A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
Hospital unit providing continuous monitoring of the patient following anesthesia.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
The period of recovery following an illness.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.
Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
Pathological processes of the BREAST.
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
A malignancy arising in uterine cervical epithelium and confined thereto, representing a continuum of histological changes ranging from well-differentiated CIN 1 (formerly, mild dysplasia) to severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, CIN 3. The lesion arises at the squamocolumnar cell junction at the transformation zone of the endocervical canal, with a variable tendency to develop invasive epidermoid carcinoma, a tendency that is enhanced by concomitant human papillomaviral infection. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.
A spontaneous diminution or abatement of a disease over time, without formal treatment.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A vascular anomaly due to proliferation of BLOOD VESSELS that forms a tumor-like mass. The common types involve CAPILLARIES and VEINS. It can occur anywhere in the body but is most frequently noticed in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE. (from Stedman, 27th ed, 2000)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A noninvasive technique that enables direct microscopic examination of the surface and architecture of the SKIN.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.
Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.
Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.
Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.
Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
A nevus containing melanin. The term is usually restricted to nevocytic nevi (round or oval collections of melanin-containing nevus cells occurring at the dermoepidermal junction of the skin or in the dermis proper) or moles, but may be applied to other pigmented nevi.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.
Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Any horny growth such as a wart or callus.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
A complex of gadolinium with a chelating agent, diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA see PENTETIC ACID), that is given to enhance the image in cranial and spinal MRIs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p706)
A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.
Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A white patch seen on the oral mucosa. It is considered a premalignant condition and is often tobacco-induced. When evidence of Epstein-Barr virus is present, the condition is called hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.
A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)
Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.
A circumscribed stable malformation of the skin and occasionally of the oral mucosa, which is not due to external causes and therefore presumed to be of hereditary origin.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Alicyclic hydrocarbons in which three or more of the carbon atoms in each molecule are united in a ring structure and each of the ring carbon atoms is joined to two hydrogen atoms or alkyl groups. The simplest members are cyclopropane (C3H6), cyclobutane (C4H8), cyclohexane (C6H12), and derivatives of these such as methylcyclohexane (C6H11CH3). (From Sax, et al., Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A disease of bone marked by thinning of the cortex by fibrous tissue containing bony spicules, producing pain, disability, and gradually increasing deformity. Only one bone may be involved (FIBROUS DYSPLASIA, MONOSTOTIC) or several (FIBROUS DYSPLASIA, POLYOSTOTIC).
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.
Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
The intentional interruption of transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION by external agents, usually neuromuscular blocking agents. It is distinguished from NERVE BLOCK in which nerve conduction (NEURAL CONDUCTION) is interrupted rather than neuromuscular transmission. Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to produce MUSCLE RELAXATION as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures. It is also often used as an experimental manipulation in basic research. It is not strictly speaking anesthesia but is grouped here with anesthetic techniques. The failure of neuromuscular transmission as a result of pathological processes is not included here.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
The period following a surgical operation.
Recurrent narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery following surgical procedures performed to alleviate a prior obstruction.
The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)
Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the DIGESTIVE TRACT or the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Polyps can be spheroidal, hemispheroidal, or irregular mound-shaped structures attached to the MUCOUS MEMBRANE of the lumen wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.
An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.
Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
Pathological processes involving the STOMACH.
Lesions associated with ischemic strokes have a shorter spontaneous recovery time, within the first two weeks; on the other ... are reduced in number through spontaneous recovery of neurological function; this occurs most often with stroke patients within ... lesions associated with hemorrhagic strokes have a longer period for spontaneous recovery, from four to eight weeks. Whether ... the lesion is in or near Wernicke's area); lesion location is the most important determining factor for all aphasic disorders, ...
Recovery of visual function is expected within 10 weeks. However, attacks may lead to permanent axonal loss and thinning of the ... These lesions may compress the optic nerve, resulting optic disc swelling and progressive visual loss. Implicated orbital ... Patients with the 14484/ND6 mutation are most likely to have visual recovery. Dominant optic atrophy is an autosomal dominant ... Consumption can be fatal, or recovery can occur with permanent neurologic and ophthalmologic deficits. While visual loss is not ...
"The effect of claustrum lesions on human consciousness and recovery of function". Consciousness and Cognition. 36: 256-64. doi: ... As examples, lesions of the claustrum in humans are associated with disruption of consciousness and cognition, and electrical ... There is evidence that distribution and/or function of this receptor may differ between sexes. KORs are widely distributed in ... Such theories are in part corroborated by the fact that [salvia divinorum], which functions almost exclusively on the KOR ...
"The effect of claustrum lesions on human consciousness and recovery of function". Consciousness and Cognition. 36: 256-64. doi: ... As well, to see the total loss of function of the claustrum, lesions to both claustrums on each hemisphere would need to occur ... Based upon its structure and connectivity, its function is suggested to do with coordination of different brain function; i.e. ... In the same way that the morphology of neurons in the spinal cord is indicative of function (i.e. rexed laminae), the visual, ...
The first round of treatment provided some improvement for the diver, but recovery was slow as of October 20. The patient had ... Sensory perception was returning, but not motor function. Astronauts performed Skylab training at the Neutral Buoyancy ... suffered a lesion on his spine and subsequent paralysis from the waist down. ...
However recovery of the animals that survived was apparent 2 weeks after the treatment. Cardiac and gastrointestinal function ... When the animals did not die by these lesions, they healed over time by itself. HCCPD is highly toxic to animals when inhaling ... However, tests on lung function and chest X-rays did not show any abnormalities. Workers exposed to HCCPD for a longer time ... Also, these rats and rabbits experienced diarrhea after single oral dosages of HCCPD, and showed acute necrotic lesions in the ...
Cohadon F. e Lobo Antunes, J.L.: Recovery of function in the Nervous System System. Fidia Research Series, Springer Verlag, ... Trindade, A.M., Antunes J.L.: Anterior approaches to non-traumatic lesions of the thoracic spine. Advances and Technical ... Cohadon, F., Antunes, J.L.: Recovery of function in the nervous system. Fidia research series. 13:119-126, 1988 ... In: E. Cohadon e J. Lobo Antunes "Recovery of function in the Nervous System". Springer Verlag, 1988 ...
However, this is not a perfect treatment; often the final outcome is only limited function recovery. Also, partial de- ... When appropriate, a nearby donor may be used to supply innervation to lesioned nerves. Trauma to the donor can be minimized by ... The return of function decreases with increased distance over which a nerve must grow. Currently, autologous nerve grafting, or ... Young children can recover close-to-normal nerve function. In contrast, a patient over 60 years old with a cut nerve in the ...
The resulting lesion can be traced loss of various cognitive functions depending on the location and area of damage. It is ... It was found that the paired participants had greater recovery of function. Cortical maps are the maps in which parts of our ... The sensory stimulation tests enhanced at least partial recovery of postural function for up to 2 years after the stroke and ... It is generally found that more intensive remedial function therapies result in the greater restoration to function. fMRI and ...
Recovery of function after neonatal or adult hemispherectomy: Complex functions. Behavioural Brain Research, vol 20, pp 217-230 ... There is less thalamic degeneration in neonatal-lesioned than in adult-lesioned cats after cerebral hemispherectomy. Brain ... Recovery of function after neonatal or adult hemispherectomy in cats. Time course, movement, posture and sensory tests. ... Burgess, J. Wesley and Villablanca, J. R. Recovery of function after neonatal or adult hemispherectomy. Motor deficits: limb ...
... lesions that insignificantly impact language function and smaller lesions tend to have a higher degree of aphasia recovery. ... Internal factors are factors related to the stroke such as aphasia severity, lesion site and lesion size . Individuals with ... Recovery from this type of brain injury is a slow process and very few patients regain the same level of language and ... Lesions in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) produce a more persistent global aphasia, which is associated with poor aphasia ...
In some cases, patients with cortical deafness have had recovery of some hearing function, resulting in partial auditory ... Bilateral lesions near the primary auditory cortex in the temporal lobe are important criteria. Cortical deafness requires ... Inner ear functions, however, remains intact. Cortical deafness is most often cause by stroke, but can also result from brain ... Each case has a distinct context and different rates of recovery. It is thought that cortical deafness could be a part of a ...
... physical therapy and/or occupational therapy may promote recovery of strength and improve limb function. In the case of a mass ... lesion causing compression of the brachial or lumbosacral plexus, surgical decompression may be warranted. In an idiopathic ... Diagnosis of plexopathy relies on proper identification of a pattern in motor and sensory function deficits in the upper or ... although there is limited evidence that steroids may hasten recovery. If a brachial or lumbosacral plexopathy is determined to ...
... functions of HBOT include increased stem cell production and up-regulation of VEGF which aid in the healing and recovery ... the immature lesion does not have a capsule and it may be difficult to distinguish it from other space-occupying lesions or ... it is collected around the lesion and looks as a ring surrounding the relatively dark lesion). Lumbar puncture procedure, which ... which gives the lesion the famous ring-enhancing lesion appearance on CT examination with contrast (since intravenously applied ...
... of the projection from the sensory to the motor cortex for recovery of motor function following partial thalamic lesion in the ... is a region of the thalamus that takes part in motor function. It should not be confused with the VLPO, a group of neurons in ...
Lesions seated inferiorly are likely to correlate with poorer levels of recovery regarding upper limb movement. Findings also ... These may have major effects on intellectual, social, and emotional functioning.[citation needed] In normal pressure ... suggests that the corona radiata and superior capsular lesions may correlate with more favorable levels of functional recovery ... suggest that motor deficit severity is likely to increase as a lesion occupies progressively more posterior regions of the ...
... it was found that the patients often developed pain and hypersensitivity to stimuli during recovery of function. And thus it ... In this condition it is due to thalamic lesioning. This form of neuropathic pain can be any combination of itching, tingling, ... PMID 20660417.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Bowsher, D. (2005). "Allodynia in relation to lesion site in ... Ischemic strokes and hemorrhagic strokes can cause lesioning in the thalamus.[citation needed] As initial stroke symptoms ( ...
The prognosis for recovery of function of the affected limbs is generally considered to be poor. Kyllerman, MG; Herner, S; ... In one case, a biopsy of an affected muscle "revealed scattered atrophic fibers, indicating lesions in the anterior horn cells ...
Fifth-degree lesion is a complete transection of the nerve. Recovery is not possible without an appropriate surgical treatment ... There is connective tissue lesion that may be partial or complete. Sensory-motor problems and autonomic function defect are ... In third-degree injury, there is a lesion of the endoneurium, but the epineurium and perineurium remain intact. Recovery from a ... Recovery of nerve conduction deficit is full, and requires days to weeks. EMG shows lack of fibrillation potentials (FP) and ...
While symptoms of weakness due to an isolated lesion of the posterior limb can initially be severe, recovery of motor function ... Lesions of the genu of the internal capsule affect fibers of the corticobulbar tract. The primary motor cortex sends its axons ... Lesions, therefore, result in a contralateral hemiparesis or hemiplegia. ...
... phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram delivered after a spinal cord lesion promotes axonal regeneration and functional recovery ... The ultimate function of the glial scar is to reestablish the physical and chemical integrity of the CNS. This is done by ... Mid-thoracic spinal cord lesions, optic nerve lesions, but not lesions to the sciatic nerve, have shown marked increases in ... Stichel CC, Müller HW (October 1998). "The CNS lesion scar: new vistas on an old regeneration barrier". Cell Tissue Res. 294 (1 ...
Neurotmesis is the most severe lesion with no potential of full recovery. It occurs on severe contusion, stretch, or laceration ... There is frequently greater involvement of motor than sensory function with autonomic function being retained. In ... Proximal lesion may grow distally as fast as 2 to 3 mm per day and distal lesion as slowly as 1.5 mm per day. Regeneration ... Recovery of a nerve after surgical repair depends mainly on the age of the patient. Young children can recover close-to-normal ...
In fact, when herniation is visible on a CT scan, the prognosis for a meaningful recovery of neurological function is poor. The ... Herniation can also occur in the absence of high ICP when mass lesions such as hematomas occur at the borders of brain ... Cardiovascular and pulmonary symptoms may also be present as the brain loses function, but might also be associated with ... or damage to parts of the brain caused by herniation may cause paralysis on the side opposite the lesion. Damage to the ...
... and that recovery after the lesion can be nearly complete unless the lesion is very extensive. By the beginning of the 20th ... Its function is not well understood; the most popular speculations relate it to spatial hearing in one way or another. Most ... In fact, the function of climbing fibers is the most controversial topic concerning the cerebellum. There are two schools of ... A standard test of cerebellar function is to reach with the tip of the finger for a target at arm's length: A healthy person ...
... auto-amputation and loss of function can occur Grade 4: if there is a lesion very near the body (such as the carpals of the ... based on the tissue response to initial rewarming and other factors is designed to predict degree of longterm recovery. Grade 1 ... if there is no initial lesion on the area, no amputation or lasting effects are expected Grade 2: if there is a lesion on the ... Skin lesions can look similar those of frostbite, but do not require cold exposure to occur. People who have hypothermia often ...
This "back-up" area was considered to be what takes over the functions of the lesioned area. On the other hand, vicariation ... and on the possibility of recovery of these functions after a process of training". Brain. 39 (3-4): 348-454. doi:10.1093/brain ... However, there have been some functions that are believed to be contained within specific areas of the brain (many related to ... Functional specialization is the idea that functions are localized within the brain and can only be carried out by particular ...
Spontaneous recovery[edit]. When someone is suffering from RA, their memory cannot be recovered by simply being informed about ... Squire, L. R. (1986). Memory functions as affected by electroconvulsive therapy, Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 462 ... 56] Lesions in the right hemisphere and right frontal lobes result in the impaired recall of non-verbal material, such as music ... Isolated RA is associated with a visible thalamic lesion.[8] Consistent with other forms of RA, the isolated form is marked by ...
Spine Care: The McLaren Spine Program is designed for the mission of improving function, alleviating pain and enhancing quality ... The facility also offers a dedicated gynecological post-surgical recovery unit. Trauma and Emergency Services: Trauma and ... also works in cooperation with radiation oncology in offering radiosurgery to treat cranial and extracranial cancer and lesions ... is a special program in place for patients facing a knee or hip replacements emphasizing patient education and quicker recovery ...
... and that recovery after the lesion can be nearly complete unless the lesion is very extensive.[85] By the beginning of the 20th ... FunctionEdit. The strongest clues to the function of the cerebellum have come from examining the consequences of damage to it. ... Neuroscience prehistory, brain structure, and function. Totowa: Humana Press.. *^ a b c Foster FD (1891). An illustrated ... Its function is not well understood; the most popular speculations relate it to spatial hearing in one way or another.[80] ...
The fifth lesion site was a double lesion in both the frontal and temporal infarcts; patients with lesions at this site showed ... The CoBaGa assesses cognitive functions such as attention, executive functions, logical reasoning, memory, visual-auditory ... One study examined the recovery of a group of individuals who were classified as having global aphasia at 3 months poststroke. ... The first lesion site was in the fronto-tempo-parietal region of the brain; patients with lesions in this location saw the ...
During post surgical recovery, patients collect 24-hour urine sample and blood sample for detecting the level of cortisol with ... of pituitary lesions were identified using MRI prior to surgery. The average size of tumor, both those that were identified on ... Impaired immunological function[8]. *red, ruddy face. *extra fat around neck, "Buffalo Hump" ... the size of the lesion, and the preferences of the surgeon cause the selection of one access route over the other.[13] Some ...
For example, a stone carving found in the archaeological recovery from Bronze Age Minoan Crete at Knossos (1900 - 1100 BC) has ... Derby, C. D. (2014). "Cephalopod Ink: Production, Chemistry, Functions and Applications". Marine Drugs. 12 (5): 2700-2730. doi: ... has been found to cause skin lesions, exposure of muscle and death of octopuses in extreme cases.[107] ... the head and foot are at one end of an elongated body and function as the anterior (front) of the animal. The head includes the ...
... fail to appear in necessary numbers in the developing EM lesion because tick saliva inhibits neutrophil function. This allows ... Recovery may not be total or immediate. The percentage of people achieving full recovery in the United States increases from ... He named the lesion erythema migrans.[243] The skin condition now known as borrelial lymphocytoma was first described in 1911.[ ... The lesion slowly atrophies over several weeks or months, with the skin becoming first thin and wrinkled and then, if untreated ...
In 2005, the chiropractic subluxation was defined by the World Health Organization as "a lesion or dysfunction in a joint or ... A 2013 systematic review and meta-analysis found a statistically significant improvement in overall recovery from sciatica ... and self-reported function in patients with mechanical neck pain: a systematic review". J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 41 (9): 633- ... function and patient satisfaction.[107] A 2010 systematic review found low level evidence that suggests chiropractic care ...
However, recovery is dependent on removing the causative agent; stopping high Vitamin A intake.[34][35][36][37] ... Vitamin A exerts several toxic effects regarding redox environment and mitochondrial function [31] ... and bone lesions.[30] ... Most people make a full recovery.. High intake of provitamin ...
Regaining full functioning also confides in the prognosis of recovery, the condition of the client, and the environmental ... "Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping". Nature Neuroscience. 6 (5): 448-450. doi:10.1038/nn1050. PMID 12704393.. ... Music is useful in the recovery of motor skills.[38] In a study on stroke patients in the recovery phase, music therapy was ... For him, this was an example of normally suppressed brain functions being released by damage to others".[44] Sacks had a ...
Functions[edit]. Together with BA44, BA45 comprises Broca's area, a region that is active in semantic tasks, such as semantic ... Under this view, BA44 and BA45 would together guide recovery of semantic information and evaluate the recovered information ... Lesions of the BA45 lead to the characteristic findings of expressive aphasia in individuals who are left hemispheric dominant ... showed that language function can be localized to one region of the brain, as Paul Broca had done before them, but they also ...
If there is not recovery from the stressor, no line will be formed. The stress hormone cortisol is deposited in hair as it ... One male skeleton shows stress lesions at 37 percent of 33 muscle or ligament attachments, showing he experienced significant ... Scott, J.H. (1957). "Muscle Growth and Function in Relation to Skeletal Morphology". American Journal of Physical Anthropology ... sieve-like lesions develop in the cranial vaults (termed porotic hyperostosis) and/or the orbits (termed cribia orbitalia). ...
Kakapo Recovery Programme (2010). "Then and Now". Kakapo Recovery Programme. Retrieved 1 April 2010.. ... Medical Imaging 1997: Physiology and Function from Multidimensional Images. 3033: 14-24. doi:10.1117/12.274039.. ... "First Account of a Nesting Population of Monk Parakeets, Myiopsitta monachus With Nodule-shaped Bill Lesions in Katehaki, ...
... whose lung function was tested prior to 9/11, documented a steep decline in lung function in the first year after 9/11. A new ... Subsequent recovery may be characterized by reduced physiologic reserve, and increased susceptibility to further lung injuries ... Inhalation of high doses of this gas causes lesions in the larynx, trachea, and large bronchi with inflammatory reactions and ... Prior to 9/11, 3% of firefighters had below-normal lung function, one year after 9/11 nearly 19% did, and six years later it ...
Diastolic function of the heart also becomes affected.[53] Elevated arterial pressure (i.e., hypertension) can be a consequence ... There is also a theory that long-term snoring might induce local nerve lesions in the pharynx in the same way as long-term ... In significant cases of OSA, one consequence is sleep deprivation due to the repetitive disruption and recovery of sleep ... They found that OSA can cause problems in mentally manipulating non-verbal information, in executive functions and working ...
... the recovery of our history). In Drucker, Péter; Mercad, Enrique. Arco iris diferentes. Siglo XXI. ISBN 978-968-23-2486-4. (In ... squamous intraepithelial lesions, trichomoniasis, syphilis, and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Transmission of specific sexually ... to learn how to function within a homosexual subculture.[30] Lesbians in western cultures generally share an identity that ... rejected by most of society had an inside view of an exclusive group of people that took a high amount of knowledge to function ...
FunctionsEdit. OECs are radial glia that perform a variety of functions. Within the olfactory system they phagocytose axonal ... Several studies have shown evidence of OECs being able to support regeneration of lesioned axons, but these results are often ... the study provides evidence that even past spinal cord injuries can benefit from the neurological functional recovery that stem ... Ramón-Cueto A, Avila J (June 1998). "Olfactory ensheathing glia: properties and function". Brain Research Bulletin. 46 (3): 175 ...
Harlow's Case of Recovery from the Passage of an Iron Bar through the Head". Am J Med Sci. 20: 13-22.. Reproduced in Macmillan ... Thus in the 19th century controversy over whether or not the various mental functions are localized in specific regions of the ... lesions, but the impairment could be the subject of embellishment by storytellers.[36]:295 ... Social recovery. In 2008 a report was discovered calling Gage mentally unimpaired during his last years in Chile (from a ...
Sub-epithelial cysts (also known as mucous retention cysts) are closed lesions that occur from a build-up of tissue on the ... Surgery is typically followed by vocal rest and further voice therapy to improve voice function. Cysts may also be treated ... Patients with sub-epithelial cysts have a better prognosis for timely recovery of vocal abilities than patients with ligament ... Ligament cysts (also known as epidermoid cysts) are closed lesions that occur near the vocal ligament in the deep layers of the ...
... for subcranial lesions, or SRS (stereotactic radiosurgery) for intracranial lesions. The rationale of hypofractionation is to ... The rates of onset of damage and recovery from it depend upon the turnover rate of epithelial cells. Typically the skin starts ... breakages and molecular re-arrangements such as a change of stacking structures as well as cellular metabolic functions related ... Although this moist desquamation is uncomfortable, recovery is usually quick. Skin reactions tend to be worse in areas where ...
Function Classification Drug ALS AD HD PD SMA DNA-methylation inhibitor chemical analogue of cytidine Azathioprine M (ny) M (ny ... Fischer A, Sananbenesi F, Wang X, Dobbin M, Tsai LH (May 2007). "Recovery of learning and memory is associated with chromatin ... "Temporal correlation of the memory deficit with Alzheimer-like lesions induced by activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3". ... The causal function loss in SMA is currently unknown. SMN1 is located in a telomeric region of human chromosome 5 and also ...
There is often partial recovery of memory functioning following the initial recovery phase; however, permanent handicaps are ... depression and lesion location". Brain Injury. 14 (10): 887-905. doi:10.1080/026990500445718. PMID 11076135. S2CID 39961743.. ... Another strategy for improvement amongst individuals with poor memory functioning is the use of elaboration to improve encoding ... Phineas Gage's case of traumatic brain injury that greatly stimulated discussion on brain function and physiology ...
FunctionEdit. Riboflavin functions as a coenzyme, meaning that it is required for enzymes (proteins) to perform normal ... Riboflavin deficiency prolongs recovery from malaria,[26] despite preventing growth of plasmodium (the malaria parasite).[27] ... because it causes stomatitis but not widespread peripheral skin lesions characteristic of niacin deficiency.[22] ... Specifically, the active forms of riboflavin flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) function as ...
In almost every case, a low-calcium diet combined with corticosteroid drugs will allow for a full recovery within a month. It ... Recent epidemiologic evidence suggests that there is a narrow range of vitamin D levels in which vascular function is optimized ... D concentrations have a significantly increased risk of the precursor lesion.[41] ... Animal research suggests that both excess and deficiency of vitamin D appears to cause abnormal functioning and premature aging ...
The function of defensins is to cause lysis in pathogenic bacteria and viruses, but in platypuses they also are formed into ... Recovery at the surface between dives commonly takes from 10 to 20 seconds.[55][56] ... Affected platypuses can develop skin lesions or ulcers on various parts of their bodies, including their backs, tails, and legs ... The venom appears to have a different function from those produced by non-mammalian species; its effects are not life- ...
Lesion size is correlated with severity, recovery, and comprehension.[citation needed] Brain injuries often create impairment ... Concussion, a loss of function due to trauma. *Dementia pugilistica, or "punch-drunk syndrome", caused by repetitive head ... Lesions to V1, for example, can cause blindsight in different areas of the brain depending on the size of the lesion and ... and bilateral lesions to MT/V5 can cause the loss of the ability to perceive motion.[citation needed] Lesions to the parietal ...
The impairment inventory focuses on the seven stages of recovery from stroke from flaccid paralysis to normal motor functioning ... As a lesion that results in hemiplegia occurs in the brain or spinal cord, hemiplegic muscles display features of the upper ... Sudden recovery from hemiplegia is very rare. Many of the individuals will have limited recovery, but the majority will improve ... The disability component assesses any changes in physical function including gross motor function and walking ability. The ...
"Improvement of cognitive functioning in mood disorder patients with depressive symptomatic recovery during treatment: an ... Duncan, J.; Burgess, P.; Emslie, H. (1995). "Fluid intelligence after frontal lobe lesions". Neuropsychologia. 33 (3): 261-8. ... lung function and smoking-related outcomes in adulthood: linking the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 and the Midspan studies". ...
Focal lesions[edit]. Any type of focal lesion of the central nervous system (such as stroke, brain tumor, multiple sclerosis, ... Recovery tends to be better in individuals with a single focal injury (such as stroke or a benign tumour), compared to those ... Exogenous substances that cause ataxia mainly do so because they have a depressant effect on central nervous system function. ... Although ataxia is not present with all cerebellar lesions, many conditions affecting the cerebellum do produce ataxia.[3] ...
"Rainier's recovery chances slim, doctors say". CBC News. 1 April 2005. Retrieved 18 August 2008.. [permanent dead link] ... he was hospitalized with a coronary lesion and a damaged blood vessel.[14] In October he was again in hospital with a lung ... would take over the duties of his father as regent since Rainier was no longer able to exercise his royal functions.[17] ... On 1 April 2005, the Palace announced that Rainier's doctors believe his chances of recovery were "slim".[18] On 6 April, ...
Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) uses a pulse sequence to suppress cerebrospinal fluid and show lesions more clearly ... In turn, the reduction in conduction ability causes deficiency in sensation, movement, cognition, or other functions depending ... Acquired immune system cells called T-cells are known to be present at the site of lesions. Other immune-system cells called ... Photomicrograph of a demyelinating MS-lesion: Immunohistochemical staining for CD68 highlights numerous macrophages (brown). ...
Oikawa, M (November 1999). "Exercise-induced haemorrhagic lesions in the dorsocaudal extremities of the caudal lobes of the ... Frequent swallowing and coughing in the immediate post-exercise recovery period, and poor appetite post-performance may be ... with consequent loss of lung function. ...
Extension of the lesions into the chest may lead to the development of chylous pleural and pericardial effusions. Chyle is rich ... 2002;17:826-9. Chattopadhyay P, Bandyopadhyay A, Das S, Kundu A J. Gorham's disease with spontaneous recovery. Singapore Med J ... because the damage done to the lungs can cause the same types of changes to lung function testing that are seen in asthma. ... Because of its serious morbidity, Gorham's must always be considered in the differential diagnosis of osteolytic lesions. ...
Recovery of Olfactory Function After Excitotoxic Lesion of the Olfactory Bulbs Is Associated with Increases in Bulbar SIRT1 and ... on the olfactory function recovery, we examined the OB SIRT (SIRT1, SIRT2, and SIRT4) expressions after OB excitotoxic lesions ... Our results point out for the first time the association between recovery of olfactory function and the increase in bulbar ... dysfunction showing an olfactory deficit 1 week after lesion and a spontaneous recovery 2 weeks after excitotoxicity lesion of ...
The effects of fluoxetine and environmental enrichment on recovery of function following focal dentate gyrus lesions. UNCW ... The effects of fluoxetine and environmental enrichment on recovery of function following focal dentate gyrus lesions. PDF ( ... On the probe test, lesion rats outperformed sham rats and lesion rats in the enriched environment outperformed all other rats ... Although the putative function of adult neurogenesis is unknown, there is accumulating evidence that it plays a role in ...
High-dose estrogen treatment at reperfusion reduces lesion volume and accelerates recovery of sensorimotor function after ... High-dose estrogen treatment at reperfusion reduces lesion volume and accelerates recovery of sensorimotor function after ...
Scopolamine facilitates recovery of function following unilateral electrolytic sensorimotor cortex lesions in the rat Article ... Following SMC lesions rats exhibited an impairment in placing the forelimb contralateral to the lesion as well as an ... that blockade of this receptor leads to a facilitation of recovery on some behavioral tasks, and that electrolytic lesions may ... that follow electrolytic lesions of the rat somatic sensorimotor cortex (SMC). Rats received unilateral lesions of the SMC and ...
Reconstructive Strategies for Recovery of Hand Function 12. Rehabilitation Concepts for Pediatric Brachial Plexus Palsies ... Plexus Lesions 18. Radiographic Assessment of Adult Brachial Plexus Injuries 19. Reconstructive Procedures for the Upper ...
Recovery of Olfactory Function After Excitotoxic Lesion of the Olfactory Bulbs Is Associated with Increases in Bulbar SIRT1 and ... Olfactory Training Prevents Olfactory Dysfunction Induced by Bulbar Excitotoxic Lesions: Role of Neurogenesis and Dopaminergic ...
Partial recovery of gustatory function after neurol tissue transplantation to the lesioned gustatory neocortex. / Yirmiya, Raz ... Partial recovery of gustatory function after neurol tissue transplantation to the lesioned gustatory neocortex. In: Brain ... title = "Partial recovery of gustatory function after neurol tissue transplantation to the lesioned gustatory neocortex", ... T1 - Partial recovery of gustatory function after neurol tissue transplantation to the lesioned gustatory neocortex ...
recovery of function. The human brain possesses a remarkable ability to regain functions after lesions of various aetiologies. ... 1997) Unrecognized potential of surviving neurons: within-systems plasticity, recovery of function, and the hypothesis of ... Unusual spontaneous and training induced visual field recovery in a patient with a gunshot lesion ... Unusual spontaneous and training induced visual field recovery in a patient with a gunshot lesion ...
2014) Connectivity-based approaches in stroke and recovery of function. Lancet Neurol 13:206-216. ... Because lesion-induced symptoms can come from sites connected to the lesion location and not just the lesion location itself, ... Whether lesion network mapping can help differentiate incidental lesions from lesions contributing to a given behavior remains ... Lesion network mapping results from lesions associated with criminal behavior were compared with lesion network mapping results ...
Delayed Treatment of Capsaicin Produces Partial Motor Recovery by Enhancing Dopamine Function in MPP⁺-lesioned Rats via Ciliary ... Instead, behavioral recovery was temporal and dependent on the continuous presence of CAP treatment. The results suggest that ... Interestingly, behavioral recovery and increases in biochemical indices were not reflected in trophic changes of the DA system ... Accompanying this behavioral recovery, CAP treatment increased CNTF levels and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity in the ...
Analysis of functional deficits, recovery and treatments. Progress in Neurobiology, 50, 275-331.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Schwarting, R. K., & Huston, J. P. (1996). The unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion model in behavioral brain research. ... 2008). Partial recovery of dopaminergic pathway after graft of adult mesenchymal stem cells in a rat model of Parkinsons ... 2013). Recovery of behavioral symptoms in hemi-parkinsonian rhesus monkeys through combined gene and stem cell therapy. ...
Skin lesion in the stimulation site of scalp. *Metal implants in the body (cardiac pacemaker or aneurysm clip) ... Efficacy and Safety Study of rTMS for Upper Extremity Motor Function Recovery in Ischemic Stroke Patients (TAMAS). The safety ... The purpose of this study is to Evaluate Efficacy and Safety of rTMS 「TMS「 for Upper Extremity Motor Function Recovery in ... The purpose of this study is to evaluate efficacy and safety of rTMS 「TMS「 for upper extremity motor function recovery in ...
Spinal cord lesioning in mice resulted in reduced locomotor function ... study was to determine whether physical exercise combined with epidural spinal cord magnetic stimulation could improve recovery ... Recovery of Function / physiology, radiation effects*. Spinal Cord / physiology, radiation effects*. Spinal Cord Injuries / ... Spinal cord lesioning in mice resulted in reduced locomotor function and negatively affected the muscle strength tested in ...
Recovery of hand function following nerve grafting and transfer in obstetric brachial plexus lesions ... Outcome data have been documented extensively for shoulder and biceps function, but information on hand function following ... have strived to repair as early as possible extended C-5 to C-8 or T-1 lesions or complete loss of C-5 to C-6 or C-7 function ... Useful hand function was restored in 69% of the patients in the presented series in whom reanimation of the hand could be fully ...
1974) Functional recovery after lesions of the nervous system. II. Recovery of function after lesions of the central nervous ... are several theories on recovery of functions that similarly postulate substantial rebuilding in the aftermath of the lesion ... The brain is naturally resilient to injury, and sparing or recovery of functions is generally attributed to reorganization in ... is an ideal case study to examine whether the intact hemisphere can influence recovery of visuomotor functions after unilateral ...
Functional recovery of hind limb function after SCI was determined by scoring of the locomotor hindlimb performance in the open ... cells located in the lesions of and mice 3 days after SCI. (e, f) The number of MHCII+CD11b+. cells (e) and MFI for MHCII (f) ... Genetic Ablation of Soluble TNF Does Not Affect Lesion Size and Functional Recovery after Moderate Spinal Cord Injury in Mice. ... M. Dinomais, L. Stana, G. Egon, I. Richard, and P. Menei, "Significant recovery of motor function in a patient with complete T7 ...
Clonidine impairs recovery of beam-walking after a sensorimotor cortex lesion in the rat. Brain Res. 1990;508:305-9.PubMed ... Amphetamine promotes task-dependent recovery following focal cortical ischaemic lesions in the rat. Behav Brain Res. 2005;165: ... Role of Cerebral Cortex Plasticity in the Recovery of Swallowing Function Following Dysphagic Stroke. ... Amphetamines and related drugs in motor recovery after stroke. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2003;14:S125-S134, x.Google Scholar ...
... or partial recovery of function in lesioned animals.. Infusions of ANISO into the insular cortex had no effect, despite ... One-way ANOVA of recovery values showed a main effect of group (F(2,27) = 5.34; p , 0.01), with post hoc tests confirming that ... 4B). Recovery of freezing on day 3 in the ANISO group (16 ± 10.3%) was not significantly different from the ACSF group (32 ± ... The high recovery of freezing, coupled with the lack of savings, strongly suggests that the mPFC is a storage site for ...
Structural neuroplasticity is thought to play an essential role in recovery of function, because animals sustaining CNS lesions ... mAb IN-1 treatment of lesioned animals resulted in complete recovery in this test, also indicating recovery in hindlimb ... After a lesion of the mature CNS, structural plasticity and functional recovery are very limited, in contrast to the developing ... 1993) Critical timing of sensorimotor cortex lesions for the recovery of motor skills in the developing cat. Exp Brain Res 93: ...
Recovery was attributed to a change in allegiance of cell columns near the lesion. These cells took on the motor function of ... Fitz Gerald,1996 looked at neural plasticity in recovery from brain injury. He described neural plasticity in monkeys and lower ... mammals after lesions in the motor cortex. ...
They are also experts in saving important nerves and tissues linked to sexual function and to bowel and bladder control. ... Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM): The surgeon removes precancerous rectal lesions and early tumors through the anus. ... This results in less pain and faster recovery. It also spares nearby healthy tissue. ... Anastomosis: This reattaches your remaining colon or rectum, restoring your large intestine and function. You may need several ...
Therefore, further DTI studies on these topics should be encouraged, especially studies on prognosis prediction and recovery ... Therefore, further DTI studies on these topics should be encouraged, especially studies on prognosis prediction and recovery ... and recovery of aphasia (three studies). Although scant studies on this topic have been conducted in stroke patients, DTI for ... and recovery of aphasia (three studies). Although scant studies on this topic have been conducted in stroke patients, DTI for ...
What are the mechanisms of recovery of lateralised functions? contralateral transfer (functions of damaged hemisphere are ... cingulate and prefrontal cortex lesion -> Non-fluent aphasia = quite extreme (mute), little spontaneous language but can repeat ... What are the features of transcorticol motor aphasias? where is the lesion located? ... Ipsilateral re-organisation (damaged function is re-organised to the surrounding areas) ...
The primary goals of rehabilitation are prevention of secondary complications, maximization of physical functioning, and ... With regard to recovery below the level of the lesion, ASIA A patients typically do not show significant recovery in this area ... B - No motor function below the level of the lesion but sensory function that continues into the sacral segments ... C - Most motor function below the level of the lesion preserved, and more than half of key muscles have a motor grade of 3 or ...
Recovery of visual function is expected within 10 weeks. However, attacks may lead to permanent axonal loss and thinning of the ... These lesions may compress the optic nerve, resulting optic disc swelling and progressive visual loss. Implicated orbital ... Patients with the 14484/ND6 mutation are most likely to have visual recovery. Dominant optic atrophy is an autosomal dominant ... Consumption can be fatal, or recovery can occur with permanent neurologic and ophthalmologic deficits. While visual loss is not ...
Recovery here implies a certain structural redundancy around the affected lesion [35]. At the domain of body function, recovery ... Body-functions are the physiological functions of body systems (including psychological functions), while body-structures are ... 3D) are small, even in patients with incomplete lesions [22]. Factors that could influence recovery after SCI could be manifold ... 41 Jakob W, Wirz M, van Hedel HJ, Dietz V. Difficulty of elderly SCI subjects to translate motor recovery - "body function" - ...
Sensory-motor recovery was behaviorally studied. Coaptation preserved synaptic covering on lesioned motoneurons and led to ... Results were analyzed 4, 8, and 12 weeks after lesion. Astrogliosis, microglial reaction, and synapse preservation were ... Regarding axonal regeneration, coaptation allowed recovery of greater number of myelinated fibers, with improved morphometric ... Brachial plexus lesion results in loss of motor and sensory function, being more harmful in the neonate. Therefore, this study ...
Pontine lesions or lesions below the level of the pontine micturition center result in the loss of coordinated (synergic) ... Elbadawi A. Neuromorphologic basis of vesicourethral Function. 1. Histochemistry, ultrastructure, and function of intrinsic ... Later, during recovery, symptoms such as frequency, urgency, urge incontinence, or inappropriate voiding are more common. The ... Brusa L, Petta F, Pisani A, Moschella V, Iani C, Stanzione P. Acute vs chronic effects of l-dopa on bladder function in ...
Lesions of such networks induce plastic processes which in time may lead to a recovery of the initially disrupted ... Lesions of such networks induce plastic processes which in time may lead to a recovery of the initially disrupted function. ... Recovery from Smooth Pursuit Impairments After Successive Unilateral and Bilateral Chemical Lesions in the Dorsolateral Pontine ... Functional Recovery of the Primate Oculomotor Pursuit System Following Cerebellar and Cerebral Cortical Lesions ...
At admission, traumatic patients show lower autonomy in daily life activities, probably because of the associated lesions that ... At discharge, traumatic and non-traumatic spinal cord lesion patients achieved similar results with regard to neurological and ... In total, 380 patients at first rehabilitation stay after the lesion (144 traumatic patients and 236 non-traumatic patients; ... lesion level and Asia impairment. Models were stratified by age because a strong interaction between different variables and ...
  • The acrobatic exercise combined with stimulation with magnetic fields significantly facilitates behavioral recovery and muscle physiology in mice following spinal cord injury. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is followed by an instant increase in expression of the microglial-derived proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) within the lesioned cord. (hindawi.com)
  • We retrospectively examined the charts of 380 patients with traumatic and non-traumatic spinal cord injury admitted to our spinal unit between 1996 and 2004 for their first rehabilitation treatment after the lesion. (nature.com)
  • Dr. Plant is the director of basic science for the Stanford Partnership for Spinal Cord Injury and Repair, which brings together researchers and clinicians to collaborate on translational research aimed at spinal cord regeneration and repair and improving the quality of life of people paralyzed by spinal cord injury through rehabilitation and restoration of function. (stanford.edu)
  • These fluid-filled cavities typically form by about three months following severe spinal cord injury and prevent significant recovery of motor and sensory function. (biospace.com)
  • These new follow-up results based on MRI scans are very encouraging, and strongly suggest that AST-OPC1 cells have engrafted in these patients post-implantation and have the potential to prevent lesion cavity formation, possibly reducing long-term spinal cord tissue deterioration after spinal cord injury," said Dr. Edward Wirth , Chief Medical Officer of Asterias. (biospace.com)
  • Spinal cord injury results in a severe damage of spinal tissue followed by the loss of functions. (wingsforlife.com)
  • We never predicted that by having patients interacting with these devices over a long period we might induce significant neurological recovery, including sensory, motor, and visceral improvements, all body functions lost due to a devastating spinal cord injury, such as the case of our eight patients. (eurekalert.org)
  • Pubmed ID: 12837623 A developmental model of spinal cord injury in the embryonic chick was specifically developed to characterize the involvement of caspases in injury-induced oligodendrocyte apoptosis remote from the lesion and the ability of caspase inhibitors to attenuate this process. (jove.com)
  • After an incomplete spinal cord injury descending nerve fibers that cross the lesion are not always optimized to assist in recovery. (wingsforlife.com)
  • The use of combinatorial stimulation approaches to activate descending pathways from the SLR will aid in recovery of function following a spinal cord injury. (wingsforlife.com)
  • Recovery of motor function following spinal cord injury is partly dependent on plasticity of spinal cord networks that generate locomotion. (wingsforlife.com)
  • Our central idea is that activation of the SLR will contribute to functional recovery following spinal cord injury. (wingsforlife.com)
  • Once we understand the function of these nuclei under normal circumstances we will examine how they remodel following a spinal cord injury. (wingsforlife.com)
  • These experiments are important because they will allow us to design specific stimulation strategies to accelerate recovery of function in animal models of spinal cord injury. (wingsforlife.com)
  • This knowledge will allow us to design new combinatorial approaches to improve function in people who incur a spinal cord injury. (wingsforlife.com)
  • Recovery of voluntary movements after partial spinal cord injury depends, in part, on a take-over of function via unlesioned pathways. (diva-portal.org)
  • The brain is resilient to injury and the possibility to promote recovery rests with our ability to understand the nature of postlesional plasticity. (pnas.org)
  • After a lesion of the mature CNS, structural plasticity and functional recovery are very limited, in contrast to the developing CNS. (jneurosci.org)
  • In contrast, neuroanatomical plasticity, or the restructuring of neural connections in response to lesions of the CNS, is a well documented phenomenon in the neonatal age group. (jneurosci.org)
  • This article reviews the recent research into ways of restoring swallowing function in these patients through promoting plasticity and reorganisation of the remaining, viable cerebral cortex. (springer.com)
  • Properties and plasticity of the primate somatosensory and motor cortex related to orofacial sensorimotor function. (springer.com)
  • Driving plasticity in adult human motor cortex is associated with improved motor function after brain injury. (springer.com)
  • Fitz Gerald,1996 looked at neural plasticity in recovery from brain injury. (csuchico.edu)
  • He described neural plasticity in monkeys and lower mammals after lesions in the motor cortex. (csuchico.edu)
  • This type of neural plasticity is the main focus of the book, which presents a broad spectrum of experimental paradigms for lesion-induced plasticity as in the spinal cord, the vestibular, oculomotor, visual and olfactory system, the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex, including recent methodological developments. (springer.com)
  • This thesis examined the effects of endogenous bFGF on brain plasticity and recovery of behavioral function following cortical injury in adult rats. (uleth.ca)
  • The damaged nerves do not repair themselves instead 'intact areas take over the function of the damaged areas in a process known as plasticity. (medindia.net)
  • Her case shows off the brain's capability to restore some functions after substantial injury, a phenomenon called 'plasticity' that is helped by rehabilitation. (cnn.com)
  • In younger patients, the brain has greater plasticity and capability for recovery of functions. (cnn.com)
  • This plasticity is driven by areas of the brain that innervate these spinal cord regions and also by input from receptors in the limbs located caudal to the lesion. (wingsforlife.com)
  • They often fail to recover many cognitive functions even years after the stroke, this is also called maladaptive plasticity. (iit.it)
  • In the post-treatment behavioral testing, lesion rats had significant spatial memory deficits but did improve and enriched rats improved more than standard housed rats. (uncg.edu)
  • Previous experiments have shown that the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine facilitates recovery from very transient (1 h-10 days) behavioral deficits after fluid percussion injury. (iospress.com)
  • The present study extends these findings by investigating whether scopolamine can facilitate recovery from the more enduring behavioral deficits (14-60 days) that follow electrolytic lesions of the rat somatic sensorimotor cortex (SMC). (iospress.com)
  • Analysis of functional deficits, recovery and treatments. (springer.com)
  • Cortical damage results in overt sensory and cognitive deficits, yet functions may be partially retained and patients may recover some impaired abilities owing to neuronal reorganization ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Compensation of cognitive and motor deficits after unilateral lesions to the frontal or parietal cortex has been extensively investigated in neurological patients ( 2 , 3 ) as well as animal models ( 4 ), revealing transcallosal recruitment of homologous areas in the intact hemisphere. (pnas.org)
  • Subsequent experiments examined the effects of injury-induced bFGF on neuroonal morphology, cortical morphology, and post-lesion behavioral deficits. (uleth.ca)
  • Housing rats in an enriched environment prior to cortical injury enhanced the expression of bFGF but did not increase cortical thickness nor reduce post-lesion behavioral deficits (relative to laboratroy-housed rats). (uleth.ca)
  • 1 - 3 Studies that have examined the extent, pattern, and nature of the anterograde episodic memory deficits in KS have contributed greatly to the delineation of concepts regarding human memory formation and to the realization that memory is not a unitary function. (dovepress.com)
  • At 36-month follow-up, there was a complete recovery of the deficits. (healio.com)
  • Most peroneal nerve trauma occurs at the fibular head, where the common nerve has not yet divided into its deep and superficial peroneal nerve and where most peroneal nerve lesions, therefore, involve both branches, although motor deficits are more frequently involved than sensory ones. (healio.com)
  • The results suggest that delayed treatment of CAP increases nigral TH enzyme activity and striatal levels of DA and its metabolites by CNTF endogenously derived from CAP-activated astrocytes through TRPV1, leading to functional recovery. (bvsalud.org)
  • Combined effects of acrobatic exercise and magnetic stimulation on the functional recovery after spinal cord lesions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Kim and colleagues found TNFR1 −/− mice to have increased lesion size and worse functional outcome compared to controls [ 13 ], suggesting a protective role for TNFR1, whereas Genovese et al. (hindawi.com)
  • The authors present a surgical strategy aimed primarily at restoration of hand function and analyze their methods and outcome to determine specific factors affecting functional recovery. (thejns.org)
  • These observations provide a framework for future investigations of functional recovery after brain damage and on mechanisms that mediate nonconscious abilities. (pnas.org)
  • Here we combined psychophysics, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and tractography to investigate the functional and structural properties that enable the developing brain to partly overcome the effects of early V1 lesion in one blindsight patient. (pnas.org)
  • Functional recovery was studied from postoperative day 14 until day 42 using a food pellet reaching task, rope climbing, and a grid walk paradigm. (jneurosci.org)
  • This functional recovery was paralleled by sprouting of the corticorubral and the corticopontine fibers across the midline, thus establishing a bilateral, anatomically specific projection. (jneurosci.org)
  • At discharge, traumatic and non-traumatic spinal cord lesion patients achieved similar results with regard to neurological and functional improvement. (nature.com)
  • The prediction of neurological and functional outcomes after spinal cord lesion (SCL) is essential to answer patients' questions regarding their functional potential and to understand the amount of resources required during inpatient rehabilitation and after discharge. (nature.com)
  • Spontaneous nerve regeneration in cephalopod molluscs occurs in a relative short time after injury, achieving functional recovery of lost capacity. (biologists.org)
  • Nimodipine, a Ca2+ antagonist of the dihydropyridine type, is known to display a variety of neuropharmacological effects including facilitation of functional recovery following a crush of the sciatic nerve in the rat. (iospress.com)
  • What if facilitating specific branches of the inflammatory response enhances both tissue repair and functional recovery? (helsinki.fi)
  • Poststroke delivery of MANF promotes functional recovery in rats. (helsinki.fi)
  • Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is typically characterized by headache, altered mental functioning, seizures, and visual loss associated with imaging findings of bilateral subcortical and cortical edema with a predominantly posterior distribution. (ajnr.org)
  • Lesions involving the posterior superior temporal lobe are often associated with fluent aphasias. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phonemic paraphasias are often caused by lesions to the external capsule, extending to the posterior part of the temporal lobe or internal capsule. (wikipedia.org)
  • After unilateral neonatal pyramidotomy in rodents, corticoefferent fibers from the same side as the lesion were found to cross the midline to form new connections with medullary nuclei and to descend to spinal cord levels ( Kalil and Reh, 1982 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • paralysis and loss of vibratory and position sense on the same side as the lesion due to the damage to the corticospinal tract and dorsal columns. (studystack.com)
  • Gut feelings about recovery after stroke: the organisation and reorganisation of human swallowing motor cortex. (springer.com)
  • Following SMC lesions rats exhibited an impairment in placing the forelimb contralateral to the lesion as well as an ipsilateral somatosensory asymmetry on a bilateral tactile stimulation test. (iospress.com)
  • Initially, the patient had been completely blind, but after 6 months of spontaneous recovery, he showed a homonymous bilateral lower quadrantanopia and impairment of higher visual functions. (bmj.com)
  • After 1 week, vision had recovered in the right upper quadrant, and central vision was sufficient to perform a neuropsychological examination which disclosed a slowing of reaction times as well as an impairment of short term memory and visuospatial functions. (bmj.com)
  • Statistical analysis: Poisson regression models with relative risks and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for the following confounders: age, sex, lesion level and Asia impairment. (nature.com)
  • Our goal was to determine the course of events following injury, from impairment to full recovery. (biologists.org)
  • flaccidity, areflexia, and impairment of bowel and bladder function. (studystack.com)
  • Both groups of rats showed similar lesion volume and forelimb impairment after stroke. (uzh.ch)
  • Outcome data have been documented extensively for shoulder and biceps function, but information on hand function following nerve repair is limited. (thejns.org)
  • The authors conclude that restoration of hand function should be the first goal of nerve repair in infants with a flail arm caused by an OBPL, but that the optimal strategy for different types of lesion remains to be determined. (thejns.org)
  • This resource does not discuss benign tumors of the head and neck region, tumors of the thyroid, skin cancers involving the head and neck, auditory nerve lesions, and brain tumors. (asha.org)
  • Without any experimental intervention, nerve lesions in the adult CNS of mammals produce only a limited and brief period of abortive sprouting and then to the death of axotomized neurons. (utah.edu)
  • Her cranial nerve, upper limb and lower limb functions were normal. (mja.com.au)
  • In particular, transection of the pallial nerve in the common octopus ( Octopus vulgaris ) determines the loss and subsequent restoration of two functions fundamental for survival, i.e. breathing and skin patterning, the latter involved in communication between animals and concealment. (biologists.org)
  • The conjunction of this lesion with peroneal nerve palsy has been exceptionally reported for children, usually linked to hereditary multiple exostoses syndrome. (healio.com)
  • The fibular nerve is frequently involved in cases of lesions or compression in the lower limb. (healio.com)
  • Postoperatively, nerve function improved. (healio.com)
  • She landed heavily on her left elbow and sustained a complete ulnar nerve lesion. (proprofs.com)
  • Please assume that the injury eliminated ALL ulnar nerve functions and at this time, no signs of recovery have begun. (proprofs.com)
  • Nerve injuries lead to impaired functioning of the nerve. (medindia.net)
  • In the last subcategory or the fifth degree injury, the lesion is a complete transaction of the nerve. (medindia.net)
  • Improving the quality of life, restoring the normal functioning of injured nerves, and mitigating nerve pain and discomfort are the chief goals behind the effective treatment of nerve injuries. (medindia.net)
  • Neither nifedipine (20 mg/kg) nor Bay K 8644 (0.5 mg/kg) had any influence on the recovery of nerve function. (iospress.com)
  • FLAIR improves the ability to diagnose and detect subcortical and cortical lesions in PRES as compared with proton density-and T2-weighted spin-echo images. (ajnr.org)
  • Our TMS and neuropsychological studies have led to an important project on patients affected by chronic cortical lesions. (iit.it)
  • Infants with obstetric brachial plexus lesions (OBPLs) commonly undergo surgical repair. (thejns.org)
  • Microsurgical repairs of brachial plexus lesions currently offer the best results for patients with this type of injury. (mendeley.com)
  • I , On sagittal T2WI, hyperintense lesions are seen throughout the corpus callosum. (ajnr.org)
  • There were residual hyperintense lesions at the splenium of the corpus callosum, internal capsules, and cerebral peduncles on T2WI and DWI. (ajnr.org)
  • Follow-up MR images obtained on days 17 ( A - C ) and 30 ( D - F ). A , On axial T2WI, hyperintense lesions are seen in the splenium and internal capsules. (ajnr.org)
  • FLAIR imaging improved diagnostic confidence and conspicuity of the T2 hyperintense lesions of PRES, typically in the subcortical white matter of the parietooccipital regions bilaterally. (ajnr.org)
  • However, recovery from visual field defects in patients with brain injury has long been considered impossible due to the highly specific structure of the visual system. (bmj.com)
  • Zihl and von Cramon 1 tried to enlarge the visual field of 55 patients with postgeniculate lesions using a forced choice saccadic technique to detect light stimuli. (bmj.com)
  • In most patients, visual field enlargement did not exceed 5°, but there were individual cases with remarkable recovery. (bmj.com)
  • Following brain lesions, previously normal patients sometimes exhibit criminal behavior. (pnas.org)
  • Hand function is impaired in approximately 15% of patients. (thejns.org)
  • Useful hand function was restored in 69% of the patients in the presented series in whom reanimation of the hand could be fully attributed to the surgical reconstruction. (thejns.org)
  • From 2009 onwards, the authors have strived to repair as early as possible extended C-5 to C-8 or T-1 lesions or complete loss of C-5 to C-6 or C-7 function in patients in whom there was clinical and radiological suspicion of root avulsion. (thejns.org)
  • In this review article, previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies on the AF in stroke patients were reviewed with regard to the usefulness for diagnosis (seven studies), prediction of prognosis (two studies), and recovery of aphasia (three studies). (frontiersin.org)
  • Although scant studies on this topic have been conducted in stroke patients, DTI for the AF appears to provide useful information on the presence or severity of injury of the AF, prognosis prediction of aphasia, and recovery mechanisms of aphasia in stroke patients. (frontiersin.org)
  • At admission, traumatic patients show lower autonomy in daily life activities, probably because of the associated lesions that these patients often have. (nature.com)
  • The results of grafting may be improved by ancillary operations such as shoulder fusion, flexor tendon tenodesis, humeral derotation, and other procedures that provide limited function for patients with various incomplete and complete avulsions. (mendeley.com)
  • Renal function remained normal in all patients. (annals.org)
  • FLAIR also showed cortical involvement in 94% of patients with PRES and in a mean of 46% of the total lesion burden. (ajnr.org)
  • Nurses caring for patients with CMs should be aware of the specific characteristics of CMs that differentiate them from other neurovascular lesions. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Most CMs occur as solitary lesions, but a third of all patients with sporadic CMs can have multiple lesions. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Of patients with the familial form of CMs, 73% have multiple lesions (Maraire & Awad, 1995). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • For the five AIS-A patients in the SCiStar study treated with 10 million AST-OPC1 cells (Cohort 2) who also received a serial MRI scan at six months of follow-up, the serial MRI scans at six months indicated no sign of lesion cavities in any patient. (biospace.com)
  • For the three patients in Cohort 2 that have also completed 12 months of follow-up, serial MRI scans at 12 months continued to indicate no signs of lesion cavities. (biospace.com)
  • All three AIS-A patients who received a low dose of 2 million cells (Cohort 1) in the SCiStar study also showed no sign of lesion cavities in any patient through 1 year of follow-up. (biospace.com)
  • AIS-A patients have lost all motor and sensory function below their injury site, while AIS-B patients have lost all motor function but may retain some minimal sensory function below their injury site. (biospace.com)
  • In this cross-sectional and controlled study, 76 SLE patients (69 women, age 37 ± 12 years) and 26 age and gender-matched healthy subjects (22 women, age 34 ± 11 years) underwent assessment of attention, memory, processing speed, executive function, motor function, and global neurocognitive function. (springer.com)
  • Neurocognitive z -scores in all clinical domains were significantly lower and whole brain and right and left hemispheres brain lesion load were significantly greater in patients than in controls (all p ≤ 0.02). (springer.com)
  • Neurocognitive measures and brain lesion load are worse in SLE patients than in controls. (springer.com)
  • In SLE patients, neurocognitive z -scores correlate negatively with and independently predict brain lesion load. (springer.com)
  • Future research on the postmortem histopathological analysis of brain tissues of KS patients is crucial for the advancement of our knowledge of KS, especially for associating its symptoms with lesions in various thalamic nuclei. (dovepress.com)
  • Recovery of neurologic function is dramatically affected, with fewer than 1% of SCI patients experiencing complete neurologic recovery by hospital discharge. (uspharmacist.com)
  • The patients also regained important degrees of bladder and bowel control, and improved their cardiovascular function, which in one case resulted in a significant reduction in hypertension. (eurekalert.org)
  • As such, this is the first study to report that long-term BMI use may lead to significant recovery of neurological functions in patients suffering from severe spinal cord injuries. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers, led by neuroscientist Miguel Nicolelis, director of the Duke University Center for Neuroengineering and principal investigator of the WAP, say that they do not yet know the limits of this clinical recovery since patients have continued to improve since the World Cup demo until today (a second manuscript will report on the continuous improvement from December 2014 to May 2016). (eurekalert.org)
  • In the 1960s, ventilators and cardiac life support helped keep people alive longer after brain injury, but for a long time, most doctors still didn't believe patients could regain much function, he said. (cnn.com)
  • These ideas were formulated in studies with parietal lesioned patients. (iit.it)
  • Our ultimate goal is to design TMS/tDCS approaches for rehabilitation of cerebral lesioned patients. (iit.it)
  • We have tested few patients and used TMS to rehabilitate their attentional functions in the compromised hemifield. (iit.it)
  • We are also submitting left and right parietal lesion patients to visual timing tasks with the aim of devising a rehabilitation protocol for multiple visual/attentional functions. (iit.it)
  • We set out to address this gap by a multimodal in vivo study of neurovascular recovery from endothelin-1 model of cortical focal-stroke in sham vs. ovariectomized female rats. (frontiersin.org)
  • These symptoms are caused by a combination of increased intracranial pressure due to a space-occupying lesion (headache, vomiting, confusion, coma), infection (fever, fatigue etc.) and focal neurologic brain tissue damage (hemiparesis, aphasia etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is the histologic appearance of focal and multifocal ischemic brain necrosis lesions in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)? (medscape.com)
  • Focal and multifocal ischemic brain necrosis lesions vary in terms of distribution and can be limited to a region supplied by an occluded artery or can be diffuse in cases of global hypoperfusion. (medscape.com)
  • No focal hepatic lesion was detected by ultrasound imaging. (hkmj.org)
  • Spatial normalization of brain images with focal lesions using cost function masking. (springer.com)
  • Overall, dentate gyrus lesions significantly decreased the proliferation and survival of new neurons following treatment. (uncg.edu)
  • Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) on astrocytes prevents ongoing degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons in MPP⁺-lesioned rats via ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). (bvsalud.org)
  • In the present study we compared monolayer-cultured (aMSC) and spheroid (sMSC) MSC following transplantation into the substantia nigra (SN) of 6-OHDA lesioned rats regarding effects on the local microenvironment, degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, neurogenesis in the hippocampal DG as well as motor and memory function in the 6-OHDA-rat model for PD. (springer.com)
  • These cells took on the motor function of the damaged neurons. (csuchico.edu)
  • Following motor cortex injury, endogenous bFGF prevented neuritic degeneration in layer V pyramidal neurons in Zilles' area Fr2 and promoted recovery of function in the Whishaw Reaching Task. (uleth.ca)
  • It turns out that brain cells called neurons that are next to damaged brain areas can reconnect pathways between other neurons, forming new circuits that can resume some of the lost function. (cnn.com)
  • motor function and pain and temperature sense below the lesion due to damage of the corticospinal and spinothalamic tracts. (studystack.com)
  • Afferents below the lesion undergo specific rearrangements soon after injury, and without them regained motor function cannot be maintained, even if detour circuits have formed. (eurekalert.org)
  • Spinal cord lesioning in mice resulted in reduced locomotor function and negatively affected the muscle strength tested in vitro. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We previously demonstrated that epidural administration of a dominant-negative inhibitor of solTNF, XPro1595, to the contused spinal cord resulted in changes in Iba1 protein expression in microglia/macrophages, decreased lesion volume, and improved locomotor function. (hindawi.com)
  • To learn more about where and when proprioceptive feedback affects locomotor recovery after injury, Takeoka devised a conditional genetic approach to eliminate this type of feedback at different locations and time points in mice. (eurekalert.org)
  • Using these models, she showed that proprioceptive feedback below but not above the site of injury is critical for naturally occurring circuit rearrangement and locomotor recovery. (eurekalert.org)
  • In short, proprioceptive feedback is not only essential to initiate locomotor recovery but it is also permanently required to maintain any regained motor function. (eurekalert.org)
  • By investigating areas in the sub-thalamic locomotor area (SLR) we will map out connectivity and function to locomotor areas of the spinal cord and brainstem. (wingsforlife.com)
  • Cerebrovascular disease can result in voiding dysfunction, usually in the context of bilateral hemispheric lesions. (medscape.com)
  • A - D , On axial T2WI, the lesions appear hyperintense in the middle cerebellar peduncles, cerebral peduncles, internal capsules, and hemispheric white matter. (ajnr.org)
  • On day 17, he regained normal attention, and a follow-up MR imaging demonstrated marked resolution of the lesions in the hemispheric white matter and middle cerebellar peduncles. (ajnr.org)
  • Hemispheric and whole brain lesion load in cm 3 were determined using semi-automated methods. (springer.com)
  • The first experiment investigated the post-lesion time course of the astrocytic expression of bFGF. (uleth.ca)
  • Here we systematically characterize such lesions and compare them with lesions that cause other symptoms. (pnas.org)
  • Because lesion-induced symptoms can come from sites connected to the lesion location and not just the lesion location itself, we also identified brain regions functionally connected to each lesion location. (pnas.org)
  • MBD is a rare disorder in individuals with chronic alcoholism and is characterized by severe neurologic symptoms and symmetric lesions in the corpus callosum. (ajnr.org)
  • lesion location is the most important determining factor for all aphasic disorders, including paraphasia - the location of the lesion can be used to hypothesize the type of aphasic symptoms the patient will display. (wikipedia.org)
  • A varying degree of sensory loss below the level of the lesion and bladder symptoms (urinary retention) may also occur. (aans.org)
  • It is not surprising, then, that cells can only function because very effective chromosome maintenance pathways ceaselessly repair the damage. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • Other untreatable pathologies leading to loss of sight involve lesions to the CNS visual centers or projection pathways. (utah.edu)
  • A C5 DLF lesion spares corticofugal pathways to the brainstem and upper cervical segments. (diva-portal.org)
  • It is suggested that indirect corticomotoneuronal pathways may provide for recovery of dexterous finger movements and that the role of CM pathways for such movements should be broadened to include not only the monosynaptic connexion. (diva-portal.org)
  • Rats received unilateral lesions of the SMC and a regimen of scopolamine (1 mg/kg) or saline beginning 15 min after surgery. (iospress.com)
  • However, experiments with transection of the corticospinal tract in the DLF and partly ventral part of the lateral funiculus in C5, showed a fast (1-28 days) recovery of precision grip and, to some extent, independent finger movements. (diva-portal.org)
  • Our pioneering data demonstrate dramatic differences in spontaneous recovery in the neurovascular unit between Ovx and Sham females in the chronic stage of stroke, underscoring the importance of considering hormonal-dependent aspects of the ischemic sequelae in the development of novel therapeutic approaches and patient recruitment in clinical trials. (frontiersin.org)
  • A prior hypoxic-ischemic event involving the occipital lobe has resulted in a chronic lesion marked by dyslamination, neuronal loss, and disorganized arrangements of myelinated white matter fibers. (medscape.com)
  • Dr. Mikko Airavaara and his group at the University of Helsinki, Institute of Biotechnology administered MANF to rats after the ischemic brain injury, either by injecting recombinant MANF protein or by delivering a MANF-expressing viral vector into the brain area adjacent to the lesion. (helsinki.fi)
  • MANF treatment transiently increased the number of phagocytic macrophages close to the ischemic lesion. (helsinki.fi)
  • Although the putative function of adult neurogenesis is unknown, there is accumulating evidence that it plays a role in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory and as a self-repair response following brain insult. (uncg.edu)
  • These data are consistent with the idea that muscarinic receptor stimulation plays a role in the production of secondary brain damage, that blockade of this receptor leads to a facilitation of recovery on some behavioral tasks, and that electrolytic lesions may trigger some of the same posttraumatic events described in other models of neural trauma. (iospress.com)
  • The human brain possesses a remarkable ability to regain functions after lesions of various aetiologies. (bmj.com)
  • Cases like that of Charles Whitman, who murdered 16 people after growth of a brain tumor, have sparked debate about why some brain lesions, but not others, might lead to criminal behavior. (pnas.org)
  • We find that lesions in multiple different brain areas are associated with criminal behavior. (pnas.org)
  • However, these lesions all fall within a unique functionally connected brain network involved in moral decision making. (pnas.org)
  • These results provide insight into why some brain lesions, but not others, might predispose to criminal behavior, with potential neuroscience, medical, and legal implications. (pnas.org)
  • All lesions were functionally connected to the same network of brain regions. (pnas.org)
  • Finally, we replicated our results in a separate cohort of 23 cases in which a temporal relationship between brain lesions and criminal behavior was implied but not definitive. (pnas.org)
  • Our results suggest that lesions in criminals occur in different brain locations but localize to a unique resting state network, providing insight into the neurobiology of criminal behavior. (pnas.org)
  • aMSC transplantation significantly increased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the SN, increased the levels of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and improved motor functions compared to untreated and sMSC treated animals. (springer.com)
  • The unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion model in behavioral brain research. (springer.com)
  • Associated lesions were: traumatic brain injury, non-vertebral fractures requiring surgery, severe facial injuries affecting sense organs, major chest injury requiring chest tube or mechanical ventilation, severe hemorrhaging or damage to any internal organ requiring surgery. (nature.com)
  • Optic neuritis, when combined with the presence of multiple demyelinating white matter brain lesions on MRI, is suspicious for multiple sclerosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2015 ). As nutritionally-based therapies supplement basic biological function and have therapeutic action in the injured brain, these therapies may eventually represent an important component of combination therapies. (chiro.org)
  • Malnutrition and tests of brain function. (cornell.edu)
  • All subjects underwent brain MRI with T1-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), and diffusion-weighted imaging. (springer.com)
  • Similar correlations were found for brain hemisphere lesion loads (all p ≤ 0.05). (springer.com)
  • Finally, global neurocognitive z -score and erythrosedimentation rate were the only independent predictors of whole brain lesion load (both p ≤ 0.007). (springer.com)
  • Collectively, these experiments indicate that injury-induced bFGF plays a role in potentiating recovery from brain damage. (uleth.ca)
  • Moreover, the study of KS has brought to the fore that diencephalic structures play a critical role in memory function, thus stimulating the search for separate and distinctive brain structures and neural circuits underlying the component mnemonic processes. (dovepress.com)
  • This lesion can be caused by a variety of different methods: malfunctioning blood vessels (caused, for example, by a stroke) in the brain are the cause of 80% of aphasias in adults, as compared to head injuries, dementia and degenerative diseases, poisoning, metabolic disorders, infectious diseases, and demyelinating diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Owing to some atypical brain function, savants have privileged access to raw, less-processed information-information in some interim state before it is packaged into holistic labels. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The brain is one of the most metabolically active tissues, relying on continuous glucose supply for synaptic transmission and dendritic and axonal trafficking, thus helping to maintain brain cognitive function ( 6 , 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It has been proposed that this area, based on its structure and connectivity, has "a role in coordinating a set of diverse brain functions", and the claustrum has been elucidated as playing a crucial role in consciousness. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, it has been stated that "the subjective effects of S. divinorum indicate that salvia disrupts certain facets of consciousness much more than the largely serotonergic hallucinogen [LSD]", and it has been postulated that inhibition of a brain area that is apparently as fundamentally involved in consciousness and higher cognitive function as the claustrum may explain this. (wikipedia.org)
  • The next generation in brain recovery and neuroregeneration. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • S.v. The next generation in brain recovery and neuroregeneration. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Millions of Americans are affected by both acute and chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI), but there is no standard-of-care recovery therapy. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • When lesions are small, left-brain areas around the lesion begin to perform the functions of the damaged region. (livestrong.com)
  • magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed numerous small enhancing lesions and edema ( Table 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • We propose a new low-rank based image recovery method and embed it into an existing Groupwise Image Registration (GIR) framework to achieve accurate GIR of Magnetic Resonance (MR) brain images containing tumors. (springer.com)
  • Arizona Rep. Gabrielle Giffords is making a remarkable recovery after a gunshot wound to the brain, doctors say. (cnn.com)
  • Historically, when people had severe brain injuries and went into semi-comas or comas, they died before any brain recovery because there wasn't life support, Mayer said. (cnn.com)
  • Although parts of the brain may be damaged, destroyed or even missing, remaining parts can learn how to take over the functions that were lost. (cnn.com)
  • That's because the right side of the brain can take over some language functions. (cnn.com)
  • Our first set of experiments will be to apply modern tracing techniques to fully understand the connectivity of this important area of the brain and importantly activate specific connections to examine their function in freely moving animals. (wingsforlife.com)
  • In summary our set of experiments will provide a detailed roadmap of connectivity and function in an area of the brain critical for goal-directed movements. (wingsforlife.com)
  • When MANF was administered directly into brain tissue 2 to 3 days after stroke, it did not affect lesion volume but promoted reversal of stroke-induced behavioural impairments. (helsinki.fi)
  • This indicated that MANF had an effect on the recovery of brain tissue function after injury," says Dr. Kert Mätlik , the lead author of the study. (helsinki.fi)
  • We previously reported a role for glutamate excitotoxicity in olfactory dysfunction showing an olfactory deficit 1 week after lesion and a spontaneous recovery 2 weeks after excitotoxicity lesion of the olfactory bulbs (OBs). (springer.com)
  • The duration and extent of spontaneous recovery were unusual. (bmj.com)
  • In spontaneous as well as in training induced recovery, progress was mainly seen in partially defective areas (areas of residual vision) along the visual field border. (bmj.com)
  • Thus, it is speculated that modulation of perceptual thresholds in transition zones of visual field defects contributes to spontaneous and training induced recovery. (bmj.com)
  • Here, we report on a patient with a traumatically induced visual field defect showing significant spontaneous recovery and considerable further progress during visual restitution training. (bmj.com)
  • All had spontaneous, but slow, recovery. (hkmj.org)
  • This is due not only to the high incidence of stroke, but also because spontaneous recovery is often incomplete and no drugs are available that hasten recovery. (helsinki.fi)
  • Cessation of G. ornativa intake resulted in a considerable although incomplete recovery of the ODI. (scielo.org.za)
  • An incomplete lesion that results from compression and damage to the anterior part of the spinal cord or anterior spinal artery. (studystack.com)
  • An incomplete lesion usually caused by a stab wound, which produces hemisection of the spinal cord. (studystack.com)
  • Recovery in those with incomplete injuries is related to the severity of the initial neurologic deficit. (uspharmacist.com)
  • The GN-lesioned rats showed significantly less aversion to saccharin on the test day, indicating that the lesion impaired their ability to form taste-illness association. (elsevier.com)
  • Does Collateral Sprouting from Corticospinal Fibers Participate in Motor Recovery After Spinal Hemisection in Monkeys? (springer.com)
  • CMs account for approximately 1% of all intracranial mass lesions and approximately 15% of all neurovascular lesions. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • ABSTRACT: Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) are the result of a trauma to the spinal cord that causes a change in normal motor, sensory, or autonomic function. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Over a period of more than 3 years, changes in visual and neuropsychological functions were examined in a patient with a visual field defect caused by a cerebral gunshot lesion. (bmj.com)
  • The undamaged cerebral hemisphere takes over functions normally performed by the damaged hemisphere and this could be preventing full recovery. (iit.it)
  • Finally, in collaboration with a group from the Medical School of the University of Rochester (USA) we are starting to run a direct current stimulation (tDCS) protocol to rehabilitate visual field defects (such hemianopsia and blindsight) caused by lesions to the primary visual areas. (iit.it)
  • They are also experts in saving important nerves and tissues linked to sexual function and to bowel and bladder control. (ohsu.edu)
  • This technique spares the sphincter and anus as well as nerves linked to sexual function and bladder control. (ohsu.edu)
  • The loss of frontal connections results in a pattern of bladder function resembling that seen in non-toilet-trained children. (medscape.com)
  • The lesion sites were spatially heterogeneous, including the medial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and different locations within the bilateral temporal lobes. (pnas.org)
  • IN-1 antigen), one pyramidal tract of adult Lewis rats was lesioned (pyramidotomy), and the rats were treated with the antibody IN-1, a control antibody, or no antibody. (jneurosci.org)
  • The lack of large scale remodeling after adult CNS lesions is not well understood, but may be attributable to several reasons, including a limitation of adult neuronal growth potential, a lack or decrease in trophic factors or guidance molecules, or the presence of growth inhibitory molecules. (jneurosci.org)
  • The arcuate fasciculus (AF), an important neural tract for language function, connects Broca's and Wernicke's areas. (frontiersin.org)
  • Methods of reducing inflammation and promoting neural recovery include hyperbaric oxygenation therapy (HBOT) and nutritional doses of magnesium, lithium, and zinc. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • These findings outline the brain's degeneracy, a common property of biological systems that refers to the ability of structurally different elements to perform the same function or yield the same output ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • These findings extend previous lesion and unit-recording data by demonstrating that the mPFC is a critical storage site for extinction memory, rather than simply a pathway for expression of extinction. (jneurosci.org)
  • 6 However, pretreatment neuroimaging findings, such as pretreatment DWI lesion volumes, were not considered. (bmj.com)
  • The surgeon removes precancerous rectal lesions and early tumors through the anus. (ohsu.edu)
  • We have previously shown that higher level visual areas (the inferior parietal lobe) are implicated in the discrimination of relative timing, a fundamental function of our visual system constantly dealing with multiple moving objects in the visual environment. (iit.it)
  • Her lab studies the mechanisms of motor learning and control, including how motor functions recover after injury. (eurekalert.org)
  • Several models speculate that the resumption of replication following disruption by UV-induced DNA damage requires regression of the nascent DNA or migration of the replication machinery away from the blocking lesion to allow repair or bypass of the lesion to occur. (genetics.org)
  • CMs have been reported to occur in conjunction with other intracranial vascular lesions. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Wherever the myelin is destroyed, a damaged area of white matter known as a lesion (or plaque) will occur. (msfocus.org)
  • At present, no study into the relationship between lesion morphology and no reflow has been performed. (ahajournals.org)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between preintervention intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) lesion morphology and the no-reflow phenomenon. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3,4 ⇓ It might be important, therefore, to be able to predict which lesions are high risk for no reflow before beginning thrombolysis or PCI, but, to our knowledge, no study examining the relationship between lesion morphology and the no-reflow phenomenon has been performed. (ahajournals.org)
  • Intraventricular administration of the α-noradrenergic blocker, phentolamine, suppressed feeding in both normal rats and rats that had recovered from lateral hypothalamic lesions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Recovery of feeding after hypothalamic lesions coincides with the recovery of noradrenergic reward function. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cavitation is a destructive process that occurs within the spinal cord following spinal cord injuries, and typically results in permanent loss of motor and sensory function. (biospace.com)
  • Recovery of sensory function was tested by vocal reaction following local stimulation with a small electric current. (iospress.com)
  • Recovery for what cognitive function is most extensive? (brainscape.com)
  • Bilateral PO/AH lesions in male rabbits were accomplished using electrolytic procedure. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We present a patient with MBD showing complete resolution of the MR imaging abnormalities and clinical recovery, despite severe initial presentation and widespread lesions. (ajnr.org)
  • Repair of severe traction lesions. (mendeley.com)
  • The objective of the study was to determine whether physical exercise combined with epidural spinal cord magnetic stimulation could improve recovery after injury of the spinal cord. (biomedsearch.com)
  • As examples, lesions of the claustrum in humans are associated with disruption of consciousness and cognition, and electrical stimulation of the area between the insula and the claustrum has been found to produce an immediate loss of consciousness in humans along with recovery of consciousness upon cessation of the stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulation above the lesion reveals partial or complete conduction block. (scribd.com)
  • In the lab we use transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), EEG and fMRI in an attempt to examine more in detail the neurobiological processing underlying visual timing as well as other visual functions. (iit.it)
  • Mann G, Dip PG, Hankey GJ, Cameron D. Swallowing function after stroke: prognosis and prognostic factors at 6 months. (springer.com)
  • Although epidemiological evidence suggests significant sex and gender-based differences in stroke risk and recovery, females have been widely under-represented in preclinical stroke research. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ratio of cardiopulmonary blood volume to stroke volume as an index of cardiac function in animals and in man. (scielo.org.za)
  • While the stroke survivor with a motor deficit strives for recovery of all aspects of daily life movements, neurorehabilitation training is often task specific and does not generalize to movements other than the ones trained. (uzh.ch)
  • In rodent models of post-stroke recovery, this problem is poorly investigated as the training task is often the same as the one that measures motor function. (uzh.ch)
  • The present study investigated whether motor training by pellet reaching translates into enhancement of different motor functions in rats after stroke. (uzh.ch)
  • Task-oriented motor training generalizes to other motor functions after experimental stroke. (uzh.ch)
  • The ability of homotypic cortical tissue grafts to induce recovery of function after a gustatory neocortex (GN) lesion was studied using the conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm. (elsevier.com)
  • Lesions of such networks induce plastic processes which in time may lead to a recovery of the initially disrupted function. (springer.com)
  • When the V1-damaged hemisphere was challenged by incoming visual stimuli, or controlled manual responses to these unseen stimuli, the corpus callosum (CC) dynamically recruited areas in the visual dorsal stream and premotor cortex of the intact hemisphere to compensate for altered visuomotor functions. (pnas.org)
  • The lesion in the corpus callosum appeared hypointense on T1WI. (ajnr.org)
  • Higher cortical functions and cranial nerves were normal except for a bilateral lower quadrantanopia and hyposmia. (bmj.com)
  • Recovery of renal function after bilateral renal vein thrombo sis episode as complication of membranous glomerulopa thy: case report. (annals.org)
  • This article therefore defines CMs, describes the unique features that differentiate them from other neurovascular lesions, and discusses their natural history and related treatment options in terms of their implications for nursing care. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Full recovery is not typical due to the distance needed for axonal regeneration. (studystack.com)
  • When visual field size had stabilised almost 16 months after the lesion, further improvement could be achieved by visual restitution training. (bmj.com)
  • Interestingly, behavioral recovery and increases in biochemical indices were not reflected in trophic changes of the DA system. (bvsalud.org)
  • We assessed the relationship between MRI diffusion and perfusion lesion indices, angiographic collateral grade and infarct growth. (bmj.com)
  • The best results were obtained with surgery delayed four to five weeks, because the preoperative assessment of the lesion is more accurate after wallerian degeneration has occurred. (mendeley.com)
  • Three months postoperatively, the patient had almost full recovery of the preoperative deficit. (healio.com)
  • During preoperative evaluation, pulmonary function tests were obtained, which showed a first forced expiratory volume of 123% and a diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide of 86% - both were adequate for lobectomy. (ctsnet.org)
  • The severity of neurologic deficit after injury depends upon the area of injury and the extent of the lesion(s). (uspharmacist.com)
  • Effect of the additional noradrenergic neurodegeneration to 6-OHDA-lesioned rats in levodopa-induced dyskinesias and in cognitive disturbances. (springer.com)
  • During this process the size of the lesion and tissue damage increases progressively. (wingsforlife.com)
  • Rats treated with scopolamine showed a reduction in the initial magnitude of the contralateral placing deficit and an accelerated rate of recovery compared with saline-treated control rats. (iospress.com)
  • There is still scope for better and effective ways to restore functioning of nerves. (medindia.net)
  • Combined lesions most commonly involved the ulnar and median nerves. (scribd.com)
  • In general, distal grafting allows the recovery of a single function, which is preferable to an attempt at total anatomic repair. (mendeley.com)
  • Serial MR imaging demonstrated typical lesions with restricted diffusion in the acute stage and total resolution without atrophy or cystic change. (ajnr.org)