Poly A-U: A double-stranded polyribonucleotide comprising polyadenylic and polyuridylic acids.Poly dA-dT: Polydeoxyribonucleotides made up of deoxyadenine nucleotides and thymine nucleotides. Present in DNA preparations isolated from crab species. Synthetic preparations have been used extensively in the study of DNA.Polydeoxyribonucleotides: A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.Poly C: A group of cytosine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each cytosine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Poly U: A group of uridine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each uridine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Poly I-C: Interferon inducer consisting of a synthetic, mismatched double-stranded RNA. The polymer is made of one strand each of polyinosinic acid and polycytidylic acid.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Poly(A)-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.Poly G: A group of guanine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each guanine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Poly T: A group of thymine nucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each thymine nucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: A polynucleotide formed from the ADP-RIBOSE moiety of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES.Poly I: A group of inosine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each inosine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Polyribonucleotides: A group of 13 or more ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Dopamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid: A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.Poly(A)-Binding Protein I: A poly(A) binding protein that has a variety of functions such as mRNA stabilization and protection of RNA from nuclease activity. Although poly(A) binding protein I is considered a major cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein it is also found in the CELL NUCLEUS and may be involved in transport of mRNP particles.Polynucleotide Adenylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of polyadenylic acid from ATP. May be due to the action of RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.6) or polynucleotide adenylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.19). EC 2.7.7.19.Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Dopaminergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.PolynucleotidesNucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Dopamine Agents: Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.Receptors, Dopamine: Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Ventral Tegmental Area: A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Substantia Nigra: The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Receptors, Dopamine D1: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Ductus Arteriosus: A fetal blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery with the descending aorta.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Poly(A)-Binding Protein II: A poly(A) binding protein that is involved in promoting the extension of the poly A tails of MRNA. The protein requires a minimum of ten ADENOSINE nucleotides in order for binding to mRNA. Once bound it works in conjunction with CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR to stimulate the rate of poly A synthesis by POLY A POLYMERASE. Once poly-A tails reach around 250 nucleotides in length poly(A) binding protein II no longer stimulates POLYADENYLATION. Mutations within a GCG repeat region in the gene for poly(A) binding protein II have been shown to cause the disease MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY, OCULOPHARYNGEAL.Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
  • Poly(dA:dT)/LyoVec complexes that are indirectly recognized by RIG-I. (invivogen.com)
  • THP1-Dual™ cells were stimulated with 1 ng/ml Pam3CSK4 (TLR2), 100 ng/ml LPS-EK UP (TLR4), 100 ng/ml FLA-ST UP (TLR5), 10 μg/ml R848 (TLR7/8), 10 μg/ml Tri-DAP (NOD1), 3 μg/ml 2'3'-cGAMP (STING), 1 μg/ml poly(I:C)/LyoVec™ (RLR) or 100 ng/ml poly(dA:dT)/LyoVec™ (CDS). (invivogen.com)
  • However, it is admitted that RIG-I and MDA-5 exhibit a different dependency for the length of dsRNAs: RIG-I selectively binds short dsRNA while MDA-5 selectively binds long dsRNA. (invivogen.com)
  • The role of dT n extends beyond termination, since it provides a means to link Pol III transcripts to La, an abundant and ubiquitous nuclear phosphoprotein that binds these RNAs in a 3′-oligo(U) length-dependent manner and promotes their posttranscriptional processing ( 27 , 32 , 37 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Pax-6 constructs lacking the C-terminal activation domain repressed βB1-crystallin promoter activity as effectively as the full-length protein, but the PD alone or Pax-6 (5a), a splice variant with an altered PD affecting its DNA binding specificity, did not. (asm.org)
  • There is a conserved spatial arrangement of poly dA.dT immediately flanking open reading frames and over predicted core promoter sites. (keele.ac.uk)
  • Recombinant plasmids isolated from a single colony contained populations of circular molecules which varied both in the length of the satellite region and in the poly(dA)-(dt) regions linking satellite and vector. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, the recombinant CcLIG4 protein not only showed ATP-dependent ligase activity, but also used (dT) 16 /poly(dA) and (dT) 16 /poly(rA) as substrates, and had double-strand ligation activity, like human DNA ligase IV. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Moreover, transfection of the pUL83 expression vector into recombinant HEK293T cells stimulated by poly(dA:dT) resulted in reduced expression and activation of AIM2 inflammasome-associated proteins, compared with the absence of pUL83. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hybrid plasmid molecules containing tandemly repeated Drosophila satellite DNA were constructed using a modification of the (dA)-(dT) homopolymer procedure of Lobban and Kaiser (1973). (nih.gov)
  • In terms of suppression of interferon responses in a mammalian cell, dsRNA (siRNA) consisting of single stranded RNA with a length of conventionally 15 to 25 base pairs is selected as the synthetic dsRNA. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Lifetime 11 plastic shed is an apex roof garden shed, manufactured from high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with heavy duty, powder coated steel reinforcements. (tigersheds.com)
  • The processing of extra- and intracellular MWNTs (both pristine and when acid oxidised) by microglia was characterised across multiple length scales by correlating a range of dynamic, quantitative and multi-scale techniques, including: UV-vis spectroscopy, light microscopy, focussed ion beam scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Two monoculture models, immortalized human alveolar epithelial type 1 (TT1) cells and primary human alveolar epithelial type 2 cells (AT2), which constitute the alveolar epithelial barrier, were employed to investigate the uptake and transport of 300 and 700 nm in length, poly(4-vinylpyridine)-functionalized, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (p(4VP)-MWCNTs) using quantitative imaging and spectroscopy techniques. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • To examine the role of RSG in plant development, we generated transgenic tobacco plants expressing a dominant-negative form of RSG, which repressed the activity of full-length RSG. (plantcell.org)
  • Association of AD risk and AAO with genotyped and imputed SNPs located in an 800-Mb region including APOE in the entire Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium data set and with the TOMM40 poly-T marker genotyped in a subset of 1256 cases and 1605 controls. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Samples are generally loaded with higher volume (usually 20 μl or more) to ensure even hybridization along the length of the flow cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • It turned out that inside the cell, the poly(dA-DT) was actually being converted into 5′-ppp. (benfulton.net)
  • To generate tails of this length, it is first necessary to estimate how many 3' ends there are in the sample and then use the right ratio of DNA, dATP, and terminal transferase to obtain the optimal size range of tails. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although 3′-U length heterogeneity has been well documented for Pol III transcripts ( 27 ), relatively little is known about the mechanisms involved and its functional significance. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Standard metric units are used for reporting length, weight, and volume. (asm.org)
  • A model system that can be used to alter 3′-U length and study its consequences should be helpful in understanding functional connectivity between Pol III termination and posttranscriptional processing. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • An opal suppressor tRNA Ser UGAM gene with a dT 7 terminator ( tRNAmSer7T ), which suppresses a nonsense mutation in the ade6 - 704 allele and accumulation of red pigment, has been used to study tRNA biogenesis and the function of the La homolog, Sla1p, in the yeast S. pombe . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)