Crotalid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Bee Venoms: Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.Venoms: Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.Cobra Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.Viper Venoms: Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.Wasp Venoms: Venoms produced by the wasp (Vespid) family of stinging insects, including hornets; the venoms contain enzymes, biogenic amines, histamine releasing factors, kinins, toxic polypeptides, etc., and are similar to bee venoms.Elapid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Spider Venoms: Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.Scorpion Venoms: Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.Arthropod Venoms: Venoms from animals of the phylum Arthropoda. Those most investigated are from scorpions and spiders of the class Arachnidae and from ant, bee, and wasp families of the Insecta order Hymenoptera. The venoms contain protein toxins, enzymes, and other bioactive substances and may be lethal to man.Bothrops: A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)Antivenins: Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.Fish Venoms: Venoms produced by FISHES, including SHARKS and sting rays, usually delivered by spines. They contain various substances, including very labile toxins that affect the HEART specifically and all MUSCLES generally.Ant Venoms: Venoms from the superfamily Formicoidea, Ants. They may contain protein factors and toxins, histamine, enzymes, and alkaloids and are often allergenic or immunogenic.Elapidae: A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)Mollusk Venoms: Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. The venoms contain proteins, enzymes, choline derivatives, slow-reacting substances, and several characterized polypeptide toxins that affect the nervous system. Mollusk venoms include cephalotoxin, venerupin, maculotoxin, surugatoxin, conotoxins, and murexine.Snakes: Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.Scorpions: Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)Agkistrodon: A genus of venomous snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae. Twelve species of this genus are found in North and Central America and Asia. Agkistrodon contortrix is the copperhead, A. piscivorus, the cottonmouth. The former is named for its russet or orange-brown color, the latter for the white interior of its mouth. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336; Moore, Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p75)Amphibian Venoms: Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.Snake Bites: Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)Conus Snail: A genus of cone-shaped marine snails in the family Conidae, class GASTROPODA. It comprises more than 600 species, many containing unique venoms (CONUS VENOMS) with which they immobilize their prey.Trimeresurus: A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. About 30 species are currently recognized, found in southeast Asia and adjacent island chains. The Okinawa habu frequently enters dwellings in search of rats and mice; the Chinese habu is often found in suburban and agricultural areas. They are quite irritable. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p136)Cnidarian Venoms: Venoms from jellyfish; CORALS; SEA ANEMONES; etc. They contain hemo-, cardio-, dermo- , and neuro-toxic substances and probably ENZYMES. They include palytoxin, sarcophine, and anthopleurine.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Phospholipases A2: Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.Bungarus: A genus of poisonous snakes of the subfamily Elapinae of the family ELAPIDAE. They comprise the kraits. Twelve species are recognized and all inhabit southeast Asia. They are considered extremely dangerous. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p120)Crotoxin: A specific complex of toxic proteins from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake). It can be separated into a phospholipase A and crotapotin fragment; the latter consists of three different amino acid chains, potentiates the enzyme, and is specifically neurotoxic.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Russell's Viper: A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. It is distributed in West Pakistan, most of India, Burma, Ceylon, Thailand, southeast China, Taiwan, and a few islands of Indonesia. It hisses loudly when disturbed and strikes with great force and speed. Very prolific, it gives birth to 20-60 young. This viper is the leading cause of snakebite in India and Burma. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p127)Phospholipases A: Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Spider Bites: The effects, both local and systemic, caused by the bites of SPIDERS.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Metalloproteases: Proteases which use a metal, normally ZINC, in the catalytic mechanism. This group of enzymes is inactivated by metal CHELATORS.Platypus: A small aquatic oviparous mammal of the order Monotremata found in Australia and Tasmania.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Conotoxins: Peptide neurotoxins from the marine fish-hunting snails of the genus CONUS. They contain 13 to 29 amino acids which are strongly basic and are highly cross-linked by disulfide bonds. There are three types of conotoxins, omega-, alpha-, and mu-. OMEGA-CONOTOXINS inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane and therefore the release of ACETYLCHOLINE. Alpha-conotoxins inhibit the postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor. Mu-conotoxins prevent the generation of muscle action potentials. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)L-Amino Acid Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-amino acids to KETO ACIDS with the generation of AMMONIA and HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. L-amino acid oxidase is widely distributed in and is thought to contribute to the toxicity of SNAKE VENOMS.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Hymenoptera: An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins: Most abundant proteins in COBRA venom; basic polypeptides of 57 to 62 amino acids with four disulfide bonds and a molecular weight of less than 7000; causes skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction, interferes with neuromuscular and ganglionic transmission, depolarizes nerve, muscle and blood cell membranes, thus causing hemolysis.Black Widow Spider: A venomous New World spider with an hourglass-shaped red mark on the abdomen.Desensitization, Immunologic: Immunosuppression by the administration of increasing doses of antigen. Though the exact mechanism is not clear, the therapy results in an increase in serum levels of allergen-specific IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, suppression of specific IgE, and an increase in suppressor T-cell activity.Batroxobin: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from the venom of fer-de-lance (Bothrops atrox). It is used as a plasma clotting agent for fibrinogen and for the detection of fibrinogen degradation products. The presence of heparin does not interfere with the clotting test. Hemocoagulase is a mixture containing batroxobin and factor X activator. EC 3.4.21.-.Phospholipase A2 Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of a PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 enzyme.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Melitten: Basic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It contains 26 amino acids, has cytolytic properties, causes contracture of muscle, releases histamine, and disrupts surface tension, probably due to lysis of cell and mitochondrial membranes.Arachnida: A class of Arthropoda that includes SPIDERS; TICKS; MITES; and SCORPIONS.Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins: Toxins, contained in cobra (Naja) venom that block cholinergic receptors; two specific proteins have been described, the small (short, Type I) and the large (long, Type II) which also exist in other Elapid venoms.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Hyaluronoglucosaminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.Scorpion Stings: The effects, both local and systemic, caused by the bite of SCORPIONS.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Anaphylaxis: An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Group II Phospholipases A2: A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from a variety of sources. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes including a negatively charged carboxy-terminal segment.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.Metalloendopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.Brown Recluse Spider: A spider of the genus Loxosceles, found in the midwestern and other parts of the United States, which carries a hemolytic venom that produces local necrosis or ulceration.Erabutoxins: Toxins isolated from the venom of Laticauda semifasciata, a sea snake (Hydrophid); immunogenic, basic polypeptides of 62 amino acids, folded by four disulfide bonds, block neuromuscular end-plates irreversibly, thus causing paralysis and severe muscle damage; they are similar to Elapid neurotoxins.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Basophil Degranulation Test: An in vitro test used in the diagnosis of allergies including drug hypersensitivity. The allergen is added to the patient's white blood cells and the subsequent histamine release is measured.Animal Structures: Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Nematocyst: A double-walled capsule found in jellyfish and other CNIDARIA whose functions include prey capture, defense, locomotion, and attachment. Nematocysts contain toxic CNIDARIAN VENOMS which are injected into the victim via a barbed tubule.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Serine Proteases: Peptide hydrolases that contain at the active site a SERINE residue involved in catalysis.Phospholipases A2, Secretory: A subcategory of phospholipases A2 that are secreted from cells. They are 14 kDa proteins containing multiple disulfide-bonds and access their substrate via an interfacial binding site that interacts with phospholipid membranes. In addition specific PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS can bind to and internalize the enzymes.LizardsComplement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Bites and StingsFishes, PoisonousBungarotoxins: Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Scyphozoa: The class of true jellyfish, in the phylum CNIDARIA. They are mostly free-swimming marine organisms that go through five stages in their life cycle and exhibit two body forms: polyp and medusa.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Phospholipases A1: A phospholipase that hydrolyzes the acyl group attached to the 1-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Coagulants: Agents that cause clotting.Sea Anemones: The order Actiniaria, in the class ANTHOZOA, comprised of large, solitary polyps. All species are carnivorous.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Colubridae: The largest family of snakes, comprising five subfamilies: Colubrinae, Natricinae, Homalopsinae, Lycodontinae, and Xenodontinae. They show a great diversity of eating habits, some eating almost anything, others having a specialized diet. They can be oviparous, ovoviviparous, or viviparous. The majority of North American snakes are colubrines. Among the colubrids are king snakes, water moccasins, water snakes, and garter snakes. Some genera are poisonous. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp321-29)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Phosphodiesterase I: A phosphoric diester hydrolase that removes 5'-nucleotides from the 3'-hydroxy termini of 3'-hydroxy-terminated OLIGONUCLEOTIDES. It has low activity towards POLYNUCLEOTIDES and the presence of 3'-phosphate terminus on the substrate may inhibit hydrolysis.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Prothrombin: A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Agatoxins: A class of polyamine and peptide toxins which are isolated from the venom of spiders such as Agelenopsis aperta.Blood Coagulation: The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Synaptosomes: Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Eclipta: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain wedelolactone.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Complement Activation: The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Complement Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Apamin: A highly neurotoxic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It consists of 18 amino acids with two disulfide bridges and causes hyperexcitability resulting in convulsions and respiratory paralysis.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Factor X: Storage-stable glycoprotein blood coagulation factor that can be activated to factor Xa by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. A deficiency of factor X, sometimes called Stuart-Prower factor deficiency, may lead to a systemic coagulation disorder.Blood Coagulation Tests: Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Bufonidae: The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.Chromatography, Reverse-Phase: A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.Dentition: The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Hydroxybenzoate Ethers: Benzoate derivatives that contain one or more alkyl or aryl groups linked to the benzene ring structure by OXYGEN.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Prothrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.Receptors, Phospholipase A2: Cell surface receptors that bind to and internalize SECRETED PHOSPHOLIPASES A2. Although primarily acting as scavenger receptors, these proteins may also play a role in intracellular signaling. Soluble forms of phospholipase A2 receptors occur through the action of proteases and may a play a role in the inhibition of extracellular phospholipase activity.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Aprotinin: A single-chain polypeptide derived from bovine tissues consisting of 58 amino-acid residues. It is an inhibitor of proteolytic enzymes including CHYMOTRYPSIN; KALLIKREIN; PLASMIN; and TRYPSIN. It is used in the treatment of HEMORRHAGE associated with raised plasma concentrations of plasmin. It is also used to reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients at high risk of major blood loss during and following open heart surgery with EXTRACORPOREAL CIRCULATION. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Bufanolides: Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. They are found in BUFONIDAE and often possess cardiotonic properties.omega-Conotoxins: A family of structurally related neurotoxic peptides from mollusk venom that inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane. They selectively inhibit N-, P-, and Q-type calcium channels.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Boraginaceae: The Borage plant family is in the class Magnoliopsida, subclass Asteridae, order Lamiales. It is characterized by hairy foliage, usually alternate and simple; flowers are funnel-shaped or tubular. Some of the species contain PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOIDS.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Trypsin Inhibitors: Serine proteinase inhibitors which inhibit trypsin. They may be endogenous or exogenous compounds.Mangifera: A plant genus of the family ANACARDIACEAE best known for the edible fruit.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Serine Proteinase Inhibitors: Exogenous or endogenous compounds which inhibit SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.Mucuna: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is the source of mucuna gum.Depsides: Phenolic benzoic acid esters.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Potassium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Complement Inactivating Agents: Compounds that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Chymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 184.108.40.206.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Complement C5: C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.MyoglobinuriaThrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Cardiotoxins: Agents that have a damaging effect on the HEART. Such damage can occur from ALKYLATING AGENTS; FREE RADICALS; or metabolites from OXIDATIVE STRESS and in some cases is countered by CARDIOTONIC AGENTS. Induction of LONG QT SYNDROME or TORSADES DE POINTES has been the reason for viewing some drugs as cardiotoxins.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Marine Toxins: Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Antitoxins: Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dipteryx: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain COUMARINS.Cytotoxins: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Group III Phospholipases A2: A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 with specificity for PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE. It occurs as a component of VENOMS and as a mammalian secretory phospholipase A2. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes including a long amino-terminal domain, a conserved group III-specific domain, and a long carboxyl-terminal domain.
"Hornet venoms: lethalities and lethal capacities". Toxicon. 24 (9): 950-4. doi:10.1016/0041-0101(86)90096-6. PMID 3810666. P. ... Lesser banded hornet Vespa affinis Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis Vespa luctuosa the most lethal wasp venom (per volume). ... Asian giant hornet's venom can cause allergic reactions and multiple organ failure leading to death, though dialysis can be ... Due to their size and the power of their venom, hornets are able to kill large insects such as honey bees, grasshoppers, ...
Japanese giant hornet
Tests involving mice found that the venom falls short of being the most lethal of wasp venom, having an LD50 of 4.0 mg/kg. In ... "Hornet venoms: Lethalities and lethal capacities" (PDF). Toxicon. Elsevier. 24 (9): 950-954. doi:10.1016/0041-0101(86)90096-6. ... Its venom, which is injected by the 6.25 mm-long stinger, attacks the nervous system and damages the tissue of its victims. ... The potency of the sting is due, rather, to the relatively large amount of venom injected. Being stung is extremely painful and ...
Schmidt, Justin O.; Yamane, Soichi; Matsuura, Makoto; Starr, Christopher K. (1986). "Hornet venoms: Lethalities and lethal ... The venom of Vespa luctuosa has the highest recorded toxicity to mice of any wasp species tested. The LD50 of the venom is 1.6 ... Vespa luctuosa has one of the highest recorded toxicities of any known insect venom. Only harvester ant venom from the genus ... The toxicity (measured against mice) per weight of Vespa luctuosa venom is higher than that of the Japanese giant hornet (Vespa ...
Western green mamba
Like other mamba species, western green mamba venom is among the most rapid-acting venom of snakes. Human fatalities as a ... "Bacterial Toxins: A Table of Lethal Amounts" (PDF). Microbiological Reviews. 46 (1): 86-94. Retrieved 17 March 2014. Chippaux, ... The venom consists mainly of both pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurotoxins, cardiotoxins, and fasciculins. The toxicity of ... Its venom is a highly potent mixture of rapid-acting presynaptic and postsynaptic neurotoxins (dendrotoxins), cardiotoxins and ...
The rattlesnakes and their venom yield and lethal toxicity. In: Tu, A. (ed) Rattlesnake Venoms, Their Actions and Treatment. ... venoms effectively neutralize Mojave rattlesnake venom B. All rattlesnake venoms are complex cocktails of enzymes and other ... The venom of many Mojave rattlesnakes from south-central Arizona lacks the acidic subunit and has been designated "venom B," ... Based on median LD50 values in lab mice, venom A from subspecies A Mojave rattlesnakes is more than ten times as toxic as venom ...
The rattlesnakes and their venom yield and lethal toxicity. In: Tu, A. (ed) Rattlesnake Venoms, Their Actions and Treatment. ... The venom is very stable, and retains its toxicity for many years in storage. Older snakes possess more potent venom, and ... Rattlesnake fangs are connected by venom ducts to large venom glands near the outer edge of the upper jaw, towards the rear of ... Although it has a comparatively low venom yield, the venom toxicity of C. tigris is considered to be among the highest of all ...
... is a lethal peptide in the venom that is secreted by Parabuthus transvaalicus. Other toxins in its venom include ... Dortoxin is a lethal member of the birtoxin family. Apart from its slightly smaller chain length and lower number of disulfide ... At least 20% of the peptides in the venom of P. transvaalicus consists of these three toxins, and they are thought to be ... Dortoxin (also called dorsotoxin) is a lethal peptide toxin which is secreted by the South African spitting scorpion Parabuthus ...
Activated entomopathogenic nematode infective juveniles release lethal venom proteins. PLoS Pathogens, 13(4): e1006302. Shapiro ... But, each S. carpocapsae only carries 20-200 cells of S. carpocapsae - well below the lethal dose. The fact that a single worm ... For the average insect, a lethal dose of X. nematophilus consists of about 3500 bacterial cells. ...
Western glossy snake
Its venom is a powerful mixture of neurotoxins, with a low lethal dose. While a sting from this scorpion is extraordinarily ... There has also been some evidence to show that other components of the venom may aid in the regulation of insulin and could be ... Any envenomation runs the risk of anaphylaxis, a potentially life-threatening allergic reaction to the venom. A study from ... Envenomation by the deathstalker is considered a medical emergency even with antivenom treatment, as its venom is unusually ...
Mid State Trail (Pennsylvania)
The venom can cause painful injuries but is rarely lethal. Many times when timber rattlers strike for protection, they will not ... The timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus), has venom of a medium potency. ... inject venom. Administering proper first aid, keeping calm and quickly receiving medical attention is the best response to a ...
An adult boomslang has 1.6 to 8 mg of venom. Its median lethal dose (LD50) in mice is 0.1 mg/kg (intravenously). 0.071 mg/kg(IV ... The venom of the boomslang is primarily a hemotoxin; it disables the coagulation process and the victim may die as a result of ... The venom has been observed to cause hemorrhage into tissues such as muscle and brain. Other signs and symptoms include ... Because boomslang venom is slow-acting, symptoms may not become apparent until many hours after the bite. Although the absence ...
In that case even one sting can be lethal. As a paradox to the symptoms after a bee sting, bee venom is used for treatment of ... Tertiapin is a compound of the honey bee venom (apitoxin) that causes pain and signs of inflammation around the sting, but a ... Tertiapin is a 21-amino acid peptide isolated from venom of the European honey bee (Apis mellifera). It blocks two different ... Drici, MD; Diochot, S; Terrenoire, C; Romey, G; Lazdunski, M (2000). "The bee venom peptide tertiapin underlines the role of ...
List of dangerous snakes
... regardless of their venom capabilities or behavioral tendencies. The median lethal dose (LD50) of a venom is the dose required ... Intravenous : Venom is injected directly into a vein. Intramuscular : Venom is injected into a muscle. Intraperitoneal : Venom ... The average venom yield is 25-26 milligrams (0.39-0.40 gr) with a maximum of 300 milligrams (4.6 gr) of dried venom. The venom ... Average venom yield is 80-120 mg and the murine LD50 is 1.1-1.6 mg/kg SC with an estimated lethal dose for humans of 50-60 mg. ...
... the lethal dose is estimated to be 3-5 mg/kg (Minton, 1967). Venom from females was more than twice as toxic on average as ... The amount of venom produced also varies. Reported yields include 20-35 mg of dried venom from specimens 41-56 cm in length, 6- ... The venom of Echis species consists mostly of hemotoxins and cytotoxins. The genus is recognized as medically significant in ... Venom Diseases. Springfield, Illinois: CC Thomas. 386 pp. U.S. Navy. 1991. Poisonous Snakes of the World. United States ...
Other peptide toxins found in the venom include: dortoxin, a lethal peptide; bestoxin, which causes writhing in mice; and ... An injection of 1 μg of birtoxin resulted in severe neurotoxic effects for 24 hours, but this dose is not lethal to mice. LD99 ... Birtoxin was isolated from the venom of the South African Spitting scorpion. It is a peptide that is moderately toxic but very ... An antibody against the N-terminus of the birtoxin protein structure has been shown to neutralize the venom of the South ...
Female redbacks have an average of around 0.08-0.10 mg of venom, and experiments indicate that the median lethal dose (LD50) ... Production involves the milking of venom from redbacks and repeatedly inoculating horses with non-lethal doses. The horse ... Alafaci, Annette (25 August 2007). "Redback Spiders". The Australian Venom Compendium. Australian Venom Research Unit. Archived ... Venom accumulates in the lumen of the glands and passes through paired ducts into the spider's two hollow fangs. The venom of ...
They are much feared because their venom is particularly lethal and fast acting. Presently, treatment is usually possible if ... Venom yield averages 124 milligrams (1.91 gr), although it may be as much as 342 milligrams (5.28 gr). The enzyme reptilase ( ... Their venom consists mostly of hemotoxin, a toxic protein that affects the circulatory and nervous system; it destroys red ... batroxobin), derived from this snake's venom, is used in modern medical laboratories to measure fibrinogen levels and blood ...
It is the most lethal neurotoxin isolated from any snake venom to date. The molecular mass of the heterotrimer is about 46,000 ... bee venom or the weak elapid venoms are grouped into class I, whereas PLA2s from the more potent viperid venoms which causes ... venom, and Textilotoxin is a pentamer from eastern Pseudonaja textilis venom. Fohlman, J.; Eaker, D.; Karlsson, E.; Thesleff, S ... Median lethal dose (LD50) for mice is around 1-2 μg/kg (subcutaneous injection). Taipoxin and other PLA2 toxins, have evolved ...
Other peptide toxins found in the venom include birtoxin, which is moderately toxic but very abundant, dortoxin, a lethal ... Injection of up to 4 μg of ikitoxin in mice was not lethal. Ikitoxin seems to affect only mammals. Ikitoxin is one of many ... Ikitoxin is one of the many components that can be isolated from the venom of the South African Spitting scorpion. ... Antibodies against the N-terminus of the birtoxin protein structure can neutralize the venom of the South African spitting ...
... lethal activity determination and cardiac effects induced by Himantura gerrardi venom". Toxicon. 54 (6): 881-6. doi:10.1016/j. ... Both the venom-secreting tissues and vasodentin are enveloped in an epidermis that tears open when the barb is plunged into a ... It has been suggested that there may be some sort of anti-coagulant incorporated with the secreted venom, but James H. Diaz of ... The undersides of the spines contain two longitudinal grooves which run along the length of the spine and enclose venom- ...
Venom: Lethal Protector #1-6 Peter Parker: Spider-Man #52 Web of Spider-Man #119 Venom: Separation Anxiety #1-4 Venom: The ... She is one of six symbiote spawns of Venom. Scream first appeared in Venom: Lethal Protector #4, and was created by David ... Venom wanted nothing to do with them, and battled Scream. Venom disappeared, and Scream attempted to enlist the Scarlet Spider ... Scream and the other guardian symbiotes then tangled with Spider-Man and Venom, but Venom turned an accelerated aging device on ...
"Characterization and amino acid sequences of two lethal peptides isolated from venom of Wagler's pit viper, Trimeresurus ... "Molecular properties and structure-function relationships of lethal peptides from venom of Wagler's pit viper, Trimeresurus ... The venom of Tropidolaemus wagleri contains 4 novel peptides (Waglerins 1-4). The Waglerins produce fatal respiratory paralysis ... However, their distinctly different morphology and venom characteristics set them apart, so that eventually a new genus was ...
Mariel of Redwall
All species are venomous, but only blue-ringed octopuses have venom that is lethal to humans. Bites are reported each year ... The venom appears to be able to penetrate the skin without a puncture, given prolonged contact. It contains tetrodotoxin, which ... "Tentacles of venom: new study reveals all octopuses are venomous". University of Melbourne. 15 April 2009.. ...
... alkaloid-based venom. The Tawny crazy ant then exudes its own venom, formic acid, and self-grooms with it, an action which de- ... as sub-lethal concentrations change organisms' life histories in meaningful ways. Balancing VOC reductions against waterway ... toxifies the Fire ant venom. The mixed venoms chemically react with one another to form an ionic liquid, the first naturally ...
Venom. The sting and associated venom sac of honey bees are modified so as to pull free of the body once lodged (autotomy ... which vibrate their muscles vigorously to raise the temperature of the intruder to a lethal level ("balling"). Previously, ... "Wasp and Bee venom". Drugs.com. 2018. Retrieved 29 June 2018.. *^ Hudewenz, Anika; Klein, Alexandra-Maria (2013-12-01). " ... The honey bee's venom, known as apitoxin, carries several active components, the most abundant of which is melittin, and ...
... in the mistaken belief that its venom was lethal enough to kill within two steps. ... Venom and toxins. The venom of the many-banded krait consists of both pre- and postsynaptic neurotoxins (known as α- ... The average venom yield from specimens kept on snake farms is about 4.6 mg-19.4 mg per bite. The venom is highly toxic with ... White; Meier, J;J (1995). Handbook of clinical toxicology of animal venoms and poisons. CRC Press. pp. 493-588. ISBN 978-0-8493 ...
汤姆·哈迪 - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
致命LD（英语：LD 50 Lethal Dose）》 LD 50 Lethal Dose Matt. 麥特 ... Venom: Let There Be Carnage Venom／Eddie Brock. 猛毒／艾迪·布洛克 ... Venom Venom／Eddie Brock. 猛毒／艾迪·布洛克 ... Tom Hardy Is 'Venom' In New Sony Marvel Film To Be Directed By ... Tom Hardy to Star in 'Spider-Man' Movie 'Venom,' Ruben Fleischer to Direct. Variety. 2016-10-10 [2017-05-20]. （原始内容存
Although powerful enough to kill smaller animals such as dogs, the venom is not lethal to humans, but the pain is so ... Weimann, Anya (4 July 2007) Evolution of platypus venom revealed. Cosmos. *^ de Plater, G.M.; Milburn, P.J.; Martin, R.L. (2001 ... It is one of the few species of venomous mammals, as the male platypus has a spur on the hind foot that delivers a venom ... "The venom of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)". Archived from the original on 1 February 2012. Retrieved 13 September ...
Copperhead venom has an estimated lethal dose around 100 mg, and tests on mice show its potency is among the lowest of all pit ... Venom. Although venomous, these snakes are generally not aggressive and bites are rarely fatal. ... when stepped on or agitated and inject a relatively small amount of venom, if any at all. "Dry bites" involving no venom are ... The venom of the southern copperhead has been found to hold a protein called "contortrostatin" that halts the growth of cancer ...
... a lethal dose is about 40-70 mg. In general, the toxicity depends on a combination of five different venom fractions, each of ... Venom. The quantity of venom produced by individual specimens of D. russelii is considerable. Reported venom yields for ... This test is often referred to as dilute Russell's viper venom time (dRVVT). The coagulant in the venom directly activates ... Dimitrov GD, Kankonkar RC (February 1968). "Fractionation of Vipera russelli venom by gel filtration. I. Venom composition and ...
Brown recluse spider
For example, the venom of the hobo spider, a common European species established in the northwestern United States and southern ... and which can be lethal if left untreated. Misdiagnosis of MRSA as spider bites is extremely common (nearly 30% of patients ... There is now an ELISA-based test for brown recluse venom that can determine whether a wound is a brown recluse bite, although ... Cases of brown recluse venom traveling along a limb through a vein or artery are rare, but the resulting tissue mortification ...
Limfocyty T regulatorowe, wolna encyklopedia
Its venom glands store only about 10 μl of crude venom. Refilling of the glands takes 2-3 days and the lethal efficacy of ... Venom. Cupiennius salei produces a neurotoxic venom which is composed of a complex mixture of compounds. The venom ... Venom gland. Cupiennius salei produces its venom in a pair of cylindrical pouch-like glands located at the anterior end ... Venom optimization. Main article: Venom optimization hypothesis. Cupiennius salei is a non-web producing spider and ...
Small-scaled burrowing asp
Atractaspis microlepidota venom is not incredibly lethal; however there have been fatal cases among younger children. ... the venom of Atractaspis microlepidota appears to be related to the venom of the elapids, rather than the venom of Viperidae, ... which is unlike viperid venom. The antigenic properties of the venom appear to be related to the venom of Elapidae. The ... Venom/Envenomation. The majority of research pertaining to Atractaspis microlepidota is about their venom, because they ...
ಹಾವು ಕಡಿತ - ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ
With the species and size of target held constant, the duration of venom flow, maximum venom flow rate and total venom volume ... They regarded bites by horned vipers 'fy' as non-lethal, as the victims could be saved.. Unknown parameter ,coauthors=. ignored ... "Snake Venom Detection Kit: Detection and Identification of Snake Venom" (PDF). CSL Limited. 2007. Archived from the original ( ... Russell, Findlay E. (1980). "Snake Venom Poisoning in the United States". Annual Review of Medicine. 31: 247-59. doi:10.1146/ ...
The remaining teeth were robust, like "lethal bananas" rather than daggers, more widely spaced and also had reinforcing ridges. ... "bacteria as venom" model". Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 44 (2): 262-272. doi:10.1638/2012-0022R.1. ISSN 1042-7260.. ... One palaeontologist memorably described the huge, curved teeth of T. rex as 'lethal bananas'. ...
Poison - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Venoms are substances which the organism uses to harm other species. Certain organisms use venoms for hunting, or as a defense ... If poisoning causes death, it is lethal poison. Legally, and in hazardous chemical labeling, poisons are especially toxic ... In medicine and zoology, toxins and venoms are different from poisons. Toxins are the result of a biological process. ...
Ahas, ang malayang ensiklopedya
Russell, Findlay E. (1980). "Snake Venom Poisoning in the United States". Annual Review of Medicine. 31: 247-59. doi:10.1146/ ... They regarded bites by horned vipers 'fy' as non-lethal, as the victims could be saved.. ... "The evolution of venom-delivery systems in snakes" (PDF). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 137 (3): 337-354. doi ... "Early evolution of the venom system in lizards and snakes" (PDF). Nature. 439 (7076): 584-8. doi:10.1038/nature04328. PMID ...
Evolution of sexual reproduction
The rattlesnakes and their venom yield and lethal toxicity. In: Tu, A. (ed) Rattlesnake Venoms, Their Actions and Treatment. ... Venom differencesEdit. Based on median LD50 values in lab mice, venom A from subspecies A Mojave rattlesnakes is more than ten ... Unique venom characteristicsEdit. All rattlesnake venoms are complex cocktails of enzymes and other proteins that vary greatly ... The venom of many Mojave rattlesnakes from south-central Arizona lacks the acidic subunit and has been designated "venom B," ...
Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine
Examples include the crotamine toxin in snake venom, many scorpion toxins, some sea anemone toxins, and one of the ... showed how anthrax, which produces a metalloprotease lethal factor (LF) protein to target MAPKK, is vulnerable to human ... There appear to have been multiple evolutionary recruitments of defensins to be toxin proteins used in the venoms of animals.[ ... "Defensins and the convergent evolution of platypus and reptile venom genes". Genome Research. 18 (6): 986-94. doi:10.1101/gr. ...
For example, snake venoms were studied and The College of Medical Evangelists was under contract to isolate puffer fish poison ... Demoralization (warfare) Less-lethal weapon Psychochemical weapon Mickey Finn (drugs) Sleeping gas Dembek, Zygmunt (editor), ... In biological warfare, a distinction is also made between bio-agents as Lethal Agents (e.g., Bacillus anthracis, Francisella ... A Central Intelligence Agency Project Artichoke document reads: "Not all viruses have to be lethal ... the objective includes ...
Myotoxins are small, basic peptides found in snake and lizard venoms, They cause muscle tissue damage by a non enzymatic ... Biotoxins vary greatly in purpose and mechanism, and can be highly complex (the venom of the cone snail contains dozens of ... compare with venom and the broader meaning of poison-all substances that can also cause disturbances to organisms). It simply ...
VenomEdit. Venom from stinging or biting insects such as Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps) or Triatominae (kissing bugs) may ... Thus instead of inducing tolerance (prophylaxis), when lethal responses resulted from previously tolerated doses, he coined the ... Skin allergy testing is available for certain foods and venoms. Blood testing for specific IgE can be useful to confirm ... Bilò, BM; Bonifazi, F (August 2008). "Epidemiology of insect-venom anaphylaxis". Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical ...
Wasp venom protein kills lethal bacteria in mice
The researchers altered the section of the protein believed to make the wasps venom toxic to human cells, and the new molecule ... A modified peptide derived from wasp venom prevented lethal E. coli infections in mice, according to a study published in ... A modified peptide derived from wasp venom prevented lethal E. coli infections in mice, according to a study published in ... The researchers altered the section of the protein believed to make the wasps venom toxic to human cells, and the new molecule ...
Just how lethal is the software flaw dubbed 'Venom'? - CSMonitor.com
"Venom is locally serious and could allow an attacker to do much more than Heartbleed," it said. "But the number of vulnerable ... Venom gives attackers a way of worming their way through the virtual environment and into the applications and data running on ... At the same time, Venom is nowhere near as widespread a problem as Heartbleed was in terns of scope, the company wrote. ... A recently discovered software bug known as "Venom" could give criminal hackers access to business data stored in the cloud or ...
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Standardization of anti-lethal toxin potency test of antivenoms prepared from two different Agkistrodon halys venoms
First, venoms (A. halys venom lethal fraction, Jiangzhe A. halys venom, A. halys venom hemorrhagic fraction, Bothrops atrox ... Snake lethal venoms. The venoms used were Mamushi venom (Lethal toxin titer: 530 test doses/ampoule, Lot 3-2, 50 mg protein/ ... Venoms lethal toxicity. The venoms lethal toxicity was assayed by using intravenous (1) and intraperitoneal (3) injections into ... Venoms lethal toxicity. According to the Reed-Muench method, the LD50 of A. halys and Jiangzhe A. halys venoms, when ...
Synthesis and characterization of delta-atracotoxin-Ar1a, the lethal neurotoxin from venom of the Sydney funnel-web spider ...
... is the major polypeptide neurotoxin isolated from the venom of the male Sydney funnel-web spider, Atrax robustus. This ... Synthesis and characterization of delta-atracotoxin-Ar1a, the lethal neurotoxin from venom of the Sydney funnel-web spider ( ... Delta-atracotoxin-Ar1a (delta-ACTX-Ar1a) is the major polypeptide neurotoxin isolated from the venom of the male Sydney funnel- ...
Venom Director Ruben Fleischer on Reimagining the Lethal Protector Without Spider-Man's Help | Gizmodo UK
We spoke with director Ruben Fleischer about why deviating from Venoms canon actually gave him the freedom to explore the ... Venom Director Ruben Fleischer on Reimagining the Lethal Protector Without Spider-Mans Help. By Charles Pulliam-Moore on at ... In the Lethal Protector series, Eddie and Venom leave New York and arrive at a truce with Spider-Man and go their own way. ... Gizmodo: Who is this Venom?. Fleischer: As far as Venom, we took some license with this because I dont think we know a lot ...
Lethal effects of an insecticidal spider venom peptide involve positive allosteric modulation of insect nicotinic acetylcholine...
Lethal effects of an insecticidal spider venom peptide involve positive allosteric modulation of insect nicotinic acetylcholine ... However, this modest action at such a high concentration of κ-HXTX-Hv1c would indicate a different lethal target. Accordingly, ... κ-HXTX-Hv1c therefore represents the first venom peptide that selectively modulates insect nAChRs with a mode of action similar ... This article is part of the Special Issue entitled Venom-derived Peptides as Pharmacological Tools. ...
Functional & structural studies of Stonustoxin (SNTX), a lethal factor from Stonefish (Synanceja Horrida) venom | ScholarBank...
Functional & structural studies of Stonustoxin (SNTX), a lethal factor from Stonefish (Synanceja Horrida) venom. ... LIEW HUEI CHUN (2005-05-05). Functional & structural studies of Stonustoxin (SNTX), a lethal factor from Stonefish (Synanceja ... Horrida) venom. [email protected] Repository.. Abstract: Stonustoxin (SNTX) is a 148kDa, dimeric, multifunctional protein ...
Role of free thiol groups in the biological activities of stonustoxin, a lethal factor from stonefish (Synanceja horrida) venom...
Sonustoxin (SNTX) is a two-subunit protein purified from the venom of a stonefish, Synanceja horrida. It has potent lethal ... Role of free thiol groups in the biological activities of stonustoxin, a lethal factor from stonefish (Synanceja horrida) venom ... Khoo, H.E., Chen, D., Yuen, R. (1998-04-23). Role of free thiol groups in the biological activities of stonustoxin, a lethal ... Both the hemolytic and lethal activities of SNTX were potentiated by the reducing agent, dithiothreitol (DTT). The hemolytic ...
Marvel Premier Collection Venom Statue
Spider-Mans alien suit is bigger and badder than ever with the Marvel Premier Collection Venom Statue. Once thought to just be ... This Spider-Man Venom Lethal Protector Throw Blanket not only looks cool, it will keep you warm. This Spider-Man Venom Lethal ... Venom is one of Spider-Mans archenemies, and also the subject of this really cool Venom Big Grin T-Shirt. The Venom Symbiote ... It shows Venom through all of his incarnations. With this Previews-exclusive 4-pack, you get: Classic Venom, She-Venom, ...
Venom: Lethal Protector - Comichaus
True Believers: Venom - Flashpoint (2018) #1 | Comic Issues | Marvel
Venom: License to Kill (1997) #2 | Comic Issues | Marvel
Browse the Marvel Comics issue Venom: License to Kill (1997) #2. Learn where to read it, and check out the comics cover art, ... Venom takes on the mad Dr. Yes whos armed with a bio-toxin that could well topple the world! ... Venom takes on the mad Dr. Yes whos armed with a bio-toxin that could well topple the world! ...
MToxins Venom Lab educates public on importance of venomous species
MToxins Venom Lab will open to the public in May to educate people on how important venomous species - and a few others - are ... Broken down, one lethal venom can help treat common health issues. Venom is a cocktail of different components which can be ... The lab extracts venom to sell to clients who do scientific, medical and anti-venom research, Villand said. Venom is also used ... A Samar cobra is secured for venom extraction Friday, Jan. 31, 2020, at MToxins Venom Lab in Oshkosh.. (Photo: Dan Powers/USA ...
venom facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about venom
Make research projects and school reports about venom easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... Some venoms produce no more than local pain and swelling; others can prove lethal.. ... ven·om·ous / ˈvenəməs/ • adj. (of animals, esp. snakes, or their parts) secreting venom; capable of injecting venom by means of ... The specific venom used by these animals varies not only with its type (spider venom is different from bee venom, for example ...
Median lethal dose - Wikipedia
When used to test venom from venomous creatures, such as snakes, LD50 results may be misleading due to the physiological ... In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is ... However, this also means that LD50 is not the lethal dose for all subjects; some may be killed by much less, while others ... Lethal dosage often varies depending on the method of administration; for instance, many substances are less toxic when ...
Hornet - Wikipedia
"Hornet venoms: lethalities and lethal capacities". Toxicon. 24 (9): 950-4. doi:10.1016/0041-0101(86)90096-6. PMID 3810666. P. ... Lesser banded hornet Vespa affinis Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis Vespa luctuosa the most lethal wasp venom (per volume). ... Asian giant hornets venom can cause allergic reactions and multiple organ failure leading to death, though dialysis can be ... Due to their size and the power of their venom, hornets are able to kill large insects such as honey bees, grasshoppers, ...
DARK AVENGERS #1 'NEW AVENGERS 1' Homage Cover CGC 9.8🔥Young Sentry Venom 3 7 9 | eBay
Venom: Lethal Protector 1 (1993) CGC 9.8. Rare Newsstand Variant 1st Venom ... Amazing Spider-Man 375 CGC 9.0 Venom Lethal Protector 1 Tie in WP Newsstand ... Details about DARK AVENGERS #1 NEW AVENGERS 1 Homage Cover CGC 9.8🔥Young Sentry Venom 3 7 9. ... VENOM VS CARNAGE #1 1st PATRICK MULLIGAN (TOXIN) CGC 9.8🔥Spider Man🗝️ 3 7 9 ...
Internet Scientific Publications
Tests for anti-snake venom activities. Lethal toxicity The median lethal dose (LD50) of Echis carinatus. venom was determined ... venom by in vivo and in vitro methods. The lethal toxicity (LD50) of Echis carinatus. venom was assessed using 18g, Balb/c ... venom. Both plant extracts were effectively neutralized the Echis carinatus. venom induced lethal activity. About 0.19mg of ... effectively neutralize the lethal toxicity (Fig 1). Figure 1. Table 1: Neutralization of venom induced lethality by and Plant ...
Internet Scientific Publications
Tests for anti-snake venom activities. Lethal toxicity The median lethal dose (LD50) of Echis carinatus. venom was determined ... venom by in vivo and in vitro methods. The lethal toxicity (LD50) of Echis carinatus. venom was assessed using 18g, Balb/c ... Bentonite coated venom) were able to completely neutralize the lethal activity of 2LD50 of Echis carinatus. venom (Table 1). ... Venom and Experimental animals. The free-dried snake venom powder of Echis carinatus. venom was obtained from Irulas Snake ...
Venom-[Blu-ray] | Queens Public Library
Toxins | Free Full-Text | Coagulating Colubrids: Evolutionary, Pathophysiological and Biodiscovery Implications of Venom...
Both species produce strikingly similar lethal procoagulant pathologies. Despite these similarities, antivenom is only produced ... In addition to being a faster clotting venom, T. mossambicanus was revealed to be a much more complex venom composition than D ... Snake venoms are unique in their use of procoagulant toxins for predatory purposes. The boomslang (Dispholidus typus) and the ... This approach was used to assess the clotting capabilities of the two venoms both with and without calcium and phospholipid co- ...
Frontiers | Mesobuthus Venom-Derived Antimicrobial Peptides Possess Intrinsic Multifunctionality and Differential Potential as...
Unlike AMPs from other origins, these venom-derived AMPs seem to be unsuitable as anti-infective drugs due to their high ... Unlike AMPs from other origins, these venom-derived AMPs seem to be unsuitable as anti-infective drugs due to their high ... Here, we report five new venom peptides with antimicrobial activity from two Mesobuthus scorpion species. These α-helical ... The findings that the classical AMPs play predatory and defensive roles indicate that the multifunctionality of scorpion venom ...
Platypus venom - Wikipedia
While the after effects are described as excruciatingly painful, this venom is not lethal to humans. Many archaic mammal groups ... Although powerful enough to paralyze smaller animals, the venom is not lethal to humans. However, it produces excruciating pain ... Unlike snake venom, there appears to be no necrotising component in the Platypus venom - although some muscle wastage has been ... and it can be used as a model for non-therian mammals and their venom delivery and properties. The venom is produced in the ...
To produce antivenin, scientists inject horses with small, non-lethal doses of venom. Over time, the horses naturally build up ... The soft-scaled viper carries a type of venom known as hemotoxin, a venom that attacks the circulatory system and causes blood ... while harvesting its venom. "Their venom completely prevents the clotting of blood," says Haast. "Its even worse than the ... Other venoms, such as those of the deadly Asian cobras and kraits, are neurotoxins, which affect the nervous system, causing ...
Tiny Sponge Soaks Up Venom in Blood - Scientific American
A tiny sponge camouflaged as a red blood cell could soak up toxins ranging from anthrax to snake venom, new research suggests ... Next, the team injected 18 mice with a lethal dose of a MRSA toxin. Half the mice then got a dose of the nanosponges. ... Tiny Sponge Soaks Up Venom in Blood. A tiny sponge camouflaged as a red blood cell could soak up toxins ranging from anthrax to ... A tiny sponge camouflaged as a red blood cell could soak up toxins ranging from anthrax to snake venom, new research suggests. ...
New Brain Tumor Imaging Technique Uses Protein Found in Scorpion Venom | Newswise: News for Journalists
A novel imaging technique that uses a synthesized form of scorpion venom to light up brain tumors has shown promise in a ... Gliomas are highly lethal and comprise about 33% of all brain tumors. They can infiltrate brain tissue with tentacle-like ... Newswise - LOS ANGELES (May 9, 2019) - A novel imaging technique that uses a synthesized form of scorpion venom to light up ... The agent contains a synthetic version of an amino acid compound found in scorpion venom. ...
Puzzling New Venom Strain Found In Southern California Rattlers | HubPages
Ordinarily this neurotoxic venom has only been associated with the Mojave Green rattlesnake, a snake usually found in desert ... An alarming new strain of super-toxic venom has been reported in California. ... I understand that the neuro-toxic venoms are especially lethal. We had a sad case here in California. A teacher was bitten by a ... An alarming new strain of super-toxic venom has been reported in California. Ordinarily this neurotoxic venom has only been ...
Bee Venom Uses, Benefits & Dosage - Drugs.com Herbal Database
Learn about the potential benefits of Bee Venom including contraindications, adverse reactions, toxicology, pharmacology and ... Melittin has been shown to be the main lethal component in bee venom. ... Honeybee venom is obtained from A. mellifera , the common honeybee. Other venoms are derived from related members of the ... Also, honeybee venom has decreased the production of the inflammatory mediator interleukin-1 in rat splenocytes. Honeybee venom ...
SnakeProtectorNeurotoxinHumansNeurotoxinsPeptidesPotentGlandsScorpionsNeutralizeSpidersAnti-venomEvolution of venomsBlack mambaFound in the venom2018PreyBitePotencyDefensiveProteinAnimal VenomsScorpion venomsEnzymesHoneybee venomAmount of venomCharacterizationDoses of the venomPhospholipaseRattlesnakeMiceCobrasTarantula venomNeurotoxic venomLethalityHemorrhagicFangsSimilar lethalPoisonsAntivenomsSymbioteSecrete venomTypicallyInhibitsProcoagulantInjectionSpiderSubstancesInsect venom
- Antivenoms specifically prepared to neutralize Korean snake venoms could be more effective, with fewer side effects. (scielo.br)
- By contrast, one can be quite careful on a walk through the southwestern United States or Australian outback and still have an unfortunate accident involving the venom of a snake. (encyclopedia.com)
- Thus, snake venoms typically contain neurotoxins, but they also often include enzymes that promote various hydrolysis reactions. (encyclopedia.com)
- Enzymes from Snake Venom. (encyclopedia.com)
- Various pharmacological activities like haemorrhagic, coagulant, edema and phospholipase activities were studied and these pharmacological activities were significantly neutralized by both plant extracts The above observations confirmed that Andrographis paniculata and Aristolochia indica plant extracts possess potent snake venom neutralizing capacity and could be used for therapeutic purposes in case of snakebite envenomations. (ispub.com)
- Antivenom immunotherapy is the only specific treatment against snake venom envenomation. (ispub.com)
- Over the years many attempts have been made for the development of snake venom antagonists especially from plants sources. (ispub.com)
- The free-dried snake venom powder of Echis carinatus was obtained from Irula's Snake Catchers Industrial Co-operative Society Limited, Chennai and was stored at 4ºC. (ispub.com)
- Almeida 1998 reported that adult white leghorn hens hyperimmunized with Brazilian snake venoms produced antibodies capable of recognizing, combining with and neutralizing the toxic and lethal components of the venoms. (ispub.com)
- The lyophilized snake venom powder of Echis carinatus venom was dissolved in 0.9% Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) in the concentration of 1mg/ml. (ispub.com)
- Unlike snake venom, there appears to be no necrotising component in the Platypus' venom - although some muscle wastage has been observed in cases of envenomation in humans, it is likely that this is due to the inability to use the limb while the effects of the venom persist. (wikipedia.org)
- There are not many people in the world who know more about snakes and snake venom than Bill Haast does. (pbs.org)
- Ordinarily this neurotoxic venom has only been associated with the Mojave Green rattlesnake, a snake usually found in desert and high desert terrain. (hubpages.com)
- It is said to be ten times more potent than regular snake venom. (hubpages.com)
- However, a new piece of research concludes that snake venom did not evolve as a defence mechanism. (eurekalert.org)
- To provide efficient defence from a predator, the snake venom would need to provide sufficient instant pain to deter the predator and enable the snake to escape, much as a bee-sting hurts immediately. (eurekalert.org)
- I hope studies like this start to encourage further research into the function and natural ecology of snake venom, particularly rear-fanged venomous snakes which we still know so little about. (eurekalert.org)
- The first is foraging, where venom helps the snake to overpower its prey before eating it. (bangor.ac.uk)
- Many studies have shown that the need to capture and eat prey often drives the evolution of different snake venoms. (bangor.ac.uk)
- If the evolution of snake venom was driven by natural selection for defence, we would expect to see the same pattern - almost immediate pain that is severe enough to be a deterrent. (bangor.ac.uk)
- These results strongly suggest that self-defence doesn't drive the evolution of snake venom. (bangor.ac.uk)
- We also investigated the presence of venoms that caused early-onset pain throughout an evolutionary tree of snake species. (bangor.ac.uk)
- We found that venoms which cause early pain evolved on several occasions, but were usually quickly lost again during the course of snake evolution. (bangor.ac.uk)
- Snake handler Bill Haast regularly injected himself with snake venoms to increase his immunity. (popsci.com)
- NPP-BJ, a nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase from Bothrops jararaca snake venom, inhibits platelet aggregation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Snake venoms contain enzymes that hydrolyze nucleic acids and nucleotides, but their function is poorly understood. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- In vivo myotoxic effects and in vitro irreversible neuromuscular blockade effects of crude venom from the snake Bothrops jararacussu are well known pharmacological methods used to study drugs showing antivenom properties (29, 30). (scielo.br)
- A DISTRAUGHT widow has revealed she was still in love with her estranged husband who let his lethal pet black mamba snake bite him - as he was jealous over her new man. (thesun.co.uk)
- In one bite, it delivers more venom than almost any other snake. (nationalgeographic.com)
- The rat snake grows up to seven feet long-but carries no venom. (nationalgeographic.com)
- Snake venom phospholipase A2 (PLA2) that inhibits neuromuscular transmission by blocking acetylcholine release from the nerve termini. (uniprot.org)
- However, new research from a joint Bangor/Swansea team concludes that snake venom did not evolve as a defence mechanism. (swansea.ac.uk)
- UNC Professor of Biology Steve Mackessy, Ph.D., studies snake venom - from its protein structures to the effects of the venom on other animals. (unco.edu)
- To obtain venom, first the snake must be safely removed from its container using a snake hook. (unco.edu)
- This whole ordeal only takes a few minutes, and the amount of venom collected varies depending on size and species of the snake. (unco.edu)
- These pictures of gels, stained after electrophoresis, show the 'molecular fingerprints' of many different snake venoms. (unco.edu)
- Of about 3000 snake species throughout the world, only about 15% worldwide and 20% in the US are dangerous to humans because of venom or toxic salivary secretions (see table Significant Venomous Snakes by Region ). (merckmanuals.com)
- Snake venoms are complex substances, chiefly proteins, with enzymatic activity. (merckmanuals.com)
- One type of snake has developed its own version of the "poison ring" that certain Medieval ladies wore in case they wanted to pour a lethal substance into someone's drink. (unknowncountry.com)
- But once we realized that wasn't possible, human beings began working hard to develop antidotes to snake venom. (unknowncountry.com)
- Thwip_View_Classic_258_-_Venom_Lethal_Protector_1993 is hosted at free file sharing service 4shared. (4shared.com)
- Gizmodo: Given how large a role Spider-Man plays in Lethal Protector specifically, what was most challenging about leading with that arc for Venom's first outing as a hero? (gizmodo.co.uk)
- In the Lethal Protector series, Eddie and Venom leave New York and arrive at a truce with Spider-Man and go their own way. (gizmodo.co.uk)
- Marvel's lethal protector is ready to play (and eat brains) as the Venom: Dark Origins Statue. (geekalerts.com)
- This Spider-Man Venom Lethal Protector Throw Blanket not only looks cool, it will keep you warm. (geekalerts.com)
- One of Marvel's most enigmatic, complex and badass characters comes to the big screen, starring Tom Hardy as the lethal protector Venom. (movies.ie)
- Check out the latest trailer for VENOM, starring Tom Hardy as the lethal protector. (movies.ie)
- Loosely based on the Marvel Comics series Venom: Lethal Protector and Spider-Man: Separation Anxiety. (co-optimus.com)
- Delta-atracotoxin-Ar1a (delta-ACTX-Ar1a) is the major polypeptide neurotoxin isolated from the venom of the male Sydney funnel-web spider, Atrax robustus. (nih.gov)
- Birtoxin is a neurotoxin from the venom of the South African Spitting scorpion ( Parabuthus transvaalicus ). (wikipedia.org)
- The latter observation in conjunction with the symptomatology of scorpion poisoning favors the assumption that the venom is mainly a peripherally attacking neurotoxin. (ajtmh.org)
- This lethal neurotoxin is active on both insect and mammalian voltage-gated sodium channels. (uniprot.org)
- The spider's deadly neurotoxin venom causes the loss of muscle control, paralysis and eventual asphyxiation. (list.ly)
- Most venom components appear to bind to multiple physiologic receptors, and attempts to classify venom as toxic to a specific system (eg, neurotoxin, hemotoxin, cardiotoxin, myotoxin) are misleading and can lead to errors in clinical judgment. (merckmanuals.com)
- Thus, some spiders are venomous but not actually a threat to adult humans, whereas the bite of other spiders is lethal unless treated with appropriate medicines. (encyclopedia.com)
- While the after effects are described as excruciatingly painful, this venom is not lethal to humans. (wikipedia.org)
- Although powerful enough to paralyze smaller animals, the venom is not lethal to humans. (wikipedia.org)
- they use venom on their prey but it is not lethal to humans. (yahoo.com)
- This venom is even lethal to humans, although octopods do not easily or typically attack humans. (reference.com)
- Experts said venom from copperheads is not lethal to humans. (wwaytv3.com)
- and administering a polarized dilute scorpion venom to an one or more humans. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 16. The method of claim 15, wherein said blue scorpion venom is administered to said one or more humans orally. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Spiders typically avoid humans, and the bites are so small that only a trace amount of venom is left in the skin. (news-journalonline.com)
- κ-Hexatoxins (κ-HXTXs) are a family of excitotoxic insect-selective neurotoxins from Australian funnel-web spiders that are lethal to a wide range of insects, but display no toxicity towards vertebrates. (ovid.com)
- For many who study the chemistry of venoms, the neurotoxins hold particular interest. (encyclopedia.com)
- Other venoms, such as those of the deadly Asian cobras and kraits, are neurotoxins, which affect the nervous system, causing paralysis and sometimes respiratory arrest. (pbs.org)
- Its venom has both neurotoxins and hemotoxins. (angelfire.com)
- Analysis of electrophoresis indicated that H. saulcyi scorpion intoxicated mice exhibited autonomic nervous system symptoms (tachypnea, restlessness, hyperexcitability, convulsions, salivation, lacrimation, weakness).Conclusions: Hottentotta saulcyi scorpion venom includes short-chain neurotoxins and long-chain neurotoxins according to the electrophoretic protein patterns. (ac.ir)
- The venom is a combination of neurotoxins and cardiotoxins. (hubpages.com)
- This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Venom-derived Peptides as Pharmacological Tools. (ovid.com)
- Animal venoms are a mixture of peptides and proteins that serve two basic biological functions: predation and defense against both predators and microbes. (frontiersin.org)
- Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a common component extensively present in various scorpion venoms (herein abbreviated as svAMPs). (frontiersin.org)
- The crural gland produces a venom secretion containing at least nineteen peptides, in addition to non-protein components. (wikipedia.org)
- Importantly, in a mouse acute peritonitis model, these peptides significantly decreased the bacterial load in ascites and rescued nearly all mice heavily infected with clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from lethal bacteremia. (frontiersin.org)
- Despite this potent and selective action on insect KCa1.1 channels, we found that the classical KCa1.1 blockers paxilline, charybdotoxin and iberiotoxin, which all block insect KCa1.1 channels, are not lethal in crickets. (ovid.com)
- It has potent lethal activity and is also a membrane pore-forming cytolysin. (nus.edu.sg)
- It is perhaps best known for its potent neurotoxic - hemotoxic venom , which is considered one of the world's most potent rattlesnake venom. (wikipedia.org)
- The venom that this critter carries is potent and fatal to many small animals. (listverse.com)
- These scorpion venom AMPs (svAMPs) are characterized by biochemical purification from the venoms and molecular cloning from the venom glands. (frontiersin.org)
- The venom is produced in the crural glands of the male, which are kidney-shaped alveolar glands located in the upper thigh connected by a thin-walled duct to a calcaneus spur, or calcar, on each hind limb. (wikipedia.org)
- Its reputation is enhanced by its long hollow poison filled fangs which carry venom from special glands into the victim's body, the way a hypodermic needle injects serum. (angelfire.com)
- Most animals that attempt to eat the cane toad die from a lethal cocktail of poisons in its skin and concentrated in protruding glands on each shoulder. (eduplace.com)
- The findings that the classical AMPs play predatory and defensive roles indicate that the multifunctionality of scorpion venom components is an intrinsic feature likely evolved by natural selection from microbes, prey and predators of scorpions. (frontiersin.org)
- Background: In this study, we investigated the lethal potency, electrophoretic protein pattern and in vivo effects of Hottentotta saulcyi scorpion venom in mice.Methods: Scorpions were collected at night, by using a UV lamp from Mardin Province, Turkey. (ac.ir)
- Venom was obtained from mature H. saulcyi scorpions by electrical stimulation of the telson. (ac.ir)
- Following this, Esposito addressed what most people fear about scorpions: their venom. (stmarys-ca.edu)
- About 0.19mg of Andrographis paniculata and 0.17mg of Aristolochia indica plant extracts were able to completely neutralize the lethal activity of 2LD 2 of Echis carinatus venom. (ispub.com)
- We found that 1.27mg of IgY (generated against FCA coated venom) and 1.33mg of IgY (generated against Bentonite coated venom) was able to completely neutralize the lethal activity (2LD 50 ) of Echis carinatus venom. (ispub.com)
- Over time, the horses naturally build up antibodies specifically designed to neutralize the injected venom. (pbs.org)
- An antibody against the N-terminus of the birtoxin protein structure has been shown to neutralize the venom of the South African spitting scorpion, and such antibodies may be useful clinically to treat envenomation . (wikipedia.org)
- Thus, the aim of the present study was to verify the capability of Casearia gossypiosperma hydroalcoholic extract to neutralize the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu venom. (scielo.br)
- Reasonable volumes of scorpion antivenin should neutralize at least 5 mg. of pure venom. (ajtmh.org)
- Doctors dont know everything so perhaps im not allergic but just curious how a T's venom stacks up to true spiders in general and if its true i am 'highly alergic' (thats what they said), how could i possibly react to a pokie bite? (arachnoboards.com)
- How does T venom stack up compared to true spiders? (arachnoboards.com)
- Dr. Logan Randolph, a biology professor at Polk State College, said all spiders carry venom as a way to kill and digest their prey. (news-journalonline.com)
- The lab extracts venom to sell to clients who do scientific, medical and anti-venom research, Villand said. (sheboyganpress.com)
- The Chicken egg yolk antibodies generated against Bentonite and Adjuvant (FCA) coated Echis carinatus venom was evaluated for their anti-venom potential. (ispub.com)
- A 93% survival rate is anticipated if anti venom is administered quickly, dropping continuously as time goes on. (hubpages.com)
- But it turns out we already have lots of anti-venom?right inside our cells. (unknowncountry.com)
Evolution of venoms2
- Our results suggest little evidence for widespread evolution of venoms driven by their use in defence, though interesting exceptions likely exist such as the defensive use of venom 'spitting' in some cobras, and these specific cases deserve further study. (eurekalert.org)
- On the other hand, scientists know surprisingly little about the role of natural selection for self-defence in the evolution of venoms. (bangor.ac.uk)
Found in the venom1
- Without treatment, their bite is severe to lethal. (angelfire.com)
- If pain occurs long after the bite, it may simply be a side effect of other venom properties, such as tissue damage. (bangor.ac.uk)
- Capable of blasting cornea-melting venom and delivering a bite lethal enough to kill more than 20 people, this might be his most dangerous mission to date. (imdb.com)
- Venom and Bite. (hubpages.com)
- People whom are bitten may not feel the effects of the venom for up to 2 hours after the initial bite. (hubpages.com)
- In people bitten by venom A Mojave rattlesnakes (those outside the relatively small Venom B area in south-central Arizona), the onset of serious signs and symptoms can be delayed, sometimes leading to an initial underestimation of the severity of the bite. (wikipedia.org)
- But in terms of if you were to take a pokie bite, true spider venom and tarantula venom are very different in composition. (arachnoboards.com)
- I have heard putting a turnoquet above bite site can stop the spreading of the venom. (arachnoboards.com)
- Image 3 Caption: Defensive venom? (eurekalert.org)
- The function of a defensive venom is to deter and repel a predatory attack before its bearer is killed or injured, and pain is a universal deterrent . (bangor.ac.uk)
- Spitting cobras have unique behavioural adaptations for defensive venom use, and their venoms cause intense pain upon contact with eyes . (bangor.ac.uk)
- Sonustoxin (SNTX) is a two-subunit protein purified from the venom of a stonefish, Synanceja horrida. (nus.edu.sg)
- The protein concentration of Echis carinatus venom was estimated by the method of Lowry (1951). (ispub.com)
- Melittin, a phospholipase activating protein in bee venom, has been shown to induce neutrophil degranulation 3 and to increase 3 or inhibit 4 the formation of superoxide. (drugs.com)
- The protein profiles of the scorpion venom were analyzed by NuPAGE® Novex® 4-12 % gradient Bis-Tris gel followed by Coomassie blue staining.Results: The lethal assay of the venom was 0.73 mg/kg in mice. (ac.ir)
- Measurement of bradykinin protein, Na+, Cl-, K+, and Zn++ concentration in rat urine after intraperitoneal injection of Tityus serrulatus venom. (vin.com)
- 5 Venom concentration in the resulting extract was assumed to be correlated with protein concentration, 6 which was determined by a Bradford Lowry assay. (mja.com.au)
- A new pesticide using spider venom and plant protein could be a valuable tool in stemming the collapse of honeybee populations. (voanews.com)
- This protein actually helps to break down the venom. (unknowncountry.com)
- Bee venoms are complex mixtures of enzymes and polysaccharides. (drugs.com)
- There was a significant positive correlation between the concentration of the venom and elevation of all serum enzymes in different groups of rats. (vin.com)
- These alteration showed that the serum enzymes are elevated because of the necrotic effects of H. lepturus scorpion venom in different tissues specially in liver and blood. (vin.com)
- Allergens constituting the venom include vasoactive amines, small polypeptides and enzymes. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Although enzymes play an important role, the lethal properties of venom are caused by certain smaller polypeptides. (merckmanuals.com)
- Honeybee venom is obtained from A. mellifera , the common honeybee. (drugs.com)
- Patients allergic to honeybee venom may be particularly sensitive to hymenoptera venoms in general and have been found to be at a higher risk of developing systemic adverse reactions to venom immunotherapy than patients who are sensitive to yellow jacket venom. (drugs.com)
- More recently, it has been suggested that honeybee venom may alleviate the symptoms and slow the progression of immune-modulated diseases such as arthritis and multiple sclerosis. (drugs.com)
- These findings suggest that several mechanisms play an interrelated role in the development of immunity to honeybee venom. (drugs.com)
- It has been speculated that honeybee venom may prevent the development of or improve the status of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (drugs.com)
Amount of venom2
- Here we describe for the first time the isolation and functional characterization of a soluble phosphodiesterase from Bothrops jararaca venom, which shows amino acid sequence similarity to mammalian nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 3 (NPP3), and inhibits ADP-induced platelet aggregation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
Doses of the venom2
- In order to minimize allergic reactions, hyposensitization immunotherapy techniques have been developed in which small doses of the venom are administered under controlled conditions over a period of months to years. (drugs.com)
- The different sub lethal doses of the venom (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 micrograms/kg) were injected subcutaneously in 6 group of rats (Each group containing 10 mature male rats).The control group was injected with normal saline. (vin.com)
- Inhibition of lethal, edema, procoagulant, and phospholipase A2 activities of Echis carinatus venom was determined. (ispub.com)
- IgY generated using Adjuvant (FCA) coated venoms showed very high anti-phospholipase A2 activity. (ispub.com)
- Functional enzyme assays showed that T. mossambicanus also exhibited a higher metalloprotease and phospholipase activity but had a much lower serine protease activity relative to D. typus venom. (mdpi.com)
- Bee venom (BV) is a complex mixture of proteins and contains proteins such as phospholipase and melittin, which have an effect on blood clotting and blood clots. (blogspot.com)
- The most common subspecies of Mojave rattlesnake (Type A) has a neurotoxic venom that is considered to be one of the most debilitating and potentially deadly of all rattlesnakes, and even matching several elapids . (wikipedia.org)
- For this Midget Faded Rattlesnake, 0.1-0.2 milliliters of venom is typical. (unco.edu)
- Research from this laboratory reported decreased levels of ADA, histamine, IgE , and NGF in organs of mice injected with sub-lethal doses of cobra venom. (bvsalud.org)
- The goal of this research is to observe the levels of ADA, collagen, histamine, IgE , myoglobin, and NGF in certain organs of mice injected with venom from the bee Apis mellifera . (bvsalud.org)
- The lethality of the venom was determined by i.v. injections using Swiss mice. (ac.ir)
- In vivo effects of the venom were assessed by using the intraperitoneal route (ip) injections into mice (20±1g) and monitored for 24 h. (ac.ir)
- In two recent studies, scorpion venom has been successful in lessening the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and healing antibiotic resistant MRSA infections in mice. (stmarys-ca.edu)
- In animal models, the scientists showed that this family of new antimicrobial molecules made with these alterations could protect mice from otherwise lethal bacterial infections. (news-medical.net)
- In a key set of experiments, the researchers treated mice with mast-MO several hours after infecting them with otherwise lethal, sepsis-inducing strains of the bacteria E. coli or Staphylococcus aureus. (news-medical.net)
- To determine the effect of temperature on lethality of venom from Chironex fleckeri (the potentially fatal box jellyfish). (mja.com.au)
- Venom extracted from nematocysts of mature Chironex fleckeri specimens was exposed to temperatures between 4°C and 58°C for periods of two, five or 20 minutes, and then injected into freshwater crayfish ( Cherax quadricarinatus ) to assess lethality. (mja.com.au)
- Venom lethality, assessed as time to cardiac standstill in crayfish after intramuscular injection. (mja.com.au)
- At temperatures ≥ 43°C, venom lost its lethality more rapidly the longer the exposure time. (mja.com.au)
- Exposure to heat dramatically reduces the lethality of extracted C. fleckeri venom. (mja.com.au)
- We investigated the effect of exposing extracted C. fleckeri venom to a range of temperatures for different periods on its lethality in crayfish. (mja.com.au)
- However, at temperatures of 43ºC and above, venom lost its lethality more rapidly the longer the exposure time ( Box 2 ). (mja.com.au)
- Additionally, we determined the antivenoms neutralizing activity against lethal doses (LD 50 ) of Agkistrodon halys (from Japan) and Jiangzhe Agkistrodon halys (from China) venoms. (scielo.br)
- Antivenoms are usually hyper immune sera collected from animals which bind and inactivate venom components. (ispub.com)
- Gizmodo: In some of Marvel's more recent Venom comics, Eddie's relationship with the symbiote has a decidedly more romantic nature to it . (gizmodo.co.uk)
- The symbiote and its host roar with exaltation as Venom steps outside the tank that had recently been a prison for him, his long gruesome tongue flicking the air, hungry for the taste of a certain webslinger. (geekalerts.com)
- The Venom Symbiote is an alien life form that bonds with a host, giving it enhanced powers. (geekalerts.com)
- It's been a hero, a villain, and a Black Ops agent, and now the alien symbiote has transformed into these cool-looking Venom Leggings. (geekalerts.com)
- A symbiote leaps out of the comic books and into real life with the Venom Premium Format Figure. (geekalerts.com)
- In this study, we investigated the venom of D. typus and T. mossambicanus utilising a range of proteomic and bioactivity approaches, including determining the procoagulant properties of both venoms in relation to the human coagulation pathways. (mdpi.com)
- In doing so, we developed a novel procoagulant assay, utilising a Stago STA-R Max analyser, to accurately detect real time clotting in plasma at varying concentrations of venom. (mdpi.com)
- The susceptibility and route of injection were analyzed by lethal (L D 50 ) determination. (hindawi.com)
- Demon Bobby Joe Long slaughtered ten women in Florida in 1984 - and National ENQUIRER reporter Douglas Montero had a front-row seat when Long was executed by lethal injection on May 23. (nationalenquirer.com)
- His left arm was connected to the lethal injection intravenous line. (nationalenquirer.com)
- The LD 50 was the same for subcutaneous and intravenous injection in both of the venoms. (ajtmh.org)
- Sony's Spider-Man-free Venom solo movie is finally upon us, and as wild as it might sound to comic book purists, the film totally works without the titular antihero's nemesis . (gizmodo.co.uk)
- Spider-Man's alien suit is bigger and badder than ever with the Marvel Premier Collection Venom Statue . (geekalerts.com)
- Once thought to just be a cool new look for everyone's favorite wall-crawler, Venom eventually revealed himself to be one of Spider-Man's most formidable foes… and who sometimes manages to also be one of Spidey's greatest allies. (geekalerts.com)
- Venom is one of Spider-Man's archenemies, and also the subject of this really cool Venom Big Grin T-Shirt. (geekalerts.com)
- Take this Spider-Man Venom Spinner Ring for a spin and unleash your inner Venom. (geekalerts.com)
- Two players team up as Spider-Man and Venom (in his sort of good guy phase) to defeat Carnage and five other alien symbiotes, plus a whole host of generic bad guys. (co-optimus.com)
- This page contains co-op info for Spider-Man & Venom Separation Anxiety on the SNES [Classics] . (co-optimus.com)
- All information about Spider-Man & Venom Separation Anxiety was correct at the time of posting. (co-optimus.com)
- Researchers at Newcastle University in England developed the pesticide using the venom of an Australian funnel web spider and snowdrop lectin. (voanews.com)
- You wouldn't be allergic to a pokie, but you may well be allergic to another true spider that shares the same compounds in their venom that you're allergic too - from the true spider you were bitten by. (arachnoboards.com)
- This is particular not good with venom that causes necrosis, such as Brown Recluse Spider venom. (arachnoboards.com)