Lenses: Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.Contact Lenses: Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)Contact Lenses, Hydrophilic: Soft, supple contact lenses made of plastic polymers which interact readily with water molecules. Many types are available, including continuous and extended-wear versions, which are gas-permeable and easily sterilized.Lenses, Intraocular: Artificial implanted lenses.Lens Cortex, Crystalline: The portion of the crystalline lens surrounding the nucleus and bound anteriorly by the epithelium and posteriorly by the capsule. It contains lens fibers and amorphous, intercellular substance.Lens Capsule, Crystalline: The thin noncellular outer covering of the CRYSTALLINE LENS composed mainly of COLLAGEN TYPE IV and GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS. It is secreted by the embryonic anterior and posterior epithelium. The embryonic posterior epithelium later disappears.Lens DiseasesLens Nucleus, Crystalline: The core of the crystalline lens, surrounded by the cortex.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Crystallins: A heterogeneous family of water-soluble structural proteins found in cells of the vertebrate lens. The presence of these proteins accounts for the transparency of the lens. The family is composed of four major groups, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, and several minor groups, which are classed on the basis of size, charge, immunological properties, and vertebrate source. Alpha, beta, and delta crystallins occur in avian and reptilian lenses, while alpha, beta, and gamma crystallins occur in all other lenses.Contact Lenses, Extended-Wear: Hydrophilic contact lenses worn for an extended period or permanently.Lens Subluxation: Incomplete rupture of the zonule with the displaced lens remaining behind the pupil. In dislocation, or complete rupture, the lens is displaced forward into the anterior chamber or backward into the vitreous body. When congenital, this condition is known as ECTOPIA LENTIS.Contact Lens Solutions: Sterile solutions used to clean and disinfect contact lenses.Lens Implantation, Intraocular: Insertion of an artificial lens to replace the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS after CATARACT EXTRACTION or to supplement the natural lens which is left in place.Presbyopia: The normal decreasing elasticity of the crystalline lens that leads to loss of accommodation.Accommodation, Ocular: The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Refraction, Ocular: Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.Eye ProteinsPosterior Capsule of the Lens: The posterior aspect of the casing that surrounds the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS.beta-Crystallins: A class of crystallins that provides refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Beta-crystallins are similar in structure to GAMMA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both contain Greek key motifs. Beta-crystallins exist as oligomers formed from acidic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN) and basic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN) subunits.Cataract Extraction: The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.Aphakia: Absence of crystalline lens totally or partially from field of vision, from any cause except after cataract extraction. Aphakia is mainly congenital or as result of LENS DISLOCATION AND SUBLUXATION.Eyeglasses: A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.alpha-Crystallins: A subclass of crystallins that provides the majority of refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Alpha-crystallins also act as molecular chaperones that bind to denatured proteins, keep them in solution and thereby maintain the translucency of the lens. The proteins exist as large oligomers that are formed from ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN and ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN subunits.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Lens Plant: A plant genus of the FABACEAE family known for the seeds used as food.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Anterior Capsule of the Lens: The anterior aspect of the casing that surrounds the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS.Myopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.Silicones: A broad family of synthetic organosiloxane polymers containing a repeating silicon-oxygen backbone with organic side groups attached via carbon-silicon bonds. Depending on their structure, they are classified as liquids, gels, and elastomers. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Phacoemulsification: A procedure for removal of the crystalline lens in cataract surgery in which an anterior capsulectomy is performed by means of a needle inserted through a small incision at the temporal limbus, allowing the lens contents to fall through the dilated pupil into the anterior chamber where they are broken up by the use of ultrasound and aspirated out of the eye through the incision. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed & In Focus 1993;1(1):1)delta-Crystallins: A subclass of crystallins found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in BIRDS and REPTILES. They are inactive forms of the enzyme argininosuccinate lyase.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Hyperopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)Refractive Errors: Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Phakic Intraocular Lenses: Lenses, generally made of plastic or silicone, that are implanted into the eye in front of the natural EYE LENS, by the IRIS, to improve VISION, OCULAR. These intraocular lenses are used to supplement the natural lens instead of replacing it.Pseudophakia: Presence of an intraocular lens after cataract extraction.Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Aphakia, Postcataract: Absence of the crystalline lens resulting from cataract extraction.beta-Crystallin B Chain: The basic subunit of beta-crystallins.Silicone Elastomers: Polymers of silicone that are formed by crosslinking and treatment with amorphous silica to increase strength. They have properties similar to vulcanized natural rubber, in that they stretch under tension, retract rapidly, and fully recover to their original dimensions upon release. They are used in the encapsulation of surgical membranes and implants.Iris: The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.Capsulorhexis: The making of a continuous circular tear in the anterior capsule during cataract surgery in order to allow expression or phacoemulsification of the nucleus of the lens. (Dorland, 28th ed)Keratitis: Inflammation of the cornea.Prosthesis Fitting: The fitting and adjusting of artificial parts of the body. (From Stedman's, 26th ed)Corneal Edema: An excessive amount of fluid in the cornea due to damage of the epithelium or endothelium causing decreased visual acuity.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-maf: Maf proto-oncogene protein is the major cellular homolog of the V-MAF ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It was the first of the mammalian MAF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS identified, and it is induced in activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of INTERLEUKIN-4. c-maf is frequently translocated to an immunoglobulin locus in MULTIPLE MYELOMA.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Anterior Eye Segment: The front third of the eyeball that includes the structures between the front surface of the cornea and the front of the VITREOUS BODY.Tears: The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.Corneal Topography: The measurement of curvature and shape of the anterior surface of the cornea using techniques such as keratometry, keratoscopy, photokeratoscopy, profile photography, computer-assisted image processing and videokeratography. This measurement is often applied in the fitting of contact lenses and in diagnosing corneal diseases or corneal changes including keratoconus, which occur after keratotomy and keratoplasty.Astigmatism: Unequal curvature of the refractive surfaces of the eye. Thus a point source of light cannot be brought to a point focus on the retina but is spread over a more or less diffuse area. This results from the radius of curvature in one plane being longer or shorter than the radius at right angles to it. (Dorland, 27th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.alpha-Crystallin B Chain: One of the alpha crystallin subunits. In addition to being expressed in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE), alpha-crystallin B chain has been found in a variety of tissues such as HEART; BRAIN; MUSCLE; and KIDNEY. Accumulation of the protein in the brain is associated with NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES such as CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME and ALEXANDER DISEASE.Microphthalmos: Congenital or developmental anomaly in which the eyeballs are abnormally small.Salamandridae: A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.Connexins: A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.Ciliary Body: A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.beta-Crystallin A Chain: The acidic subunit of beta-crystallins.Biometry: The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.Acanthamoeba Keratitis: Infection of the cornea by an ameboid protozoan which may cause corneal ulceration leading to blindness.Corneal Ulcer: Loss of epithelial tissue from the surface of the cornea due to progressive erosion and necrosis of the tissue; usually caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral infection.Corneal Diseases: Diseases of the cornea.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Aldehyde Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of an aldose to an alditol. It possesses broad specificity for many aldoses. EC 126.96.36.199.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Hydrogel: A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Notophthalmus viridescens: A species of newt in the Salamandridae family in which the larvae transform into terrestrial eft stage and later into an aquatic adult. They occur from Canada to southern United States. Viridescens refers to the greenish color often found in this species.Capsule Opacification: Clouding or loss of transparency of the posterior lens capsule, usually following CATARACT extraction.Acanthamoeba: A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Keratoconus: A noninflammatory, usually bilateral protrusion of the cornea, the apex being displaced downward and nasally. It occurs most commonly in females at about puberty. The cause is unknown but hereditary factors may play a role. The -conus refers to the cone shape of the corneal protrusion. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Disposable Equipment: Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.Eye Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.Polymethyl Methacrylate: Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.Microscopy, Acoustic: A scientific tool based on ULTRASONOGRAPHY and used not only for the observation of microstructure in metalwork but also in living tissue. In biomedical application, the acoustic propagation speed in normal and abnormal tissues can be quantified to distinguish their tissue elasticity and other properties.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Orthokeratologic Procedures: An alternative to REFRACTIVE SURGICAL PROCEDURES. A therapeutic procedure for correcting REFRACTIVE ERRORS. It involves wearing CONTACT LENSES designed to force corrective changes to the curvature of the CORNEA that remain after the lenses are removed. The effect is temporary but is maintained by wearing the therapeutic lenses daily, usually during sleep.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Eye Banks: Centers for storing various parts of the eye for future use.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Methylmethacrylates: The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Interferometry: Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).Optical Processes: Behavior of LIGHT and its interactions with itself and materials.Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)KynurenineIn Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Tupaiidae: The only family of the order SCANDENTIA, variously included in the order Insectivora or in the order Primates, and often in the order Microscelidea, consisting of five genera. They are TUPAIA, Ananthana (Indian tree shrew), Dendrogale (small smooth-tailed tree shrew), Urogale (Mindanao tree shrew), and Ptilocercus (pen-tailed tree shrew). The tree shrews inhabit the forest areas of eastern Asia from India and southwestern China to Borneo and the Philippines.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Maf Transcription Factors: Maf transcription factors are a family of basic-leucine zipper transcription factors that are closely related to V-MAF ONCOGENE PROTEIN. The C-MAF PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN was the first mammalian Maf transcription factor identified, and now the family is known to include a variety of other Maf proteins such as MAFB TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR; MAFF TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR; MAFG TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR; and MAFK TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR.Gap Junctions: Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.Aqueous Humor: The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)Octopodiformes: A superorder in the class CEPHALOPODA, consisting of the orders Octopoda (octopus) with over 200 species and Vampyromorpha with a single species. The latter is a phylogenetic relic but holds the key to the origins of Octopoda.Sensory Deprivation: The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.Pupil: The aperture in the iris through which light passes.Maillard Reaction: One of a group of nonenzymatic reactions in which aldehydes, ketones, or reducing sugars react with amino acids, peptides, or proteins. Food browning reactions, such as those that occur with cooking of meats, and also food deterioration reactions, resulting in decreased nutritional value and color changes, are attributed to this reaction type. The Maillard reaction is studied by scientists in the agriculture, food, nutrition, and carbohydrate chemistry fields.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Emmetropia: The condition of where images are correctly brought to a focus on the retina.Eye Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of the eyes from impact, flying objects, glare, liquids, or injurious radiation.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Fluorophotometry: Measurement of light given off by fluorescein in order to assess the integrity of various ocular barriers. The method is used to investigate the blood-aqueous barrier, blood-retinal barrier, aqueous flow measurements, corneal endothelial permeability, and tear flow dynamics.Radiation Injuries, Experimental: Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Polyhydroxyethyl Methacrylate: A biocompatible, hydrophilic, inert gel that is permeable to tissue fluids. It is used as an embedding medium for microscopy, as a coating for implants and prostheses, for contact lenses, as microspheres in adsorption research, etc.Intermediate Filament Proteins: Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.Eye Injuries, Penetrating: Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.Ophthalmic Solutions: Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Acrylic ResinsVitrectomy: Removal of the whole or part of the vitreous body in treating endophthalmitis, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign bodies, and some types of glaucoma.Sodium Selenite: The disodium salt of selenious acid. It is used therapeutically to supply the trace element selenium and is prepared by the reaction of SELENIUM DIOXIDE with SODIUM HYDROXIDE.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Endophthalmitis: Suppurative inflammation of the tissues of the internal structures of the eye frequently associated with an infection.Iridectomy: Surgical removal of a section of the iris.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Optometry: The professional practice of primary eye and vision care that includes the measurement of visual refractive power and the correction of visual defects with lenses or glasses.Eye Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the eye.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Corneal Opacity: Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.Axial Length, Eye: The distance between the anterior and posterior poles of the eye, measured either by ULTRASONOGRAPHY or by partial coherence interferometry.Sorbitol: A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Keratoplasty, Penetrating: Partial or total replacement of all layers of a central portion of the cornea.Eyelids: Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Laser Therapy: The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.HMGB Proteins: A family of sequence-related proteins similar to HMGB1 PROTEIN that contains specific HMG-BOX DOMAINS.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Fusariosis: OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS with the soil fungus FUSARIUM. Typically the infection is limited to the nail plate (ONYCHOMYCOSIS). The infection can however become systemic especially in an IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST (e.g., NEUTROPENIA) and results in cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions, fever, KERATITIS, and pulmonary infections.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Aberrometry: The use of an aberrometer to measure eye tissue imperfections or abnormalities based on the way light passes through the eye which affects the ability of the eye to focus properly.Papio hamadryas: A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE, which has a well-studied trilevel social structure consisting of troops, bands, and clans.Miotics: Agents causing contraction of the pupil of the eye. Some sources use the term miotics only for the parasympathomimetics but any drug used to induce miosis is included here.Hyphema: Bleeding in the anterior chamber of the eye.Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Galactitol: A naturally occurring product of plants obtained following reduction of GALACTOSE. It appears as a white crystalline powder with a slight sweet taste. It may form in excess in the lens of the eye in GALACTOSEMIAS, a deficiency of GALACTOKINASE.Conjunctiva: The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.Apoferritins: The protein components of ferritins. Apoferritins are shell-like structures containing nanocavities and ferroxidase activities. Apoferritin shells are composed of 24 subunits, heteropolymers in vertebrates and homopolymers in bacteria. In vertebrates, there are two types of subunits, light chain and heavy chain. The heavy chain contains the ferroxidase activity.SOXB1 Transcription Factors: A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.Gonioscopy: Examination of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye with a specialized optical instrument (gonioscope) or a contact prism lens.Retinoscopy: An objective determination of the refractive state of the eye (NEARSIGHTEDNESS; FARSIGHTEDNESS; ASTIGMATISM). By using a RETINOSCOPE, the amount of correction and the power of lens needed can be determined.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Ligaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.Galactosemias: A group of inherited enzyme deficiencies which feature elevations of GALACTOSE in the blood. This condition may be associated with deficiencies of GALACTOKINASE; UDPGLUCOSE-HEXOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYLYLTRANSFERASE; or UDPGLUCOSE 4-EPIMERASE. The classic form is caused by UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase deficiency, and presents in infancy with FAILURE TO THRIVE; VOMITING; and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Affected individuals also may develop MENTAL RETARDATION; JAUNDICE; hepatosplenomegaly; ovarian failure (PRIMARY OVARIAN INSUFFICIENCY); and cataracts. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp61-3)Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Hygiene: The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Tupaia: A genus of tree shrews of the family TUPAIIDAE which consists of about 12 species. One of the most frequently encountered species is T. glis. Members of this genus inhabit rain forests and secondary growth areas in southeast Asia.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Radiation ProtectionVimentin: An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Silicone Oils: Organic siloxanes which are polymerized to the oily stage. The oils have low surface tension and density less than 1. They are used in industrial applications and in the treatment of retinal detachment, complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy.Calpain: Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 188.8.131.52.Photogrammetry: Making measurements by the use of stereoscopic photographs.
The role of optical defocus in regulating refractive development in infant monkeys. (1/242)Early in life, the two eyes of infant primates normally grow in a coordinated manner toward the ideal refractive state. We investigated the extent to which lens-induced changes in the effective focus of the eye affected refractive development in infant rhesus monkeys. The main finding was that spectacle lenses could predictably alter the growth of one or both eyes resulting in appropriate compensating refractive changes in both the hyperopic and myopic directions. Although the effective operating range of the emmetropization process in young monkeys is somewhat limited, the results demonstrate that emmetropization in this higher primate, as in a number of other species, is an active process that is regulated by optical defocus associated with the eye's effective refractive state. (+info)
The growing eye: an autofocus system that works on very poor images. (2/242)It is unknown which retinal image features are analyzed to control axial eye growth and refractive development. On the other hand, identification of these features is fundamental for the understanding of visually acquired refractive errors. Cyclopleged chicks were individually kept in the center of a drum with only one viewing distance possible. Defocusing spectacle lenses were used to stimulate the retina with defined defocus of similar magnitude but different sign. If spatial frequency content and contrast were the only cues analyzed by the retina, all chicks should have become myopic. However, compensatory eye growth was still always in the right direction. The most likely cues for emmetropization, spatial frequency content and image contrast, do therefore not correlate with the elongation of the eye. Rather, the sign of defocus was extracted even from very poor images. (+info)
Long-term changes in retinal contrast sensitivity in chicks from frosted occluders and drugs: relations to myopia? (3/242)Experiments in animal models have shown that the retinal analyzes the image to identify the position of the plane of focus and fine-tunes the growth of the underlying sclera. It is fundamental to the understanding of the development of refractive errors to know which image features are processed. Since the position of the image plane fluctuates continuously with accommodative status and viewing distance, a meaningful control of refractive development can only occur by an averaging procedure with a long time constant. As a candidate for a retinal signal for enhanced eye growth and myopia we propose the level of contrast adaptation which varies with the average amount of defocus. Using a behavioural paradigm, we have found in chickens (1) that contrast adaptation (CA, here referred to as an increase in contrast sensitivity) occurs at low spatial frequencies (0.2 cyc/deg) already after 1.5 h of wearing frosted goggles which cause deprivation myopia, (2) that CA also occurs with negative lenses (-7.4D) and positive lenses (+6.9D) after 1.5 h, at least if accommodation is paralyzed and, (3) that CA occurs at a retinal level or has, at least, a retinal component. Furthermore, we have studied the effects of atropine and reserpine, which both suppress myopia development, on CA. Quisqualate, which causes retinal degeneration but leaves emmetropization functional, was also tested. We found that both atropine and reserpine increase contrast sensitivity to a level where no further CA could be induced by frosted goggles. Quisqualate increased only the variability of refractive development and of contrast sensitivity. Taken together, CA occurring during extended periods of defocus is a possible candidate for a retinal error signal for myopia development. However, the situation is complicated by the fact that there must be a second image processing mode generating a powerful inhibitory growth signal if the image is in front of the retina, even with poor images (Diether, S., & Schaeffel, F. (1999). (+info)
The response to prism deviations in human infants. (4/242)Previous research has suggested that infants are unable to make a corrective eye movement in response to a small base-out prism placed in front of one eye before 14-16 weeks . Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain this early inability, and each of these makes different predictions for the time of onset of a response to a larger prism. The first proposes that infants have a 'degraded sensory capacity' and so require a larger retinal disparity (difference in the position of the image on the retina of each eye) to stimulate disparity detectors . This predicts that infants might respond at an earlier age than previously reported  when tested using a larger prism. The second hypothesis proposes that infants learn to respond to larger retinal disparities through practice with small disparities . According to this theory, using a larger prism will not result in developmentally earlier responses, and may even delay the response. The third hypothesis proposes that the ability to respond to prismatic deviation depends on maturational factors indicated by the onset of stereopsis (the ability to detect depth in an image on the basis of retinal disparity cues only)  , predicting that the size of the prism is irrelevant. To differentiate between these hypotheses, we tested 192 infants ranging from 2 to 52 weeks of age using a larger prism. Results showed that 63% of infants of 5-8 weeks of age produced a corrective eye movement in response to placement of a prism in front of the eye when in the dark. Both the percentage of infants who produced a response, and the speed of the response, increased with age. These results suggest that infants can make corrective eye movements in response to large prismatic deviations before 14-16 weeks of age. This, in combination with other recent results , discounts previous hypotheses. (+info)
Recent developments in clinical photography. (5/242)A system comprising a clinical camera, specialized retractors, and a new occlusal mirror are described to maximize the quality of both intra-oral and extra-oral photography in the multi-user situation. (+info)
Effect of adaptation to telescopic spectacles on the initial human horizontal vestibuloocular reflex. (6/242)Gain of the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) not only varies with target distance and rotational axis, but can be chronically modified in response to prolonged wearing of head-mounted magnifiers. This study examined the effect of adaptation to telescopic spectacles on the variation of the VOR with changes in target distance and yaw rotational axis for head velocity transients having peak accelerations of 2,800 and 1,000 degrees /s(2). Eye and head movements were recorded with search coils in 10 subjects who underwent whole body rotations around vertical axes that were 10 cm anterior to the eyes, centered between the eyes, between the otoliths, or 20 cm posterior to the eyes. Immediately before each rotation, subjects viewed a target 15 or 500 cm distant. Lighting was extinguished immediately before and was restored after completion of each rotation. After initial rotations, subjects wore 1.9x magnification binocular telescopic spectacles during their daily activities for at least 6 h. Test spectacles were removed and measurement rotations were repeated. Of the eight subjects tolerant of adaptation to the telescopes, six demonstrated VOR gain enhancement after adaptation, while gain in two subjects was not increased. For all subjects, the earliest VOR began 7-10 ms after onset of head rotation regardless of axis eccentricity or target distance. Regardless of adaptation, VOR gain for the proximate target exceeded that for the distant target beginning at 20 ms after onset of head rotation. Adaptation increased VOR gain as measured 90-100 ms after head rotation onset by an average of 0.12 +/- 0.02 (SE) for the higher head acceleration and 0.19 +/- 0.02 for the lower head acceleration. After adaptation, four subjects exhibited significant increases in the canal VOR gain only, whereas two subjects exhibited significant increases in both angular and linear VOR gains. The latencies of linear and early angular target distance effects on VOR gain were unaffected by adaptation. The earliest significant change in angular VOR gain in response to adaptation occurred 50 and 68 ms after onset of the 2,800 and 1,000 degrees /s(2) peak head accelerations, respectively. The latency of the adaptive increase in linear VOR gain was approximately 50 ms for the peak head acceleration of 2,800 degrees /s(2), and 100 ms for the peak head acceleration of 1,000 degrees /s(2). Thus VOR gain changes and latency were consistent with modification in the angular VOR in most subjects, and additionally in the linear VOR in a minority of subjects. (+info)
Clinical effect of low vision aids. (7/242)The number of patients with low vision is increasing as life expectancy increases. In addition, the interest and demand for low vision aids are also increasing with improved socioeconomic status and the development of mass media. Therefore, it is imperative to recognize the importance of low vision aids. We reviewed the clinical records of 118 patients who visited our low vision clinic more than twice. According to the data analyzed, optic nerve atrophy, retinal degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration were the most common causes of low vision in these patients. The best corrected visual acuities without low vision aids were less than 0.3, but with the help of low vision aids, vision improved to more than 0.4 in 87% of the patients for near vision, and 56% for distant vision. The patients had complained that they could not read books, see a blackboard, recognize a person at a distance, and had other problems because of low vision. However, with the use of low vision aids their satisfaction with their vision rose to 70%. Hand magnifiers, high-powered spectacle lenses, and stand magnifiers were the low vision aids commonly used by people for near vision, while the Galilean telescope and Keplerian telescope were the most popular devices used for distant vision. In conclusion, low vision aids are very helpful devices to patients with low vision. (+info)
Form-deprivation myopia in monkeys is a graded phenomenon. (8/242)To shed light on the potential role of the phenomenon of form-deprivation myopia in normal refractive development, we investigated the degree of image degradation required to produce axial myopia in rhesus monkeys. Starting at about 3 weeks of age, diffuser spectacle lenses were employed to degrade the retinal image in one eye of 13 infant monkeys. The diffusers were worn continuously for periods ranging between 11 and 19 weeks. The effects of three different strengths of optical diffusers, which produced reductions in image contrast that ranged from about 0.5 to nearly 3 log units, were assessed by retinoscopy and A-scan ultrasonography. Control data were obtained from ten normal infants and three infants reared with clear, zero-powered lenses over both eyes. Eleven of the 13 treated infants developed form-deprivation myopia. Qualitatively similar results were obtained for the three diffuser groups, however, the degree of axial myopia varied directly with the degree of image degradation. Thus, form-deprivation myopia in monkeys is a graded phenomenon and can be triggered by a modest degree of chronic image degradation. (+info)
OSA | Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography angiography for morphometric analysis of choriocapillaris [Invited]
Histological studies have shown that morphometric changes at the microscopic level of choriocapillaris (CC) occur with aging and disease onset, and therefore may be sensitive biomarkers of outer retinal health. However, visualizing CC at this level in the living human eye is challenging because its microvascular is tightly interconnected and weakly reflecting. In this study, we address these challenges by developing and validating a method based on adaptive optics optical coherence tomography with angiography (AO-OCTA) that provides the necessary 3D resolution and image contrast to visualize and quantify these microscopic details. The complex network of anastomotic CC capillaries was successfully imaged in nine healthy subjects (26 to 68 years of age) and at seven retinal eccentricities across the macula. Using these images, four fundamental morphometric parameters of CC were characterized: retinal pigment epithelium-to-CC depth separation (17.5 ± 2.1 µm), capillary diameter (17.4 ± 2.3 µm), ...
Brevet US20050225501 - Self-aligned microlens array for transmissive MEMS image arrray - Google Brevets
A MEMS optical device includes a MEMS image array and a self-aligned microlens array. The MEMS image array includes a number of individual channels. The microlens array includes individual microlenses, each of which is associated with one of the channels of the MEMS image array. The microlens array is formed directly on the MEMS image array using semiconductor fabrication techniques. Each microlens is automatically aligned with its respective channel within the image array. The need for precise and expensive manual alignment of the MEMS image array and the microlens arrays is avoided. Improvements in the fill factor and the transmission efficiency of the optical device are realized. Further, by tailoring the refractive index of the lens relative to both the substrate and the ambient air, the total internal reflection phenomenon can be exploited, for additional improvement in the transmission efficiency of the optical device.
OSA | Design and fabrication of a freeform microlens array for a compact large-field-of-view compound-eye camera
with a thickness of only 1.6 mm. The freeform microlens array resides on a flat substrate, and thus can be directly mounted to a commercial 2D image sensor. Freeform surfaces were used to design the microlens profiles, thus allowing the microlenses to steer and focus incident rays simultaneously. The profiles of the freeform microlenses were represented using extended polynomials, the coefficients of which were optimized using ZEMAX. To reduce crosstalk among neighboring channels, a micro aperture array was machined using high-speed micromilling. The molded microlens array was assembled with the micro aperture array, an adjustable fixture, and a board-level image sensor to form a compact compound-eye camera system. The imaging tests using the compound-eye camera showed that the unique freeform microlens array was capable of forming proper images, as suggested by design. The measured field of view of ...
OSA | Phosphorescence lifetime based oxygen micro-sensing using a digital micromirror device
Abstract. A digital light modulation microscope (DLMM) that utilizes a digital micromirror device (DMD) on an epifluorescence microscope has been developed to modulate excitation light in spatial and temporal domains for phosphorescence lifetime detection. Local O2 concentration can be inferred through the detected lifetime around an O2-quenching phosphorescent porphyrin microsensor. Combined with microsensor arrays, the DLMM can sequentially address light to each microsensor element to construct a discrete lifetime image or O2 distribution. In contrast to conventional phosphorescence lifetime imaging, the new method eliminates the need for a pulsed light source and a time-gated camera. To demonstrate O2 sensing with lab-on-a-chip devices, an array of 150-µm-diameter micro-wells coated with phosphorescent porphyrin were observed. The locations of the sensor elements were automatically identified though image analysis. The goal of this platform is to measure the O2 consumption of individual ...
Patent US20070035847 - Method and apparatus providing graded-index microlenses - Google Patents
Microlenses are fabricated with a refractive-index gradient. The refractive-index gradient is produced in a microlens material such that the refractive index is relatively higher in the material nearest the substrate, and becomes progressively lower as the layer gets thicker. After formation of the layer with the refractive-index gradient, material is etched from the layer through a resist to form microlenses. The index of refraction can be adjusted in the microlens material by controlling oxygen and nitrogen content of the microlens materials during deposition. High-oxide material has a lower index of refraction. High-oxide material also exhibits a faster etch-rate. The etching forms the material into a lens shape. After removal of the resist, the microlenses have a lower relative refractive index at their apex, where the index of refraction preferably approaches that of the ambient surroundings. Consequently, light loss by reflection at the ambient/microlens interface is reduced.
Unique adaptive optics OCT reflection in cone inner segments of subjects with retinitis pigmentosa | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Purpose : Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most common form of inherited irreversible visual loss worldwide. The biological mechanisms that cause cones to die-the most debilitating phase-remain unknown. To better describe photoreceptor loss, we used adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) to characterize a subset of cones that unexpectedly present reflections from their inner segment. Methods : We used the Indiana AO-OCT system at 500 KHz A-scan rate and clinical OCT (Spectralis, Heidelberg) to image three subjects: two with early and one with late stage arRP. 450x450 μm2 AO-OCT volume videos were acquired along the temporal horizontal meridian (early stage: 2°-12° and 3°-12° retinal eccentricity; late stage: 0.5°-4.5° retinal eccentricity), which sampled the transition zone as well as the healthy and severely diseased areas that straddled it. Volumes were registered in 3D to remove eye motion artifacts, projected separately along the cone inner and outer segments (IS, OS), ...
Prediction Model of Microlens Fabricated by Modified LIGA Process
In this paper, we present a prediction model for microlens formation by means of a deep X-ray lithography followed by a thermal treatment of a PMMA (Polymethyl-methacrylate) sheet. According to this modeling, X-ray irradiation causes the decrease of molecular weight of PMMA, which in turn decreases the glass transition temperature and consequently causes a net volume increase during the thermal cycle resulting in a swollen microlens. Both a simple analysis and a Finite Element Analysis based on this model are found to be able to predict the variation pattern of the maximum heights of microlens which depends on the thermal treatment. The prediction model could be applied to optimization of microlens fabrication process.
The fabrication and characterization of plastic microlens arrays by deep lithography with protons | (2004) | Ottevaere | ...
In this paper we present the state-of-the-art of Deep Lithography with Protons (DLP), a technology that we have adopted and optimized to rapidly prototype three-dimensional micro-optical components and high-aspect ratio micro-mechanical structures in Poly(Methyl MethAcrylate). In particular we focus on the fabrication of individual plastic refractive microlenses featuring a wide range of numerical apertures, diameters and pitches and their 2D arrays. We give a detailed description of the microlens fabrication technique and the calibration procedure that goes along with it. We highlight the quantitative geometrical and optical characteristics of these DLP microlenses and we demonstrate the reproducibility of their fabrication process. We also illustrate the prototyping flexibility of DLP by making arrays featuring microlenses with different sags, pitches and diameters ...
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36th week of 2010 patent applcation highlights part 7
LIGHT EMITTING DEVICE WITH MICROLENS ARRAY - A method of manufacturing a micro-lens array and light-emitting device, comprising forming a first structured polymer film with close packed surface cavities having a mean diameter of less than 20 micrometers and a relatively lower surface energy surface, forming a transparent second structured film with an array of microlenses formed thereon corresponding to the cavities of the first structured film, wherein the second structured film comprises a relatively high surface energy material and has a refractive index greater than 1.45, and wherein the microlenses are randomly distributed, separating the second structured film with the micro-lens array from the first structured polymer film, and attaching the second structured film to a transparent substrate or cover of a light-emitting device through which light is emitted. Use of microlens arrays formed from relatively high surface energy materials enables matching refractive index of microlens array to ...
Extended depth-of-field microscopy with a high-speed deformable mirror | (2017) | Shain | Publications | Spie
Wide-field fluorescence microscopy is generally limited to either small volumes or low temporal resolution. We present a microscope add-on that provides fast, light-efficient extended depth-of-field (EDOF) using a deformable mirror of update rate 20kHz. Out-of-focus contributions in the raw EDOF images are suppressed with a deconvolution algorithm derived directly from the microscope 3D optical transfer function. Demonstrations of the benefits of EDOF microscopy are shown with GCaMP-labeled mouse brain tissue ...
Deformable Mirrors | Edmund Optics Inc. | New Products | Jul 2010 | Photonics Spectra
Micromachines | Free Full-Text | Liquid Gradient Refractive Index Microlens for Dynamically Adjusting the Beam Focusing | HTML
An in-plane liquid gradient index (L-GRIN) microlens is designed for dynamically adjusting the beam focusing. The ethylene glycol solution (core liquid) withde-ionized (DI) water (cladding liquid) is co-injected into the lens chamber to form a gradient refractive index profile. The influences of the diffusion coefficient, mass fraction of ethylene glycol and flow rate of liquids on the refractive index profile of L-GRIN microlens are analyzed, and the finite element method and ray tracing method are used to simulate the convection-diffusion process and beam focusing process, which is helpful for the prediction of focusing effects and manipulation of the device. It is found that not only the focal length but the focal spot of the output beam can be adjusted by the diffusion coefficient, mass fraction and flow rate of liquids. The focal length of the microlens varies from 942 to 11 μm when the mass fraction of the ethylene glycol solution varies from 0.05 to 0.4, and the focal length changes from 127.1
Digital micromirror device - Wikipedia
The mirrors themselves are made out of aluminum and are around 16 micrometers across. Each one is mounted on a yoke which in turn is connected to two support posts by compliant torsion hinges. In this type of hinge, the axle is fixed at both ends and twists in the middle. Because of the small scale, hinge fatigue is not a problem  and tests have shown that even 1 trillion (1012) operations do not cause noticeable damage. Tests have also shown that the hinges cannot be damaged by normal shock and vibration, since it is absorbed by the DMD superstructure. Two pairs of electrodes control the position of the mirror by electrostatic attraction. Each pair has one electrode on each side of the hinge, with one of the pairs positioned to act on the yoke and the other acting directly on the mirror. The majority of the time, equal bias charges are applied to both sides simultaneously. Instead of flipping to a central position as one might expect, this actually holds the mirror in its current position. ...
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Benefit of Adaptive Optics Aberration Correction at Preferred Retinal Locus
This thesis is about our peripheral vision. Peripheral vision is poor compared to central vision, due to both neural and optical factors. The optical factors include astigmatism, defocus and higher order aberrations consisting mainly of coma. Neurally, the density of ganglion cells decreases towards the periphery, which limits the sampling density. The questions that this thesis attempts to answer are how much and under which circumstances correction of optical errors can improve peripheral vision. For this, an adaptive optics system has been constructed with a wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror working in closed loop to perform real-time correction of optical errors. To investigate vision, psychophysical routines utilizing Bayesian methods have been evaluated and modified for peripheral vision to handle the presence of aliasing, fixation instability and rapid fatigue.. We found that correcting both refractive errors and higher order aberrations improved peripheral low-contrast resolution ...
Numerical simulation in adaptive optics<...
TY - GEN. T1 - Numerical simulation in adaptive optics. AU - Kanev, Feodor Yu. AU - Lukin, Vladimir V.. AU - Makenova, Nailya Altykhanovna. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. N2 - A numerical model of a typical adaptive optics system is described in the report. The developed computer application corresponding to the model includes all the main elements of a real system, namely, computer codes simulating radiation propagation in a turbulent atmosphere with thermal blooming and codes simulating the elements of adaptive optics system (a model of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, two algorithms of dislocation localization, and a model of adaptive mirror with continuous surface). In the report we include solutions to the some of adaptive optics problems obtained with the model: realization of amplitude-phase control in two-mirror adaptive system, the method to improve the stability of correction for thermal blooming, evaluation of a Shack-Hartmann sensor performance, and some others. These results demonstrate ...
Patent US5247180 - Stereolithographic apparatus and method of use - Google Patents
A stereolithographic apparatus is disclosed comprising a vat, a working surface in the vat, an elevating mechanism for controlling the level of liquid within the vat relative to the working surface, an illumination source for emitting radiation, and an area array deformable mirror device. The illumination source emits radiation which is operable to harden a stereolithographic liquid, while the deformable mirror device is operable to reflect the incident radiation onto the surface of the liquid. The deformable mirror device can harden an entire lamina of liquid in one brief exposure interval increasing throughout without sacrificing resolution.
Direct writing of cylindrical microlenses on polymer substrates - IEEE Conference Publication
Optimization of compression molding of stand-alone microlenses: Simulation and experimental results - Mirkhalaf - 2010 -...
Hot compression molding is a promising method to fabricate polymer stand-alone microlenses. A reliable theoretical as well as statistical analysis is required for the optimization of the process to minimize the residual stresses and to predict the amount of springback to achieve a better replication of the mold profile. This article in this context focuses on the finite element simulation (FES), optimization as well as experimental validation of hot compression molding of polymer stand-alone microlenses. Three steps such as molding, cooling, and demolding, under different molding parameters, were analyzed using ABAQUS/standard solver and the results were compared with experimental results. Compression test and compression relaxation test have been conducted at different temperatures and strain rates to characterize the rheological behavior of material. Two material models, linear viscoelastic and hyperelastic-viscoelastic models, were developed and used for compression test simulations. ...
Patent US5208702 - Objective lens system for endoscopes - Google Patents
An objective lens system for endoscopes comprising, in the order from the object side, a first lens component having a negative refractive power, a second lens component having a positive refractive power, an aperture stop arranged right after the second lens component, and a rear lens unit comprising a third lens component designed as a cemented doublet consisting of a lens element having a positive refractive power and a lens element having a negative refractive power. Said objective lens system for endoscopes has a wide field angle, a compact design, a small number of lens elements and favorably corrected aberrations.
Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 - Wikipedia
The Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) is a camera formerly installed on the Hubble Space Telescope. The camera was built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and is roughly the size of a baby grand piano. It was installed by servicing mission 1 (STS-61) in 1993, replacing the telescopes original Wide Field and Planetary Camera (WF/PC). WFPC2 was used to image the Hubble Deep Field in 1995, the Hourglass Nebula and Egg Nebula in 1996, and the Hubble Deep Field South in 1998. During STS-125, WFPC2 was removed and replaced with the Wide Field Camera 3 as part of the missions first spacewalk on May 14, 2009. After returning to Earth, the camera was displayed briefly at the National Air and Space Museum and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory before returning to its final home at the Smithsonians National Air and Space Museum. WFPC2 was built by NASAs Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which also built the predecessor WF/PC camera launched with Hubble in 1990. WFPC2 contains internal corrective optics to ...
US7113342B2 - Composite structure for light diffusion - Google Patents
The present invention disclose a composite structure for light diffusion, including at least one carrier media layer and a microlens system comprising a plurality of microlenses thereon. A transparent material for enlarging the shape is coated on each microlens to cover the gaps between the microlens. Partial surface of the transparent material can be coated a light absorbing layer for glare reduction. Besides, the microlens can be or asymmetric or arranged in random, non-periodic array for interference reduction.
Patente US20040218293 - Packaged micromirror array for a projection display - Google Patentes
In order to minimize light diffraction along the direction of switching and more particularly light diffraction into the acceptance cone of the collection optics, in the present invention, micromirrors are provided which are not rectangular. Also, in order to minimize the cost of the illumination optics and the size of the display unit of the present invention, the light source is placed orthogonal to the rows (or columns) of the array, and/or the light source is placed orthogonal to a side of the frame defining the active area of the array. The incident light beam, though orthogonal to the sides of the active area, is not however, orthogonal to any substantial portion of sides of the individual micromirrors in the array. Orthogonal sides cause incident light to diffract along the direction of micromirror switching, and result in light leakage into the on state even if the micromirror is in the off state. This light diffraction decreases the contrast ratio of the micromirror. The micromirrors of
Localized plasmonic structured illumination microscopy with an optically trapped microlens - Nanoscale (RSC Publishing)
Localized plasmonic structured illumination microscopy (LPSIM) is a recently developed super resolution technique that demonstrates immense potential via arrays of localized plasmonic antennas. Microlens microscopy represents another distinct approach for improving resolution by introducing a spherical lens
The Gemini Observatory - Preprint #69
We describe the purpose and sample results of a wave optics propagation simulation developed to study multi-conjugate adaptive optics for 4-10 m class telescopes. This code was developed to assess the impact of diffraction effects and a variety of implementation error sources upon the performance of the Gemini-South MCAO system. These effects include: Hartmann sensing with extended and elongated laser guide stars, optical propagation effects through the optics and atmosphere, laser guide star projection through the atmosphere, deformable mirror and wave front sensor misregistration, and calibration for non-common path errors. The code may be run in either a wave optics or geometric propagation mode to allow the code to be anchored against linear analytical models and to explicitly evaluate the impact of diffraction effects. The code is written in MATLAB, and complete simulations of the Gemini-South MCAO design (including 3 deformable mirrors with 769 actuators, 5 LGS WFS with 1020 subapertures, ...
Deformable mirror corrects errors
Scientists are working on ways of making the mirrors more temperature-resistant and getting rid of the deformation. However, this difficult undertaking only works up to a point. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering IOF in Jena are pursuing a completely different approach. "Weve developed a mirror that doesnt prevent deformation by the laser, but corrects it," explains Dr. Claudia Reinlein, from Fraunhofer IOF. "By deliberately heating up the mirror to a precisely controlled level, we balance out the unwanted deformation by the laser.". Working with colleagues from Fraunhofer IKTS and Ilmenau University of Technology, the scientist designed a ceramic mirror with a copper layer on the front and built-in temperature sensors and filaments. When a laser beam heats up the mirror, the sensors detect the change. Software calculates how strongly the mirror is deforming from the heat and sends a corresponding current of electrical power through the ...
Eye Doctors for Vision Improvement and Myopia Reduction
The minus lens is merely an aid to vision, i.e., compensation by external means. In the majority of cases, naked-eye vision gets worse with the traditional minus lens correction. . . . At times, the best that I can do is to emphasize that the use of (minus lens) glasses be restricted to chalk board, and always must be removed after class. . . . The earlier age you begin wearing the minus lens, the faster vision deteriorates. The minus lens can make vision worse all by itself! Many scientists, engineers and health workers have formed this opinion - that the minus lens is definitely harmful to young kids long-term vision. . . . . My goal is to look to the future and begin preventive methods which can be effective for the child who is on the threshold of myopia. Today, I make it clear that my mission and task is to try my best to discuss the alternate opinion on the therapeutic use of the plus lens - instead of the compensatory use of minus lens. . . . I have supported several hundred children ...
US20080125510A1 - Surface buckling method and articles formed thereby - Google Patents
A method for generating spontaneously aligned surface wrinkles utilizes control of local moduli-mismatch and osmotic pressure. The method includes modifying the surface of an elastomeric layer to form a superlayer that is stiffer and/or less absorbent than the elastomeric layer. The elastomeric layer is then swollen with a polymerizable monomer, which causes buckling of the superlayer. The monomer is then polymerized, dimensionally stabilizing the surface buckling. The budded surfaces generated by the method are useful in a wide variety of end-use applications, including microlenses, microlens arrays, compound microlenses, diffraction gratings, photonic crystals, smart adhesives, mechanical strain sensors, microfluidic devices, and cell culture surfaces.
Two Color Dynamic Scene Generator | SBIR.gov
OPTRA proposes the development of a two-color IR source simulator based on fused projected images of two digital micromirror devices (DMDs), one for each spectral band. The system employs a broadband IR (thermal) source whose energy is spectrally filtered via a dichroic beamsplitter and bandpass filters prior to being imaged onto each DMD. The "on" reflected image from each DMD is then recombined by the dichroic beamsplitter, and the fused beam is expanded by a telescope and transmitted towards the unit under test. The relative intensities of the two bands are controlled through the duty cycle of "on" versus "off" images reflected by each DMD. Because the IR source temperature is constant, response is considerably faster than resistive based simulators; similarly, thermal management issues are significantly less complex than with resistive arrays whose time constant depends on thermal management. Simplified thermal management may result in a lower power, more fieldable system. This approach ...
Shedding Light on Neural Systems - The Harvard Undergraduate Research Journal
Obviously, the field has come a long way since Cricks initial speculation. In fact, last year, another major development occurred right here on the Harvard campus. In January 2011, the Samuel Lab of the Center for Brain Science published their work on CoLBeRT, an optogenetic system that allows them to "Control Locomotion and Behavior in Real Time" (4). CoLBeRT uniquely allows neural manipulation in freely moving, unanesthetized organisms like C. elegans. Though the 302 neurons of C. elegans have been extensively mapped, the Samuel Lab wanted to examine patterns of neural activity underlying common behaviors exhibited by these worms.. To target individual motor neurons, they used a digital micromirror device (DMD). Laser lights of the appropriate frequency are reflected off a series of mirrors onto the DMD, which focuses the light with high spatial specificity on the worm (genetically engineered to express ChR2 and NpHR). The lasers specificity is so precise that the system can illuminate the ...
Publikationen | Max-Planck-Institut für biophysikalische Chemie
De Beule, P.; de Vries, A. H. B.; Arndt-Jovin, D. J.; Jovin, T. M.: Generation-3 programmable array microscope (PAM) with digital micro-mirror device (DMD). In: SPIE proceedings, Bd. 7932, 7932OG (Hg. Douglass, M. R.; Oden, P. I.). Conference on Emerging Digital Micromirror Device Based Systems and Applications III, San Francisco, Calif., 26. Januar 2011. SPIE, Bellingham, Wash. (2011 ...
DP's Expansion is Underway!
2011 marks DPIs 15th anniversary, and what a monumental milestone it is. With so many years of pragmatic growth and a sound corporate structure, the time is right for DPI to extend our product offerings and bring our precision displays to select new markets.. -- Digital Projection International (DPI) was founded with one key objective; to innovate the projection technology of the future in order to advance the capabilities of large-screen displays. Since our company first took on this challenge, we have worked closely with our customers to assure our products create the most precise imagery possible within every application. From our strategic partnership with Texas Instruments which led to refinement of the Digital Micromirror Device™ for projection applications and the worlds first 3-chip DLP projector, to receiving the only Emmy Awards ever awarded to a projector manufacturer, weve seen many successes. DPIs progress over the years is proof that equal parts hard work and product ...
DLP660TE DLP® 0.66 4K UHD DMD | TI.com
OSA | Laser tomography adaptive optics: a performance study
We present an analytical derivation of the on-axis performance of adaptive optics systems using a given number of guide stars of arbitrary altitude, distributed at arbitrary angular positions in the sky. The expressions of the residual error are given for cases of both continuous and discrete turbulent atmospheric profiles. Assuming Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing with circular apertures, we demonstrate that the error is formally described by integrals of products of three Bessel functions. We compare the performance of adaptive optics correction when using natural, sodium, or Rayleigh laser guide stars. For small diameter class telescopes ( ...
Prof. Chang Kwon Hwangbo Profile
The Shack-Hartmann or Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensors are particular forms of the Hartmann sensor and are the most commonly used in adaptive optics. The traditional Hartmann screen in the pupil is replaced by an array of small lenslets at a conjugate to an image of the pupil or deformable mirror. Each lenslet forms an independent image of the incoming wavefront. Shifts in the positions of these images can be shown by simple geometric optics to be proportional to the mean wavefront gradient over each lenslet. The measurement range or dynamic range of a conventional Shack-Hartmann sensor is normally limited by the sub-aperture size of the detector plane, in which each spot should remain. In order to overcome this restriction, several methods, such as modified unwrapped algorithm or a spatial-light modulator as a shutter, have been proposed. We first simulated the image forming of a conventional Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for highly aberrated spherical aberrations through computer simulation, ...
Sep 06, 2011 Able to meet need for working distances from 0.3-30 mm, apochromatic objectives are customized with high numerical apertures and long working distances for use with various sample sizes and applications. Lenses are also tailored to function at wavelengths from visible light at 390-750 nm to near infrared (NIR) at 700-1,400 nm. Depending on type of studies being done, 2-photon microscopy systems... Read More. ...
What is an ocular lens on a microscope | www.QACollections.com
The ocular lens is one of two lenses in the optical train of a microscope, the other being the objective lens. Located in the eyepiece, the ocular lens is the nearest lens to the observer's eye providing additional magnification and directing the image into the observer's eye.Total MagnificationThe total magnification of a microscope is the product of the magnification of the ocular lens and the objective lens. For example, a 10x ocular lens and a 40x objective lens produce a total magnification of 400x.Monocular vs. Binocular MicroscopesMonocular microscopes have one ocular lens, while binocular microscopes have two ocular lenses--one for...
Webinar: Laser beam profiling and adaptive optics solutions for laser facilities and manufacturers | EU Time by Phasics
In this third webinar of the series we will focus on laser qualification and control. We will develop and demo in live how to perform a complete and single shot qualification of any laser systems. Once qualified we will demo the use of a deformable mirror and an adaptive optics loop software to control and correct the laser beam wavefront.
Optical diffraction tomography using a digital micromirror device for stable measurement of 4-D refractive index tomography of...
Ultrahigh-speed ultrahigh-resolution adaptive optics: Optical coherence tomography system for in-vivo small animal retinal...
TY - GEN. T1 - Ultrahigh-speed ultrahigh-resolution adaptive optics. T2 - Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XVII. AU - Jian, Yifan. AU - Xu, Jing. AU - Zawadzki, Robert. AU - Sarunic, Marinko V.. PY - 2013/5/22. Y1 - 2013/5/22. N2 - Small animal models of human retinal diseases are a critical component of vision research. In this report, we present an ultrahigh-resolution ultrahigh-speed adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) system for small animal retinal imaging (mouse, fish, etc.). We adapted our imaging system to different types of small animals in accordance with the optical properties of their eyes. Results of AO-OCT images of small animal retinas acquired with AO correction are presented. Cellular structures including nerve fiber bundles, capillary networks and detailed double-cone photoreceptors are visualized.. AB - Small animal models of human retinal diseases are a critical component of vision research. In this report, we ...
Sensors | Free Full-Text | Manufacture of Micromirror Arrays Using a CMOS-MEMS Technique
In this study we used the commercial 0.35 µm CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) process and simple maskless post-processing to fabricate an array of micromirrors exhibiting high natural frequency. The micromirrors were manufactured from aluminum; the sacrificial layer was silicon dioxide. Because we fabricated the micromirror arrays using the standard CMOS process, they have the potential to be integrated with circuitry on a chip. For post-processing we used an etchant to remove the sacrificial layer and thereby suspend the micromirrors. The micromirror array contained a circular membrane and four fixed beams set symmetrically around and below the circular mirror; these four fan-shaped electrodes controlled the tilting of the micromirror. A MEMS (microelectromechanical system) motion analysis system and a confocal 3D-surface topography were used to characterize the properties and configuration of the micromirror array. Each micromirror could be rotated in four independent directions.
Presbia Submits Investigational Device Exemption for the Presbia Flexivue Microlens
IRVINE, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Nov 9, 2012--Presbia, a medical device company and leader in near vision restoration, announced today that it has received a letter from the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) indicating that it is being actively considered for an Investigational Device Exemption (IDE, G120225) for its revolutionary Presbia Flexivue Microlens, an implantable corneal inlay solution for presbyopia, the age-related loss of near vision.. Presbia also announced that Dr. Robert Maloney, Clinical Professor of Ophthalmology at University of California, Los Angeles and Director of the Maloney Vision Institute in Los Angeles, California, will serve as Medical Monitor for the duration of the Presbia Flexivue Microlens U.S. IDE study, which is a required part of the medical device approval process.. "Submission of this IDE is a significant milestone for the Presbia Flexivue Microlens," said Zohar Loshitzer, Chief Executive Officer of Presbia. "In addition, we are excited that Dr. Maloney ...
Rapid, portable and cost-effective yeast cell viability and concentration analysis using lensfree on-chip microscopy and...
There is a large number of methods that can be used for quantifying the viability of cells. One of the established methods of determining cell viability is exclusion staining. In this method, dead cells are stained, and after counting the number of stained and unstained cells, a number between 0% and 100% is used to indicate the cell viability of the sample.34-36 There are multiple exclusion stains used in industry to perform yeast viability testing.37-39 One commonly used stain is methylene blue,40,41 which is inexpensive, can be stored at room temperature, and has a relatively low toxicity to humans.42 However, conventional methylene blue exclusion testing methods suffer from (1) false positive results at longer exposure times,39 and (2) operator subjectivity, which is an important disadvantage compared to fluorescence-based staining methods (e.g., using propidium iodide).43,44 Our computational platform does not suffer from these reported disadvantages of methylene blue because (1) it ...
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Despite recent advances, the tissue clearing technologies have a fundamental limitation: the working distance of optical microscopy. Without physical sectioning, an objective lens with high numerical aperture (≥1.2) for resolving submicron-resolution details does not have enough working distance (≥0.28 mm) to visualize cellular structures that are more than several millimeters deep. This limitation can be partially addressed by shrinkage-mediated imaging, which reduces the tissue volume after clearing (Pan et al., 2016). However, serial sectioning is still required for 3D imaging and reconstruction of large tissues.. Serial sectioning has been used with transmission EM to reconstruct the whole-body connectome of Caenorhabditis elegans (White et al., 1986; Xu et al., 2013) and larval Drosophila (Ohyama et al., 2015) as well as the partial optic medulla connectome in Drosophila (Takemura et al., 2013). However, the use of transmission EM in connectome reconstruction is limited by the ...
Effect of Adaptive-Optics-Corrected Ocular Aberrations on Visual Acuity as a Function of Luminance and Polarity | IOVS | ARVO...
Purpose: : To investigate the effect of correcting ocular aberrations on visual acuity (VA), both for white-on-black (WoB) and black-on-white (BoW) letters at various luminances. To assess the relative contribution of optical and neural factors to the visual acuity measured in those conditions. Methods: : We measured VA with natural aberrations and under static aberration correction with adaptive optics (AO). The custom-made instrument included a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor, a magnetic deformable mirror with 52 actuators (MIRAO, Imagine Eyes), a motorized Badal system, a pupil monitoring CCD, and a high brightness minidisplay. VA was measured using a four alternative choice procedure with tumbling Snellen E letters (Quest algorithm with 50 trials presented during 0.5 s, programmed in Psychotoolbox). VA was measured as a function of luminance (0.8, 1.6, 2.5, 5, 16, 25 and 50 cd/m2), starting with the dimmest test, and allowing for adaptation. Three conditions were measured: WoB letters under ...
Viral plaque analysis on a wide field-of-view, time-lapse, on-chip imaging platform - CaltechAUTHORS
The observation of viral plaques is the standard method for determining the viral titer and understanding the behaviors of viruses. Here, we report the application of a wide field-of-view (FOV), time-lapse, on-chip imaging platform, termed the ePetri, for plaque analysis of murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1). The ePetri offers the ability to dynamically track plaques at the individual cell death event level over a wide FOV of 6 mm × 4 mm. As demonstration, we captured high-resolution time-lapse images of MNV-1-infected cells at 30 min intervals. We implemented a customized image-processing program containing a density-based clustering algorithm to analyze the spatial-temporal distribution of cell death events to identify plaques at their earliest stages. By using the results in a viral titer count format, we showed that our approach gives results that are comparable to conventional plaque assays. We further showed that the extra information collected by the ePetri can be used to monitor the dynamics of ...
2003.05293] Real time computer generation of three-dimensional point cloud holograms through GPU implementation of compressed...
Abstract: Phase-only spatial light modulators can be employed to structure laser light in complex three dimensional focusing patterns, with a variety of applications. While spatial light modulators have typical refresh frequencies of tens of Hz, the computation time of three dimensional holograms ranges between a few seconds and a few minutes, therefore limiting the use of the maximum refresh rate of spatial light modulators to either pre-calculated sequences of high quality holograms, or low quality holograms only for real time update. Here, we propose the implementation of a recently developed compressed sensing Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm on a consumer graphical processor allowing the generation of high quality holograms at video rate ...
Microscope World Blog: Biological vs. Metallurgical Microscope Objectives
The objectives for these two categories are distinct and are marked on the barrel of the objective. The objective shown below is for reflected light. The BD indicates that this microscope objectives is intended for brightfield / darkfield illumination, a standard technique in reflected light microscopy. (BD reflected light objectives also usually have a larger thread mount and barrel to accommodate the additional light path. These lenses will not fit the standard nosepiece). EPI indicates that this microscope objective is used for epi-illumination. Immediately after the infinity symbol there is "/0" - this means the objective is intended to be used without a cover slip. This is also the main difference in the design of reflected light microscope objectives ...
OBJECTIVE LENSES | Janos Technology LLC | New Products | Nov 2005 | Photonics Spectra
This bi-weekly seminar aims at bringing together several communities of adaptive optics users and developers across UC campuses to foster rich exchanges of expertise and experience, continuing the tradition that has grown during the existence of the NSF-funded Center for Adaptive Optics. Talks are intended for mixed audiences from the astronomy, vision science and instrument development communities, providing an up-to-date view of what current adaptive optics systems do and how they will improve in upcoming years ...
4 MP Deep Cooled CCD Camera with Wide Field of View SPOT Xplorer Slider
Infrared (IR) therapy stimulates the body's natural healing mechanisms - Doctors eBook
New findings : NASA was one in all the primary to acknowledge Red light-weight as being essential to human survival. Red light-weight triggers a chemical change that causes the cells in our body to regenerate. voyage includes red light-weight. In 1998 a noble prize was awarded for providing proof that red light-weight was essential for human survival. the explanation we have an inclination to use junction rectifier lightweight is as a result of junction rectifier lightweight is delivered in AN passing single wave length thats crucial to obtaining the right cell chemical change. Current clinical study completed solar calendar month twelve, 2019 by state capital University school exposing that the standard "go to" declare knee or back pain could also be a DANGEROUS steroid shot that the shots cause plenty of injury and dont facilitate to heal or repair the injury and provide of the pain. The shots exclusively block the bodies "warning system PAIN" thus any injury will occur. victimization Red ...
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ESCRS Official Website | European Society of Cataract & Refractive Surgeons
LCA was obtained from psychophysical and wavefront sensing measurements of best-focus at 8 different wavelengths on 18 eyes (9 subjects) bilaterally implanted with hydrophobic Podeye IOLs and hydrophobic Poday IOLs (by PhysIOL) in each eye. Measurements were performed using psychophysical (480-700 nm) and wavefront sensing (480-950 nm) methods in a custom-developed Adaptive Optics system. Chromatic difference of focus curves were obtained by measuring best-focus at each wavelength. Psychophysical best-focus was manually searched by the subject while viewing a target. Objective best focus was obtained from the defocus Zernike terms. LCA was obtained from the polynomial fitting of those curves ...
... mounted on a rifle.. Telescopic Sight - An optical sight, offering some magnification, often variable, with some kind of adjustable aiming grid inside (a reticle), which when mounted on a firearm, usually a rifle, makes sighting easier. Using iron sights, as one ages, presbyopia (the deterioration of nearfield focusing ability) makes it difficult to focus simultaneously on the three planes of rear sight, front sight, and target. It is easier to aim a rifle with a telescopic sight because one may simply place the reticle on the target.. Telescopic sights are designated first by their power, and then by the diameter of their objective lens. 4x20 would mean 4 times magnification and with a 20mm objective lens. 3-12x50 would mean a variable scope, adjustable between 3 and 12 times magnification and with a 50mm objective lens for better light gathering. The Hallowell & Co. Illustrated Firearms Dictionary is for informational purposes only. We do not necessarily offer the items ...
LOF - UMR 5258 - Periodic defect patterns and guided nanoparticle assembly in smectic liquid crystal films
Periodic micropatterns due to the nucleation and self-assembly of defect domains can be obtained in smectic liquid crystal films confined under conflicting boundary conditions. The domain dimensionality (1D/2D), symmetry and size, ranging from less than 0.5 µm to several µm, can be controlled by varying the film thickness and boundary conditions (anchoring), and applying an external electric field. Smectic micropatterns are useful for various applications, such as templates for soft lithography and microlens arrays, where pattern regularity over large areas, rapid self-assembly and a soft responsive character are demanded.. We focus on the ability of such micropatterns to organize the spatial distribution of nanoparticle dispersions owing to a strong interaction between nanoparticles and the core of liquid crystal defects. Namely, 1D patterns induce the formation of nanochains trapped within linear defects with a cross-sectional size comparable to the nanoparticle diameter. Moreover, chains ...
Unilateral spatial neglect occurs frequently following a brain lesion in especially the right hemisphere (25-30% of all stroke patients, Appleros et al, 2002), resulting in a failure to report or respond to stimulation in contralesional hemispace. Prism adaptation is the most widely studied method to alleviate the symptoms of neglect. Effects of a single session of prism adaptation have been reported across clinical measures, but also in more daily situations, such as wheelchair navigation (Rossetti et al, 1999) and postural control (Tilikete et al, 2001). The current study will focus on the effects of an intensive programme of exposure to prism adaptation (i.e. daily exposure during two weeks) and whether more permanent changes in spatial awareness can be objectified. To assess the effects of prism adaptation in the proposed study, patients will receive either prism adaptation or sham adaptation. We expect longer-lasting, more general beneficial effects after prism adaptation compared to sham ...
Biblio | Middlebury
Durst, Michael E, and Chris Xu. "Kilohertz Tunable Dispersion Compensation With A Bimorph Piezo Deformable Mirror". Conference On Lasers And Electro-Opticsconference On Lasers And Electro-Optics/international Quantum Electronics Conference. Baltimore, MarylandWashington, D.C.: OSA, 2009. CMLL6. Web. Conference On Lasers And Electro-Opticsconference On Lasers And Electro-Optics/international Quantum Electronics Conference ...
Synthesis and characterization of Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 and Fe3O4 nanoparticle ferrofluids for thermo-electric conversion - Surrey...
Science & Technology, Technology, Physical Sciences, Materials Science, Multidisciplinary, Physics, Condensed Matter, Materials Science, Physics, MATERIALS SCIENCE, MULTIDISCIPLINARY, PHYSICS, CONDENSED MATTER, Ferrofluid, Heat transfer, Energy harvesting, VARYING MAGNETIC-FIELDS, HEAT-TRANSFER, THERMOMAGNETIC CONVECTION, NATURAL-CONVECTION, DEFORMABLE MIRROR, FLUID, FLOW ...
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SCUBAPRO SYNERGY MINI MASK. - Aquanauts
The new SYNERGY MINI is the smaller version of the best selling Synergy Twin Mask.. With a downsized frame and skirt to fit smaller faces, yet still containing the TruFit Technology.. The dual lens design has been made to be low volume yet still offer a wide field of view.. Now comes as standard with a colour-coordinated Comfort Strap. The mask is available in a selection of different colours allowing you to express your personality.. The new SYNERGY MINI is the smaller version of the best selling Synergy Twin Mask.. With a downsized frame and skirt to fit smaller faces, yet still containing the TruFit Technology.. The dual lens design has been made to be low volume yet still offer a wide field of view.. Now comes as standard with a colour-coordinated Comfort Strap. The mask is available in a selection of different colours allowing you to express your personality. ...
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Spherical aberration correction in multiphoton fluorescence imaging using objective correction collar
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BelOMO 2nds :: BelOMO Loupes :: Loupes & Magnifiers ::...
The lens is always 1st quality. The housing makes it a 2nd.. I treat so many that when I find one with a problem I just dont want to correct the problem myself. I just put them in a 2nds pile and you get a 20% discount to make the correction yourself. Or live with a scratch.. If the screws slot is scuffed Ill include a replacement screw for you... Fortunately 2nds are very rare so theyre not always available.. Limit one (1) 2nd of each magnification per customer.. The shopping cart cant enforce this rule but I can on the back end.. Speaking of the shopping cart, by policy the BelOMO loupe can not be advertised with a price less than $35.99. If you see an advertised price less than $35.99 the seller is a gray market seller, selling fake BelOMO loulpes, or not located in North America (dont forget to add import duties to your purchase price). Gray market sellers import the loupes by having a proxy buy them in Belarus then sneaking them into North America. By doing so they escape paying the ...
Paul Rudolph (physicist)
1890: First anastigmat lens "protar" 1895: Planar design 1899: Unar design 1902: Tessar design 1918: Plasmat design 1922: Kino- ... After World War I, he joined the Hugo Meyer optical company, where he designed most of their cine lenses. ... Paul Rudolph (14 November 1858 - 8 March 1935) was a German physicist who designed the first anastigmatic lens while working ... Plasmat design 1926: Makro-Plasmat design 1931: Kleinbild-Plasmat design Bolex Collector , Lenses , Hugo Meyer lenshistory.html ...
AF-S DX Nikkor 18-140mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR
The lens uses internal focusing and a silent wave motor to focus. Two switches are provided on the lens. One of them can be ... Like all lenses in the DX format, the 18-140mm casts a smaller image circle than lenses for full-frame 35mm cameras and is ... The lens includes vibration reduction to counter camera shake. To minimize chromatic aberrations the lens uses an extra-low ... Lenses. Nikon USA. 2013. Retrieved 2016-04-14. List of Nikon compatible lenses with integrated autofocus-motor Nikon F-mount. ...
Nikon AF-S DX Zoom-Nikkor 18-70mm f/3.5-4.5G ED-IF
This lens has been largely supplanted by those lenses which have since been supplied as the kit lenses for the Nikon prosumer ... This lens was announced on January 2004 and was initially available as kit lens for the then-new Nikon D70. Later, it was ... List of Nikon compatible lenses with integrated autofocus-motor "AF-S DX Zoom-Nikkor 18-70mm f/3.5-4.5G IF-ED (3.8x)". Lenses. ... The AF-S DX Zoom-Nikkor 18-70mm f/3.5-4.5G ED-IF is an F-mount zoom lens manufactured and sold by Nikon. Designed exclusively ...
Tamron SP AF 90mm f/2.8 Di 1:1 Macro
The SP AF 90mm f/2.8 Di 1:1 Macro lens is a macro lens produced by Tamron. It comes in the Canon EF-mount, Nikon F-mount, ... The lens was released in 1997. It received the European "Lens of the Year: 1997-1998" award. It was mechanically and ... The lens is known for its high optical quality and reasonable price. Peter K, Burian (1 July 2000). "Tamron SP AF 300mm f/2.8 ... "Tamron SP AF 90mm f/2.8 Di Macro Lens Review". The-Digital-Picture.com. Retrieved 7 November 2011. AF 90mm F/2.8 Di 1:1 Macro; ...
AF-S DX Nikkor 18-105mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR
This lens is sold as a kit lens for the Nikon D90, Nikon D7000, Nikon D5100, Nikon D5200 and Nikon D3200 cameras, but it also ... The lens uses internal focusing and a silent wave motor to focus. Two switches are provided on the lens. One of them can be ... Like all lenses in the DX format, the 18-105mm casts a smaller image circle than lenses for full-frame 35mm cameras and is ... The lens includes vibration reduction to counter camera shake. To minimize chromatic aberrations the lens uses an extra-low ...
Sony FE 100-400mm F4.5-5.6 GM OSS
The lens maintains its physical length throughout its zoom range. The Sony FE 100-400mm GM lens is one of Sony's few telephoto ... The lens showcases an off-white weather resistant plastic and metal exterior with a rubber focus and zoom ring. The lens ... List of Sony E-mount lenses Sony FE 70-200mm F2.8 GM OSS Sony FE 70-300mm F4.5-5.6 G OSS "SEL100400GM Specifications , α Lenses ... The FE 100-400mm GM lens is currently the longest focal length native zoom lens offered for Sony E-mount. Though designed for ...
Sony E 20mm F2.8
... the lens is one of Sony's softer lenses List of Sony E-mount lenses Sony E 16mm F2.8 Pancake lens "SEL20F28 Specifications , α ... The lens itself is colloquially referred to as a pancake lens as it is currently the thinnest lens offered for Sony E-mount. ... The Sony E 20mm F2.8 is a wide-angle prime lens for the Sony E-mount, announced by Sony on April 2013. The lens itself is made ... The image quality of the lens is significantly better than that of the 16mm pancake lens, suffering mild barrel distortion and ...
Transitions lenses are also called adaptive lenses. They are clear indoors and at night and automatically darken outdoors as ... "Transitions Lenses: Premium Eyewear Lenses that Adapt to Sunlight". Framesdirect.com. Retrieved 2015-03-17. "Transitions ... In addition to original Transitions lenses that are for everyday wear, Transitions Optical also makes Transitions XTRActive ... In 1991, Transitions Optical became the first company to commercialize and manufacture plastic photochromic lenses. From ...
Sony FE PZ 28-135mm F4 G OSS
The Sony FE PZ 28-135mm F4 G OSS is a full-frame constant maximum aperture advanced standard zoom lens for the Sony E-mount, ... Though designed for Sony's full frame E-mount cameras, the lens can be used on Sony's APS-C E-mount camera bodies, with an ... List of Sony E-mount lenses "Sony FE PZ 28-135mm F4 G OSS: Digital Photography Review". dpreview.com. Retrieved 2017-06-18. " ... "SELP28135G , α Lenses , , Sony US". sony.com. Retrieved 2017-06-18. ...
Sony Carl Zeiss Sonnar T* FE 35mm F2.8 ZA
The lens is also one of the thinnest lenses offered for Sony Full-frame cameras. List of Sony E-mount lenses Samyang Optics / ... The lens itself is made of a thin weather resistant aluminum shell over plastic internals. The lens showcases a minimalist ... The Sony Zeiss Sonnar T* FE 35mm F2.8 ZA is a wide-angle full-frame prime lens for the Sony E-mount. It was announced by Sony ... Though designed for Sony's full frame E-mount cameras, the lens can be used on Sony's APS-C E-mount camera bodies, with an ...
Sony Carl Zeiss Vario-Tessar T* E 16-70mm F4 ZA OSS
The lens has a tendency to be soft in the corners and toward the 70mm end of the lens' zoom range. However, the lens remains ... List of Sony E-mount lenses Sony E 18-55mm F3.5-5.6 OSS Sony E 18-105mm F4 G Zeiss Vario-Tessar "SEL1670Z , α Lenses , , Sony ... The barrel of the lens telescopes outward from the main lens body as it's zoomed in from 16mm to 70mm. ... The lens showcases a minimalist black metal exterior with a Zeiss badge on the side of the barrel and no zoom lock to prevent ...
Sony E 18-200mm F3.5-6.3 OSS LE
To combat zoom creep, the lens features a small zoom lock switch on the main lens barrel. The lens features an entirely new ... The lens was designed to better accommodate users of Sony's E-mount mirrorless cameras in weight and size. The lens features an ... The barrel of the lens telescopes outward from the main lens body as it's zoomed in from 18mm to 200mm. ... List of Sony E-mount lenses Sony E 18-200mm F3.5-6.3 OSS "SEL18200LE Specifications , α Lenses , DPReview". Retrieved 2017-06- ...
Sony E 30mm F3.5 Macro
The lens features a plastic exterior with a silver finish and a pancake-style lens hood. As of June 2017, the 30mm Macro lens ... List of Sony E-mount lenses Sony FE 50mm F2.8 Macro Zeiss Touit 2.8/50mm Macro "SEL30M35 Specifications , α Lenses , Sony US". ... The Sony E 30mm F3.5 Macro is an APS-C macro prime lens for the Sony E-mount, announced by Sony on June 8, 2011. ... "Sony E 30mm f/3.5 Macro Lens SEL30M35 B&H Photo Video". bhphotovideo.com. Retrieved 2017-06-17. "Sony E 30mm f/3.5 Macro". ...
Boomerang (programming language)
Boomerang: Resourceful Lenses for String Data. In ACM SIGPLAN-SIGACT Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages (POPL), ... Quotient Lenses. To appear in ACM SIGPLAN International Conference on Functional Programming (ICFP), Victoria, British Columbia ... Boomerang is a programming language for writing lenses-well-behaved bidirectional transformations -that operate on ad-hoc, ...
Aging of the crystalline lens of the human eye causes straylight to become worse. Lens extraction and artificial lens ... Contact lenses. Vos JJ. "Disability glare - a state of the art report". Commission International de l'Eclairage Journal. 1984;3 ... "Straylight effects with aging and lens extraction". Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;144:358-363 Van der Meulen IJ et al. "Quality of ... "Straylight measurement in contact lens wear". Cornea 2010;29:516-522. ...
Sony FE 70-200mm F2.8 GM OSS
The lens maintains its physical length throughout its zoom range. The Sony FE 70-200mm F2.8 GM OSS lens is one of Sony's few ... The lens showcases an off-white weather resistant plastic and metal exterior with a rubber focus and zoom ring. The lens ... List of Sony E-mount lenses Sony FE 70-200mm F4 G OSS Sony FE 100-400mm F4.5-5.6 GM OSS "SEL70200GM Specifications , α Lenses ... Though designed for Sony's full frame E-mount cameras, the lens can be used on Sony's APS-C E-mount camera bodies, with an ...
Sony FE 70-200mm F4 G OSS
It is physically impossible to properly mount them to the lens mount without damaging the rear lens element. The lens is ... The lens maintains its physical length throughout its zoom range. The lens is not compatible with Sony's 1.4x and 2.0x ... List of Sony E-mount lenses Sony FE 70-200mm F2.8 GM OSS Sony FE 70-300mm F4.5-5.6 G OSS "SEL70200G , α Lenses , , Sony US". ... On the side of the lens is a set of external controls for enabling image stabilization, limiting the focal range of the lens, ...
Corrective lenses can be produced in many different shapes from a circular lens called a lens blank. Lens blanks are cut to fit ... "BluTech Lenses - Technology, The story behind BluTech Lenses". BluTech Lenses. "Expert Healthy Vision & Eye Care Tips, News, ... Higher power lenses can cause distortion of peripheral vision and may become thick and heavy if a large lens shape is used. ... Photochromic lenses, which are photosensitive, darken when struck by UV light. The dark tint of the lenses in a pair of ...
The lenses for the sunglasses manufactured by Persol use a crystal lens to filter harmful light from the wearer's eye. History ... In 1917 Giuseppe Ratti, owner of the Berry optical, started producing his first glasses and lenses for athletes and aviators. ... "Lenses - Technology". Persol Official Site. Retrieved 19 June 2015. Official website. ...
Caustic crossings in binary lenses can happen with a wider range of lens geometries than in a single lens. Like a single lens ... the lens is a single point mass, and the lens is moving in a straight line: the point source-point lens approximation. In these ... It depends on the lens mass M, the distance of the lens dL, and the distance of the source dS: θ E = 4 G M c 2 d S − d L d S d ... In strong and weak lensing, the mass of the lens is large enough (mass of a galaxy or a galaxy cluster) that the displacement ...
Sony Carl Zeiss Sonnar T* E 24mm F1.8 ZA
The lens features a thin aluminum shell over plastic internals and a detachable petal-type lens hood. The lens showcases a ... Given its unusually high 1:4 (0.25x) image reproduction ratio, the 24mm lens can be considered a pseudo-macro lens. The lens is ... List of Sony E-mount lenses Sony E 20mm F2.8 Sigma 30mm F1.4 DC DN Zeiss Sonnar "SEL24F18Z Specifications , α Lenses , Sony US ... When at its maximum aperture of f/1.8, the lens exhibits creamy smooth bokeh. The lens suffers from mild vignetting and ...
Sony FE 100mm F2.8 STF GM OSS
The lens is currently Sony's only native lens offering Smooth Trans Focus. This compromise in design results in the lens ... the 100mm GM lens can be considered a pseudo-macro lens. Though designed for Sony's full frame E-mount cameras, the lens can be ... List of Sony E-mount lenses Sony STF 135mm f/2.8 STF Venus Optics Laowa 105mm f/2 STF "SEL100F28GM Specifications , α Lenses , ... The Sony FE 100mm F2.8 STF GM OSS is a premium full-frame smooth trans focus prime lens for the Sony E-mount, announced by Sony ...
The myodisc has been categorized as a lenticular lens. These are rarely prescribed sets of specialty lenses used in cases of ... Myodiscs are not a preferred lens type, but are the least expensive option among available lenses fitted for minus powers ... Carlton, Jenean (2000). Frames and Lenses. SLACK Incorporated. p. 36. ISBN 1-55642-364-0. Jalie, Mo (2002). Ophthalmic Lenses ... Newer lens products can also be found using vague terminology. Low vision clinics in under-privileged cost-reducing centers ...
There are T/TL lenses which are APS-C based and SL lenses which are full frame lenses. The Leica T/TL lenses use the APC-C ... Cameras: Leica T (Typ 701) Leica TL Leica TL2 Leica CL mirrorless The Leica SL lenses use the full frame sensor size. The SL ... The Leica L-Mount is an interface between cameras and lenses. It was developed by Leica Camera AG and introduced in April 2014 ... "Leica SL lenses". Leica Company Website. Leica Camera AG. Retrieved June 12, 2017. "Adapter-Finder of Novoflex". Novoflex ...
Phakic intraocular lenses. Survey of Ophthalmology. 2005 Nov-Dec;50(6):549-587. Carlo F. Lovisolo, Dan Z. Reinstein 112. A new ... Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists Journal. 1995 Oct;21(4):268-272. Ioannis M. Aslanides, Dan Z. Reinstein, Ronald H ... Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists Journal. 1994 Jul;20(3):198-203. Dan Z. Reinstein, Ioannis M. Aslanides, Ronald H ... Very high-frequency ultrasound analysis of a new phakic posterior chamber intraocular lens in situ. American Journal of ...
Winston E. Kock
He proposed metallic and wire lenses for antennas. Some of these are the metallic delay lens, parallel-wire lens, and the wire ... An experimental study of the metallic delay lens described by Kock1 has been made in this Establishment, using a lens ... Jones, S. S. D.; Brown, J. (1949-02-26). "Metallic Delay Lenses" ("AN experimental study of the metallic delay lens described ... "Metal-Lens Antennas". IRE Proc. 34 (11): 828-836. doi:10.1109/JRPROC.1946.232264. Kock, W.E. (1948). "Metallic Delay Lenses". ...
Irlen Spectral Filters or Irlen Lenses, are coloured overlay filters or tinted lenses crafted specifically for the wearer and ... Tinted lenses became a commercial success, and testing and prescribing centers were opened throughout USA. Diagnosis of Irlen ... According to Irlen, the lenses can be used to treat a wide variety of problems that are associated with light sensitivity, ... At that time, there was little research made on the effect of tinted lenses. Irlen gained notable publicity demonstrating the ...
Camera Lenses loupe magnifier 30x | Compare and buy Camera Lenses - Kelkoo
Compare prices of Camera Lenses from thousands of retailers and make sure youre getting a good deal ... Kelkoo helps you to find the best offers for Camera Lenses loupe magnifier 30x. ... Camera Lenses Camera Lenses loupe magnifier 30x. Shop online and compare prices for Camera Lenses loupe magnifier 30x. Kelkoo ... A close-up lens is a magnifier that optically decreases the focal length of a camera lens placed behind it. This effect lessens ...
Field Guide to Lens Design | (2012) | Bentley | Publications | Spie
Petzval Lens. Telephoto Lenses. Retrofocus and Wide-Angle Lenses. Refractive versus Reflective Systems. Obscurations. Newtonian ... Zoom Lens Fundamentals. Zoom Lens Design and Optimization. Improving a Design. Techniques for Improving an Optical Design. ... Thin Lens Layout. Lens Bending. Material Selection. Controlling the Petzval Sum. Stop Shift and Stop Symmetry. Telecentricity. ... Photographic Lenses: Fundamentals. Photographic Lenses: Design Constraints. Visual Instruments and the Eye. Eyepiece ...
... are a clouding of the lens of the eye, causing blurry vision. They are a common and even normal part of aging, but ... The lens of your eye consists mostly of protein and water. The lens is located behind your pupil and iris (the black and ... The proteins in your lens are arranged in a way that keeps the lens clear. But due to normal changes that occur with age, these ... Surgery to replace the lens in your eye with an artificial lens is the only way to remedy a cataract. But its rarely necessary ...
Refractive Lens Exchange or Lens Replacement Surgery
Brian Boxer Wachler says refractive lens exchange or clear lens extraction may be better than LASIK for presbyopia and ... Contact Lenses * Soft Contacts Featured. Contact Lens Basics Reading a Contact Lens Prescription Soft Contact Lens Care View ... Eyeglass Lenses Featured. How to Choose Eyeglass Lenses Anti-reflective Lenses Progressive Lenses View all ... Refractive lens exchange, also called lens replacement surgery or clear lens extraction, may be a better option than LASIK, PRK ...
Halloween: Contact Lenses
Announcements | Contact Lenses | CDC
Healthy and Safe Contact Lens Cleaning and Use. Millions of people use contact lenses every day but lens cleaning practices can ... Hands should be washed before handling contact lenses and contacts should be properly cleaned, disinfected, and stored to ... Following your eye doctors recommendations and a few simple steps can lead to healthy daily contact lens use. ... Contact Lens, Lens Care Systems, & Solution Typesplus icon *Contact Lens Types ...
Eyeglass Lenses | Kodak
Glasses and Contact Lenses
When this happens, people wear glasses or contact lenses. Find out more in this article for kids. ... But eyeglasses or contact lenses, also called corrective lenses, can help most people see more clearly. ... Glasses or contact lenses correct vision because they allow the eye to focus light in the right spot on the retina - the spot ... Glasses or contact lenses work so well because they can correct refractive problems. In other words, they bend the light rays ...
ZEISS Lens Gears make ZEISS Otus, ZEISS Milvus and ZEISS Loxia lenses a proper cine-style lens for professional filmmakers. The ... This means the inner diameter can be reduced according to the lens diameter, thus supporting multiple lenses. The GumGum also ... ZEISS Loxia lenses are suitable for digital Sony Alpha cameras and have been optimized for film and sensors up to full 35 mm ... The lenses offer a high resolution across the entire image field and - especially at the maximal aperture opening of f/2 - a ...
Slideshow: Permanent Lenses in Sight | WIRED
... implantable lens that can help even the most nearsighted patients. The images show a surgeon implanting the lens through a 3 ... The Verisyse lens corrects moderate to high nearsightedness. A surgeon positions it over the pupil between \[…\] ... The Verisyse lens, made my Advanced Medical Optics, is racing STAAR Surgical neck and neck for the first FDA approval of a ... Slideshow: Permanent Lenses in Sight. credit Image courtesy STAAR Surgical. FDA approval is imminent for a permanent, ...
Global Contact Lenses and Solutions Industry
This report analyzes the worldwide markets for Contact Lenses and Solutions in US$ Million by the following Segments:... ... Daily Wear Lenses Daily Wear Hard Lens Daily Wear Soft Lens Daily Wear Hard Gas-Permeable Lens Extended Wear Lenses Soft Lenses ... Contact Lenses Rigid Gas-Permeable Lenses Soft Contact Lenses Spherical Lenses Toric Lenses Multifocals Hybrid Contact Lenses ... Hard Lenses PMMA Lenses Rigid Gas-Permeable Lenses Advantages Disadvantages Soft Lenses Description Spherical Soft Lenses ...
Contact lens - Wikipedia
"Coloured Contact Lenses". lenses-contact.co.uk.. *^ "How Do You Find the Right Circle Lens?". EyeCandys. Retrieved 26 March ... "Soft Contact Lens Care Products".. *^ www.feelgoodcontacts.com. "Caring For Contact Lenses - Feel Good Contact Lenses". www. ... the FDA labels non-corrective cosmetic contact lenses as decorative contact lenses. Like any contact lens, cosmetic lenses ... "International Contact Lens Prescribing in 2010". Contact Lens Spectrum. October 2011. *^ Agarwal, R. K. (1969), Contact Lens ...
Camera lens - Wikipedia
A camera lens (also known as photographic lens or photographic objective) is an optical lens or assembly of lenses used in ... Lens mounts. Main article: Lens mount. Many single-lens reflex cameras and some rangefinder cameras have detachable ... Lenses for aerial photography.. *Fisheye lenses: extreme wide-angle lenses with an angle of view of up to 180 degrees or more, ... Today, most lenses are multi-coated in order to minimize lens flare and other unwanted effects. Some lenses have a UV coating ...
SELP18105G | α Lenses | | Sony IQ
A lever and ring on the lens barrel allow zoom speed to be freely adjusted as required while maintaining a sure, stable grip. ... This G Lens for E-mount cameras delivers stunning still or movie imagery with the flexibility of 6x power zoom. Maximum ... Lens hood (ALC-SH128: petal shape, bayonet type), Lens front cap, Lens rear cap ... One lens for diverse shooting needs. Having to change lenses as you shoot can slow you down and introduce unwanted changes in ...
Lumix G Lenses | Panasonic Australia
... which are world renowned LEICA Quality Lenses developed and manufactured by industry-leading technologies. ... Learn more about our revolutionary Lumix G Lenses, ... LUMIX Camera Lenses Video Cameras Camera Accessories Home ... Micro Four Thirds Interchangeable Lens, Standard Zoom, POWER O.I.S., Dual I.S.2 Compatible, High-Speed AF, Rugged Design. ... Micro Four Thirds 25mm Fixed Focal Length Lens / 50mm (35mm camera equiv.) High-Speed AF, Rugged Design. ...
G Master Lenses | Sony BJ
Contact Lenses and Eye Infections
... Articles OnContact Lenses. Contact Lenses Contact Lenses - Contact Lenses and Eye Infections ... Slideshow: Contact Lens Tips Contact lenses are a convenient and comfortable alternative to eyeglasses for many people. But you ... Make sure you clean and disinfect your lenses and lens case correctly, and dont keep either longer than you should. ... Dont throw your lenses away. Put them in the case, and bring them when you see your eye doctor. They may give him or her a ...
Lenses Tagged "DA*"
Lenses We Offer
Thinner, flatter lenses are recommended when a prescription is strong. Flatter lenses enhance lens appearance by reducing edge ... Some materials, such as Phoenix lenses, high-index lenses and several new plastic lens types come standard with scratch ... Tinted lenses can be tinted from light to very dark. Tints for sun lenses are usually medium to dark shades, and can either be ... Lens Treatments. Photochromic lenses darken and lighten according to light exposure. If the wearer is in the sun, they get ...
With a large lens, we have more room for error around the edges as we refine our procedure. We used this lens positive to make ... We have concluded that the best way to produce a lens using epoxy resin is to 3D print the lens positive, wrap it in plastic ... We 3D printed a "lens positive", a piece of opaque plastic in the shape of our desired lens. This time we were careful to print ... The ability to simply print out a lens without intermediate steps would be enormously useful in bringing down the costs of lens ...
H-HS12035 Lumix G Lenses - Panasonic
POWER O.I.S. : Micro Four Thirds Lenses, Standard Zoom Lens ... Lumix G Lenses. LUMIX G X VARIO 12-35mm / F2.8 ASPH. / ... UED (Ultra Extra-Low Dispersion) Lens. UED (Ultra Extra-Low Dispersion) lens minimize chromatic aberration while the UHR (Ultra ... Micro Four Thirds 12-35mm Standard Zoom Lens / 24-70mm (35mm camera equiv.) ... by applying the extra-low refractive index coating with nano-sized structure on the surface of the lens. It results in super ...
Exclusive: Mojo Vision's AR contact lenses
At first the lenses will be powered by a tiny thin-film, solid-state battery within the lens. Sinclair says the battery is ... Lenses for consumers, eventually. Only after Mojo has begun marketing its vision assistance and vertical market lenses does it ... "Weve tested pretty much everything outside the lens, and now its all getting pulled together in the lens," says Sinclair. ... the normal loss of ability to focus the lens of the eye on small objects that comes with aging. The Mojo lenses, for example, ...
Panasonic lenses firmware upgrade announced | TechRadar
... allowing for seven new lenses to be added to the video line-up. ... announced a new firmware upgrade for its Lumix G series lenses ... The lenses that can be added to the video line-up now include the 14mm pancake lens, the 8mm fisheye lens and the 45-200mm zoom ... Panasonic has announced a new firmware upgrade for its Lumix G series lenses, allowing for seven new lenses to be added to the ... and means the following lenses can now be considered as part of the HD Lenses of Lumix G Micro System line-up:. Lumix G 14mm f/ ...
ZEISS Single vision lenses
... are the best solution for nearsighted and farsighted wearers. ... These lenses are fitted to the particular wearer and are optimized for good vision even in the periphery of the lens. Moreover ... High-performance lens coatings make your eyeglass lenses extremely resistant to scratches or static dust particles. The benefit ... A visit to your eye care professional is also required if the lenses are scratched or the coating is damaged: your lenses ...
Specialty Contact Lenses | Walgreens
View current promotions and reviews of Specialty Contact Lenses and get free shipping at $35. ... Clear eyes Contact Lens Relief Soothing Eye Drops. (. .5 fl oz. ). Clear eyes Contact Lens Relief Soothing Eye Drops. Compare. ... Refresh Contacts Contact Lens Comfort Moisture Drops for Dry Eyes. (. .4 fl oz. ). Refresh Contacts Contact Lens Comfort ... Opti-Free Express Contact Lenses Rewetting Drops. (. .33 fl oz. ). Opti-Free Express Contact Lenses Rewetting Drops. Compare. ...
CooperVision Contact Lenses | Walgreens
All lenses:Biofinity,Biofinity Toric,Proclear,Biomedics 55,Avaira,Vertex,Frequency 55 aspheric,proclear compatibles,biomedics ... Coopervision contact lenses at Walgreens.com! Free shipping, FSA, daily promotions! ... Look for any rips or tears in the lens. Dont use a lens that is damaged in any way. To insert the lens, use the index finger ... Color lenses change the color of the eyes while correcting vision, while toric lenses are made for people with an eye condition ...
Intraocular Lenses - Mayo Clinic
Lenses - SlashGear - Page 7
Lenses. Sony Lens Cameras QX10 and QX100 manuals leak in hardware detail. Chris Burns , Aug 16, 2013 ... Sigma has unveiled a handful of new lenses that will join the companys current lineup of Art lenses, which are designed to be ... In late January, Sigma unveiled several new lenses in the companys Art line. When the company announced those new lenses in ... The four new lenses that Sigma announce are a 30mm f/1.4 DC HSM, 60mm f/2.8 DN, 30mm f/2.8 DN, and a 19mm f/2.8 DN. ...
fisheye lens - Wiktionary
Apartment Lens - Lens
Contact Lens Risks
Wearing contact lenses puts you at risk of several serious conditions including eye infections and corneal ulcers. These ... Types of Contact Lenses Decorative Contact Lenses Contact Lens Prescription Buying Contact Lenses Contact Lens Solutions and ... List of Contact Lenses Contact Lenses: Links Contact Lenses: Report a Problem ... Never reuse any lens solution.. *Do not expose your contact lenses to any water: tap, bottled, distilled, lake or ocean water. ...
OpticsAsphericDiameterMagnificationMegapixelAberrationsManufactureObjective lensChromatic aberrationReading glassesTelephoto lensFocal201750mmSoft Contact LensesAstigmatismOpticianRigid gas permeable lens35mmAutofocus lensesAdvanced MedicaWearPrime LensesBifocal contact lensesRefractive lens exchange90mmDecorative contact lensesCorrectionBends lightWide-anglLead to cornealMyopiaNearsightednessEyeglassesPrescriptionOpticiansEyeglassCorneal ulcersToric lensCorrectiveFisheyeAsphericalZoom lensMultifocal lensesWornMadeConvexCameraZEISSWearerIndex of refractSpectaclesCylindrical lensThinnerDisinfectMountPancakeCosmetic contact lensesInterchangeable
- BalaJi Optics (BO) India is india's No.1 Manufacturer of large format F-Mount Machine Vision lens . (asianproducts.com)
- BalaJi Optics (BO) India is india's No.1 Manufacturer of Industrial lens , Machine Vision lens . (asianproducts.com)
- The lens is made from high quality glass optics and the body is made of aluminum. (emsdiasum.com)
- Refractive lens exchange (RLE) replaces your eye's clear natural lens with an artificial intraocular lens (IOL) to correct your refractive error and achieve sharper focus, reducing your need for reading glasses or bifocals . (allaboutvision.com)
- Non-surgical options for presbyopia include reading glasses, bifocal or progressive lenses , and multifocal contact lenses . (allaboutvision.com)
- With reading glasses, the single vision lenses are optimized for vision in the near zone and personally fitted to the farsighted reader's standard reading distance. (zeiss.com)
- Presbyopia historically has been corrected with prescription glasses with bifocal or progressive lenses or by reading glasses. (nationalpost.com)
- It is often managed with prescription glasses with bifocal or progressive lenses or by reading glasses over contact lenses. (nationalpost.com)
- Alcon Dailies Total1 ® contact lenses, are single-use multifocal lenses that became available in Canada last year, giving patients with presbyopia a comfortable alternative to burdensome reading glasses. (nationalpost.com)
- They have released the Photojojo telephoto lens that you can attach to your iPad or iPad mini. (slashgear.com)
- If you're taking a picture of a mountain range, you might want to use a telephoto lens , a lens with an especially long focal length. (howstuffworks.com)
- 1) (Recommended) Buy a cheap, entry level telephoto lens first to test the waters. (dcresource.com)
- The Tair 3 is a 300mm f/4.5 telephoto lens. (wikipedia.org)
- While the overall length of the different Loxia lenses might vary, the front diameter is consistent for all three focal lengths in the family. (zeiss.com)
- A lens might be permanently fixed to a camera, or it might be interchangeable with lenses of different focal lengths , apertures , and other properties. (wikipedia.org)
- A first step is to put a simple convex lens at the pinhole with a focal length equal to the distance to the film plane (assuming the camera will take pictures of distant objects ). (wikipedia.org)
- Micro Four Thirds 25mm Fixed Focal Length Lens / 50mm (35mm camera equiv. (panasonic.com)
- Micro Four Thirds 42.5mm Fixed Focal Length Lens / 85mm (35mm camera equiv. (panasonic.com)
- Progressives (no line) correct distance vision, intermediate vision and near vision- all in one lens- while providing the most natural vision of any multi-focal lens. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- We started by 3D printing molds for convex lenses 1 inch in diameter with a 10 cm focal length. (princeton.edu)
- With a standard 50mm focal length on full-frame cameras, this is an unbeatable choice for photographers who love to work with prime lenses, and a perfect starting point for a superb ZEISS lens collection. (sony.co.uk)
- Long-focus lenses are bulky, because they comprise not only the lens itself but also a mount or tube to hold it at the appropriate focal distance from the film. (britannica.com)
- There's a feature on the K20 D where if you install a lens that doesn't have all the digital bells and whistles, a message comes up on the monitor to set the focal lenght of the lens and the Image Stabiliser will work with it. (ephotozine.com)
- Is additional lens elements used with the standard camera lens to provide a new focal length. (swpp.co.uk)
- The magnification power of a lens is described by its focal length . (howstuffworks.com)
- In cameras, the focal length is defined as the distance between the lens and the real image of an object in the far distance (the moon for example). (howstuffworks.com)
- This lens has a much shorter focal length, so it shrinks the scene in front of you. (howstuffworks.com)
- By changing the distance between particular lenses, you can adjust the magnification power -- the focal length -- of the lens as a whole. (howstuffworks.com)
- With a long list of awards and accolades, the range is divided into two types of lens: primes (single focal length) and zooms (multiple focal length), with each one offering superb levels of detail and sharpness across the frame. (currys.co.uk)
- The widest single focal length lens in the XF line-up, the 14mm offers the equivalent of a 21mm on a 35mm camera so it's great for wide landscapes and architecture shots. (currys.co.uk)
- With a focal length equivalent to an 85mm lens on a 35mm camera, it is perfect for flattering portraits, plus the wide maximum aperture of F1.2 delivers stunning out-of-focus backgrounds for a really professional look. (currys.co.uk)
- Monovision: The most common type of correction for presbyopia with contact lenses involves two different focal distances. (pacificu.edu)
- The image circle on a FF (FX) lens is bigger than that of a DX (crop) lens (therefore the FX lens is thicker and more expensive) the "angle of view" of a thicker lens is greater than that of a thinner lens of the same focal length. (cambridgeincolour.com)
- As I understand it the smaller sensor size of a 'crop camera' allows you to use a shorter focal length lens to get the same angle of view as a longer focal length lens equivalent on a full frame camera? (cambridgeincolour.com)
- Prime lens kit, which focal length options would you prefer? (dvxuser.com)
- The Tair 11-T is a "Technical" or "Television" for cinecamera or surveillance.The Tair 11-2 is an M42 lens with a focal length of 133mm. (wikipedia.org)
- Micro Four Thirds 10-25mm Standard Zoom Lens / 20-50mm (35mm camera equiv. (panasonic.com)
- this suggests that for example this would make a 50mm lens equivalent to approx. (cambridgeincolour.com)
- I guess the bit that I am not understanding is that the characteristics of a 50mm lens are presumably different from a 75mm lens in construction. (cambridgeincolour.com)
- The 50mm has the AoV of a 50mm lens on a full frame digital or 35mm film camera. (cambridgeincolour.com)
- A 50mm FX lens fitted to a DX body does not become a 75mm lens. (cambridgeincolour.com)
- On a DX body the image area falling on the sensor (with a 50mm FF lens fitted to the DX body) will cover the same area of the scene as would be covered by a 75mm FF lens on a FF body. (cambridgeincolour.com)
- So, in essence say using a 50mm lens on a 'crop camera' is actually being 'under used' as the angle of view created by the 'crop camera' is smaller than the lens's actual capacity on a full frame camera? (cambridgeincolour.com)
- Its age was something we noted even when we reviewed it back in 2008 , though it's still one of five 50mm autofocus lenses that Nikon still makes today (counting the 50mm F1.8G not-so-special edition that comes with the Nikon Df). (dpreview.com)
- So, you just dropped $6500 on a D5 and didn't budget for lenses - good thing the Nikkor 50mm F1.4D can be had on the cheap these days. (dpreview.com)
Soft Contact Lenses7
- d) Transmission spectra of pHEMA and commercial soft contact lenses when dipped into the dye. (nih.gov)
- Toric contact lenses - These are soft contact lenses that are usually made of either the typical hydrogel material or a highly breathable silicone hydrogel. (mercola.com)
- You do not need to replace GP lenses as frequently as you do with soft contact lenses, but take note that these are custom-made as well, and can be pricier than toric lenses. (mercola.com)
- Using revolutionary new technologies and innovative materials, Bausch + Lomb offers soft contact lenses to correct a wide range of refractive errors. (bausch.com)
- Toric soft contact lenses, as well as rigid gas permeable lenses can be used to compensate for this type of refractive error. (pacificu.edu)
- Soft contact lenses in this category generally have a higher oxygen permeability than daily wear contact lenses and are made of silicone hydrogel material. (pacificu.edu)
- With soft contact lenses, water can also alter the shape of the lens and potentially damage the cornea. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The size of the contact lens market is likely to grow due to the increasing occurrence of eye-related conditions such as astigmatism , hyperopia and myopia . (wikipedia.org)
- ZEISS single vision lenses can be fitted to the wearer's unique visual behavior with different performance design levels to match their requirements, even if a higher prescription is required or other visual impairments must be accommodated (such as astigmatism or associated heterophoria). (zeiss.com)
- People who wear toric contact lenses to compensate for astigmatism may also experience headaches due to fit. (news-medical.net)
- A cylindrical lens can help you overcome the visual impairment of astigmatism, a condition in which the front surface of the cornea of the eye is not truly spherical. (innerbody.com)
- Are Contact Lenses Safe for Astigmatism? (mercola.com)
- Should You Wear Contact Lenses for Astigmatism? (mercola.com)
- Rigid glass permeable (RGP or GP) toric contact lenses are other possible options, but these are typically prescribed for severe or unusual astigmatism cases. (mercola.com)
- They work because their uniform front surface acts as the primary refracting surface of the eye, therefore correcting astigmatism without the control rotation mechanism of toric lenses. (mercola.com)
- The problem with relying on contact lenses for astigmatism or any refractive error is that they can put you at risk of infection. (mercola.com)
- A prescription for contact lenses, therefore, involves more than simply knowing the optical power that corrects for nearsightedness, farsightedness, or astigmatism. (aoa.org)
- It has been attributed to several factors such as the pupil size, total and corneal aberrations, degrees and axis of astigmatism, potential of visual perception, and axial movement of the intraocular lens. (hindawi.com)
- Contact lens services available at the Pacific University College ofOptometry Family Vision Centers include: the fitting and management of contact lenses for refractive conditions such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism, and presbyopia. (pacificu.edu)
- All the advantages of Focus Monthly lenses, now available for patients with astigmatism. (bio-medicine.org)
- An optician makes or sells eyeglasses and contact lenses according to an ophthalmologist's or optometrist's prescription. (kidshealth.org)
- Patients who develop presbyopia will need to see their optician to get a new prescription for their contact lenses to help correct the condition. (news-medical.net)
- The patient will need to explore a better fitting toric lens with their optician. (news-medical.net)
- It's advised that the increasingly popular coloured cosmetic lenses should only be sold by a registered optician or doctor who is able to provide after-care advice. (itv.com)
Rigid gas permeable lens2
- Hybrid contact lenses - The central zone of these contacts are made of a rigid gas permeable lens material, then surrounded by a fitting zone made of silicone hydrogel or hydrogel - hence, the term "hybrid. (mercola.com)
- Bifocal Contact Lenses: There are both soft contact lens bifocal designs and rigid gas permeable lens design. (pacificu.edu)
- Micro Four Thirds 50-200mm Telephoto Zoom Lens / 100-400mm (35mm camera equiv. (panasonic.com)
- Micro Four Thirds 8-18mm Wide Zoom Lens / 16-36mm (35mm camera equiv. (panasonic.com)
- Micro Four Thirds 12-60mm Standard Zoom Lens / 24-120mm (35mm camera equiv. (panasonic.com)
- Micro Four Thirds 35-100mm Telephoto Zoom Lens / 70-200mm (35mm camera equiv. (panasonic.com)
- Micro Four Thirds 12-35mm Standard Zoom Lens / 24-70mm (35mm camera equiv. (panasonic.com)
- Micro Four Thirds 45-200mm Telephoto Zoom Lens / 90-400mm (35mm camera equiv. (panasonic.com)
- Micro Four Thirds 100-300mm Telephoto Zoom Lens / 200-600mm (35mm camera equiv. (panasonic.com)
- Small and light, this portable wide-angle lens offers the equivalent of a 24mm on a 35mm camera. (currys.co.uk)
- Offering the equivalent of a 53mm lens on a 35mm camera, this is considered a standard lens, which means it is well-suited for day-to-day picture taking. (currys.co.uk)
- Thanks to its wide angle of view - equivalent to a 24mm lens on a 35mm camera - and weather-resistant design, this lens is popular with landscape photographers who like to be out and about, whatever the weather. (currys.co.uk)
- Small and lightweight, the XF18mmF2 R 'pancake' is a great all-round lens, equivalent to a 27mm lens on a 35mm camera, and it makes a truly portable package when paired with any X Series camera body. (currys.co.uk)
- One of the most popular lenses in the entire XF range, the XF35mmF1.4 R is a 'standard' lens equivalent to a 53mm lens on a 35mm camera, and is suitable for a huge range of uses, from portraits to documentary, and more. (currys.co.uk)
- When it is usesd on an APS-C camera the 'crop factor' is either 1.6 or 1.5 in the most common cameras which means it will give you the AoV of an 80mm or 75mm lens when used on the FF/35mm camera. (cambridgeincolour.com)
- When you come to Micro Four Thirds the 'crop factor' is 2 so it give you the AoV of a 100mm lens on the FF/35mm camera. (cambridgeincolour.com)
- Hi Gary, "Crop factor" is just a term used to compare any smaller sensor to a full frame sensor in DSLR's using a 35mm (FF) camera lens. (cambridgeincolour.com)
- Obtaining contact lenses without a prescription and proper wear and care education could lead to serious eye injury or infection. (cdc.gov)
- The best way to protect your eyes from potential complications is to talk to your eye doctor about decorative contacts and learn about healthy contact lens wear and care habits. (cdc.gov)
- Download sample Halloween-themed social media messages to learn more about healthy contact lens wear and care. (cdc.gov)
- Order or download posters to promote healthy contact lens wear and care habits. (cdc.gov)
- Contact Lens Health Week aims to increase public awareness and promote healthy contact lens wear and care. (cdc.gov)
- CDC is sharing the stories of three people- Whitney , Te' , and Ryan -who suffered from serious eye infections caused by improper contact lens wear and care. (cdc.gov)
- Watch their videos to learn how these eye infections affected their lives, and how they changed the way they wear and care for contact lenses. (cdc.gov)
- People choose to wear contact lenses for many reasons. (wikipedia.org)
- Others wear contact lenses for functional or optical reasons. (wikipedia.org)
- Take out your lenses, even extended-wear ones, before you go to sleep . (webmd.com)
- Phoenix lenses offer superior clarity and are lighter than polycarbonate lenses, and are suggested for everyday wear. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Scratch-resistant coatings protect lenses from everyday wear and tear. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- It allows anyone to wear virtual contact lenses and see first-hand the incredible results that can be achieved by wearing Desio contact lenses. (apple.com)
- Children can independently wear and care for these contact lenses in the age range of nearsightedness, starting about age 7 and beyond," Walline said. (webmd.com)
- Perfect for your first pair of glasses, glasses for children or standard everyday glasses: ZEISS single vision lenses are used for both distance vision and reading - the two most common reasons people wear glasses. (zeiss.com)
- Purchasers did not receive any instructions on how to properly care for or wear the lenses, and all were sold individual contact lenses without a prescription, examination or fitting by an eye care professional. (emory.edu)
- Many who wear contact lenses prefer the colored version for a variety of reasons, including the fact that they are easy to see when out of the eye. (emory.edu)
- People allergic to certain plastics should not wear contact lenses or eyeglass frames or lenses manufactured from that type of plastic. (encyclopedia.com)
- People at risk of being in accidents that might shatter glass lenses should wear plastic lenses, preferably polycarbonate. (encyclopedia.com)
- People employed in certain occupations may be prohibited from wearing contact lenses, or may be required to wear safety eyewear over the contact lenses. (encyclopedia.com)
- Occasionally some people also wear coloured contact lenses for decorative purposes. (news-medical.net)
- They can also be a factor in headaches for people who wear contact lenses if they are wearing the wrong prescription. (news-medical.net)
- They may have the option to wear bifocal contact lenses that are split into distant vision at eye level and near sight at the lower level. (news-medical.net)
- Just like prescription eyeglasses, you cannot simply wear just any type of contact lenses if you have a refractive error. (mercola.com)
- Hygiene is the most critical aspect of successful long-term contact lens wear. (aoa.org)
- If contact lenses are right for you, your doctor of optometry will provide you with the lenses, lens care kits, individual instructions for wear and care and follow-up visits over a specified time. (aoa.org)
- Also, different contact lenses often are made from different materials and in different sizes, some of which can be comfortable and healthy for you to wear, while others can lead to discomfort and even eye health problems. (aoa.org)
- There have been many advances in technology and materials in the past few years, making contact lens wear healthier for the eye and more comfortable for the patient. (pacificu.edu)
- Daily Wear: With this schedule, the lenses are worn for an average of 12 hours per day and then removed at night. (pacificu.edu)
- Extended Wear: These lenses may be worn overnight for 1-6 consecutive nights. (pacificu.edu)
- According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), around 41 million people in the US wear contact lenses. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- But despite their prevalence and the benefits they can provide, many people (myself included) wear contact lenses in a way that can compromise eye health, increasing the risk of damaged corneas and infection from microbes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Look out for the three F2 prime lenses, which combine a compact and lightweight design with fast autofocus and great image quality. (currys.co.uk)
- Ranging from 12mm to 280mm, the ARRI Signature Prime lenses offer a unique look never seen before in cinema. (arri.com)
- Thanks to the Signature Prime lenses, I had my first encounter with large format. (arri.com)
- Tair is the name of a series of prime lenses manufactured by KMZ in the Soviet Union. (wikipedia.org)
Bifocal contact lenses1
Refractive lens exchange5
- Refractive lens exchange, also called lens replacement surgery or clear lens extraction, may be a better option than LASIK , PRK or phakic IOL refractive surgery for people with presbyopia and high hyperopia (farsightedness). (allaboutvision.com)
- Refractive lens exchange typically is for people with presbyopia or extreme farsightedness , for whom LASIK, PRK or phakic IOL surgery generally are not suitable. (allaboutvision.com)
- The procedure for refractive lens exchange is virtually identical to cataract surgery . (allaboutvision.com)
- Initial recovery from refractive lens exchange - when you can resume normal everyday activities - usually takes about a week. (allaboutvision.com)
- Final outcomes of refractive lens exchange can take up to several weeks, and you may notice vision disturbances such as blurry vision , halos and glare, or a "scratchy" sensation as your eyes heal. (allaboutvision.com)
Decorative contact lenses8
- Some decorative contact lenses can turn your Halloween into a nightmare. (cdc.gov)
- Educate yourself and others about the dangers of using decorative contact lenses without a prescription. (cdc.gov)
- Decorative contact lenses bought from costume shops, online stores, beauty salons, convenience stores, flea markets, or any place where a prescription is not required will not be properly fitted to your eyes. (cdc.gov)
- The report says the demand for decorative contact lenses continues to increase, particularly among teenage girls and young women, with consumers spending approximately $180 million on them so far. (emory.edu)
- Because of the growing market, the report states: 'American young people remain at risk as a major target of the unauthorized sale of decorative contact lenses. (emory.edu)
- Having trendy decorative contact lenses is not worth losing your sight. (emory.edu)
- Encounter problems associated with decorative contact lenses? (aoa.org)
- The American Optometric Association's (AOA) 2014 American Eye-Q consumer survey found that 50 percent of respondents who wore decorative contact lenses purchased them without a prescription. (bausch.com)
- Bifocals provide both distance and near vision correction in one lens. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- The high-powered bifocal lenses also did not appear to hurt kids' vision, even though they were subjected to stronger reading power before they needed that level of correction, the researchers said. (webmd.com)
- The greater the index of refraction of the lens material and the greater the difference in the curvature between the two surfaces of the lens, the greater the change in direction of light that passes through it, and the greater the correction. (encyclopedia.com)
- Lenses can be unifocal, with one correction for all distances, or they can be correct for more than one distance (multifocal). (encyclopedia.com)
- however, lenses where the correction gradually changes from one area to the other, without visible lines, have been available since the 1970s. (encyclopedia.com)
- An accommodating intraocular lens including an optic portion having an outer peripheral edge and two, three or four balanced haptic elements for use to achieve multifocal refractive correction. (google.com.au)
- More particularly, the present invention relates to accommodating IOLs designed for refractive correction in aphakic eyes where a diseased natural lens is surgically removed, such as in the case of cataracts. (google.com.au)
- Safe contact lenses use provides an effective form of vision correction. (aoa.org)
- Easy to fit lenses for the correction of aphakia. (bausch.com)
- Contact lenses that are indicated for therapeutic use and can also provide optical correction during healing if required. (bausch.com)
- Apochromats' or 'Apo' lenses are able to image three colors to the same exact size, but used to be limited to process lenses such as the Apo Artar, which sacrifice speed and coverage to obtain apochromatic correction. (largeformatphotography.info)
- The people who will make your glasses for you need these numbers to create lenses that will correct the way your eye bends light. (kidshealth.org)
- This allows the pinhole to be opened up significantly (fourth image) because a thin convex lens bends light rays in proportion to their distance to the axis of the lens, with rays striking the center of the lens passing straight through. (wikipedia.org)
- In the last section, we saw that at any one point, a lens bends light beams to a certain total degree, no matter the light beam's angle of entry. (howstuffworks.com)
- photography ) A wide-angle lens having an extremely wide field of view (approaching or exceeding 180 degrees) and producing images that are circular or distorted by curvature at the edges. (wiktionary.org)
- It's a perfect, everyday, go-to wide-angle lens for your mobile photography and filmmaking. (apple.com)
- If you're taking a close-up portrait, you might use a wide-angle lens . (howstuffworks.com)
Lead to corneal2
- Contact lenses can lead to corneal ulcers and infections that are so severe that they cause blindness. (mercola.com)
- Improperly used contact lenses can lead to corneal abrasions, corneal edema, corneal ulcers or eye infections, necessitating medical or surgical treatment, ultimately increasing costs and undermining quality of life. (aoa.org)
- Lens replacement surgery also can correct myopia (nearsightedness), but generally it is not recommended when LASIK, PRK or phakic IOLs are available. (allaboutvision.com)
- The lenses have varying powers in their different meridians, allowing them to correct the varying levels of myopia or hyperopia in the person's eye. (mercola.com)
- Specializing in myopia control lenses for children, our experienced optometrists at The Point Optical will assist in providing the solution for all your optical needs. (streetdirectory.com)
- But eyeglasses or contact lenses, also called corrective lenses, can help most people see more clearly. (kidshealth.org)
- this includes prescribing eyeglasses and contact lenses, but also doing eye surgery for other eye-related problems. (kidshealth.org)
- An optometrist is a licensed professional who specializes in eye exams and in figuring out the right prescriptions for eyeglasses and contact lenses. (kidshealth.org)
- Contact lenses are a convenient and comfortable alternative to eyeglasses for many people. (webmd.com)
- Eyeglasses and contact lenses are devices that correct refractive errors in vision. (encyclopedia.com)
- This procedure can be utilized as a substitute to refractive surgery, eyeglasses or for the one who choose not use contact lenses. (streetdirectory.com)
- If you need glasses or contact lenses, your doctor will write you a prescription. (kidshealth.org)
- Thinner, flatter lenses are recommended when a prescription is strong. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- High-quality materials and precise technology enable the manufacture of ZEISS single vision lenses which are as thin and light as possible - even with a high prescription. (zeiss.com)
- Even if you have a high prescription or special visual impairment, ZEISS single vision lenses can be produced for you which are aesthetically appealing and exceptionally flat. (zeiss.com)
- Many people think that if you are wearing the lenses purely for decorative purpose, you do not need a prescription,' Ward continued. (emory.edu)
- A separate contact lens -fitting exam is necessary if the patient wants contact lenses, because an eyeglass prescription is not the same as a contact lens prescription. (encyclopedia.com)
- I have prescription sunglasses with polarized lenses. (jwz.org)
- The toric lenses might not be as effective as prescription glasses at adjusting vision. (news-medical.net)
- Cosmetic contact lenses can cause problems if they have not been selected and initially fitted with the help of an optometrist to ensure that they are the correct prescription and to minimize the risk of refractive errors. (news-medical.net)
- In 2004, the Republican-controlled Congress passed the Contact Lens Rule , which asked the FTC to step in because government-licensed optometrists and ophthalmologists were using the power of regulatory capture (vis-a-vis government prescription mandates) to raise prices by forcing consumers to purchase lenses directly from them at inflated prices. (forbes.com)
- The legislation required that doctors give copies of the prescription to the patient, who could then use those slips to shop anywhere he/she wants to for lenses so long as a doctor did not flag a health concern within one business day. (forbes.com)
- Perhaps once the Trump administration officially takes charge, the FTC will also gain a more conservative bent and further chip away at these contact lens monopolies by relaxing the unreasonable eyecare prescription mandate. (forbes.com)
- Contact lenses, whether corrective or plano , are classified as medical devices by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and require a valid prescription under federal law to purchase. (aoa.org)
- All contact lenses, even purely cosmetic ones, are considered medical devices and require a prescription. (aoa.org)
- See their campaign that alerts consumers of the dangers of purchasing contact lenses without a prescription . (bausch.com)
- Signet Armorlite, Inc. manufactures and sells the above eyeglass lenses. (kodak.com)
- the most widely used eyeglass lenses. (zeiss.com)
- Eyeglass lenses are mounted in frames worn on the face, sitting mostly on the ears and nose, so that the lenses are positioned in front of the eyes. (encyclopedia.com)
- To be suitable for eyeglass lenses, a material must be transparent, without bubbles, and have a high index of refraction. (encyclopedia.com)
- Glass was the first material to be used for eyeglass lenses, and was used for several hundred years before plastic was introduced. (encyclopedia.com)
- In 2011, the Commission worked with the Justice Department to issue a consent decree against Da Young Kim, in effect calling Kim a felon for the "crime" for selling non-corrective contact lenses online. (forbes.com)
- What if doctors aren't reporting an adverse event, but still have information about a suspected illegal sale of corrective or novelty plano contact lenses? (aoa.org)
- veterinary eye care, veterinary ophthalmology, bandage lenses for animals, corrective lenses for dogs and cats Acrivet, Inc. is now fully integrated under Bausch + Lomb. (bausch.com)
- The lenses that can be added to the video line-up now include the 14mm pancake lens, the 8mm fisheye lens and the 45-200mm zoom lenses. (techradar.com)
- A flat lens design without the 'fisheye effect' - for a natural look. (zeiss.com)
- There are a handful of camera lenses that you can get for the iPhone, which allow you to take a number of unique photos using a fisheye effect or better macro focus. (slashgear.com)
- fisheye lens on Wikipedia. (wiktionary.org)
- Contact lenses are considered medical devices and can be worn to correct vision , or for cosmetic or therapeutic reasons. (wikipedia.org)
- The amount of time a lens is worn each day and the frequency with which it is replaced is dependent upon many factors, such as doctor's recommendations, ocular health of the eye, patient convenience and compliance with lens care regimen. (pacificu.edu)
- Contact lenses are worn by an estimated 41 million people in the US. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The ZEISS Loxia lenses are small, robust and made of metal. (zeiss.com)
- In 1801, Thomas Young made a pair of basic contact lenses based on Descartes' model. (wikipedia.org)
- While in principle a simple convex lens will suffice, in practice a compound lens made up of a number of optical lens elements is required to correct (as much as possible) the many optical aberrations that arise. (wikipedia.org)
- A camera lens may be made from a number of elements: from one, as in the Box Brownie 's meniscus lens, to over 20 in the more complex zooms. (wikipedia.org)
- It's made of aerospace grade metal and the same hand-polished glass used for high-end 4K film lenses. (apple.com)
- Lenses made from polycarbonate, the same type of plastic used for the space shuttle windshield, are about 50 times stronger than other lens materials. (encyclopedia.com)
- Lenses are made from either glass or plastic (hard resin). (encyclopedia.com)
- Toric lenses are usually made from silicone hydrogel or gas permeable materials. (news-medical.net)
- This bill made it clear that although doctors are required to issue prescriptions for lenses, those Rx slips are the property of the patient and not the prescriber. (forbes.com)
- Invented in 1887, lenses were initially made of glass. (encyclopedia.com)
- Modern contact lenses, developed (1948) by Kevin Tuohy, are made of plastic. (encyclopedia.com)
- Cameras compensate for this using several lenses made of different materials. (howstuffworks.com)
- Non-prescriptive and prescriptive lenses can be made by the metho. (google.com)
- They also need more expertise than both soft lenses and toric lenses, as they're custom-made to parameters that the eye doctor has specified. (mercola.com)
- According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as close as 1 million visits are made by patients yearly to treat eye infections - and the biggest risk factor is the improper use of contact lenses. (mercola.com)
- I'd rather MacGyver a solution with whatever's on hand - like this DIY lens case made from plastic bottles and bubble wrap. (lifehacker.com.au)
- Gas Permeable (gp) Lens Material that can be made into a wide variety of special designs for demanding visual needs. (bausch.com)
- The added benefit of the magnetic rear net holders made these lenses a no-brainer, allowing us to have consistent net stretches across the entire lens range. (arri.com)
- Voightlander made a series of lenses to fit various cameras, called Apo-Lantha r. (largeformatphotography.info)
- Until quite recently, most lenses were 'achromats' meaning that two colors made images the same exact size. (largeformatphotography.info)
- The new 'rare earth' glasses, of which lanthanum is one, made it possible for faster and/or wider lenses to qualify. (largeformatphotography.info)
- While they might feel like a relatively modern invention, rigid contact lenses made from plastic were first manufactured in the US between 1938 and 1940. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The custom Lenses you can choose from a series of pre-made templates upon which to build the Lens - 150 of which will be available at launch - or upload a face image to use. (thenextweb.com)
- With their reliable functions, camera lenses from ZEISS ensure that photographers can fully concentrate on the image and composition, and bring their creativity to life. (zeiss.com)
- A camera lens (also known as photographic lens or photographic objective ) is an optical lens or assembly of lenses used in conjunction with a camera body and mechanism to make images of objects either on photographic film or on other media capable of storing an image chemically or electronically. (wikipedia.org)
- There is no major difference in principle between a lens used for a still camera , a video camera , a telescope , a microscope , or other apparatus, but the detailed design and construction are different. (wikipedia.org)
- If one were inside the camera, one would see the lens acting as a projector . (wikipedia.org)
- Fingertip control of zoom speed via the zoom lever on the lens barrel or the zoom ring makes it possible to zoom smoothly while maintaining a sure, steady grip on the camera. (sony.com)
- However, it's rumored that Sony will be releasing a camera lens attachment with the same specs as the RX100 II that was recently unveiled . (slashgear.com)
- Here as we saw very, very briefly earlier this week , we've gotten another look at a key accessory for this machine - a camera grip that makes the machine much more like the big-handling machines its amalgamation of lenses and processing abilities suggests. (slashgear.com)
- This camera will work with a fabulous 20x Genuine Canon HD Video Lens and the ability to record straight to MP4. (slashgear.com)
- I wish to convert to a decent DSLR and at present own a Pentax SFXn camera with numerous lenses. (ephotozine.com)
- My lenses are high quality and I wish to use them on any camera I purchase. (ephotozine.com)
- Do you have a camera dealer close to you where you can take a couple of your lenses along and try them on a Pentax dSLR body. (ephotozine.com)
- A standard 50 mm camera lens doesn't significantly magnify or shrink the image, making it ideal for shooting objects that aren't especially close or far away. (howstuffworks.com)
- A camera lens is actually several lenses combined into one unit. (howstuffworks.com)
- It graphically illustrates how depth of field and field of view relate to your SLR camera and lenses. (apple.com)
- Lab is more than a great depth of field calculator, it's a lens simulator that can help you explore, see, and intuitively understand how depth of field works with your camera and lenses. (apple.com)
- Office Lens is the new camera built into OneNote for iPad or iPhone that lets you take pictures of whiteboards or printed documents, then enhances your photo by cropping, sharpening, and straightening it, so it looks almost like a scanned image. (microsoft.com)
- Camera Setting , and turn off Use Office Lens . (microsoft.com)
- Super lightweight and portable, this 'pancake' lens is the perfect partner to your X Series camera, giving a sleek and discreet look and delivering great results thanks to high-precision autofocusing and impressive optical quality. (currys.co.uk)
- If you're keen on shooting high-quality portraits with your X Series camera, then this stunning lens is an absolute must-have! (currys.co.uk)
- Why Is It Difficulty To Get Camera Lenses Faster Than f/1.2? (lifehacker.com.au)
- The lens you use with your camera plays a huge part in determining the quality of photos you get, but a lot of casual photographers don't want to invest in expensive lenses and stick to whatever comes with the camera. (lifehacker.com.au)
- Camera lenses are expensive, but you can often pick up a second-hand one cheaply. (lifehacker.com.au)
- So, what is it exactly that you are getting when you use a lens on a camera with a crop factor? (cambridgeincolour.com)
- The whole thing originated with film camera lenses been used on "crop sensor" cameras. (cambridgeincolour.com)
- If you put a FF (FX) lens on a "crop camera" body you get a "cropped image" on the smaller sensor. (cambridgeincolour.com)
- Using a dedicated "crop" camera lens on a FF body will cover the same area of the sc ne as is covered when fitting that same lens on a "crop" sensor body. (cambridgeincolour.com)
- Thanks for your patience in answering what are probably basic questions of how lens and camera function. (cambridgeincolour.com)
- LDS-2 extends the possibilities of lens data and can be licensed to other lens and camera manufacturers. (arri.com)
- This is a lens I own personally and have been using on older camera bodies for years, but we were eager take it for a spin on some newer sensors to see just how well it holds up. (dpreview.com)
- Light and inconspicuous - the ZEISS Loxia Lenses are optimally suited to video recordings: their compact size enables the cameraman to work unobtrusively from various angles and thus avoid disrupting the scenery. (zeiss.com)
- A harmonious bokeh and the full-frame coverage are the ideal complements to the ZEISS Loxia lenses. (zeiss.com)
- ZEISS Lens Gears make ZEISS Otus, ZEISS Milvus and ZEISS Loxia lenses a proper cine-style lens for professional filmmakers. (zeiss.com)
- The ZEISS Lens Gears are available in four different sizes: mini, small, medium and large. (zeiss.com)
- ZEISS Loxia lenses are suitable for digital Sony Alpha cameras and have been optimized for film and sensors up to full 35 mm format (24 x 36 mm). (zeiss.com)
- ZEISS grants a warranty period of two years from the date of purchase for all its photographic lenses. (zeiss.com)
- ZEISS single vision lenses can be fitted by an eye care professional to perfectly accommodate the wearer's vision needs and reading habits. (zeiss.com)
- Now all clear lenses from ZEISS come with full UV protection! (zeiss.com)
- This week the team at ZEISS have announced that they'll no longer be branding their lens family with the name of their founder. (slashgear.com)
- ZEISS lenses are known for their superior sharpness, contrast, and well-defined blacks. (sony.co.uk)
- This new technology also allows for the creation of individually-customized lenses that provide the wearer with a wider field of view, improved contrast and the most accurate, clearest vision possible. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- These lenses are fitted to the particular wearer and are optimized for good vision even in the periphery of the lens. (zeiss.com)
- Uncompromisingly precise - no matter if they're reading or distance lenses, guaranteeing excellent wearer tolerance and a quick adaptation period. (zeiss.com)
- The lenses they buy over-the-counter are not prescribed by a medical professional, and as such, do not typically 'fit' the wearer. (emory.edu)
- GP lenses give the wearer sharper vision than toric lenses, but they can be more difficult to adapt to. (mercola.com)
Index of refract1
- When compared with spectacles, contact lenses typically provide better peripheral vision, and do not collect moisture (from rain, snow, condensation etc.) or perspiration. (wikipedia.org)
- Nonsurgical ways are with properly designed spectacles and contact lenses. (hindawi.com)
- Patients who are becoming presbyopic may want to consider the use of contact lenses (SCL or RGP) instead of spectacles. (pacificu.edu)
- From spectacles to contact lenses and sunglasses, we provide a wide selection of quality products and excellent services to cater to each individual optical needs. (streetdirectory.com)
- Growth will be driven by new adopters, a generation of younger Mexicans who are used to accepting contact lenses as alternatives or complements to spectacles, and by continued innovation in materials and technology. (euromonitor.com)
- Soligor Telephoto f/4 lens with 39mm screw mount. (ebay.co.uk)
- The point was emphasized by three colored grooves on the front of the lens mount. (largeformatphotography.info)
- Most significantly for us, it was one of our standard studio lenses for Nikon-mount cameras for quite some time. (dpreview.com)
- Variants include the Tair 11A for the M42 lens mount and the original Tair 11 for the M39 lens mount. (wikipedia.org)
- Like many other Tair lenses, it uses the M39/M42 lens mount. (wikipedia.org)
Cosmetic contact lenses2
- Each year we treat patients, including children under 16, who have developed eye conditions after wearing cosmetic contact lenses. (itv.com)
- It further benefits from its leading position within cosmetic contact lenses with the brand Freshlook, as well as its strong focus on the training of eye care professionals. (euromonitor.com)
- Prescriptions for contact lenses and glasses may be similar but are not interchangeable. (aoa.org)
- The FUJINON XF lens range enables photographers using FUJIFILM X Series interchangeable lens cameras to capture outstanding images, no matter what they want to shoot. (currys.co.uk)
- In this buying guide we've rounded up all the current interchangeable lens cameras costing less than $500 and recommended the best. (dpreview.com)