds. ... The leaves of this butterhead type lettuce form a ... Plant lettuce in a well-drained area with a pH around 6.0-6.8. ... Buttercrunch Lettuce is heat tolerant and is slow to bolt. The taste and texture of this lettuce makes it a great addition to ...
Romaine or cos lettuce is a variety of lettuce which grows in a tall head of sturdy leaves with a firm rib down the center. ... Romaine lettuce is commonly used in Middle Eastern cuisine.. Romaine lettuce may be used in the Passover Seder as a type of ... Five nutrients of Romaine Lettuce. 1. Fiber. The fiber found in romaine lettuce will not only help you to feel satiated, but it ... Health benefits of Romaine Lettuce. *Protein.Romaine lettuce is 17% protein with 7.7 grams per head. It is also a complete ...
Cultivars of iceberg lettuce are the most familiar lettuces in the USA. The name Iceberg comes from the way the lettuce was ... Lettuce is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera - see list of Lepidoptera which feed on lettuces.. History. ... Lettuce. 2007 Schools Wikipedia Selection. Related subjects: Food and agriculture; Plants. iLettuce. ... opiate-like substance that is contained in all types of lettuce.*. Yazidis consider eating lettuce taboo. See Taboo food and ...
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Watch List Water Lettuce is a free-floating plant with a rosette of leaves that resembles an open head of lettuce. The leaves ... Water Lettuce Invasive Species Alert - Printable PDF. Status and Strategy for Water Lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) Management ... U.S. Distribution: Water lettuce has been introduced to the south and western United States, as well as Ohio, New York, New ... Habitat: Water lettuce can be found in ponds, lakes, rivers, and streams. ...
Lettuce is synonymous with salads as they are predominantly made from crispy green lettuce leaves. Most varieties of lettuce ... Not all lettuce is created equal, but if you start your meal with a salad made of romaine lettuce you will be sure to add not ... To clean lettuce, first remove the outer leaves and with one slice cut off the tips of the lettuce since they tend to be bitter ... Romaine lettuce will keep for five to seven days, Boston and leaf lettuce for two to three days, while fragile greens such as ...
Lettuce for Mothers. Br Med J 1965; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.5442.1129 (Published 24 April 1965) Cite this as: Br ...
Other articles where Water lettuce is discussed: Africa: Sudd: …other water plants-including the floating Nile cabbage (Pistia ... ": { "url": "/plant/water-lettuce", "shareUrl": "https://www.britannica.com/plant/water-lettuce", "title": "Water lettuce" ," ...
Astronauts have now managed to grow lettuce inside specially designed chambers on the International Space Station. Such space- ... Space-grown lettuce was similar in composition to the Earth-grown controls, except that in some (but not all) trials, space- ... Space lettuce Nutritious and safe crops would be a dietary supplement to assist long-distance space missions ... Between 2014-2016, lettuce was grown on board the ISS from surface-sterilized seeds within Vegetable Production Systems ( ...
... lettuce: …into a compact head; (3) leaf, or curled, lettuce (variety crispa), with a rosette of leaves that are curled, finely ... cut, smooth-edged or oak-leaved in shape; and (4) cos, or romaine, lettuce (variety longifolia), with smooth leaves that form a ... In lettuce. …into a compact head; (3) leaf, or curled, lettuce (variety crispa), with a rosette of leaves that are curled, ... finely cut, smooth-edged or oak-leaved in shape; and (4) cos, or romaine, lettuce (variety longifolia), with smooth leaves that ...
Proposed new regulations under the Food Safety Modernization Act have been criticized by proponents of local, organic and sustainable farming for being too invasive and unnatural.
To serve, place about a quarter cup of salad in a large iceberg lettuce leaf. Enjoy! ...
... head lettuce, loose-leaf lettuce, and romaine (or cos) lettuce. Lettuce was first brought to the Americas from Europe by ... Pale to white lettuce, such as the centers in some iceberg lettuce, contain few nutrients. Lettuce grows best in full sun in ... Lettuce is also used as a primary ingredient in the preparation of lettuce soup. Depending on the variety, lettuce is an ... Butterhead - Also known as Boston or Bibb lettuce, and traditional in the UK as "round lettuce", this type is a head lettuce ...
These crunchy lettuce-wrapped appetizers are packed with fried rice vermicelli fritters, crispy roasted Peking duck, and ... To eat, drizzle hoisin sauce on a piece of lettuce; spoon the duck and vermicelli stir fry on top. Hold the lettuce wrap ...
19] compares commodity lettuce with ready--to-eat packaged salads and in so doing may have created the wrong impression.The ... "Lettuce Grows Into a Processed Food" [Aug. 19] compares commodity lettuce with ready--to-eat packaged salads and in so doing ... The article equates the "shape" of heads of lettuce with quality. In truth, at Fresh Express, the field selection of lettuces ... If the quality is high, the shape of the lettuce head is irrelevant because the taste experience will be superior. ...
Six separate recalls of bagged lettuce since April havent done much to bolster the publics confidence in pre-cut and pre- ... Bagged lettuce -- once it hits the supermarket -- likely has fewer bacteria than loose lettuce, as it usually is triple washed ... So what is one to do when faced with multiple choices in the produce aisle? Should it be bagged lettuce or au naturel? ... home/health & living center/ nutrition, food & recipes a-z list/ lettuce: buy bagged or not? article ...
... and red pepper is spiked with sambal oelek and wrapped in lettuce leaves in this easy vegan recipe. ... Add 1 teaspoon dipping sauce; roll up lettuce to enclose tofu mixture. Repeat with remaining tofu mixture and lettuce leaves. ... Slow Cooker Buffalo Chicken Lettuce Wraps Buffalo chicken gets reinvented in this lettuce-wrapped, healthy version. ... Easy, light and wholesomely delicious vegan lettuce wraps. A fun way to celebrate with a nutritious feast in the palm of your ...
Rolling lettuce is a good way to keep large quantities of lettuce dry and relatively fresh for use in foodservice. If you need ... Rolling lettuce is a good way to keep large quantities of lettuce dry and relatively fresh for use in foodservice. If you need ... Lift the clean lettuce into a large colander to drain and start washing some more lettuce. Once youve filled the sink with ... Also, make sure that the lettuce is all aligned on the towel so that when you roll it the lettuce wont break. Once the towel ...
Electric Lettuce wants people to come in to buy weed, but also to get lost in nostalgia, listen to records, and look at the old ... Electric Lettuce. It leans into classic stoner culture with a polished touch. (Liz Allan) ... Thats why it created the chilled-out sister brand Electric Lettuce, which leans into classic stoner culture with a polished ...
Lettuce Grow. Marshall University Sustainability is pleased to announce their partnership with The Lettuce Grow Project of ... The Lettuce Grow Project provides a meaningful urban gardening experience in a fully integrated setting for young adults with ... For the 2017 growing season are planting micro-greens, lettuce, spinach, and herbs. ...
Disclaimer: Aquatic invasive species (AIS) records are assigned statuses of "verified", "observed", or "no longer observed" based on AIS Status Guidance. In general, "verified" populations are established and have been verified by a taxonomic expert. Populations with the "observed" status have not been verified by a taxonomic expert or do not have established populations. Populations with the "no longer observed" status include populations where a reproducing population did not establish. Our inventories are not necessarily exhaustive so it is important to report occurrences. To report new discoveries visit: http://dnr.wi.gov/topic/Invasives/report.html. See the Aquatic Invasive Species Guidance for information on how statuses are assigned. Personally identifiable information on data collection forms may be provided to requesters to the extent required by Wisconsins Open Records Law [ss. 19.31-19.39, Wis. Stats.]. By County , <> OBSERVED&groupBy=Waterbody >By Waterbody , <> ...
American funk band Lettuce sandwich Hedda Lettuce, American drag performer Lettuce Lake, a body of water in Lettuce Lake Park ... Claytonia perfoliata lambs lettuce, Valerianella locusta chalk lettuce, Dudleya pulverulenta Lettuce may also refer to: ... Including the leafy vegetable these are the cultivated lettuce, Lactuca sativa other species of the genus Lactuca wall lettuce ... Lettuce is a leafy vegetable. The name is also applied to other related and unrelated plants. ...
Romaine or cos lettuce is a variety of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia) that grows in a tall head of sturdy leaves ... Unlike most lettuces, it is tolerant of heat. In British English, it is commonly known as "cos lettuce", and in North America ... Romaine lettuce is commonly used in Middle Eastern cuisine. Romaine, like other lettuces, may also be cooked, for example ... ISBN 0-19-211579-0. Cos lettuces are probably not named for the island of Kos but for the Arabic word for lettuce Bittman, Mark ...
The seven-piece funky jam band from Brooklyn will be gracing us with saxy sounds and trumpet grooves at the Concord Music hall. Expect an appearance by BADBADNO
... coli-tainted lettuce. The states with the highest numbers of illness were Pennsylvania and California. This strain of E. coli ... An E. coli food poisoning outbreak linked to romaine lettuce has made dozens more people sick. Washing the lettuce wont make ... Infections linked to romaine lettuce made 31 more people sick - CDC expects more to come. by Kathleen Fifield, AARP, April 26, ... Since most produce is not labeled according to growing region, this amounts to throwing out the lettuce you might have at home ...
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The author describes the process of saving one years lettuce seeds for use in the next growing season and explains how the ... Lettuce isnt just the base of a good salad. It plays a crucial role on the farm by keeping other plants healthy. ... Given this versatility, lettuce is, you might say, a perfect crop.. We want to hear what you think about this article. Submit a ... We grow lettuce from fall to spring, but the last crop is especially important. First we cut the leaves for salad mixes when ...
Just a few basic ingredients rolled up in a lettuce leaf and your desired dipping sauce and youve got a restaurant-worthy ... Make your own copycat lettuce wraps at home with this Asian-inspired lettuce wrap recipe. ... Asian Lettuce Wraps with Chicken. Make your own copycat lettuce wraps at home with this Asian-inspired lettuce wrap recipe. ... Asian Lettuce Wraps with Chicken. Ingredients. * 2 cups finely chopped cooked chicken ...
... crunchy iceberg lettuce leaves wrap up Thai flavored veggies and Grilled Flank Steak. ... Divide leaves from lettuce among plates. Top with steak mixture and rice crackers.. Thai Chicken Lettuce Wraps: Prepare as ... For more lettuce wrap variety, try substituting Grilled Thyme Chicken Breasts or Grilled Pork Tenderloin for the Grilled Flank ... Thai Pork Lettuce Wraps: Prepare as directed but substitute Grilled Pork Tenderloin for the steak. Each Serving: about 290 ...
As popular as lettuce is for salads and sandwiches, you may not know that there are many different varieties. Here are 5 ... Stem lettuce is popular in Chinese cuisine and is commonly called Chinese lettuce, stalk lettuce, or celtuce (. 2. ). ... Some Romaine Lettuce Is Safe to Eat: Heres What to Know. The FDA has said romaine lettuce grown outside of a target area is ... Crisphead lettuce is widely known as iceberg lettuce. Its light, crunchy, and full of nutrients like folate and vitamin K. ...
... - BellaOnline Nutrition Database - BellaOnline is committed to helping our visitors become ... Lettuce, red leaf, raw. Food Group: Vegetables and Vegetable Products. Long Description: Lettuce, red leaf, raw. Short ... Lettuce, red leaf, raw Nutrition. This page is all about the nutrition of Lettuce, red leaf, raw. Learn about the carbs, ... Lettuce, red leaf, raw Nutrition Information - Full Details. All values shown in the detailed view below are per 100g of ...
  • The name of the plant in English , lettuce, and in Latin , lactuca, come from lactis , the Latin word for milk , because the juice of the plant looks like milk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lactuca sativa Lettony - The crisp leaves of this loose hearted Lettuce had the sweet taste and without the bitterness of normal lettuces. (millettephotomedia.com)
  • Lactuca sativa (garden lettuce) is a popular salad herb. (dovepress.com)
  • Exogenous Glycine Nitrogen Enhances Accumulation of Glycosylated Flavonoids and Antioxidant Activity in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. (frontiersin.org)
  • Lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.), one of the most widely consumed leafy vegetables worldwide, is a significant source of antioxidants and bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, ascorbic acid and tocopherols. (frontiersin.org)
  • The economically valuable vegetable crop lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ) is a minimally processed food product available throughout the entire year, and is a significant source of natural health-promoting compounds. (frontiersin.org)
  • One such system that has been used and shows promise is the combination of intensive production of tilapia (Oreochromis spp) and greenhouse production of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Monoculture systems have traditionally relied on proven methods and inputs. (auburn.edu)
  • In a 29.3 x 9.1 m (96 x 30 ft) double insulated greenhouse located at the E.W. Shell Fisheries Center, North Auburn Unit lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L. 'Charles') were sown in one inch (1") oasis blocks in July, 2010. (auburn.edu)
  • Results from these experiment showed that Bibb lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. 'Charles') is not adversely affected by either NaCl or CaCl2 at levels ranging from 0 to 500 ppm (0.5 ppt) chloride. (auburn.edu)
  • Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds exhibit thermoinhibition, or failure to complete germination when imbibed at warm temperatures. (escholarship.org)
  • Lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) is a popular vegetable that is widely grown and consumed throughout the world. (colostate.edu)
  • Cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and wild L. serriola L. differ greatly in both shoot and root characteristics. (elsevier.com)
  • Lactuca , commonly known as lettuce , is a genus of flowering plants in the daisy family, Asteraceae . (wikipedia.org)
  • Its best-known representative is the garden lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ), with its many varieties. (wikipedia.org)
  • When lettuce is mentioned, many think of the standard iceberg lettuce found in supermarkets and restaurant salads. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Common varieties are Romaine, iceberg, and butter lettuce. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevada began removing iceberg lettuce from shelves. (barfblog.com)
  • Although not as popular as iceberg lettuce, from 1990 to 2009, the per capita consumption of romaine lettuce increased from 1.2 to 7.7 pounds per person. (colostate.edu)
  • Lettuce seeds won't sprout when soil temperatures are above 80°F but they will start to germinate as low as 40°F, making it ideal for early and late season planting. (motherearthnews.com)
  • If the lettuce seeds were to sprout under these conditions, they would soon die out and the species would go extinct. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Thanks to traditional plant breeding and selection of heat-tolerant characteristics over a number of years, there are several varieties of lettuce that are more heat-tolerant and are open pollinated - meaning you can save seeds from year to year. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Thanks to ongoing research on lettuce traits, there are some techniques to extend the sprouting for lettuce seeds into the warmer months that home gardeners can use. (motherearthnews.com)
  • The optimum soil temperature for most lettuce seeds is 68°F, with some varieties sprouting in the 40 - 75°F range. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Package contains 5 grams, approximately 2,850 Buttercrunch Lettuce Seeds. (hometownseeds.com)
  • Germination: 6 to 10 days at 50 to 70 F. Plant seeds 1/2 of an inch deep with 12 inches between rows This lettuce has a wonderfully buttery texture and mild taste. (hometownseeds.com)
  • Once a lettuce plant produces seeds, it stops leaf growth and the remaining leaves become bitter. (sfgate.com)
  • I have a red leaf (prize head) lettuce and wanted to know in order to obtain viable seeds do I need 2 plants? (homeownershub.com)
  • People should avoid eating romaine lettuce until health officials can determine the cause of E. coli food infections that have been reported in 13 states and parts of Canada, Consumer Reports advises. (aarp.org)
  • The traditional rule of thumb of "plant early and plant often" for lettuce can also be said as "plant late and plant often," but some of the more heat tolerant varieties, along with soaking in light and providing some mulch and shade can greatly extend your lettuce season in the garden this year. (motherearthnews.com)
  • If you've never grown your own lettuce plants to experience that 'fresh from the garden' taste, try our mixed pack: five superb varieties to provide a range of colours, tastes and leaf types. (suttons.co.uk)
  • The results showed BiOWiSH™ treated lettuce were 17% to 30% heavier at harvest time for red and green butter lettuce varieties, respectively. (hydroponics.com.au)
  • Ghost Gully grow seven lettuce varieties - red and green corals, oaks, minuettes and baby cos. (hydroponics.com.au)
  • Most loose-leaf lettuce varieties grow back from a severe trim to produce more leaves. (sfgate.com)
  • Bolting typically occurs when temperatures begin to rise above 75 degrees Fahrenheit, but the temperature range differs between lettuce varieties. (sfgate.com)
  • Lettuce does well in early spring and fall weather and the seedlings can tolerate a light frost. (hometownseeds.com)
  • Magainin 2 was found to be non-toxic to lettuce seedlings in vitro at 50 µg/ml. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • Lettuce can be grown in many parts of the world, including Europe , Asia , and North America , in temperate climates . (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydroponically- and greenhouse-grown romaine lettuce is also safe to eat. (desmoinesregister.com)
  • The FDA is urging people to avoid romaine lettuce grown in Salinas, California, due to an E. coli outbreak that has reportedly sickened 40 people in 16 states. (today.com)
  • This study indicates exogenous glycine supplementation could be used strategically to promote the accumulation of health-promoting compounds and antioxidant activity of hydroponically grown lettuce, which could potentially improve human nutrition. (frontiersin.org)
  • In spring 2002, CMV and LMV were the most prevalent viruses in lettuce, while CaMV was the most important virus present in Brassica crops grown in Navarra, followed by CMV and BWYV. (csic.es)
  • potyviruses were widespread in lettuce grown in Madrid, but TSWV and BWYV were predominant in the Murcia region. (csic.es)
  • No the lettuce isn't a hybrid, it was grown from seed planted directly from a retail seed packet. (homeownershub.com)
  • Romaine lettuce is typically grown under conditions where contamination with enteric pathogens ( Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Cyclospora cayetanensis , etc.) is possible and hence, depending on the level of contamination as well as the health of the individual, consumption of the raw product could lead to illness, if not death. (colostate.edu)
  • The lettuce, grown near Yuma, Arizona, was contaminated with an especially nasty strain of E.coli bacteria. (tgh.org)
  • The CDC is still advising people not to eat romaine lettuce unless they know where it was grown. (tgh.org)
  • The taste and texture of this lettuce makes it a great addition to salads. (hometownseeds.com)
  • Use lettuce leaves in salads, in sandwiches, or as wraps. (hometownseeds.com)
  • A whole head of freshly washed lettuce that you can use to make salads for every meal. (drbenkim.com)
  • Related to both Mustard and Nastustiums, it has that peppery 'bite' and is most often used in salads combined with other lettuces. (thegrowers-exchange.com)
  • Romaine lettuce is well known as the primary ingredient in Caesar salad but in foodservice arenas, it is now also included in a variety of sandwich wraps as well as entrée and Greek salads. (colostate.edu)
  • Crisp, crunchy and sweet, Organic Romaine Lettuce is perfect for classic Caesar salads or for chopping thinly to add to your next taco bowl. (goodeggs.com)
  • In recent years, consumer demands for more nutritious salad products have brought major changes in the types of lettuce produced and in the methods of their cultivation. (apsnet.org)
  • After nearly three months, the romaine lettuce outbreak "appears to be over," federal health officials announced Wednesday. (gadsdentimes.com)
  • If my memory serves me correctly , Romaine is the foundation for the well-respected Caesar salad , which is essentially the lettuce accompanied only by dressing and crouton s. (everything2.com)
  • Canadian authorities pointed to romaine lettuce as the source of the outbreak there, and they have told people in eastern provinces to turn instead to other salad greens . (aarp.org)
  • While officials have identified the area responsible for the romaine lettuce E. coli outbreak reported days before Thanksgiving , people should still pause before ordering a salad or buying lettuce at the grocery store. (desmoinesregister.com)
  • Romaine lettuce and ready-to-eat mixed salad were washed several times in flowing water at different rates and by immersing the leaves in water. (lu.se)
  • You can start harvesting leaf lettuce when it is young, or wait for larger leaves to develop. (hometownseeds.com)
  • Together, the two states account for 98 percent of leaf lettuce production in the United States. (growingmagazine.com)
  • Loose-leaf lettuce thrives in cooler temperatures and will produce through spring in cool, mild climates. (sfgate.com)
  • Trim the outer leaves from the plant and use if you want the lettuce to keep growing, or harvest the entire lettuce plant by pulling or cutting it out of the ground. (hometownseeds.com)
  • It is best to harvest before lettuce is overly mature since the taste can become bitter. (hometownseeds.com)
  • Head lettuce is ready to harvest once the head has started to form and is large and tightly packed. (hometownseeds.com)
  • BiOWiSH™, a breakthrough enzyme technology, has boosted hydroponic lettuce weights by up to 30% at harvest time, according to results of a recent trial. (hydroponics.com.au)
  • Inspect the lettuce plants for leaves that are ready to harvest. (sfgate.com)
  • Upon presenting this information, the article will then proceed to give a brief overview of the common practices applied to grow, harvest, and distribute romaine lettuce for retail distribution and risks as well as preventative measures associated with such practices. (colostate.edu)
  • According to the 2011 edition of the Old Farmer's Almanac, the chlorophyll pigment in dark leafy greens, such as Romaine lettuce, may reduce levels of colon and liver cancer carcinogens. (womenfitness.net)
  • This outbreak was caused by the same strain of "Shiga toxin-producing" E. coli that caused outbreaks linked to leafy greens in 2017 and to romaine lettuce in 2018, the CDC said. (gadsdentimes.com)
  • Unless you are using the lettuce for garnish, it is advisable that you not include the tough ribs or veins of the leaves as they are not appreciated. (everything2.com)
  • Most lettuce leaves are green , but some are red . (wikipedia.org)
  • Most lettuce leaves taste bitter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some kinds of lettuce grow in a head shape like cabbage , while the leaves of some kinds grow more loosely. (wikipedia.org)
  • The leaves of this butterhead type lettuce form a loose head. (hometownseeds.com)
  • Romaine or cos lettuce is a variety of lettuce which grows in a tall head of sturdy leaves with a firm rib down the center. (womenfitness.net)
  • Most are happy to learn that there's a relatively easy way to do it and transform even wilting leaves into fresh, crisp lettuce that you can use throughout the day. (drbenkim.com)
  • Start by chopping off the root end of a head of lettuce, then separate the leaves and let them soak in lukewarm water. (drbenkim.com)
  • Romaine lettuce is exceptionally crisp, slightly bitter, and is characterized by long, narrow leaves with thick ribs. (colostate.edu)
  • Last month, the Food and Drug Administration announced that the contaminated lettuce likely came from crops in California, specifically Central Coast growing regions of northern and central California, based on "growing and harvesting patterns. (desmoinesregister.com)
  • Romaine lettuce that was harvested outside of Central Coast growing regions of northern and central California is safe to eat. (desmoinesregister.com)
  • Washington, D.C. - A listeria contamination threat has prompted a California lettuce grower to recall 2,498 cartons of chopped or shredded romaine lettuce. (justicenewsflash.com)
  • Lettuce from the central California produce company is not known to have had any salmonella contamination. (barfblog.com)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said in an updated food safety report that it is "no longer advising that people avoid romaine lettuce from the Salinas Valley growing region in California. (gadsdentimes.com)
  • Since Nov. 22, the CDC and the Food and Drug Administration have told consumers to avoid the lettuce from California as they investigated multistate E. coli outbreaks. (gadsdentimes.com)
  • Rapid identification of lettuce seed germination mutants by bulked segregant analysis and whole genome sequencing. (escholarship.org)
  • Moreover, within the U.S., there have been several high profile outbreaks that have been specifically associated with the consumption of romaine lettuce (see table below). (colostate.edu)
  • You can grow lettuce during winter in a greenhouse . (wikipedia.org)
  • The ancient Greeks were among the first people to grow lettuce as a crop. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary type of lettuce produced and consumed in China is a stem lettuce ( L. sativa L. var. (colostate.edu)
  • Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV)-Most isolates can infect and are seed-borne in cultivars containing the mol gene. (unesp.br)
  • The new Compendium of Lettuce Diseases and Pests, Second Edition , addresses these changes and challenges by providing the most up-to-date and comprehensive resource available on lettuce diseases and pests, as well as their management. (apsnet.org)
  • Although contamination of marketplace product is rare, from 2010 to 2013, three outbreaks totaling more than 700 illnesses were associated with Romaine lettuce. (colostate.edu)
  • Based on this potential for contamination, this article is therefore intended to detail recent outbreaks in which romaine lettuce has been implicated as well as to tabulate a number of surveys documenting the extent to which romaine lettuce in the marketplace is contaminated. (colostate.edu)
  • Lettuce is affected by a number of bacterial and fungal pathogens, which can result in a dramatic decrease in yield. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • In vitro experiments indicated that magainin was toxic to three important pathogens of lettuce, Erwinia carotovora subsp. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • Preliminary studies suggested that three fungal lettuce pathogens, Sclerotinia minor (causal agent of lettuce drop), S. sclerotiorum (causal agent of lettuce drop) and Botrytis cinerea (responsible for Botrytis and grey mold), were insensitive to magainin at 50 µg/ml. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • Small numbers of bacterial pathogens may survive on field lettuce for one or more weeks after contamination. (colostate.edu)
  • Variations in the methods used for detection of the pathogens in lettuce also exist with different surveys, and as discussed in the next section, the data may only be signifying that a viable pathogen has been present but not whether it is still viable and hence able to cause illness. (colostate.edu)
  • Data on the distribution of pathogens and pests of lettuce within the United States and the world, giving users reliable information on geographic trends. (apsnet.org)
  • The cold water serves to constrict the vessels in the lettuce, especially those that open up at the edges of each leaf, which helps the lettuce retain water volume and the fresh, crisp feel that we're after. (drbenkim.com)
  • Chlorine or other sanitizers are used in wash water to prevent cross-contamination of lettuce. (colostate.edu)
  • In this study, two lettuce cultivars, Shenxuan 1 and Lollo Rossa, were hydroponically cultured in media containing 4.5, 9, or 18 mM glycine or 9 mM nitrate (control) for 4 weeks, and the levels of health-promoting compounds and antioxidant activity of the lettuce leaf extracts were evaluated. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, attempts to transform lettuce cultivars Bambino, Prizehead and Summer Gem (crisphead types) did not meet with any success, confirming the previously reported recalcitrance of crisphead lettuce cultivars to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • Shading the lettuce plants can give enough of a temperature drop to keep them from bolting, sometimes up to 3 - 5 weeks. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Wild lettuce plants were eaten by the Romans and Egyptians . (wikipedia.org)
  • The conclusion of the opposition division in the penultimate paragraph of point 3.1.1 on page 6 of the decision under appeal was correct and meant that claim 1 related only to such a multileaf lettuce plant that was multileaf due to the presence of the very same allele of the heritable monogenic recessive characteristic as that present in the plants of the deposited line. (epo.org)
  • Frequent trims keep lettuce plants healthy and productive. (sfgate.com)
  • In other words are lettuce plants self germinating? (homeownershub.com)
  • That is changing with the growth in popularity of the different types of lettuces from Romaine to head and leaf-type lettuces, mainly due to the flavors and colors that they offer from deep red to almost white and noticeably sweet to tangy and slightly bitter. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Gary Samuelsen, a former dairy farmer, turned to hydroponic lettuce and herb production not long after the dairy industry deregulated. (hydroponics.com.au)
  • This study was conducted at facilities at Auburn University, Alabama, to determine the tolerance of hydroponic Bibb lettuce to various chloride concentrations resulting from the addition of NaCl or CaCl2 to the hydroponic solution. (auburn.edu)
  • Many are surprised to find that lettuce is a cool-season crop and will bolt or go to seed readily during late spring and summer months. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Knowing this is a crop of such importance, I'm pleased that we can shine a spotlight on the details of lettuce production. (growingmagazine.com)
  • A second set of experiments was begun in December 2010 with increased concentrations of NaCl or CaCl2 in order to determine salt concentrations needed to observe adverse effects on Bibb lettuce. (auburn.edu)
  • Results showed that SPAD readings and pH ranges were poor indicators for measuring the effects of chloride concentrations on Bibb lettuce. (auburn.edu)
  • Treatments of NaCl or CaCl2 over 5000 ppm (5 ppt) chloride were lethal to Bibb lettuce. (auburn.edu)
  • How long would it take to burn off 8 Calories of Cos or Romaine Lettuce, raw? (calorieking.com)
  • Where do the calories in Cos or Romaine Lettuce, raw come from? (calorieking.com)
  • Washing and drying a head of lettuce can be a little awkward, especially if you don't do it regularly. (drbenkim.com)
  • We are here for lettuce, and we head out West - Arizona - this month for our featured producer, Mellon Farms in Yuma (page 12). (growingmagazine.com)
  • The role of weeds in the epidemiology of viruses that infect lettuce and Brassica crops in Spain is discussed. (csic.es)
  • This is a carryover from wild lettuce that originated in the Mediterranean Middle East, where summers are hot with little moisture. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Wild lettuce" commonly refers to the wild-growing relatives of common garden lettuce. (wikipedia.org)
  • When I encourage clients to eat plenty of green lettuce, the most common objection that comes up is lack of time. (drbenkim.com)
  • The highly anticipated second edition, published two decades after the first, offers the most practical, up-to-date, and comprehensive information in existence for diagnosing and managing diseases, pests and disorders of various lettuce crops. (apsnet.org)
  • In some places, including China , lettuce is eaten cooked . (wikipedia.org)
  • The CDC was able to interview 113 people who fell ill, with 83% of them saying they'd eaten romaine lettuce, much higher than a survey of healthy adults. (gadsdentimes.com)
  • Plant lettuce during cool weather, as soon as the ground can be worked in the spring. (hometownseeds.com)
  • Plant lettuce in a well-drained area with a pH around 6.0-6.8. (hometownseeds.com)
  • There was evidence that magainin 2 activity was inhibited by some component of the lettuce extract, which may be due to proteolytic degradation by plant proteases. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • In addition, romaine lettuce is a very good source of potassium, which has been shown in numerous studies to be useful in lowering high blood pressure, another risk factor for heart disease. (womenfitness.net)
  • Ahead of Thanksgiving, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is telling people to throw away any romaine lettuce they may have already bought, no matter if it's whole, chopped or part of a mix. (today.com)
  • d on magainin 2, an antimicrobial peptide from the African clawed toad, into lettuce in an attempt to enhance disease resistance. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • These changes have also brought new challenges to disease and pest management in lettuce production. (apsnet.org)