The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.
Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.
A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
A plague-like disease of rodents, transmissible to man. It is caused by FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS and is characterized by fever, chills, headache, backache, and weakness.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
A suspension of killed Yersinia pestis used for immunizing people in enzootic plague areas.
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that may be pathogenic for frogs, fish, and mammals, including man. In humans, cellulitis and diarrhea can result from infection with this organism.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Infections with bacteria of the genus YERSINIA.
Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Infections with bacteria of the genus VIBRIO.
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A condition caused by a brief whole body exposure to more than one sievert dose equivalent of radiation. Acute radiation syndrome is initially characterized by ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; VOMITING; but can progress to hematological, gastrointestinal, neurological, pulmonary, and other major organ dysfunction.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The etiologic agent of TULAREMIA in man and other warm-blooded animals.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.
Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.
Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Vaccines for the prevention of diseases caused by various species of Rickettsia.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A disease of humans and animals that resembles GLANDERS. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA PSEUDOMALLEI and may range from a dormant infection to a condition that causes multiple abscesses, pneumonia, and bacteremia.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A contagious disease of horses that can be transmitted to humans. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA MALLEI and characterized by ulceration of the respiratory mucosa and an eruption of nodules on the skin.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Agents that promote the production and release of interferons. They include mitogens, lipopolysaccharides, and the synthetic polymers Poly A-U and Poly I-C. Viruses, bacteria, and protozoa have been also known to induce interferons.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A carrier or inert medium used as a solvent (or diluent) in which the medicinally active agent is formulated and or administered. (Dictionary of Pharmacy, 1986)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes MELIOIDOSIS. It has been isolated from soil and water in tropical regions, particularly Southeast Asia.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.
A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.
A species of the genus YERSINIA, isolated from both man and animal. It is a frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in children.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
A family of CRUSTACEA, order DECAPODA, comprising the palaemonid shrimp. Genera include Macrobrachium, Palaemon, and Palaemonetes. Palaemonidae osmoregulate by means of gills.
A species of gram-negative bacteria parasitic on HORSES and DONKEYS causing GLANDERS, which can be transmitted to humans.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
A species of halophilic bacteria in the genus VIBRIO, which lives in warm SEAWATER. It can cause infections in those who eat raw contaminated seafood or have open wounds exposed to seawater.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.
The cutaneous and occasional systemic reactions associated with vaccination using smallpox (variola) vaccine.
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A condition characterized by the presence of ENDOTOXINS in the blood. On lysis, the outer cell wall of gram-negative bacteria enters the systemic circulation and initiates a pathophysiologic cascade of pro-inflammatory mediators.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER.
An experimental lymphocytic leukemia originally induced in DBA/2 mice by painting with methylcholanthrene.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.
The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
The use of a device composed of thermoluminescent material for measuring exposure to IONIZING RADIATION. The thermoluminescent material emits light when heated. The amount of light emitted is proportional to the amount of ionizing radiation to which the material has been exposed.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.
Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.
Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
An aspect of cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8).
Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.

Assaying potential carcinogens with Drosophila. (1/1650)

Drosophila offers many advantages for the detection of mutagenic activity of carcinogenic agents. It provides the quickest assay system for detecting mutations in animals today. Its generation time is short, and Drosophila is cheap and easy to breed in large numbers. The simple genetic testing methods give unequivocal answers about the whole spectrum of relevant genetic damage. A comparison of the detection capacity of assays sampling different kinds of genetic damage revealed that various substances are highly effective in inducing mutations but do not produce chromosome breakage effects at all, or only at much higher concentrations than those required for mutation induction. Of the different assay systems available, the classical sex-linked recessive lethal test deserves priority, in view of its superior capacity to detect mutagens. Of practical importance is also its high sensitivity, because a large number of loci in one fifth of the genome is tested for newly induced forward mutations, including small deletions. The recent findings that Drosophila is capable of carrying out the same metabolic activation reactions as the mammalian liver makes the organism eminently suitable for verifying results obtained in prescreening with fast microbial assay systems. An additional advantage in this respect is the capacity of Drosophila for detecting short-lived activation products, because intracellular metabolic activation appears to occur within the spermatids and spermatocytes.  (+info)

Quantitative aspects in the assessment of liver injury. (2/1650)

Liver function data are usually difficult to use in their original form when one wishes to compare the hepatotoxic properties of several chemical substances. However, procedures are available for the conversion of liver function data into quantal responses. These permit the elaboration of dose-response lines for the substances in question, the calculation of median effective doses and the statistical analysis of differences in liver-damaging potency. These same procedures can be utilized for estimating the relative hazard involved if one compares the liver-damaging potency to the median effective dose for some other pharmacologie parameter. Alterations in hepatic triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, and the activities of various hepatic enzymes can also be quantitiated in a dose-related manner. This permits the selection of equitoxic doses required for certain comparative studies and the selection of doses in chemical interaction studies. The quantitative problems involved in low-frequency adverse reactions and the difficulty these present in the detection of liver injury in laboratory animals are discussed.  (+info)

Isolation and amino acid sequence of a neurotoxic phospholipase A from the venom of the Australian tiger snake Notechis scutatus scutatus. (3/1650)

The complete amino acid sequence of notechis 5, a neurotoxic phospholipase A from the venom of Notechis scutatus scutatus (Australian tiger snake), has been elucidated. The main fragmentation of the 119-residue peptide chain was accomplished by digesting the reduced and S-carboxymethylated derivative of the protein with a staphylococcal protease specific for glutamoyl bonds. Tryptic peptides were used to align and complete the sequence of the four staphylococcal protease peptides. The sequence was determined by Edman degradation by means of the direct phenylthiohydantoin method. Notechis 5 differs in seven positions from the recently elucidated sequence of the presynaptic neurotoxin notexin from the same venom. Notechis 5 has a 50% higher specific prospholipase A activity than notexin when assayed against egg yolk but is only one-third as toxic.  (+info)

Efflux-mediated aminoglycoside and macrolide resistance in Burkholderia pseudomallei. (4/1650)

Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is intrinsically resistant to a wide range of antimicrobial agents including beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, macrolides, and polymyxins. We used Tn5-OT182 to mutagenize B. pseudomallei to identify the genes involved in aminoglycoside resistance. We report here on the identification of AmrAB-OprA, a multidrug efflux system in B. pseudomallei which is specific for both aminoglycoside and macrolide antibiotics. We isolated two transposon mutants, RM101 and RM102, which had 8- to 128-fold increases in their susceptibilities to the aminoglycosides streptomycin, gentamicin, neomycin, tobramycin, kanamycin, and spectinomycin. In addition, both mutants, in contrast to the parent, were susceptible to the macrolides erythromycin and clarithromycin but not to the lincosamide clindamycin. Sequencing of the DNA flanking the transposon insertions revealed a putative operon consisting of a resistance, nodulation, division-type transporter, a membrane fusion protein, an outer membrane protein, and a divergently transcribed regulatorprotein. Consistent with the presence of an efflux system, both mutants accumulated [3H] dihydro streptomycin, whereas the parent strain did not. We constructed an amr deletion strain, B. pseudomallei DD503, which was hypersusceptible to aminoglycosides and macrolides and which was used successfully in allelic exchange experiments. These results suggest that an efflux system is a major contributor to the inherent high-level aminoglycoside and macrolide resistance found in B. pseudomallei.  (+info)

The contribution of acute toxicity in animals to occupational exposure limits of chemical substances. (5/1650)

The correlations of lethal doses of various industrial chemicals for rats and mice with occupational exposure limit values were investigated. 50% lethal dose (LD50) values obtained by oral (p.o.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection and 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values obtained by inhalation exposure were collected from Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS). Threshold Limit Value (Time-Weighted Average) (TLVs-TWA) and Threshold Limit Value (Short Term Exposure Limit) (TLVs-STEL) recommended by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) were used as exposure limits. TLVs-TWA or TLVs-STEL and LD50 or LC50 values obtained for the rats were plotted on logarithmic scales on the ordinate and abscissa, respectively. High correlations were obtained between these parameters. The order of correlations was: TLVs-STEL vs. LC50s > TLVs-TWA vs. LC50s > TLVs-TWA vs. LD50s i.p. > TLVs vs. LD50s p.o. The same calculations for the relationship between TLVs and lethal doses in mice were also performed. The order of the three types of correlations was same as that of the rats; however, correlation coefficients for TLVs-STEL vs. LC50s and for TLVs-TWA vs. LC50s obtained in mice were smaller than those in rats. TLVs-TWA are, therefore, well correlated with LC50 values rather than LD50 values, particularly with those in rats. High correlations between TLVs-STEL vs. LC50s were also obtained, as had been expected before calculation. The equation: TLV-TWA = 10b x (LC50)a can be obtained from these plottings, where the values a and b are taken from each linear regression line. TLV-TWA for each chemical can be calculated by using LC50 and the equation. The upper and lower 95% confidence limits for calculated TLV-TWA were TLV-TWA (calculated from LC50) x 22.9 and TLV-TWA (calculated)/22.9, respectively, where LC50 for rats expressed in ppm x hr was used.  (+info)

Biological activity of netilmicin, a broad-spectrum semisynthetic aminoglycoside antibiotic. (6/1650)

Netilmicin (Sch 20569) is a new broad-spectrum semisynthetic aminoglycoside derived from sisomicin. Netilmicin was compared to gentamicin, tobramycin, and amikacin in a variety of in vitro test systems as well as in mouse protection tests. Netilmicin was found to be similar in activity to gentamicin against aminoglycoside-susceptible strains in both in vitro and in vivo tests. Netilmicin was also active against many aminoglycoside-resistant strains of gram-negative bacteria, particularly those known to possess adenylating enzymes (ANT 2') or those with a similar resistance pattern. Netilmicin was found to be markedly less toxic than gentamicin in chronic studies in cats, although gentamicin appeared less toxic in acute toxicity tests in mice. The concentrations of netilmicin and gentamicin in serum were compared in dogs after intramuscular dosing, and the pharmacokinetics including peak concentrations in serum were found to be similar.  (+info)

Waglerin-1 selectively blocks the epsilon form of the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. (7/1650)

Neonatal mice resist the lethal effect of Waglerin-1. Because Waglerin-1 blocks the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of mature end-plates, the appearance of lethality may result from the epsilon- for gamma-subunit substitution. In support of this hypothesis, adult knockout (KO) mice lacking the gene coding for the epsilon-subunit resist the lethal effect of Waglerin-1. In contrast, heterozygous litter mates respond to Waglerin-1 like adult wild-type mice. In vitro application of 1 microM Waglerin-1 inhibited spontaneous miniature end-plate potentials and evoked end-plate potentials of adult wild-type and heterozygous KO mice. Both miniature end-plate potentials and end-plate potentials of neonatal wild-type and adult homozygous KO mice resisted Waglerin-1. Waglerin-1 decreased the end-plate response of adult wild-type mice to iontophoretically applied acetylcholine (ACh) with an IC50 value of 50 nM; 1 microM Waglerin-1 decreased the ACh response to 4 +/- 1% of control for adult heterozygous KO mice. In contrast, 1 microM Waglerin-1 decreased the ACh response to 73 +/- 2% of control for wild-type mice less than 11 days old and had no effect on the ACh response of adult homozygous KO mice. Between 11 and 12 days after birth, the suppressant effect of Waglerin-1 on wild-type end-plate responses to ACh dramatically increased. Waglerin-1 reduced binding of alpha-bungarotoxin to end-plates of adult but not neonatal wild-type mice. These data demonstrate that Waglerin-1 selectively blocks the mouse muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor containing the epsilon-subunit.  (+info)

Role of lysine and tryptophan residues in the biological activity of toxin VII (Ts gamma) from the scorpion Tityus serrulatus. (8/1650)

Toxin VII (TsVII), also known as Ts gamma, is the most potent neurotoxin in the venom of the Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus. It has been purified to homogeneity using a new fast and efficient method. Chemical modification of TsVII with the tryptophan-specific reagent o-nitrophenylsulfenyl chloride yielded three modified derivatives (residues Trp39, Trp50 and Trp54). Acetylation of TsVII mostly generated the monoacetylated Lys12 derivative. No side reactions were detected, as indicated by endoproteinase Lys-C peptide mapping, Edman degradation and electrospray mass spectrometry. Circular dichroism and fluorimetric measurements showed that none of the chemical modifications altered the overall structure of the derivatives. The acetylation of Lys12 or the sulfenylation of Trp39 or Trp54 led to a loss of both toxicity in mice and apparent binding affinity for rat brain and cockroach synaptosomal preparations. Sulfenylation of Trp50, however, moderately affected the toxicity of TsVII in mice and had almost no effect on its binding properties. A 3-dimensional model of TsVII was constructed by homology modeling. It suggests that the most reactive residues (Lys12 and Trp39 and Trp54) are all important in the functional disruption of neuronal sodium channels by TsVII, and are close to each other in the hydrophobic conserved region.  (+info)

Oral The acute oral toxicity of the test material was investigated in a study which was conducted under GLP conditions and in accordance with the standardised guidelines OECD 420 and EU Method B.1 bis. Under the conditions of the study the acute oral median lethal dose (LD50) of the test material in the female Wistar rat was determined to be greater than 2000 mg/kg bw. Inhalation In accordance with Column 2 of REACH Annex VIII, information requirement 8.5.3, acute toxicity testing by the inhalation route is not appropriate, taking into account the very low level of particles of an inhalable size, based on results of particle size distribution study which indicated , 3.3 % w/w of particles are less than 100 microns diameter. Dermal The acute dermal toxicity of SiMn slag was investigated in a study which was conducted in accordance with the standardised guideline EU Method B.3. Under the conditions of the study the acute dermal median lethal dose (LD50) of the test material in male and female rats ...
The LD50 is usually expressed as the mass of substance administered per unit mass of test subject, typically as milligrams of substance per kilogram of body mass, sometimes also stated as nanograms (suitable for botulinum), micrograms, or grams (suitable for paracetamol) per kilogram. Stating it this way allows the relative toxicity of different substances to be compared, and normalizes for the variation in the size of the animals exposed (although toxicity does not always scale simply with body mass). For substances in the environment, such as poisonous vapors or substances in water that are toxic to fish, the concentration in the environment (per cubic metre or per litre) is used, giving a value of LC50. But in this case, the exposure time is important (see below). The choice of 50% lethality as a benchmark avoids the potential for ambiguity of making measurements in the extremes and reduces the amount of testing required. However, this also means that LD50 is not the lethal dose for all ...
The LD50 is usually expressed as the mass of substance administered per unit mass of test subject, typically as milligrams of substance per kilogram of body mass, sometimes also stated as nanograms (suitable for botulinum), micrograms, or grams (suitable for paracetamol) per kilogram. Stating it this way allows the relative toxicity of different substances to be compared, and normalizes for the variation in the size of the animals exposed (although toxicity does not always scale simply with body mass). For substances in the environment, such as poisonous vapors or substances in water that are toxic to fish, the concentration in the environment (per cubic metre or per litre) is used, giving a value of LC50. But in this case, the exposure time is important (see below). The choice of 50% lethality as a benchmark avoids the potential for ambiguity of making measurements in the extremes and reduces the amount of testing required. However, this also means that LD50 is not the lethal dose for all ...
The acute oral toxicity (LD50) of sec-alkane sulfonate-sodium salts SAS in rats and mice are reflecting the different grades tested in a concentration dependent manner. The acute median lethal dose of technical grade sec-alkane sulfonate SAS at 93% is between 500 and 2000 mg/kg body weight whereas sec-alkane sulfonate-sodium salts SAS tested at lower concentrations (e.g. 60%, 30%) revealed LD50 values above 2000 mg/kg body weight. Based on all available studies no indications of special target organs and/or specific toxic effects were revealed. Regarding acute systemic dermal toxicity, all available data do not indicate any toxic potential of concern. Data on inhalation toxicity do not exist. However, due to the chemical nature and physical form of sec-alkane sulfonate-sodium salts SAS inhalation is no exposure route of concern. ...
Oral The test material was investigated in a key study designed to be compatible with OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals No 420 Acute Oral Toxicity - Fixed Dose Method (2001) and Method B.1 bis Acute Toxicity (Oral) of Commission Regulation (EC) No 440/2008. Following a sighting test at a dose level of 2000 mg/kg, an additional four fasted female animals were given a single oral dose of the test item, as a solution in arachis oil BP, at a dose level of 2000 mg/kg body weight. Clinical signs and body weight development were monitored during the study. All animals were subjected to gross necropsy. There were no deaths, no signs of systemic toxicity, all animals showed expected gains in body weight and no abnormalities were noted at necropsy. The acute oral median lethal dose (LD50) of the test item in the female Wistar strain rat was considered to be greater than 2000 mg/kg body weight. Inhalation According to REACH Annex VIII, Section 8.5, Column 2, information on acute toxicity shall be ...
In toxicology, the lethal dose (LD) is an indication of the lethal toxicity of a given substance or The median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for
The most widely used quantitative estimation of radiation sensitivity of a population of experimental animals is the median lethal dose or LD50. For reasons discussed earlier, a 30-day observation period is the standard interval used in tabulating mortality and the dose necessary to kill 50 per cent of the animals within this period is called the LD50:30. In practice, the LD50 is an interpolated value based on the response of subsamples to graded doses of radiation. Justification for this methodology is based on the following. If it were possible to measure precisely the minimum dose necessary to kill each individual mouse, a plot of the frequency with which each dose is lethal would result in a normal curve as shown in Figure 22-2A. Note that in this figure the dose scale is shown in terms of standard deviations from the mean minimal lethal dose for the population. Thus if the mean is 700 R and the standard deviation is 50 R the dose points corresponding to -3, -2, -1, ..., +3 are 550, 600, ...
The plant Nicandra physaloides (L) Gaertn, commonly known as the apple of Peru is a member of the solaneceae family. It has been widely associated with livestock poisoning in Kenya and elsewhere. The clinical signs reportedly associated with its poisoning are circling, tremors of the hind limbs, tachycardia, bloat, convulsions, coma and death. In the current study the acute toxicity was determined by intra-peritoneal injections of the aqueous extracts from different plant parts in a total of one hundred and fifty (150) white Swiss mice aged between to and 12 weeks and divided in groups of six (3 males and 3 females) for each dosage level. The median lethal dose (LDso) was then calculated by the method of Reed and Muench (1938). The subacute toxicity was determined by feeding five groups of two male Friesian calves each, aged between 8 and 10 months, at 0 (control), 4, 8, 16 and 32% levels of dried ground whole plant material in wheat bran for 14 weeks. The physiological parameters of rectal ...
Mortality data for C57BL mice and Sprague-Dawley rats were collected as a part of the program to biologically characterize AFRRI-TRIGA reactor radiations and to provide reference information for future studies. Unilateral whole body exposures to mixed gamma-neutron radiations from the reactor or to 250 kVp x rays were carried out over a range of midline tissue doses from 370 to 875 rads. The 30-day median lethal doses were calculated to be 589 and 432 rads for mice exposed to the x rays and to the reactor radiations, respectively. The corresponding values for the rat exposures were 740 and 434 rads. Using the LD50/30 values as the end points for comparison, the reactor radiations were 1.4 and 1.7 times more effective in mice and rats, respectively, than were the x rays. The survival times of the mice and rats exposed to reactor radiations were significantly less than those of the animals exposed to similar doses of x rays.
LD90 for fall=7 stories The median lethal dose (LD50) for falls is 4 stories, or 48 ft, and the lethal does for 90% (LD90) of test subjects is 7 stories, or 84 ft. Reference: Rosen P, ed. Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 4th ed. Mosby-Year Book, Inc; 1998:352. Prognostic factors are height, impact surface, and the body part which first hits the ground (Crit Care Med 2005;33:1239) Over 50% in autopsy study had cardiac trauma (in half of these, it was the cause of death), consider thoracotomy (J Trauma 2004;57:301) ABCs in trauma room often stand for Accuse, Blame, and Criticize, Deny, Exaggerate Anaesthetic ABCD:AvoidBlockCancelDefer Consultant, A appear, B blame, C criticize, D disappear power vacuum needs to be filled Airway-Ask patient to take deep breath (Gives A,B, and LOC) Breathing Circulation Search For Bleeding Disability (pupils/moves extremities) Expose and then cover (Strip, Flip, Touch, and Smell) Finger (rectal)/FAST Exam/Foley Glucose/Girl (pregnancy test) Hang ...
Defecatory dysfunction may occur under the ip ligament. Mtc = minimum effective dosage, median lethal dose significantly. Table 31.14 management of low- value of systolic bp with adrenaline is generally continued till the degeneration of seminiferous tubules, which are widely distributed in many textbooks, but it also has pro-oxidant effect in majority of cases and (b) hypoxia, acidosis and occasionally maculopapular would be easier to imagine or fantasize. Postoperative maintain blood glucose by skeletal muscle relaxants (chapter 21). It has no discriminatory power.18 formal testing, using equipment of various glucocorticoids therapeutic efficacy is mostly metabolised in the intensive care facilities and services that improve the quality of something that s going to take a brief light stimulus, appearing in textbooks sometimes incorrectly show light entering the retropubic space. Dabigatran (pradaxa) and edoxaban (savaysa) are direct activators of plasminogen to plasmin is thus released is ...
Todays graphic is a whimsical look at lethal doses of chemicals we consume on a regular basis. Whilst it may be more common to view chemicals in a black and white framing of toxic or non-toxic, the reality is more of a sliding scale of toxicity. The admission of too much of any chemical into the body can cause toxic effects, and even death - the only variant from chemical to chemical is how much is too much. For some chemicals, the amount will be very low, whilst for others, it may be almost impossibly high.. So, how can we compare the toxicities of differing chemicals, when they can all produce varying effects, and these effects all require the intake of differing amounts? One of the most commonly quoted figures when discussing the toxicity of chemicals is the LD50, which stands for lethal dose 50%, or median lethal dose. This is the amount of a chemical required to cause death in 50% of the animals in the group it is tested on. The figures can be given for when the chemical is given ...
The standard toxicity test for chemical compounds is called the LD50. LD stands for Lethal Dose and 50 indicates 50 percent. In other words, LD50 means the lowest dose at which a material kills half of the test subjects. The results are usually given in milligrams of compound per kilograms of body weight. Many of…. ...
According to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the lethal dose of radiation is in the range of 400 to 450 rem. This level of radiation causes death to around 50 percent of a population...
At the first stage, the doctor will prescribe an antimicrobial agent. If the fungus in the initial stage - externally, and if the treatment is very neglected - inside. The minus of such treatment is the high toxicity of the drugs. Some of them settle in the liver and are not taken out immediately. ...
BioAssay record AID 116912 submitted by ChEMBL: Compound was tested for acute toxicity test with a single oral administration in mice and the median lethal dose as calculated..
A study was performed to assess the acute oral toxicity of the test material in the Wistar strain rat. The method was designed to meet the requirements of the following: § OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals No 420 Acute Oral Toxicity - Fixed Dose Method (2001) § Method B1 bis Acute Toxicity (Oral) of CommissionRegulation (EC) No. 440/2008 Following a sighting test at dose levels of 300 mg/kg and 2000 mg/kg, a further group of four fasted females was given a single oral dose of test material, as a solutionin arachis oil BP, at a dose level of 2000 mg/kg bodyweight. Clinical signs and bodyweight development were monitored during the study. All animals were subjected to gross necropsy. The acute oral median lethal dose (LD50) of the test material in the female Wistar strain rat was estimated to be greater than 2000 mg/kg bodyweight (Globally Harmonised Classification System-Unclassified). A study was performed to assess the acute dermal toxicity of the test material in the Wistar strain ...
Viagra shinglehouse - Urine should be referred for physiotherapy. Ca1+ tends to be the predominant clinical features of an incest taboo,monly coupled with a focus for learning. Older adults are reluctant to take interest in values, with a short course of oral ld20s (median lethal dose is often nonspecific or unknown overdose, avoid the use of existing services is efficient use of.
Drug - an agent that brings about change in biological function through its chemical actions. Receptor - site where a ligand binds to effect a change or inhibit the usual action. Pharmacodynamics - actions of the drug on the body. Agonist - a molecule that binds to a receptor and activates it in some way to bring about an action either directly or indirectly.. Partial agonist - an agent that activates but to sub-maximal level. Antagonist - a molecule that binds to a receptor an inhibits its action in some way.. Potency - amount of effect for a given concentration - reflected by EC50.. Efficacy - maximal amount of effect. ED50 or EC50 - concentration required to reach 50% of maximal effect.. TD50 - median toxic dose - dose required to produce a particular toxic effect in 50% of animals.. LD50 - median lethal dose - dose required to produce a death in 50% of animals.. Therapeutic index - dose required to produce desired effect vs dose required to produce undesired effect. (TD/effective ...
The clostridial neurotoxins are among the most potently lethal substances in the world, with median lethal doses (LD50) for humans in the nanogram/kilogram range. The toxins are closely related...
A mouse model was used to determine if protective immunity to influenza A virus infection differs between the sexes. The median lethal dose of H1N1 or H3N2 was lower for naïve females than males. After a sublethal, primary infection with H1N1 or H3N2, females and males showed a similar transient mor …
Intestinal or injection infection are rarer, but the prognosis for all infections are generally considered poor. Anthrax toxin is one of the most lethal toxins known. To make matters worse, anthrax endospores are notoriously hard to sterilize, resulting autoclaving for smaller heat-resistant equipment, irradiation for items such as letters or packages, and gas treatment for infected buildings. Anthrax has gained notoriety because it is a very good bioweapon with low median lethal dose and quick infection periods, as well as the ability to form endospores. These spores may persist in soil for years, making it easily spread among livestock. In 2001, a terrorist plot involving anthrax spore-seeded letters mailed to US Senators killed postal workers and led to a complete cleanup of several facilities. In addition, it is known that the Soviet Unions bioweapons program developed many highly contagious strains of anthrax and other infectious diseases. A vaccine exists, but has dangerous side effects ...
Intestinal or injection infection are rarer, but the prognosis for all infections are generally considered poor. Anthrax toxin is one of the most lethal toxins known. To make matters worse, anthrax endospores are notoriously hard to sterilize, resulting autoclaving for smaller heat-resistant equipment, irradiation for items such as letters or packages, and gas treatment for infected buildings. Anthrax has gained notoriety because it is a very good bioweapon with low median lethal dose and quick infection periods, as well as the ability to form endospores. These spores may persist in soil for years, making it easily spread among livestock. In 2001, a terrorist plot involving anthrax spore-seeded letters mailed to US Senators killed postal workers and led to a complete cleanup of several facilities. In addition, it is known that the Soviet Unions bioweapons program developed many highly contagious strains of anthrax and other infectious diseases. A vaccine exists, but has dangerous side effects ...
Downloadable! Trade theory traces back different patterns of internationalization to heterogeneity between firms, measured both through differences in productivity levels and size. In this paper we analyze the link-between heterogeneity within sectors and internationalization choices, namely trade and foreign di-rect investments (FDI) for a large sample of countries and industries between 1994 and 2004. The focus of our paper is on the role played by average productivity level and the distribution of firms by size in explaining differences across sectors and countries in the extensive margin of internatio-nalization (i.e., the number of foreign nations where firms from a given sector and country have ex-panded abroad). By performing an ordered probit analysis, and controlling for other factors affect-ing the patterns of internationalization, we confirm that industries with higher productivity levels and with a distribution of firms shifted toward large firms are more prone to internationalize in for
The remarkable Graham method for visualization of gall bladder since its discovery in 1923 (1) is now widely used as a routine procedure in the Roentgen diagnosis of gall bladder conditions. The high toxicity of the tetrahalogenophenolphthaleins employed in this test is well known as evidenced by the reports of some marked constitutional reactions after the administration of the drug sometimes observed in the earlier days of the development of this method of diagnosis. With the improvement of technique of administration and of purer preparation of the salts, however, any untoward effect has been eliminated. The substitution for the tetrabromphenolphthalein ...
The limitations of cisplatin-based chemotherapy, including high toxicity, undesirable side effects, and drug resistance, have motivated extensive investigation...
Hypotension, if it occurs, is likely to be of short duration, but a vasopressor drug may be used if necessary. The oral LD50 in rats is greater than 6,000 mg/kg while in the dogs, the oral LD50 is approximately 400 mg/kg. LD50=8.4g/kg (orally in rat ...
Hypotension, if it occurs, is likely to be of short duration, but a vasopressor drug may be used if necessary. The oral LD50 in rats is greater than 6,000 mg/kg while in the dogs, the oral LD50 is approximately 400 mg/kg. LD50=8.4g/kg (orally in rat ...
Endotoxin or lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are highly toxic components of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria and are often present in significant amounts in bacterial cell expression systems.
Green cleaning refers to the use of cleaning products that have a decreased influence on human well being and the atmosphere, usually simply because they have been re-formulated to get rid of the most potentially toxic components. Environmental Choice Program (ECP) is an organization primarily based out of Canada that presents third-celebration certification of lots of distinct items which includes cleaners and janitorial paper solutions. Enovana Green Cleaning performs background checks and screening on all staff members so you can trust your cleaner with your house! Previously, Green Cleaners cleaned and wrapped a wedding gown with such care so it wouldnt be smashed the day ahead of the wedding. Do not be concerned about imperfections in cutting for the reason that the sparkly pipe cleaners will cover these up.. Our solutions are safer for you and those you care about and are certified by the Green Seal Institute (). Our confirmed strategies, combined with a employees of cleaning ...
This is your body on chairs: Electrical activity in the muscles drops †“the muscles go as silent as those of a dead horse,†Hamilton says †leading to a cascade of harmful metabolic effects. Your calorie-burning rate immediately plunges to about one per minute, a third of what it would be if you got up and walked. Insulin effectiveness drops within a single day, and the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes rises. So does the risk of being obese. The enzymes responsible for breaking down lipids and triglycerides †for “vacuuming up fat out of the bloodstream,†as Hamilton puts it †plunge, which in turn causes the levels of good (HDL) cholesterol to fall. ...
A growing body of research suggests that watching your diet and exercising a few times a week is not enough to offset sedentary time.
A method for the investigation of the acute toxicity of an unknown chemical substance, with an estimation on the LD50, is described. Using this, it is possible to obtain with 13 experimental animals a
Chemical agents are poisonous vapors, aerosols, liquids and solids that have toxic effects on people, animals or plants. Chemical agents can cause death but are difficult to deliver in deadly amounts because they dissipate quickly outdoors and are hard to produce. Before a Chemical Emergency A chemical attack could come without warning. Signs of a chemical release include difficulty breathing, eye irritation, loss of coordination, nausea or burning in the nose, throat and lungs. The presence of many dead insects or birds may indicate a chemical agent release.
ನಿಕೋಟಿನ್‌ನ ಎಲ್‌ಡಿ50 ಪ್ರಮಾಣ ಇಲಿಗಳಿಗೆ 50 ಮಿಗ್ರಾ/ಕಿಗ್ರಾ ಮತ್ತು ಮೂಗಿಲಿಗಳಿಗೆ 3 ಮಿಗ್ರಾ/ಕಿಗ್ರಾ. 40-60 ಮಿಗ್ರಾಂ. (0.5-1.0 mg/kg) ಇದು ವಯಸ್ಕ ಮನುಷ್ಯರಿಗೆ ಘಾತಕ ಪ್ರಮಾಣವಾಗಿರುತ್ತದೆ.[೪೩][೪೪] ಆದ್ದರಿಂದ, ಕೊಕೈನ್‌ನಂತಹ ಇತರ ಕ್ಷಾರಗಳಿಗೆ ತುಲನೆ ಮಾಡಿ ನೋಡಿದಾದ ನಿಕೋಟಿನ್ ಹೆಚ್ಚಿನ ವಿಷತ್ವವನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿದೆ, ಅದು ಮೈಸ್‌ಗೆ ನಿರ್ವಹಣೆ ಮಾಡಿ ನೋಡಿದಾಗ 95.1 ಮಿಗ್ರಾಂ/ಕಿಗ್ರಾಂ ನ LD50 ಪ್ರಮಾಣವನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿದೆ. ಆದಾಗ್ಯೂ, ಕೇವಲ ಧೂಮಪಾನದ ಮೂಲಕ ನಿಕೋಟಿನ್ ಅನ್ನು ಅತಿ ...
Toxicological studies Acute toxicity studies The acute toxicity of amitrole to several animal species is given in Table 1. No signs of toxicity were observed in one beagle-type female dog when given amitrole (96.1%) by gavage at a dosage of 2150 mg/kg bw. Another dog receiving 4640 mg/kg bw vomited within 1 hour, and no signs of toxicity were observed thereafter (Fogleman, 1954). When a commercial product (water soluble powder with 50% active ingredient) was administered to mice, the LD50 was reduced to 4.0 g/kg bw amitrole. By determining the mean lethal dose for amitrole in different preparations, it was established that sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and wetting agents as admixtures in various quantities considerably increase the toxicity of amitrole (Hapke, 1967). WHO has classified amitrole as unlikely to present acute hazard in normal use (WHO, 1992). Table 1. Acute toxicity of amitrole in animals Species Sex Route LD50 LC50 Purity Reference (mg/kg bw) (mg/m3) Mouse M oral 14 700 7 9 ...
Based on mammalian median lethal dose (LD50) rating of 2,660 mg/kg body mass, boric acid is poisonous if taken internally or inhaled in large quantities. The Thirteenth Edition of the Merck Index indicates that the LD50 of boric acid is 5.14 g/kg for oral dosages given to rats, and that 5 to 20 g/kg has produced death in adult humans. For comparisons sake, the LD50 of salt is reported to be 3.75 g/kg in rats according to the Merck Index.. Long term exposure to boric acid may be of more concern, causing kidney damage and eventually kidney failure (see links below). Although it does not appear to be carcinogenic, studies in dogs have reported testicular atrophy after exposure to 32 mg/kg bw/day for 90 days. This level is far lower than the LD50.[5]. According to boric acid IUCLID Dataset published by the European Commission, boric acid in high doses shows significant developmental toxicity and teratogenicity in rabbit, rat, and mouse fetuses as well as cardiovascular defects, skeletal variations, ...
Abbreviations ACh: acetylcholine. AChE: acetylcholinesterase. ADME: absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion. CBF: cerebral blood flow. CL: clearance. CMR: cerebral metabolic rate. CMRO2: cerebral metabolic rate of O2 consumption. CNS: central nervous system. CO: cardiac output. DA: dopamine. ED50: median effective dose. EEG: electroencephalogram. FDA: Food and Drug Administration. FIO2: inspired O2 fraction. GABA: γ-aminobutyric acid. GFR: glomerular filtration rate. GPCR: G protein-coupled receptor. Hb: hemoglobin. HR: heart rate. 5HT: 5-hydroxytryptamine: serotonin. ICP: intracranial pressure. IV: intravenous. LD50: median lethal dose. MAC: minimum alveolar concentration. MAP: mean arterial pressure. MI: myocardial infarction. NE: norepinephrine. NK1: neurokinin 1. NMDA: N-methyl-D-aspartate. NSAID: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. PaCO2: arterial CO2 tension. PO2: partial pressure of O2. PRIS: propofol infusion syndrome. RBF: renal blood flow. RR: respiratory rate. RT: room ...
ASTM E724 : Standard Guide for Conducting Static Acute Toxicity Tests Starting with Embryos of Four Species of Saltwater Bivalve Molluscs
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interaction between syntoxic and catatoxic steroids on endotoxin lethality in relation to liver metabolism in mice. AU - Lazar, G.. AU - Sekiya, S.. AU - Agarwal, M. K.. PY - 1977. Y1 - 1977. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0017402889&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0017402889&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 330853. AN - SCOPUS:0017402889. VL - 22. SP - 13. EP - 20. JO - Journal of Leukocyte Biology. JF - Journal of Leukocyte Biology. SN - 0741-5400. IS - 1. ER - ...
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Research (IJPPR) will give best paper award every year in the form of money along with certificate to support research activity of scholar ...
The combination of radiation therapy plus cetuximab had higher rates of acute toxicity among patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck compared with radiation therapy plus cisplatin.
The International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation3 lists effects of oil spills (see http://www.itopf.com/). Noted is the following: The most toxic components in oil tend to be those lost rapidly through evaporation when oil is spilled. The lethal concentrations of toxic components leading to large scale death of marine life are relatively rare, localized and short-lived. Sub-lethal effects may impair the ability of marine organisms to reproduce, grow, feed or perform normal functions caused by prolonged exposure to a concentration of oil or oil components far lower than will cause death. Oysters, mussels and clams living in shallow waters routinely filter large volumes of seawater to obtain food and are more likely to accumulate oil components. While these components may not cause any immediate harm, their presence may render such animals unappetizing if they are consumed with the presence of an oily taste or smell. This is a temporary problem since the components causing the off taste are ...
Prior Therapy: Therapy with monoclonal antibodies and/or chemotherapy must be stopped at least 7 days prior to anti-CD19 CAR-transduced T cell infusion, and recovery of treatment-associated toxicity to , grade 2 is required prior to infusion of cells. For patients that have received prior DLI, the last dose must be at least 28 days prior to anti-CD19 CAR-transduced T cell administration. Note that patients can be enrolled on this study at any time after or during therapy, but at least 14 days must elapse from the time of prior monoclonal antibody administration or chemotherapy until anti-CD19 CAR-transduced T cells are infused, and at least 28 days must elapse from the time of withdraw of immunosuppression or DLI until anti-CD19 CAR-transduced T cells are infused. Systemic immunosuppression must be stopped at least 28 days prior to protocol entry. There is no time restriction in regard to prior intrathecal chemotherapy provided there is complete recovery from any acute toxic effects of such ...
OR. 2. Relapsed/refractory non-CNS solid tumor that has not responded or has relapsed and for which no standard treatment is available. Patients may not have primary CNS tumors or CNS metastases. Lymphoma patients are permitted. Patients do not need to have measurable disease.. 2. Age 6 months - 29.99 years at enrollment. 3. Life expectancy ≥ 3 months. 4. Lansky or Karnofsky ≥50. 5. Prior therapy. 1. Patient must have fully recovered from the acute toxic effects of all prior chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiotherapy, or surgery prior to study entry.. 2. Myelosuppressive therapy- At least 14 days must have elapsed since the administration of previous therapy. Six weeks must have elapsed from the administration of nitrosureas or mitomycin C. For patients with ALL on maintenance therapy, they may be eligible if 7 days have elapsed and they are recovered from the toxic effects of the chemotherapy. This restriction does not include intrathecal chemotherapy, which is permitted.. 3. Biologic ...
Tissue prestripped by an eye bank technician can be safely used for DMEK surgery. SF6 gas for prolonged tissue support may reduce the rebubble rate in DMEK, with no apparent acute toxic effect. An unrecognized upside-down graft was the primary cause of graft failure in this series. Upside-down graft …
The unionized ammonia diffuses more easily through biological membranes than the ammonium ion, whereby the high toxicity of ammonia results. The lethal dose for fish at about 1 mg/l ammonia (at 15 C), leading to suffocation with gill necrosis. For fish larvae are already 0.2 - 0.3 mg/l ammonia fatal. 0.03 to 0.05 mg/l ammonia lead to chronic damage, in which trout are particularly sensitive (Hütter 1990 ...
Floersheim, G L., Treatment of moloney lymphoma with lethal doses of dimethyl-myleran combined with injections of haemopoietic cells. (1969). Subject Strain Bibliography 1969. 74 ...
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA, following cardiovascular disease. Treating cancer using conventional therapies is associated with low response rates and high toxicity, because these therapies usually lack specific tumor accumulation. Loading anticancer drugs into intelligently designed polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) can serve in delivering these drugs specifically to the tumor site, thus boosting their efficacy and reducing any associated off target toxicity. Targeting NPs to the tumor site can occur through either passive or active means. In passive targeting, NPs of specific size and surface characteristics can exploit the tumors erratic vasculature and occluded lymphatic drainage to extravasate the systemic circulation and accumulate preferentially at the tumor site. Active targeting mandates grafting the surface of NPs with a ligand that specifically interacts with a protein expressed at higher levels at the tumor site, in comparison to elsewhere in the body. In the current
Moderate to high toxicity to invertebrates and fish. Indirect effects on intertidal biotopes through smothering/coating with oil deposits.. Indirect effects on birds and seals through damage to plumage and inhalation of aromatic fractions respectively. ...
Fresh ginger is a food that should not be so long because after a few days it will soften, crumble and break down in small chunks and cuts, if not throw away, try to cut off the broken and use the intact part of ginger, you should know that, according to some studies have found that due to the process of crushing, old damage that inside the ginger has occurred a toxic substance called shikimol.. This substance is found in both ginger and not only in the crush so it can not be cut off. This substance has a very high toxicity that can alter the liver cells of a healthy person, even though the amount of this substance can be absorbed very little. ...
(Edit: For those interested in the toxic components of the vaccine please look here.) Recently I read a letter in a New Zealand paper decrying the widespread acceptance of the new HPV vaccine Gardasil. The letter contained references to suitably scary statistics from a impressive sounding report, in it it was claimed that Gardasil had…
The contents of this Journal are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. Copyright © 2011-2019 by Journal of Natural Resources and Development ...
Melvin Robert Bowers went on trial yesterday for a second time on a manslaughter charge in the 1993 chloroform-inhalation death of his 20-year-old girlfriend.A Howard Circuit Court jury could not
A new QSAR approach based on a Quantitative Neighbourhoods of Atoms description of molecular structures and self-consistent regression was developed. Its prediction accuracy, advantages and...
Hello all, I come from a biology background, and I wanted to ask a question. We have a value of LD50 (lethal dose), which is the dose at which 50% of the...
The family of man who was killed with a lethal dose of a painkiller by a German doctor say they are astonished he will not be extradited to the UK ...
Want to know more about Bystolic Side Effects? I took one dose today for the first time of Bystolic 10 mg. I | Wed, 25 May 2011 |
Beispiele für die Verwendung des Wortes dose in einem Satz. Definitionen, Synonymen und Übersetzungen sind ebenfalls verfügbar
... "lethal dose" tests, in which animals are forced to swallow massive amounts of a test chemical to determine the dose that causes ... Rats and mice are injected in lethal dose 50% (LD50). This test can cause animal convulsions, loss of motor function, and ... which refers to the lethal dose which kills 50% of the treated animals). Skin corrosivity or irritation: This method of test ...
Much research makes use of the lethal dose 50 protocol. Subjects are given enough pathogen to kill half of them. The remaining ...
The median lethal dose of hexavalent chromium is 50-150 mg/kg. The World Health Organization recommends a maximum allowable ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Mayo, James (1997-03-13). "Lethal Dose: LD-50 makes electronic music that doesn't go ... LD-50. Their debut release, "Recone Helmut vs. Clark ov Saturn" was one of the Denver Westword's "20 best recordings to come ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Mayo, James (1997-03-13). "Lethal Dose: LD-50 makes electronic music that doesn't go ... After joining the industrial band LD-50, Saturn and Recone Helmut split off and formed pH10 and moved to New York City in 1999 ... and LD-50. Saturn was a resident DJ in Brooklyn, NY at Halcyon's Sunday evening "Undercity" party, along with DJs Spinoza, ...
LD 50 Lethal Dose)》中的一位角色。 哈迪於2003年在皇家宮廷劇院(英语:Royal Court Theatre)與漢普斯特德劇院(英语:Hampstead Theatre)表演的《In Arabia We'd All Be Kings ... 致命LD(英语:LD 50 Lethal
... oral median lethal dose (LD50) is 7700 mg/kg in rats. However, when cyanuric acid is present together with melamine (which by ... It binds to free chlorine and releases it slowly, extending the time needed to deplete each dose of sanitizer. The ...
For a 70 kg human, the lethal dose is estimated at 50 mL. An acceptable daily intake of 15 mg/day has been identified for ...
"Lethal dose 50% (LD50) of Micrurus spp snake venoms determined in murine model". 2015-12-02. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000622. ...
LD50 is defined as the lethal dose that kills 50% of a sample population. This allows for a simpler study of the toxicity of ... Strong, temporal, and dose-dependent associations have been reported, and a plausible biological mechanism (via rodent and ... 50 (2): 205-212. doi:10.1007/s00244-004-0132-y. PMID 16328625. S2CID 26207468. Kathleen M. Register. "Cigarette Butts as Litter ... 24 (1): 50-65. doi:10.1105/tpc.111.092411. PMC 3289554. PMID 22247250.[dead link] "Breaking Down Cellulose". large.stanford.edu ...
It is highly toxic, and the lethal dose for humans is about 50-60 mg. A dose of 25 mg cyanogenic glycoside fed to rats (100-120 ... page 50, Applewood Books, 2008, ISBN 978-1-4290-1281-2 MT Yakubu and BB Bukoye, "Abortifacient potentials of the aqueous ...
For example, the median lethal dose (LD-50) for ingested polonium-210 is 240 μCi; about 53.5 nanograms. Although, millicurie ...
The estimated lethal dose (LDmin) of taxine alkaloids is approximately 3.0 mg/kg body weight for humans. "The lethal dose for ... Minimum lethal dose, oral LDmin for many different animals were tested: Chicken 82.5 mg/kg Cow 10.0 mg/kg Dog 11.5 mg/kg Goat ... Patients who ingest a lethal dose frequently die due to cardiogenic shock, in spite of resuscitation efforts." There are ... 50-51. ISBN 0710004311. Transactions of the Gaelic Society of Inverness, Volume 62. 2004. Page 35. Romuald Sztyk. Obrót ...
Lethal doses in adults are in the range 50-500 mg/kg (orally). Generally, two grams cause serious toxicity and four grams are ... In high doses, camphor produces symptoms of irritability, disorientation, lethargy, muscle spasms, vomiting, abdominal cramps, ... potentially lethal. Camphor has limited use in veterinary medicine as a respiratory stimulant for horses. Camphor was used by ... natural camphor imported from Formosa and selling normally for about 50 cents a pound, reached the high price of $3.75 in 1918 ...
"LD50: Lethal Dose". Amazon.co.uk. 28 February 2005.. *^ Sullivan, Caroline (23 June 2005). "Melanie Brown, LA State of Mind ( ... Mel B has also appeared in films, such as Spice World (1997), LD 50 Lethal Dose (2003), The Seat Filler (2005), Tinker Bell and ... LD 50 Lethal Dose, which was released directly to DVD in 2005.[30] She acted in a long run of shows as part of the cast for The ... 50] In addition to the promotion of the musical, the group appeared in the documentary, Spice Girls' Story: Viva Forever! which ...
In 1981, a paper by Gosselin estimated that the lethal dose is between 50 and 500 mg/kg. Doses as high as 15-20 mg/kg are taken ... In addition to producing PCP-like mental effects, high doses may cause a false-positive result for PCP and opiates in some drug ... At high doses, dextromethorphan is classified as a dissociative general anesthetic and hallucinogen, similar to the controlled ... Frequent and long-term usage at high doses could possibly lead to toxic psychosis and other permanent psychological problems. ...
Minimum lethal concentration, LCmin; Minimum lethal dose, LDmin. *Median lethal concentration, LC50; Median lethal dose, LD50; ... Absolute lethal dose, LD100. The most referenced value in the chemical industry is the median lethal dose, or LD50. This is the ... When a person has been exposed to an acutely toxic dose of a substance, they can be treated in a number of ways in order to ... Maximum tolerable concentration, MTC, LC0; Maximum tolerable dose, MTD, LD0 ...
... is somewhat less damaging than an instantaneous dose. It has been estimated that a median lethal dose of 210Po is 15 ... The median lethal dose (LD50) for acute radiation exposure is about 4.5 Sv.[78] The committed effective dose equivalent 210Po ... enough to make up 5,000 lethal doses). The IAEA "is said to be considering tighter regulations ... There is talk that it might ... 1997). "Reduction of subacute lethal radiotoxicity of polonium-210 in rats by chelating agents". International Journal of ...
"LD50: Lethal Dose". Amazon.co.uk. 28 February 2005. Sullivan, Caroline (23 June 2005). "Melanie Brown, LA State of Mind (Amber ... She appeared in a horror film entitled, LD 50 Lethal Dose, which was released directly to DVD in 2005. She acted in a long run ... Mel B has also appeared in films, including Spice World (1997), LD 50 Lethal Dose (2003), The Seat Filler (2005), Tinker Bell ... 50 million (£38.3 million), if not more". The divorce was finalised on 15 December 2017. She cited her divorce from Belafonte ...
VR has similar lethal dose levels to VX (between 10-50 mg), as well as being similar in appearance. However, due to usage of ... will reduce symptoms of nerve agent toxicity but may not be sufficient to prevent death if a large dose of nerve agent has been ...
That is 200 times the median lethal dose of around 238 μCi or 50 nanograms in the case of ingestion. The studies of the ... Mario Scaramella, who had eaten with Litvinenko, reported that doctors had told him the body had five times the lethal dose of ... According to the 6 pm Channel 4 (9 December 2006) news, the intake of polonium she suffered would only result in a dose of 100 ... He died three weeks later, becoming the first confirmed victim of lethal polonium-210-induced acute radiation syndrome. ...
In animal studies with mice, the median lethal dose of TTX was found to be 232 µg per kg body weight. Tetrodotoxin levels are ... The symptoms from ingesting a lethal dose of tetrodotoxin may include dizziness, exhaustion, headache, nausea, or difficulty ... Determination of Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) and No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL)". Toxins. 9 (3): 75. doi:10.3390/ ... Fugu contains lethal amounts of the poison tetrodotoxin in its inner organs, especially the liver, the ovaries, eyes, and skin ...
The lethal oral dose of TMA for humans has been estimated at 3-4 mg/kg. The lethal dose for rats was estimated to be ~45-50 mg/ ... Parenteral administration of radio-labeled tetramethylammonium iodide to rats resulted in almost the whole dose being excreted ...
... is lethal if ingested and the lethal dose by injection is about 1/10th of that (approximately 0.6 μg/kg). The human inhalation ... The lethal doses (LD50) for mice are very similar with varying administration routes: i.v. is 3.4 μg/kg, i.p. is 10 μg/kg and p ... Saxitoxin can enter the body via open wounds and a lethal dose of 50 μg/person by this route has been suggested. The human ... On the other hand, the CIA is known to have issued a small dose of saxitoxin to U-2 spy plane pilot Francis Gary Powers in the ...
The acute oral median lethal dose (LD50) is greater than 1 g per kilogram of body weight.[15] ...
THF is a relatively nontoxic solvent, with the median lethal dose (LD50) comparable to that for acetone. Reflecting its ...
After intravenous administration, LD50 (lethal dose for 50% of animals) values were 33 and 45-75 mg/kg in mice and rats, ... up to 11 times the therapeutic dose), nor at multiple doses (up to 10 times the therapeutic dose). Phase II and III studies on ... Ninety six percent of the administered dose is eliminated within 24 hours. In relation to its antihistamine effect, oral doses ... but also the coadministration of the therapeutic dose with usual doses of ketoconazol (400 mg/day), a metabolism inhibitor and ...
This is despite the top 10 most toxic snakes (determined by LD50 (lethal dose in mice to kill 50%)) being Australian elapid ... Also non-lethal guns, spray cans with appropriate content, whips and aversive baits should be used to increase the caution of ...
... lethal dose of DCPA, is 12,500 mg/kg in spartan rats, and greater than 10,000 mg/kg in beagle dogs. In humans, it seems that ... but at lower doses than necessary for DCPA. TPA does not degrade, and infiltrates soil and nearby water sources. The ... mainly weight loss and diarrhea occurring at doses of 2000 mg/kg/day. There were also effects on the lungs, liver, kidney, and ... DCPA is poorly absorbed, as 6% of a 25-mg dose and 12% of a 50-mg dose were absorbed according to metabolites in urine. ...
The oral LD50 (lethal dose in 50% of the population) of diazepam is 720 mg/kg in mice and 1240 mg/kg in rats. D. J. Greenblatt ... Dose increases may overcome the effects of tolerance, but tolerance may then develop to the higher dose and adverse effects may ... Doses of diazepam are recommended to be about half of those given to younger people, and treatment limited to a maximum of two ... Continual daily doses of diazepam quickly build to a high concentration in the body (mainly in adipose tissue), far in excess ...
"Pol Pot died after ingesting a lethal dose of a combination of Valium and chloroquine".[400] In May, Pol Pot's widow and Tep ... 50] The cells met to read Marxist texts and hold self-criticism sessions.[51] Sâr joined a cell that met on the rue Lacepède; ... 50] Several months after the Cercle Marxiste's formation, Sâr and Sary joined the French Communist Party (CFP).[54] Sâr ... his cell comrades included Hou Yuon, Sien Ary, and Sok Knaol.[50] He helped to duplicate the Cercle's newspaper, Reaksmei ("The ...
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC): LD50 (Median dose). 317 mg/kg (rat, oral). 270 mg/kg (moose, oral)[5] ...
The median lethal dose (LD50) value for caesium chloride in mice is 2.3 g per kilogram, which is comparable to the LD50 values ... 37 (22): 50-56. 1959. doi:10.1021/cen-v037n022.p050.. *^ a b c d Butterman, William C.; Brooks, William E.; Reese, Jr., Robert ... in daily doses of about 0.5 to 2 grams, although there are side-effects.[219] Excessive ingestion of lithium causes drowsiness ... Potassium chloride is used in the United States for lethal injection executions.[232] ...
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC): LD50 (Median dose). 180 mg/kg (rats, oral) ...
Fixed-dose procedure. *Lethal dose. *Poison. *Toxic capacity. *Toxicant *Toxin. *Toxicity class ... Activated carbon, in 50% w/w combination with celite, is used as stationary phase in low-pressure chromatographic separation of ... Adsorption rates for H2S as high as 50% by weight have been reported.[citation needed] ... Some carbons have a mesopore (20 Å to 50 Å, or 2 to 5 nm) structure which adsorbs medium size molecules, such as the dye ...
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC): LD50 (median dose). anhydrous: 380 mg/kg, rat (oral) hexahydrate: 3311 mg/kg, rat (oral ...
"Fractional Dose Yellow Fever Vaccine as a Dose-sparing Option for Outbreak Response. WHO Secretariat Information Paper. ... Lethal ovitraps can reduce Aedes populations, but with a decreased amount of pesticide because it targets the mosquitoes ... fractional dosing of the vaccine is being considered as a dose-sparing strategy to maximize limited vaccine supplies.[37] ... Fractional dose yellow fever vaccination refers to administration of a reduced volume of vaccine dose, which has been ...
On 22 May 2002, Crick, in the presence of over 20 friends and family (but not Nitschke), took a lethal dose of barbiturates, ... Nitschke was the first doctor in the world to administer a legal, voluntary, lethal injection,[2] after which the patient ... 50] who was in ill health.[51] Without knocking, police -accompanied by a psychiatrist, GP and social worker- forced their way ... by misrepresenting his age as over 50. Waterman subsequently imported Nembutal and ended his life.[68] In another case Lucas ...
This helps to protect the organism from a lethal overactivation of the immune system, and minimizes tissue damage from ... whereas exposure to high doses was associated with stress vulnerability.[29] ...
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC): LD50 (median dose). 94 mg/kg (rats, oral)[1]. 60 mg/kg (mouse, oral). 88 mg/kg (rat, ...
The minimum lethal dose of the racemate in rabbits, i.v., is given as 100 mg/kg. Studies carried out to determine whether ... progressively larger doses caused less bradycardia), and which was quantitatively less than that produced by the same doses of ... halostachine produced only a slight mydriasis at a dose of 30 mg/kg, i.v., and "excitation" at 100 mg/kg; in guinea pigs, doses ... In man, an oral dose of 50 mg produced no effects on blood pressure. Later studies by Lands and Grant on the effects of racemic ...
The microcystins and nodularins poison the liver, and exposure to high doses can cause death. Exposure to low doses in drinking ... The first published report that blue-green algae or cyanobacteria could have lethal effects appeared in Nature in 1878. George ... many cyanobacteria species produce potent cyanotoxins which concentrate during a bloom to the point where they become lethal to ... Research suggests both acute and chronic mechanisms of toxicity.[50][51] BMAA is being investigated as a potential ...
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC): LD50 (median dose). 381 mg/kg (guinea pig, oral). 300 mg/kg (rat, oral). 425 mg/kg ( ... Human health effects from 2,4,5-T at low environmental doses or at biomonitored levels from low environmental exposures are ... Intentional overdoses and unintentional high dose occupational exposures to chlorophenoxy acid herbicides have resulted in ...
... which bans the use of all riot control agents in warfare whether lethal or less-than-lethal.[22] In the US, when pepper spray ... There are also wipes manufactured[20] for the express purpose of serving to decontaminate someone having received a dose of ... Less lethal sprays are legal.. *Hong Kong: Forbidden for civilians, it is legal or possess and use by only the members of ... Although considered a less-than-lethal agent, it has been deadly in rare cases, and concerns have been raised about a number of ...
An early name for the disease was pathergic granulomatosis.[28] The disease is still sometimes confused with lethal midline ... Oral cyclophosphamide at a dose of 2 mg/kg/day was the standard treatment for many years; this regimen resulted in complete ... Mendenhall WM, Olivier KR, Lynch JW, Mendenhall NP (April 2006). "Lethal midline granuloma-nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma ... The dose of corticosteroids is generally tapered (decreased) very slowly over the course of several months to reduce the risk ...
high doses of isotretinoin beyond the recommended dose of 1mg/kg/day ... It is used to treat harlequin-type ichthyosis, a usually lethal skin disease, and lamellar ichthyosis. It is a retinoid, ... of people showing depression on a dose of 3 mg/kg/day as compared with 3-4% at normal doses.[38] Studies have uncovered several ... The dose may need to be decreased to reduce the severity of these side effects.[33] The skin becomes more fragile-especially to ...
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC): LD50 (median dose). 51.9 mg/kg (H2CrO4·2Na, rat, oral)[2]. ...
No known lethal doseEdit. The Median lethal dose of THC in humans is not known because no human has ever been known to have ... A 1972 study gave up to 9000 mg/kg of THC to dogs and monkeys without any lethal effects. Some rats died within 72 hours after ... In dogs and monkeys, single oral doses of Δ9-THC and Δ8-THC between 3000 and 9000/mg/kg were nonlethal.. ... and 11-Nor-9-carboxy-THC Plasma Pharmacokinetics during and after Continuous High-Dose Oral THC". Clinical Chemistry. 55 (12): ...
This is directly related to the growth of cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner as well.[84][87] This data supports the ... In addition, full knockout of Beclin1 is embryonic lethal whereas knockout of Atg7 or Atg5 is not. ... The first strategy has been tested by looking at dose-response anti-tumor effects during autophagy-induced therapies. These ... Recent pharmacological and biochemical studies have proposed that survival and lethal autophagy can be distinguished by the ...
... is considered to be an incurable and rapidly lethal disease unless all the tumors can be fully resected (cut ... Alden ME, Mohiuddin M (March 1994). "The impact of radiation dose in combined external beam and intraluminal Ir-192 ... 29 (3): 147-50. doi:10.1093/jjco/29.3.147. PMID 10225697.. *^ Farley DR, Weaver AL, Nagorney DM (May 1995). "'Natural history' ... In patients with operable perihilar tumors, reported 5-year survival rates range from 20-50%.[92] ...
During the first two weeks after fertilization, radiation therapy is lethal but not teratogenic.[27] High doses of radiation ... This is a radiation treatment in which the total dose of radiation is divided into large doses. Typical doses vary ... Side effects are dose- dependent; for example higher doses of head and neck radiation can be associated with cardiovascular ... It only occurs within the radiation field/s. Hair loss may be permanent with a single dose of 10 Gy, but if the dose is ...
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC): LD50 (median dose). 689 mg/kg, oral (rat) ...
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):. LD50 (Median dose). 3310 மிகி/கிகி (mg/kg), வாய்வழி (எலி). ...
... is stable for one year as solution when stored at -20 °C. The recommended dose as a selection agent in cell cultures ... Lethal concentrations of puromycin are much higher for strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae than mammalian cell lines. Deletion ... Puromycin is soluble in water (50 mg/ml) as colorless solution at 10 mg/ml. ...
In contrast, the highly lethal H5N1 strain binds to receptors that are mostly found deep in the lungs.[94] This difference in ... It takes about six months for the manufacturers to formulate and produce the millions of doses required to deal with the ... The most famous and lethal outbreak was the 1918 flu pandemic (Spanish flu pandemic) (type A influenza, H1N1 subtype), which ... "Aberrant innate immune response in lethal infection of macaques with the 1918 influenza virus". Nature. 445 (7125): 319-23. ...
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC): LC50 (median concentration). 138 ppm (rat, 30 min)[1] ...
Hardy giftede sig med Sarah Ward i 1999, men blev skilt i 2004. Han har en søn, Louis Thomas, med sin tidligere kæreste Rachael Speed. I 2008 mødte han skuespilleren Charlotte Riley da de arbejdede på The Take og Wuthering Heights sammen. I 2010 friede Hardy til Riley og de blev gift i 2014. I oktober 2015 fødtes deres første barn.[1]. ...
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC): LD50 (median dose). 3200 mg/kg (rat, oral) ... 50 °C (−58 °F) to when hydrogen is replaced by deuterium.[4] Heating to 190 °C (374 °F) changes its structure to monoclinic.[5] ...
Aluminum fluoride reported oral animal lethal dose (LD50) is 0.1 g/kg.[17] Repeated or prolonged inhalation exposure may cause ...
... accused of supplying Holly Nehls with a lethal dose of heroin.. Terance Jannke was convicted of first degree reckless homicide ... Len Bias homicide: 50-year-old Watertown man convicted of supplying woman with lethal dose of heroin. Published October 5, ... WATERTOWN -- A 50-year-old Watertown man has been convicted, ...
LD 50 Lethal Dose is a 2003 horror film directed by Simon De Selva, produced by Alistair MacLean-Clark and Basil Stephens and ... "LD 50 Lethal Dose (2003) Movie Review". Beyond Hollywood. 31 May 2004. Retrieved 31 July 2012. LD 50 Lethal Dose at IMDb Lethal ...
LD 50 Lethal Dose is a 2003 horror film directed by Simon De Selva, produced by Alistair MacLean-Clark and Basil Stephens and ...
Lethal Dose 50. (e) Studios Aqua. Greenstone Group. For more business card design inspiration check out this Showcase of ...
Lethal Dose Hardcore EP It took a few listens of this 7" for me to find any substance. The title Lethal Dose Hardcore is ill ...
Lethal dose of a toxic substance or radiation is the dose required to kill half the members of a tested population after a ... LD50 figures are frequently used as a general indicator of a substances acute toxicity. LD50 are expressed in mg or Bq per kg ...
LD 50 The Median Lethal Dose of your page or site indicates the point at which 50% of users decide to leave! ... LD 50 • Rage Clicks / Cursor Thrashing / Wild Mouse • Facial analysis • Wireless Brain Interface Methods of measuring Emotion ( ...
... lethal dose. M2e. Ectodomain of M2 protein. MDCK. Madin-Darby canine kidney ... In lethal challenge experiments, we used the A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2) and A/Shanghai/2/2013-PR8-IDCDC (H7N9) mouse-adapted influenza ... 6, all mice that received FlgSh-HA2-2-4M2ehs were fully protected (100% survival) from lethal A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2) (p = 0.0003 ... In comparison, mice mock-immunized with PBS were not protected from lethal challenge, and all died at or before day 8 post ...
labelling; limitation of exposure; waste disposal; first aid; data sheet; lethal dose 50; psychological effects; health hazards ... Toxicity: LD50 = 1mg/kg. Very toxic if inhaled or ingested. Symptoms of poisoning are: nausea, vomiting, anxiety, convulsions. ...
lethal dose (50/30). The dose of radiation expected to cause death within 30 days to 50% of those exposed without medical ... Gamma rays are potentially lethal to humans.. half-life. The amount of time needed for half of the atoms of a radioactive ... dose. A general term for the amount of radiation absorbed over a period of time. ... A unit of absorbed dose of radiation defined as deposition of 100 ergs of energy per gram of tissue. It amounts to ...
We know that individuals will respond differently to the same dose of a substance because of a number of factors including ... Lethal dose (LD50). One such population-level measure is the median lethal dose, LD50 (lethal dose, 50%). This is defined as ... Ethics, mice and toxins - in this activity, students consider the use of mice for bioassays and in establishing the lethal dose ... Fixed-dose procedure. In 1992, the fixed-dose procedure (FDP) was proposed as an alternative test to LD50. It uses fewer ...
LD50=a lethal dose of 50%; defined as the dose of a product that will result in the death of 50% of a population exposed to ... second dose; 3.0% after the third dose; and 3.1% after the fourth dose. Events most commonly reported included muscle or joint ... Local Reactions. In AVA prelicensure evaluations, 6,985 persons received 16,435 doses: 9,893 initial series doses and 6,542 ... exotoxins known as lethal toxin and edema toxin (33--35). PA and LF form lethal toxin; PA and EF form edema toxin. LF is a ...
LD 50 Lethal Dose)》中的一位角色。 哈迪於2003年在皇家宮廷劇院(英语:Royal Court Theatre)與漢普斯特德劇院(英语:Hampstead Theatre)表演的《In Arabia Wed All Be Kings ... 致命LD(英语:LD 50 Lethal
LD50 is shorthand for Lethal Dose-50 percent. In other words, its basically the dose that will kill 50 percent of a given ... According to the National Hazardous Substances Database: It has been stated that in large doses theobromine may cause nausea ... internal bleeding and often lethal over-stimulation of the heart. See a vet immediately is the message of one cautionary post ... and anorexia and that daily intake of 50-100 g cocoa (0.8-1.5 g theobromine) by humans has been associated with sweating, ...
The relationship between faecal egg count reduction and the lethal dose 50% in the egg hatch assay and larval development assay ... The relationship between resistance detected in the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and the lethal dose 50%(LD50) in ...
... and lethal dose-50 (LD-50) for pesticides used in two background and three beef-finishing systems of eastern Uruguay ... and lethal dose-50 (LD-50) for pesticides used in two background and three beef-finishing systems of eastern Uruguay. 2013-09- ... and lethal dose-50 (LD-50) for pesticides used in two background and three beef-finishing systems of eastern Uruguay. Values ... Table 7. Solubility (Ksp), adsorption (Koc), time for 50% decomposition (T1/2) ...
In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is ... "Lethal dose". www.euronuclear.org. Retrieved 2018-09-15.. *^ Thirty-Two Years of Measurable Change Archived 2007-02-11 at the ... "IUPAC Gold Book - absolute lethal dose (LD100)". goldbook.iupac.org. Retrieved 2019-07-01.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{ ... For disease-causing organisms, there is also a measure known as the median infective dose and dosage. The median infective dose ...
lethal dose. Speakeasy Science. Tag archives for lethal dose. A Lethal Concentration. Posted by Deborah Blum on May 22, 2010 ... LD stands for Lethal Dose and 50 indicates 50 percent. In other words, LD50 means the lowest dose at which a material kills ...
Median lethal dose (LD50; mg/L) values of L. citratum were 2.39 and 3.24 for males and females, respectively. All tested EOs ... Median lethal dose (LD50; mg/L) values of L. citratum were 2.39 and 3.24 for males and females, respectively. All tested EOs ... The LD50 values of the other 3 EOs-L. citratum, allspice and clove bud were 2.11-3.31 and 3.53-5.22 for males and females, ... LD50 (µg/fly) values for contact toxicity of manuka and kanuka were 0.60 and 0.71, respectively, for males and 1.10 and 1.23, ...
Lethal dose, 50% (LD50). *Long-term exposure limit (LTEL). *Mutagen. *National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) ...
... lethal dose; P, patient; R, resistant: HC, health carrier; S, sensitive.. †Isolates with an identical or clonally related ...
LD50 stands for "lethal dose to 50 per cent". In. each test, at least 20 animals receive escalating doses of a chemical until ... The test, which was invented 50 years ago, will no longer be used in any of. the OECDs 29 member nations. The regulatory ...
The median lethal dose (LD50) is the statistically derived median dose of a substance that can be expected to cause death in 50 ... A common measuring tool for acute toxicity is LD50 ("lethal dose"), which is the dose required to kill 50 percent of the test ... Lethal Concentration 50 (LC50). An LC50 value is the concentration of a specific material in the air that will kill 50% of the ... A common measuring tool is LC50 ("lethal concentration"), which is the concentration of a substance in the water required to ...
Lethal Dose 50 * Naphthalenes / chemical synthesis* * Naphthalenes / metabolism * Naphthalenes / pharmacology* * Pyrroles / ...
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation * Endothelium, Vascular / radiation effects * Humans * Lethal Dose 50 ... Graded, single-dose x irradiations (15-115 Gy, dose rate about 7 Gy/min) were given under acutely hypoxic conditions. Tumors ... Results: The x-ray doses needed to achieve local control in 50% of the animals (tumor control doses, TCD50) ranged from 45.1 to ...
J. A. Santos, V. Valin, and A. S. Ferrão-Filho, "Determination of the lethal doses LD50 and LD90 of Euphorbia splendens var. ... 2.1.3. Median Lethal Dose (LD50) Determination. The concentration that inhibits 50% of parasite growth was determined as ... The median lethal dose (LD50) was 40 μg/mL and no morphological changes were observed by staining with blue trypan and light ... some of them are administered by one dose and others (as metronidazole) need several doses along the day for two or three days ...
  • In other words, LD50 means the lowest dose at which a material kills half of the test subjects. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The relationship between resistance detected in the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and the lethal dose 50%(LD50) in the egg hatch assay (EHA) for benzimidazoles (BZs) and a larval development assay (LDA) for BZs, levamisole (LEV) and ivermectin (IVM) was examined on 13 sheep farms and 12 goat farms in Denmark. (ac.ke)
  • None of the animals exposed to only T-2 toxin at lethal dose of 2 and 4 LD50 (11.8 and 23.76 mg/kg body weight ) survived beyond 36 and 16 h, respectively. (curehunter.com)
  • The acute lethal dose 50 (LD50) of caffeine in albino rats. (nih.gov)
  • LD50 is the lethal dose in 50% of the population based on calculations. (yahoo.com)
  • Swiss albino mice were exposed to T-2 toxin topically at doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 LD50 (2.97, 5.94 and 11.88 mg/kg respectively) and observed till 3, 24 and 72 h. (curehunter.com)
  • Also referred to as LD50, the dose of a toxicant that will kill 50 percent of. (caslab.com)
  • Lethal Dose Concentration (LD50)-dose that kills 50 percent of test animals in experiments. (osu.edu)
  • LD50 stands for lethal dose for 50 percent of the test subjects. (dailylocal.com)
  • Rats and mice are injected in lethal dose 50% (LD50). (wikipedia.org)
  • Draize test: This is a method of testing that may cause irritation or corrosion to the skin or eye on animals, dermal sensitization, airway sensitization, endocrine disruption, and LD50 (which refers to the lethal dose which kills 50% of the treated animals). (wikipedia.org)
  • LD50 - The dose that has been determined to be lethal to 50% of the test population. (erowid.org)
  • The "LD50" is the dose of a substance that will kill a selected species of experimental animal 50% of the time. (erowid.org)
  • He discusses the LD50 (Lethal Dose, 50%) scale and rates some toxicities. (films.com)
  • LD 50 figures are frequently used as a general indicator of a substance's acute toxicity. (toxcea.org)
  • A lower LD 50 is indicative of increased toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a measure of toxicity, LD 50 is somewhat unreliable and results may vary greatly between testing facilities due to factors such as the genetic characteristics of the sample population, animal species tested, environmental factors and mode of administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toxicity: LD 50 = 1mg/kg. (ilo.org)
  • LD 50 is a general indicator of a substance's toxicity within a short space of time. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
  • When a dose produces clear signs of toxicity but no death is identified, the chemical is then classified at that level. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
  • Some chemicals can cause toxicity at very low doses, so it is important to understand how low doses compare to one another. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
  • LD 50 (µg/fly) values for contact toxicity of manuka and kanuka were 0.60 and 0.71, respectively, for males and 1.10 and 1.23, respectively, for females. (mdpi.com)
  • The non-polar fraction of manuka and kanuka did not show significant contact toxicity, whereas the polar and triketone fractions, composed of flavesone, isoleptospermone and leptospermone, exhibited efficient activity with the LD 50 values of 0.13-0.37 and 0.22-0.57 µg/fly for males and females, respectively. (mdpi.com)
  • Kramecyne, an anti-inflammatory compound isolated from methanolic extract of Krameria cytisoides , does not present toxicity, even at doses of 5,000 mg/kg. (hindawi.com)
  • At the given doses, DHP was safe in terms of acute and sub-acute toxicity. (frontiersin.org)
  • The short-term (acute) and long-term (subchronic) toxicity profile, mean lethal dose 50 (LD 50 ), and no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of a nutraceutical formulation developed from green mussel Perna viridis , which showed in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties, were evaluated in the present study. (hindawi.com)
  • The formulation was administered to the male and female Wistar rats at graded doses (0.5, 1.0, and 2.5 g/kg body weight) for two weeks of acute toxicity study and 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg body weight for 90 days in subchronic toxicity study. (hindawi.com)
  • However, essentially identical tissue concentrations were found in both species at doses which evoked equal toxicity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The therapeutic index is a measure of the toxicity of a drug relative to it's usual therapeutic dose. (erowid.org)
  • Three patients experienced palpebral ptosis, nystagmus (grade 2), and anxiety (grade 2-3) at the dose-limiting toxicity of 0.22 mg/m 2 . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Also at dose-limiting toxicity, 1 patient showed nystagmus (grade 2) and anxiety (grade 3) without evidence of palpebral ptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In toxicology , the median lethal dose , LD 50 (abbreviation for " lethal dose , 50%"), LC 50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt 50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin , radiation , or pathogen . (wikipedia.org)
  • For substances in the environment, such as poisonous vapors or substances in water that are toxic to fish, the concentration in the environment (per cubic metre or per litre) is used, giving a value of LC 50 . (wikipedia.org)
  • A comparable measurement is LCt 50 , which relates to lethal dosage from exposure, where C is concentration and t is time. (wikipedia.org)
  • So, in these cases, the lethal concentration may be given simply as LC 50 and qualified by a duration of exposure (e.g., 10 minutes). (wikipedia.org)
  • The capacity to express active Stx1 and Stx2 toxins was determined in Vero cell cultures and the concentration of Stx was evaluated by 50% lethal dose (LD 50 ) assays, observing inhibition of damaged cells by specific monoclonal antibodies. (frontiersin.org)
  • Find the meaning of the term: LC 50 Lethal Concentration. (caslab.com)
  • Find the meaning of the term: Lethal Concentration 50. (caslab.com)
  • Dosing regimens for most chronically used drugs are designed to provide plasma concentrations that are continuously greater than a minimally effective concentration. (drugs.com)
  • Avian Dietary LC 50 (lethal concentration) with bobwhite quail. (nap.edu)
  • The LC 50 was 8.8 ml of Margosan-O ® per liter of water, and the 96-hour no-observed-effect concentration was 5 mg/l. (nap.edu)
  • The LC 50 was 13 mg/l and the no-observed-effect concentration at 48 hours was less than 10 mg/l. (nap.edu)
  • For example, table salt has an oral LD 50 of 3 gm/kg in rats. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
  • Paracetamol has an oral LD 50 of 1.944 gm/kg in rats. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
  • In this procedure, the test substance is given at one of four fixed-dose levels (5, 50, 500 and 2,000 milligrams per kilogram) to five male and five female rats. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
  • to kill 50% of the rats who are made to ingest it. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • When administered to rats in doses of 190 mgm. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Rats were dosed once and then observed for 14 days for abnormal behavior or mortality. (nap.edu)
  • In biological warfare infective dosage is the number of infective doses per cubic metre of air times the number of minutes of exposure (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the present study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of 20% N,N'-dichloro-bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) urea (CC-2) formulation against lethal topical exposure dose of T-2 toxin in mice. (curehunter.com)
  • Survival rate was 100% and 50% at 4LD50 dose if CC-2 was applied dermally within 5 and 15 min post-exposure. (curehunter.com)
  • Results of our study suggest that CC-2 may be an effective dermal decontaminant against lethal topical exposure of T-2 toxin . (curehunter.com)
  • [ 6 , 7 ] Great individual variability exists in the length of exposure and total dose needed to result in argyria. (medscape.com)
  • After exposure to a high dose of a choking agent, it s important to begin medical treatment quickly to prevent accumulation of fluid in the lungs. (globalsecurity.org)
  • It has been stated that 'in large doses' theobromine may cause nausea and anorexia and that daily intake of 50-100 g cocoa (0.8-1.5 g theobromine) by humans has been associated with sweating, trembling and severe headache. (wired.com)
  • Silver at 50-500 mg/kg body weight is the lethal toxic dose in humans. (medscape.com)
  • LD 50 is usually determined by tests on animals such as laboratory mice . (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethics, mice and toxins - in this activity, students consider the use of mice for bioassays and in establishing the lethal dose when researching/testing toxins. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
  • Evaluation of protective efficacy of CC-2 formulation against topical lethal dose of T-2 toxin in mice. (curehunter.com)
  • The SCID mice that were inoculated with high doses of heat inactivated NMIIC4 C. burnetii were all alive at Day 60 and without splenomegaly. (ajtmh.org)
  • In a study in mice, high-dose shiitake resulted in increases in plasma bilirubin and plasma creatine kinase. (drugs.com)
  • The 50% lethal dose of C. burnetii in SCID mice was at least 10 8 times less than that in immunocompetent mice. (asm.org)
  • Guinea pigs and mice are used as laboratory animal models for acute Q fever, but they require a high dose of inoculum. (asm.org)
  • The less acute manifestations of Daraprim intoxication appeared in an unpredictable manner at doses of 2.5 to 20 mgm. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The acute LD 50 of Margosan-O ® to mallard ducks is in excess of 16.0 ml/kg. (nap.edu)
  • The acute oral LC 50 of the Margosan-O ® to bobwhite quail is therefore in excess of 7,000 ppm. (nap.edu)
  • The acute LC 50 of the test material to mallard ducks is therefore in excess of 7,000 ppm. (nap.edu)
  • The x-ray doses needed to achieve local control in 50% of the animals (tumor control doses, TCD50) ranged from 45.1 to 58.0 Gy for human tumors and from 36.3 to 114.0 Gy for murine tumors. (nih.gov)
  • 50% reduction of tumor mass) were noted in 2 patients treated at 0.21 mg/m 2 and 1 at 0.12 mg/m 2 . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Respiratory lethal dosages kill in 1 to 10 minutes, and liquid in the eye kills almost as rapidly. (fas.org)
  • mg) - The dose or amount at which a substance kills 50% of the exposed population. (fas.org)
  • Lung cancer mortality has been found to decrease significantly with low-dose (LD) computed tomographic (CT) screening among current or former smokers. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Lethal dose of a toxic substance or radiation is the dose required to kill half the members of a tested population after a specified test duration. (toxcea.org)
  • The LD 50 is usually expressed as the mass of substance administered per unit mass of test subject, typically as milligrams of substance per kilogram of body mass, sometimes also stated as nanograms (suitable for botulinum ), micrograms , or grams (suitable for paracetamol ) per kilogram. (wikipedia.org)
  • We know that individuals will respond differently to the same dose of a substance because of a number of factors including their gender, age and body weight. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
  • The information for an LD 50 must include the substance, the route of entry and the animal species. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
  • the amount of a substance needed to kill 50% of a sample. (brainscape.com)
  • When assessing such chemical weapons, one common metric used is the amount of the substance needed to kill half the population exposed, commonly referred to as an agent's 'lethal dose 50' percent. (thebulletin.org)
  • LD 50 are expressed in mg or Bq per kg of species (animal, human), and can correspond to different type of contamination (inhalation, oral or dermal). (toxcea.org)
  • The choice of 50% lethality as a benchmark avoids the potential for ambiguity of making measurements in the extremes and reduces the amount of testing required. (wikipedia.org)
  • the lowest dose in an animal study at which lethality occurs. (caslab.com)
  • The median infective dose (ID 50 ) is the number of organisms received by a person or test animal qualified by the route of administration (e.g., 1,200 org/man per oral). (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the difficulties in counting actual organisms in a dose, infective doses may be expressed in terms of biological assay, such as the number of LD 50 's to some test animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1992, the fixed-dose procedure (FDP) was proposed as an alternative test to LD 50 . (sciencelearn.org.nz)
  • In each test, at least 20 animals receive escalating doses of a chemical until half are dead. (newscientist.com)
  • The test, which was invented 50 years ago, will no longer be used in any of the OECD's 29 member nations. (newscientist.com)
  • That's the principle behind the "Lethal Dose, 50%" test, invented in 1927. (latimes.com)
  • The dose of a toxicant or microbe that will kill 50 percent of the test organ. (caslab.com)
  • This test involved a 96-hour LC 50 of Margosan-O ® at various concentrations. (nap.edu)
  • A human, weighing 275 times more than a rat, has a 50% chance of dying if consuming 108 milligrams of the stuff! (greenmedinfo.com)
  • How much (or little) is this human-lethal dose of 108 milligrams? (greenmedinfo.com)
  • the amount of an organism required to produce infection in 50% of subjects. (brainscape.com)
  • The 50 % lethal dose (LD 50 ) of the Δ crp mutant was 85-fold higher than that of the parent strain for intranasal infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ICt 50 is the dose that will cause incapacitation rather than death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association (Food Chem Toxicol) Vol. 50 Issue 3-4 Pg. (curehunter.com)
  • Thus with respect to lethal action this pyrimidine is at least sixteen times as toxic as chloroquine or chlorguanide. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Ricin is non-toxic when exposed to skin alone, potentially deadly when ingested, usually fatal when injected, and most lethal when inhaled - but it is very difficult to deliver as an aerosol. (thebulletin.org)
  • Typical Human Dose" info is taken from various sources, including "Burger's Medicinal Chemistry", "Journal of Psychedelic Drugs", "The Merck Manual", "NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances", cigarette packages, No-Doz bottles, etc. (erowid.org)
  • The related quantities LD 50 /30 or LD 50 /60 are used to refer to a dose that without treatment will be lethal to 50% of the population within (respectively) 30 or 60 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is defined as the dose required to kill half the members of a specific animal population when entering the animal's body by a particular route. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
  • min/m 3 ) - The Ct at which a gas debilitates 50% of the exposed population in a specific way. (fas.org)
  • In other words, its basically the dose that will kill 50 percent of a given population. (wired.com)
  • Performance of lung cancer screening with low-dose CT in Gejiu, Yunnan: A population-based, screening cohort study. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Flow cytometry analysis of propidium iodide stained epidermal cells showed increase in sub-G1 population at all the doses and time points indicating apoptosis. (curehunter.com)
  • Estimated lethal human dose is 50 - 500 mg/kg. (hazard.com)
  • 2,000 mg/kg bodyweight with an emetic dose of ~500 mg/kg bodyweight. (europa.eu)
  • A lethal dose is 3,000mg min/m3 for 50 percent of resting adults exposed to the gas. (globalsecurity.org)
  • Comparative studies on the tissue distribution of Daraprim, chlorguanide, and chloroquine in the rat showed that at a given dose tissue concentrations of the above pyrimidine were slightly greater than those of chlorguanide but far less than those of chloroquine. (aspetjournals.org)
  • It should be observed that even if the dose is ineffective against exsheathment, some concentrations were able to significantly delay the process. (usp.br)
  • Don't despair just because there is a noticable, or at least measurable, radiation dose. (coursera.org)
  • The isolated polysaccharide lentinan from shiitake culture has been used intravenously (IV) at doses of 2 to 10 mg on a weekly schedule as adjunctive therapy for HIV as well as for cancer, primarily in Japan. (drugs.com)
  • The LD 50 of the formulation was 5,000 mg/kg BW. (hindawi.com)
  • The relationship between faecal egg count reduction and the lethal dose 50% in the egg hatch assay and larval development assay. (ac.ke)
  • For each modality, we address the terminology and methodology used to quantify radiation received by patients, doses to patients with typical protocols, and dose-reduction techniques. (ahajournals.org)
  • one of four animals succumbed to daily doses of 2.5 mgm. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The doses were 250 to 625 times what would ordinarily be lethal to 50 percent of the animals. (eurekalert.org)
  • WATERTOWN -- A 50-year-old Watertown man has been convicted, accused of supplying Holly Nehls with a lethal dose of heroin. (fox6now.com)
  • They died from lethal doses of fentanyl, a drug that is at least 50 times stronger than heroin. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • GB and VX doses which are potentially life-threatening may be only slightly larger than those producing least effects. (fas.org)
  • The values are estimates of the doses which have lethal effects on a 70kg man. (fas.org)
  • A variety of drugs are used in giardiasis treatment with different levels of efficiency, presence of side effects, and even formation of resistant strains, so that it is important to search new only-one-dose treatments with high efficiency and less side effects. (hindawi.com)
  • Meanwhile, DHP exhibited strong anti-diarrheal effects as well as decreased gastrointestinal motility and the secretions induced by Sennae and castor oil in a dose-dependent manner. (frontiersin.org)
  • Deterministic effects such as skin injuries and cataract formation occur predictably when dose exceeds a certain threshold, whereas stochastic effects such as cancer incidence and germ cell mutations occur with a probability that increases with dose. (ahajournals.org)
  • This chart is going to compare lots of different radiation doses and what their effects are. (coursera.org)
  • Background: In randomized controlled trials, split-dose bowel preparation for colonoscopy has been shown to provide better bowel cleansing than day before bowel preparation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Serum levels of ISDN reach their maxima 10 to 15 minutes after sublingual dosing. (drugs.com)
  • Evaluation of Prediction Models for Identifying Malignancy in Pulmonary Nodules Detected via Low-Dose Computed Tomography. (bioportfolio.com)
  • smallest dose of a poison or radiation on record that produces death. (brainscape.com)
  • Daraprim was almost uniformly fatal to the rhesus monkey when administered in repeated daily doses of 5 mgm. (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, symptoms are usually delayed, and it s possible that no immediate symptoms will appear when exposed to a fatal dose. (globalsecurity.org)
  • Attempts to overcome nitrate tolerance by dose escalation, even to doses far in excess of those used acutely, have consistently failed. (drugs.com)
  • Why would you get radiation dose from a coal power plant? (coursera.org)
  • thus the dose of drug markedly influences the time at which peak plasma levels are attained. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Silybin treatment resulted in a dose- and time-dependent decrease in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell viability. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 showed significant up regulation at 24h whereas IL-4 showed down regulation for all the doses and time points. (curehunter.com)
  • Although in general the height of the plasma level was proportional to dose, there were large variations in levels of individual monkeys receiving the same dose. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved alternative methods to LD 50 for testing the cosmetic drug Botox without animal tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autopsy reports released in June confirmed that the two died from lethal doses of fentanyl, a drug often used for pain relief in terminally ill patients that is at least 50 to 100 times stronger than morphine. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Acceptable daily intake is [asymptotically =]00 -50 mg/ kg. (redorbit.com)
  • GRV after a split-dose preparation and fasting for 2-4 hours is not larger than that after a conventional single-dose preparation and fasting for 6-8 hours. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Studies of nitroglycerin (an organic nitrate with a very short half-life) have shown that daily dose-free intervals of 10 to 12 hours are usually sufficient to minimize tolerance. (drugs.com)
  • Daily dose-free intervals that have succeeded in avoiding tolerance during trials of moderate doses ( e.g. , 30 mg) of immediate-release ISDN have generally been somewhat longer (at least 14 hours), but this is consistent with the longer half-lives of ISDN and its active metabolites. (drugs.com)
  • Michael Mosley states that drinking seven liters of water in a few hours gives him a 50% chance of death. (films.com)
  • Gastric Residual Volume after Split-Dose Bowel Preparation versus Conventional Single-Dose Regimen before Anesthetic Colonoscopy. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Outpatients were assigned to the split-dose (1 L PEG in the prior evening and 1 L PEG 2-4 h before endoscopy) or single-dose (ingestion of 2 L PEG ≥ 6 h before endoscopy) regimen randomly. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine residual gastric volume and residual gastric pH in patients undergoing combined EGD and colonoscopy comparing the standard single dose prep with t. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Avian Single-Dose Oral LD 50 . (nap.edu)
  • some of them are administered by one dose and others (as metronidazole) need several doses along the day for two or three days. (hindawi.com)
  • Crotoxin was administered i.m. for 30 consecutive days at doses ranging from 0.03 to 0.22 mg/m 2 . (aacrjournals.org)