Pharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.Pharmacy: The practice of compounding and dispensing medicinal preparations.Education, Pharmacy: Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.Schools, Pharmacy: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of pharmacy.Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Community Pharmacy Services: Total pharmaceutical services provided to the public through community pharmacies.Education, Pharmacy, Graduate: Educational programs for pharmacists who have a bachelor's degree or a Doctor of Pharmacy degree entering a specific field of pharmacy. They may lead to an advanced degree.Legislation, Medical: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Legislation, Pharmacy: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of pharmacy, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Pharmacy Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the receiving, storing, and distribution of pharmaceutical supplies.Education, Pharmacy, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform graduate pharmacists of recent advances in their particular field.Pharmacists: Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.Pharmaceutical Services: Total pharmaceutical services provided by qualified PHARMACISTS. In addition to the preparation and distribution of medical products, they may include consultative services provided to agencies and institutions which do not have a qualified pharmacist.Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Pharmacists' Aides: Persons who perform certain functions under the supervision of the pharmacist.Pharmacy Administration: The business and managerial aspects of pharmacy in its broadest sense.Licensure, Pharmacy: The granting of a license to practice pharmacy.Clinical Pharmacy Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical pharmacy services.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Public Facilities: An area of recreation or hygiene for use by the public.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Ethics, Pharmacy: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the pharmacist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the pharmacist in health care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Insurance, Pharmaceutical Services: Insurance providing for payment of services rendered by the pharmacist. Services include the preparation and distribution of medical products.RestaurantsCurriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Professional Role: The expected function of a member of a particular profession.Pharmacy Residencies: Advanced programs of training to meet certain professional requirements in the practice of compounding and dispensing medicinal preparations.Nonprescription Drugs: Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Internship, Nonmedical: Advanced programs of training to meet certain professional requirements in fields other than medicine or dentistry, e.g., pharmacology, nutrition, nursing, etc.United StatesDrug Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for drugs and BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS. These include those in ampule, capsule, tablet, solution or other forms. Packaging includes immediate-containers, secondary-containers, and cartons. In the United States, such packaging is controlled under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which also stipulates requirements for tamper-resistance and child-resistance. Similar laws govern use elsewhere. (From Code of Federal Regulations, 21 CFR 1 Section 210, 1993) DRUG LABELING is also available.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Head Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of heads from impact, penetration from falling and flying objects, and from limited electric shock and burn.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee: An advisory group composed primarily of staff physicians and the pharmacist which serves as the communication link between the medical staff and the pharmacy department.Smoke-Free Policy: Prohibition against tobacco smoking in specific areas to control TOBACCO SMOKE POLLUTION.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Lobbying: A process whereby representatives of a particular interest group attempt to influence governmental decision makers to accept the policy desires of the lobbying organization.Drug and Narcotic Control: Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.LegislationPreceptorship: Practical experience in medical and health-related services that occurs as part of an educational program wherein the professionally-trained student works outside the academic environment under the supervision of an established professional in the particular field.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Legislation, Dental: Laws and regulations pertaining to the field of dentistry, proposed for enactment or recently enacted by a legislative body.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Societies, Pharmaceutical: Societies whose membership is limited to pharmacists.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Syringes: Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Insurance Claim Review: Review of claims by insurance companies to determine liability and amount of payment for various services. The review may also include determination of eligibility of the claimant or beneficiary or of the provider of the benefit; determination that the benefit is covered or not payable under another policy; or determination that the service was necessary and of reasonable cost and quality.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Problem-Based Learning: Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Drugs, Generic: Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.Electronic Prescribing: The use of COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS to store and transmit medical PRESCRIPTIONS.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Drug Utilization Review: Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.Accreditation: Certification as complying with a standard set by non-governmental organizations, applied for by institutions, programs, and facilities on a voluntary basis.Formularies as Topic: Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.Legislation, Veterinary: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of veterinary medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Prescription Drugs: Drugs that cannot be sold legally without a prescription.Civil Rights: Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from http://www.usccr.gov/ accessed 1/31/2003)Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Fees, Pharmaceutical: Amounts charged to the patient or third-party payer for medication. It includes the pharmacist's professional fee and cost of ingredients, containers, etc.Legislation, Hospital: Laws and regulations concerning hospitals, which are proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Law Enforcement: Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Medication Errors: Errors in prescribing, dispensing, or administering medication with the result that the patient fails to receive the correct drug or the indicated proper drug dosage.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Seat Belts: Restraining belts fastened to the frame of automobiles, aircraft, or other vehicles, and strapped around the person occupying the seat in the car or plane, intended to prevent the person from being thrown forward or out of the vehicle in case of sudden deceleration.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Combination: This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.Pharmaceutical Services, Online: Pharmacy services accessed via electronic means.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Infanticide: The killing of infants at birth or soon after.Legislation, Nursing: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of nursing, proposed for enactment by a legislative body.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Commitment of Mentally Ill: Legal process required for the institutionalization of a patient with severe mental problems.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.ScotlandFederal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Transcription Elongation, Genetic: The lengthening of a nascent RNA molecule by RNA POLYMERASE during transcription.Economics, Pharmaceutical: Economic aspects of the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology as they apply to the development and study of medical economics in rational drug therapy and the impact of pharmaceuticals on the cost of medical care. Pharmaceutical economics also includes the economic considerations of the pharmaceutical care delivery system and in drug prescribing, particularly of cost-benefit values. (From J Res Pharm Econ 1989;1(1); PharmacoEcon 1992;1(1))Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Mandatory Programs: Programs in which participation is required.Patient Rights: Fundamental claims of patients, as expressed in statutes, declarations, or generally accepted moral principles. (Bioethics Thesaurus) The term is used for discussions of patient rights as a group of many rights, as in a hospital's posting of a list of patient rights.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Social Control, Formal: Control which is exerted by the more stable organizations of society, such as established institutions and the law. They are ordinarily embodied in definite codes, usually written.Medication Adherence: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Licensure: The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.Right to Die: The right of the patient or the patient's representative to make decisions with regard to the patient's dying.Insurance Benefits: Payments or services provided under stated circumstances under the terms of an insurance policy. In prepayment programs, benefits are the services the programs will provide at defined locations and to the extent needed.Bicycling: The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Animal Testing Alternatives: Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.Great BritainCaliforniaAccident Prevention: Efforts and designs to reduce the incidence of unexpected undesirable events in various environments and situations.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Wills: Legal documents that are declarations of individuals' wishes regarding the disposal of their property or estate after death; esp: written instruments, legally executed, by which dispositions are made of estates. LIVING WILLS are written declarations regarding prolongation of life by extraordinary means.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Prescription Fees: The charge levied on the consumer for drugs or therapy prescribed under written order of a physician or other health professional.Vomeronasal Organ: An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)EuropeUnited Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Facility Regulation and Control: Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.Professional-Patient Relations: Interactions between health personnel and patients.Patient Simulation: The use of persons coached to feign symptoms or conditions of real diseases in a life-like manner in order to teach or evaluate medical personnel.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Women's Rights: The rights of women to equal status pertaining to social, economic, and educational opportunities afforded by society.Competency-Based Education: Educational programs designed to ensure that students attain prespecified levels of competence in a given field or training activity. Emphasis is on achievement or specified objectives.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Needle-Exchange Programs: Organized services for exchange of sterile needles and syringes used for injections as a potential means of reducing the transmission of infectious diseases.Judicial Role: The kind of action or activity proper to the judiciary, particularly its responsibility for decision making.United States Government Agencies: Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.IrelandInternationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS; MEDICAL DEVICES; corrective LENSES; and a variety of other medical remedies.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Cost Sharing: Provisions of an insurance policy that require the insured to pay some portion of covered expenses. Several forms of sharing are in use, e.g., deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments. Cost sharing does not refer to or include amounts paid in premiums for the coverage. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Educational Technology: Systematic identification, development, organization, or utilization of educational resources and the management of these processes. It is occasionally used also in a more limited sense to describe the use of equipment-oriented techniques or audiovisual aids in educational settings. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, December 1993, p132)Motorcycles: Two-wheeled, engine-driven vehicles.Euthanasia, Active, Voluntary: Active euthanasia of a patient at the patient's request and/or with the patient's consent.Insanity Defense: A legal concept that an accused is not criminally responsible if, at the time of committing the act, the person was laboring under such a defect of reason from disease of the mind as not to know the nature and quality of the act done or if the act was known, to not have known that what was done was wrong. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed)Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Cotinine: The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.Reimbursement Mechanisms: Processes or methods of reimbursement for services rendered or equipment.Jurisprudence: The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Insemination, Artificial, Heterologous: Human artificial insemination in which the semen used is that of a man other than the woman's husband.Consumer Product SafetyRetrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Retrospective Moral Judgment: The application of current standards of morality to past actions, institutions, or persons.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Animal Rights: The moral and ethical bases of the protection of animals from cruelty and abuse. The rights are extended to domestic animals, laboratory animals, and wild animals.Medicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Medication Systems, Hospital: Overall systems, traditional or automated, to provide medication to patients in hospitals. Elements of the system are: handling the physician's order, transcription of the order by nurse and/or pharmacist, filling the medication order, transfer to the nursing unit, and administration to the patient.Insurance, Psychiatric: Insurance providing benefits to cover part or all of the psychiatric care.Minors: A person who has not attained the age at which full civil rights are accorded.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Paternalism: Interference with the FREEDOM or PERSONAL AUTONOMY of another person, with justifications referring to the promotion of the person's good or the prevention of harm to the person. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995); more generally, not allowing a person to make decisions on his or her own behalf.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Medicare Part D: A stand-alone drug plan offered by insurers and other private companies to beneficiaries that receive their Medicare Part A and/or B benefits through the Original Medicare Plan. It includes Medicare Private Fee-for-Service Plans that do not offer prescription drug coverage and Medicare Cost Plans offering Medicare prescription drug coverage. The plan was enacted as the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003 with coverage beginning January 1, 2006.Self Medication: The self administration of medication not prescribed by a physician or in a manner not directed by a physician.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Euthanasia, Passive: Failing to prevent death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy by the withdrawal or withholding of life-prolonging treatment.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Child Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of children; frequently through a legal process.Patient Care: The services rendered by members of the health profession and non-professionals under their supervision.Trypanosoma brucei brucei: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).Cost Savings: Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.Animal Experimentation: The use of animals as investigational subjects.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Policy: A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.Euthanasia, Active: The act or practice of killing for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person or animal from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Compensation and Redress: Payment, or other means of making amends, for a wrong or injury.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Military Medicine: The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.

Sales practices of patent medicine sellers in Nigeria. (1/25)

A survey was carried out among patent medicine dealers to evaluate their practices that militate against laws governing prescriptions-only medicines in Nigeria. Questionnaires were distributed to 46 patent medicine dealers and later collected from them on appointment. Analysis of the results showed that all the patent medicine dealers were aware of the law governing the sale of prescription drugs in Nigeria. Seventy-five per cent of them stock such drugs. Patent medicine dealers obtain their drugs largely from sales representative of pharmaceutical companies as well as from industries. Inappropriate use of sales boys and girls in patent medicine stores and defective government policies were all investigated.  (+info)

Nuclear pharmacy, Part II: Nuclear pharmacy practice today. (2/25)

OBJECTIVE: Nuclear pharmacy is a specialty within the profession of pharmacy that focuses on the proper use of radiopharmaceuticals. This article reviews various features of contemporary nuclear pharmacy practice. After reading this article the nuclear medicine technologist should be able to: (a) describe nuclear pharmacy training and certification; (b) discuss nuclear pharmacy practice settings; (c) discuss nuclear pharmacy practice activities; (d) list professional organizations; and (e) describe activities associated with job satisfaction. In addition, the reader should be able to discuss regulatory issues of current concern.  (+info)

Comparative approaches to pharmaceutical price regulation in the European Union. (3/25)

AIM: To review pharmaceutical price regulation methods in countries of the European Union (EU), in terms of the anticipated impact of regulation on pharmaceutical expenditures and evidence of actual outcomes. METHOD: An extensive search was performed of medical and economic studies on regulatory interventions specifically targeting pharmaceutical prices in EU countries, published between January 1990 and April 2002. Both peer-reviewed and "gray" literature were systematically reviewed. RESULTS: Four principle approaches to pharmaceutical price regulation with some methodological differences were identified in EU countries, as follows: fixed pricing, cost-effectiveness pricing, profit controls, and reference pricing. Actual evidence of the impact of price regulation was limited in many of these countries. Cross-country comparisons suggested that limiting the rise of pharmaceutical prices did not equate to controlling the rise of pharmaceutical expenditures because of the volume effect of utilization. CONCLUSIONS: Supply-side regulation without the simultaneous use of demand-side incentives and volume controls does little to control the rise in pharmaceutical expenditures. The types of needed demand-side controls depend on the context of the individual country, on political priorities, and on the type of supply-side regulation in place.  (+info)

Opioid "mythstakes": opioid analgesics--current clinical and regulatory perspectives. (4/25)

Barriers to appropriate prescribing of opioids include the deficit in educating medical students in core curricula. Other barriers include physicians' lack of knowledge of pain management, failure to educate their patients or include them in treatment options, and failure to take adequate medical histories and obtain records of their patients' previous treatment. In addition, physicians often lack the ability to distinguish the patient who is suffering pain from the addict. Patients, too, may fear that opioid therapy may cause addiction. This article provides an overview of guidelines and federal regulations for prescribing opioids, along with some caveats, in the hope that physicians and patients alike will appreciate that pain management is an integral part of treatment. And, that treatment is aimed at decreasing or eradicating pain and maintaining patients' function to the greatest possible degree while monitoring and treating side effects.  (+info)

Effects of ambulatory-care pharmacist consultation on mortality and hospitalization. (5/25)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of 3 alternative models of ambulatory-care pharmacist consultation on patient survival and hospitalization. STUDY DESIGN: Patients were randomly chosen adult Kaiser Permanente (KP) Southern California enrollees with at least 1 prescription in the base year. The demonstration lasted 23 months. Using time-dependent proportional hazards estimation, survival and hospitalization were examined across 5 patient risk groups. INTERVENTIONS: The pharmacy interventions were (1) consultation about new or changed prescriptions as mandated by 1992 state and federal regulations (State model), (2) consultation focused on selected high-risk ambulatory care patients (KP model), and (3) pre-1992 standard care (Control model). RESULTS: In the 6 service areas in which only 1 of the models was implemented, both the KP (relative risk [RR] = 0.295, P < .001) and State (RR = 0.338, P < .001) models significantly reduced emergency hospital admissions over 2 years compared with the Control model when measured across all risk groups. The State model also was associated with fewer urgent and emergency admissions (RR = 0.854, P < .001). In the randomized treatment sample of 5499 patients, the KP model was associated with lower total mortality per new prescription filled (RR = 0.921, P < .01), and significantly lower hospitalization and mortality in high-risk patient groups. CONCLUSIONS: Intensive outpatient pharmacist consultation targeting high-risk patients would improve survival and decrease hospitalization rates. Broader nontargeted consultation would reduce hospitalizations, but was not associated with lower mortality within the 2-year intervention.  (+info)

Emergency contraception: lessons learned from the UK. (6/25)

CONTEXT: Since January 2001, women aged over 16 years in the UK have been able to purchase progestogen-only emergency hormonal contraception from pharmacists without prescription. This paper outlines the context in which these changes took place, including contraceptive choices in the UK, changes within the pharmacy profession and political pressures. OBSERVATIONS: We chart the multisectoral developments required to make emergency contraception (EC) available without prescription in the UK, from clinical research findings and results on the views and behaviour of health care professionals and users of EC, through to professional and policy developments, including challenges during and after this process. DISCUSSION: Lessons learnt from the innovative experience of the deregulation of EC in the UK apply to other regions currently considering similar change. We extrapolate internationally applicable lessons including the importance of stakeholder partnership, transparency and cautious pace of change, and the vital role of professional groups. CONCLUSION: Although this change brought a new element of reproductive choice to some women, significant barriers to access to EC still remain for young women and women unable to afford the high price ( 24/euro;37/$39) of pharmacy purchase in the UK.  (+info)

Allowing central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies to fill prescriptions for controlled substances on behalf of retail pharmacies. Final rule. (7/25)

DEA is finalizing a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) defining central fill pharmacy activities and permitting central fill pharmacies to prepare controlled substances prescriptions on behalf of retail pharmacies with which the central fill pharmacies have a contractual agreement to provide such services or with which the pharmacies share a common owner. When one retail pharmacy receives a prescription and a second pharmacy prepares and subsequently delivers the controlled substance medication to the first retail pharmacy for dispensing to the patient, the second pharmacy is engaging in a "central fill activity". Records must be maintained by both the central fill pharmacy and the retail pharmacy that completely and accurately reflect the disposition of all controlled substance prescriptions dispensed. With respect to security, central fill pharmacies would be required to comply with the same security requirements applicable to retail pharmacies including the general requirement to maintain effective controls and procedures to guard against theft and diversion of controlled substances. DEA is creating an allowance for retail pharmacies that also perform central fill activities to do so without separate DEA registration, separate inventories, or separate records. This rulemaking is sought by the regulated industry and will allow for more efficient delivery of controlled substance prescriptions to patients.  (+info)

Dangerous and Hypnotic Drug Act. (8/25)

It is unprofessional conduct within the meaning of the Medical Practice Act to prescribe a dangerous drug without either a medical examination by a physician or other medical indications. Dangerous and hypnotic drugs are specifically defined by both state and federal law and distribution is strictly regulated.A physician may administer to his own patients such amounts of dangerous drugs as are necessary for the immediate needs of the patient. The physician may obtain such needed amounts of these drugs by an order placed with a pharmacist marked "for administration to immediate needs of patients." A licensed physician may also prescribe dangerous and hypnotic drugs for patients and such prescriptions may be refilled on the specific authorization of the physician.A physician who dispenses dangerous and hypnotic drugs to patients must obtain a hypnotic drug license; he must use specific purchase orders when purchasing; the drugs must be labeled in the manner provided by law; and all records of sale shall be open to inspection by authorized officers of the law and kept for three years. By the Principles of Medical Ethics physicians are bound to limit the source of their professional income to medical services actually rendered. Recent decisions of the Judicial Council answer questions concerning a physician's interest in a corporation which purchases, packages and sells medicines under a corporate name. Also answered are questions as to the measures that exist to prevent physicians from abusing the privilege of owning a pharmacy, and whether a physician can ethically rent space in a building owned by him to a pharmacist with a percentage of the income of the pharmacy as rental. The public welfare of California and the nation as determined by legislation strictly regulates the distribution of dangerous drugs. It is in the best interest of the medical profession and its patients that these laws be understood and carefully observed.  (+info)

*Pharmacy

Legislation requires the supervision of certain pharmacy technician's activities by a pharmacist. The majority of pharmacy ... Veterinary pharmacies, sometimes called animal pharmacies, may fall in the category of hospital pharmacy, retail pharmacy or ... American Society for Pharmacy Law Apothecary Bachelor of Pharmacy, Master of Pharmacy, Doctor of Pharmacy Classification of ... In hospital pharmacies, pharmacy technicians may be managed by other senior pharmacy technicians. In the UK the role of a PhT ...

*General Pharmaceutical Council

Legislation". General Pharmaceutical Council. Retrieved 2 August 2014. "About us: What we Do: Legislation: Pharmacy Order 2010 ... Pharmaceutical industry in the United Kingdom List of pharmacy organisations in the United Kingdom List of schools of pharmacy ... pharmacy technicians and premises at which a retail pharmacy business is; to set and promote standards for the safe and ... pharmacy premises and pharmacy training premises. These registers can be accessed electronically by any member of the public ...

*Drug policy of the United Kingdom

Drug related legislation: 1868 - Pharmacy Act. First regulation of poisons and dangerous substances. Limited sales to chemists ... 1908 - Poisons and Pharmacy Act. Regulations on sale and labelling, including coca. 1916 - Defence of the Realm Act 1914 ( ... It was not itself binding on countries, which had to pass their own legislation. Following pressure from the US, the UK ... In 1991 a new phase of UK drug legislation started with an attempt to integrate health and criminal justice responses via ...

*Ken Jarrold

He was appointed chair of the Rebalancing Medicines Legislation and Pharmacy Regulation Programme Board in 2013. He lives at ...

*John Michael Maisch

He actively sought legislation regulating pharmacists and pharmacies. After completing a survey in 1868 which showed almost a ... Maisch sold his pharmacy in 1871, when he also became editor of the American Journal of Pharmacy, a position he held for 22 ... In 1861, he returned to New York City to be professor of materia medica and pharmacy in the New York College of Pharmacy and ... Science, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and (1922). The first century of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 1821-1921. pp ...

*KwikMed

2004 - Utah legislature discusses legislation to regulate Internet pharmacies. KwikMed assists in educating regulators and ... 2005 - Utah legislature again discusses legislation which would regulate Internet pharmacies. KwikMed assists legislators and ... 2010 - Google announces that only online pharmacies verified by National Association Boards of Pharmacy and certified through ... PCM agreed to allow the DOPL representatives to access PCM's contract physicians and pharmacies to inspect medical and pharmacy ...

*R v Lee

The case has been used since that time in pharmacy education and research as an aid to explain the legislation applicable to ... 284, p547 , URI: 11012947, 2 June 2010 "Impact assessment: Rebalancing medicines legislation and pharmacy regulation programme ... Pharmacy legislation - public protector or professional hindrance?, Professor Chris Langley, School of Life and Health Sciences ... Professor of Pharmacy Law and Practice, School of Pharmacy, Aston University, 21st March 2016 Managing workplace stress to ...

*Matt Blunt

... which enacted legislation requiring pharmacies as public businesses to fill such prescriptions. In 2005, Blunt signed ... Among the legislation passed were tort reform measures that overhauled the state's legal system, and changes in the state's ... He signed legislation to lower the legal intoxication limit for boaters from .10 to .08 percent. Blunt ended localities' ... "Blunt Signs Legislation Promoting the Use of Renewable Energy - Kansas City infoZine News". Infozine.com. June 26, 2007. ...

*Danish Medicines Agency

This is done through administering the Danish legislation on medicinal products, reimbursement, pharmacies, medical devices and ...

*Patient safety

... only 16 states have some form of legislation that regulates QA in community pharmacy practice. While most state QA legislation ... North Carolina has recently approved legislation that requires the pharmacy QA program to include error reduction strategies ... Community pharmacy practice is making important advances in the quality and safety movement despite the limited number of ... Community pharmacies are using automated drug dispensing devices (robots), computerized drug utilization review tools, and most ...

*New England Compounding Center meningitis outbreak

Legislation in 1997 would have given the FDA authority to regulate all compounding pharmacies, but that legislation was ... The NECC was classified as a compounding pharmacy. Such pharmacies are authorized to combine, mix, or alter ingredients to ... The NECC was classified as a compounding pharmacy. Such pharmacies are authorized to combine, mix, or alter ingredients to ... asking her why regulators at the FDA and the Massachusetts Board of Pharmacy did not take action against the pharmacy years ...

*Royal Academy (disambiguation)

Historia Real Academia de Ciencias Morales y Políticas Royal Academy of Jurisprudence and Legislation Royal Academy of Pharmacy ...

*Pharmacy Act 1868

The Pharmacy Act 1868 was the major 19th-century legislation in the United Kingdom limiting the sale of poisons and dangerous ... In contrast with legislation regulating other industries at the time, the Pharmacy Act neglected to restrict the profession to ... The Pharmacy Act 1852 set up a register of pharmacists and limited the use of the title to people registered with the society, ... The Pharmacy Act 1868 established a system of registration involving major and minor examinations controlled by the ...

*Preserving Our Hometown Independent Pharmacies Act of 2011

... (H.R. 1946) is legislation that was introduced in the 112th United ... NCPA wrote that the legislation would allow independent community pharmacies to collectively negotiate the terms and conditions ... Acts of the 112th United States Congress Pharmacy Competition and Consumer Choice Act of 2011 Food and Drug Administration "H.R ... "Opposition to H.R. 1946, Preserving Our Hometown Independent Pharmacies Act of 2011" (PDF). James A. Klein. American Benefits ...

*1858 Bradford sweets poisoning

The event contributed to the passage of the Pharmacy Act 1868 in the United Kingdom and legislation regulating the adulteration ... Hodgson's pharmacy was 3 miles away at Baildon Bridge in Shipley. Hodgson was at his pharmacy, but did not serve Archer owing ... The tragedy and resulting public outcry was a major contributing factor to The Pharmacy Act 1868 which recognized the chemist ... W. E. Gladstone's ministry of 1868-1874 also brought in legislation regulating the adulteration of foodstuffs as a result of ...

*Donne Trotter

As a senator, he sponsored legislation that would allow adults to purchase sterile syringes from pharmacies without a ... The legislation provides that birth parents may legally leave a newborn at a hospital, fire station, or emergency medical ...

*Preferred pharmacy network

This was bipartisan legislation that sought to address access concerns by allowing any pharmacy located in an area defined by ... Preserving Our Hometown Independent Pharmacies Act of 2011 Pharmacy Competition and Consumer Choice Act of 2011 "Pharmacy ... real-world comparisons of costs between preferred pharmacy networks and non-preferred pharmacy networks (or "open" pharmacy ... Preferred pharmacy network is a group of pharmacies which involves a prescription drug plan that selects a group of preferred ...

*Edward (Nikk) J Phelan

In his time as president of the NSW branch, he lobbied the State Health Department to allow Bachelor of Pharmacy graduates to ... and successfully had the legislation amended. Nikk was appointed to the Federal Council of the Society of Hospital Pharmacists ... Edward (Nikk) Joseph Phelan is a notable figure in the profession of pharmacy in Australia, highlighted by his winning The ... At this time he took a keen interest in a number of pharmacy organisations, including the Miscellaneous Workers' Union, forming ...

*Pharmacy and Poisons Board

v To monitor and review the implementation of the legislation on pharmaceutical products. v To advise the Minister on matters ... The Pharmacy and Poisons Board is established as a body corporate, under the Pharmacy and Poisons Act, Cap 244 Laws of Kenya. ... The Pharmacy and Poisons Board (PPB or the Board in short) is the Drug Regulatory Authority established under the Pharmacy and ... The Board regulates the Practice of Pharmacy and the Manufacture and Trade in drugs and poisons. The Pharmacy and Poisons Act, ...

*Tobacco-Free Pharmacies

Gibson, Brenda (1996). "Tough tobacco-control legislation begins to have an impact in Ontario". Canadian Medical Association ... Tobacco-Free Pharmacies is a term used to refer to retail pharmacies where the sale of tobacco products is not available. ... The definition of pharmacy at that time included independent pharmacies and drugstores such as Walgreens; however, exemptions ... Taylor, Mark C. "Banning Cigarette Sales in Pharmacies Does Not Result in Pharmacy Closures" (PDF). Physicians for a Smoke-Free ...

*DMOZ - Health: Pharmacy: Organizations: United States

Provides pharmacists with education programs, information about legislation and drug recalls, and current job listings. ... nutrition support pharmacy, oncology pharmacy, pharmacotherapy, and psychiatric pharmacy. ... Quad City Area Pharmacy Association An organization for pharmacists and pharmacy technicians in the Quad City Area of Iowa and ... American Pharmacy Services Corporation (APSC) APSC is a cooperative owned and operated by independent pharmacy shareholders. ...

*Jeffrey Sanchez (politician)

Sánchez's legislation has been hailed as a "national model" by several industry experts and academics. Sánchez is a resident of ... On July 9, 2013, Sánchez, in response to a nationwide outbreak of fungal meningitis stemming from a compounding pharmacy in ... Framingham, MA, released legislation reforming state oversight of the pharmaceutical compounding industry of Massachusetts. ... http://www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/2013/07/09/mass-lawmakers-unveil-compounding-pharmacy-bill/ ...

*Operation Clean Government

Irons was accused of not disclosing his clients, and voting on legislation that was favorable to these clients (CVS/pharmacy, ... Other voter education activities include sponsoring legislation to add pro and con arguments for ballot questions to the ... and legislation for public financing of elections. Since 1993 Operation Clean Government has published a newsletter. The first ...

*Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy

Then in 2004, legislation was passed in the state legislature to fund the college. The legislation, supported by Hawai'i State ... The College of Pharmacy was founded in 2007 and graduated its inaugural class in 2011. It is the only pharmacy school in the ... and it is fully accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education, "the sole accreditor of the Doctor of Pharmacy ... John Pezzuto (Ph.D.) was selected to be the founding dean of the new College of Pharmacy in Hilo. Pezzuto had been at Rutgers ...

*Pharmacy benefit management

So-called biosimilar legislation that does not grant brand name drug manufacturers monopoly pricing power is strongly supported ... Online pharmacy Preferred pharmacy network Feldman, Brian S. "Big pharmacies are dismantling the industry that keeps US drug ... Pharmacy networks - PBMs build networks of retail pharmacies, known as preferred pharmacy network. PBMs monitor prescription ... They operate inside of integrated healthcare systems (e.g., Kaiser or VA), as part of retail pharmacies (e.g., CVS Pharmacy or ...

*Orlistat

In Australia it is listed as an S3 medication and so is available over the counter in pharmacies. Orlistat is used for the ... ". "POISONS STANDARD JUNE 2017". Federal Register of Legislation. Therapeutic Goods Administration. June 2017. Retrieved 18 ... Pharmacy and Pharmacology portal Discovery and development of gastrointestinal lipase inhibitors Zhi J, Melia AT, Eggers H, ...
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Robert Goldberg is co-founder and vice president of the Center for Medicine in the Public Interest. (CMPI) Along with Peter Pitts, Dr. Goldberg hosts the popular and controversial blog on the pharmaceutical industry and healthcare, www.drugwonks.com.. Prior to founding CMPI, Goldberg was Director of the Manhattan Institutes Center for Medical Progress and Chairman of its 21st Century FDA Task Force that examined the impact of the FDAs Critical Path Initiative on drug development and personalized medicine.. He has written for The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, the Los Angeles Times, National Review Online, The Chicago Tribune, The Philadelphia Inquirer, The New York Sun and writes regularly for The American Spectator (where he broke the story about Obama Medicare director Donald Berwicks admiration for Britains National Health Service); the New York Post and The Weekly Standard. He is an expert on Medicare reform, comparative effectiveness and FDAs Critical Path Initiative and the ...
1306.15 - Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for prescriptions of Schedule II controlled substances. Controlled Substances Listed in Schedules III, IV, and V ...
NEW YORK, LONDON AND TUCSON (May 18, 2016) - The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinsons Research (MJFF), with Parkinsons UK and the Critical Path Institute (C-Path) in Tucson, Arizona, announce that MJFF has joined the Critical Path for Parkinsons Consortium (CPP). The consortium aims to create a quantitative model of Parkinsons progression from its earliest stages that will allow researchers to optimize clinical trial design for faster and more effective testing of novel therapies.. Parkinsons UK and C-Path launched the CPP in October 2015, and seven major pharmaceutical companies, the Parkinsons Disease Foundation, the Davis Phinney Foundation and Cure Parkinsons Trust have subsequently signed on to the initiative.. "More therapies with potential to slow or stop Parkinsons progression in its early stages are moving through clinical trials," said MJFF Senior Vice President of Research Programs Mark Frasier, PhD. "A quantitative characterization of that early progression would help ...
Tucson, Ariz., April 26, 2017 -Critical Path Institute (C-Path) is pleased to announce the launch of the Transplant Therapeutics Consortium (TTC), co-founded by the two leading US organizations in organ transplantation: the American Society of Transplantation (AST) and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons (ASTS). The TTC is a collaboration within the transplant community including clinicians, surgeons, industry scientists, and others. The overall objective of the TTC is to collaborate on the development and regulatory endorsement of new drug development tools applicable in kidney transplant, with the hope of expanding to other solid organ transplantation in the future.. In the United States, there are currently 600,000 patients receiving dialysis every year, with more than 105,000 patients on the kidney transplant waiting list. In 2016, there were 19,000 kidney transplants in the US, and the failure rates for living donor kidney transplants at 1, 5, and 10 years are approximately 3%, 15%, ...
A major part of the new Pharmaceutical Price Regulation Scheme (PPRS) which is due to take effect on January 1 will now delayed by at least three months, following the decision by the Department of Health that a public consultation is required. - News - PharmaTimes
Aerosols were collected at three altitudes from ground level to the free troposphere (upper level: 3000 or 2500 m; middle level: 1200 or 500 m; and low level: 10 m) during Asian dust events and non-dust events over the Noto Peninsula, Japan, where westerly winds carry aerosols from the Asian continental areas. During Asian dust events, air masses at high altitudes were transported from the Asian continental area by westerly winds, and laser imaging detection and ranging (lidar) data indicated high concentrations of non-spherical particles, suggesting that dust-sand particles were transported from the central desert regions of Asia. The air samples collected during the dust events contained 10-100 times higher concentrations of microscopic fluorescent particles and optical particle counter (OPC) measured particles than in non-dust events. The air masses of non-dust events contained lower amounts of dust-sand particles. Additionally, some air samples showed relatively high levels of black carbon, ...
In Canada, it is conservatively estimated that $46 million is lost per annum from low vision (LV) assistive technology device (ATD) abandonment alone. The proper matching of the person and the technology during the selection process has been theorized as necessary to mitigate inappropriate abandonment. In the current dissertation, a mixed-methods approach with qualitative and quantitative study components was used to develop and test a LV product selection instrument (LV-PSI) that may help with the matching process. The key qualitative aspect of the study included two qualitative research sessions with LV participants (N=10). Each session was made up of two data collection modes of a modified nominal group technique and focus group discussions. Content analysis and a grounded theory approach resulted in the emergence of three major themes for LV product selection: (1) product attribute, (2) personal compatibility, and (3) meaning. Results from the qualitative research were used to generate items and
Study Flashcards On Virginia Pharmacy Law at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
See what NJPhA advocacy has accomplished with pharmacy legislation in New Jersey. Then see what pharmacy legislation is pending and being monitored by NJPhA.
Biotechnology R& D Spending Is Being Scaled Back Already drug companies have begun to hold the line on R& D expenditures in expectation of lower earnings. This is having a direct effect not only on their own development efforts, but on their commitment to biotechnology. As a recent Wall Street Journal article noted, leaks and policy "trial balloons" are helping to "wreck havoc on small biotechnology firms." 28 As a result, many promising therapies are being shelved because of a growing lack of resources and a concern about price controls. One executive put it this way:. "We know that our ACE inhibitor has promise in preventing hardening of the arteries but we cant commit the resources to prove its effectiveness. The fact is, generics are coming on the market and they will grab more business. We will never get our investment back on such a project.". Henri Temeer, Chairman of Genzyme and one the pioneers of the biotechnology business, believes that price controls will lead to "dumbing down" ...
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During the past 20 years, Raymond L. Woosley, M.D., Ph.D., has contributed to current understanding of anti-arrhythmic drugs, helped discover the antihistamine Allegra and promoted post-marketing drug surveillance.. In 2005 the former Vanderbilt and Georgetown researcher took on a new challenge-directing a non-profit institute in Tucson called C-Path-Critical Path to Accelerate Therapies.. A joint effort of the University of Arizona, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and SRI International, the institute aims to help develop a new "toolkit" that can safely speed up drug development.. "Science has generated a lot of new information… but the process of drug development hasnt advanced," explains Woosley, who formerly was vice president of the University of Arizona Health Sciences Center. "Companies have tried to take the path thats been trod before and theyre afraid to innovate because theyre afraid the FDA might not accept the change.". Yet in a 2004 report entitled "Critical Path," the ...
Leveraged its experience in bundled payments with new episodes of care launched in April of this year and early insight into how these bundles are performing, as well as additional revenue opportunities based on its BPCI experience. You can "attend" this program right in your office. Its so convenient! Invite your staff members to participate in the conference. We will send you a login to access the webinar or a DVD or CD-ROM of the conference proceedings once its available for shipping. Youll also have the opportunity to have all of your questions answered by Debbie Reber during the interactive question and answer session. Youll get answers to your questions and challenges on bundling payments for post-acute care. To register for the conference, the on-demand re-broadcast or MP3 download file or order the training DVD or CD-ROM of Bundled Payments for Post-Acute Care: Four Critical Paths To Success, please visit ...
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Horace and Ryan discuss HPs departure from the PC business, the end of the TouchPad, buying your way into innovation and what it takes to compete and survive in the Post PC era.. via The Critical Path #5: HPs Innovation Antibodies - 5by5.. This is a good one.. ...
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The National Institutes of Health.. Food and Drug Administration. The sequester hit FDA pretty hard. Now, almost half (45%) of the agencys personnel are furloughed.. No food import inspections will take place during the shutdown. This leaves us vulnerable to tons of contaminated fish (91% of which are imported), bad veggies (50% imported), and toxic fruit (20% imported). The Department of Agriculture will continue monitoring meat and poultry. The National Center for Toxicological Research, food and drug product registration and listing, and critical path initiatives are also endangered.. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC personnel work 24/7 to protect the United States from health and safety threats, both foreign and domestic. CDC has had to furlough about 70% of its employees. The shutdown will affect the functioning of our national emergency operations center itself. The cuts will also end support for state and local partners with infectious disease surveillance. Lab testing has ...
Principal Investigator:SHIBAYAMA Hidetaro, Project Period (FY):1997 - 1999, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A), Section:一般, Research Field:体育学
desirable3 Outline Unit 2 Product Selection Basic elements of the selection process Selection of ARVs based on treatment protocols Public health considerations of 1 st line regimens Major problems of 2 nd line regimens WHO recommended 1 st & 2 nd line regimens for adults and adolescents WHO recommended 1 st & 2 nd line regimens for children Simplified guidelines Dosages of ARVs for Adults and adolescents Non ARV essential commodities
Threats to the supply chain arent going away and the underlying regulatory environment, both in the United States and in other regions, does not appear to be converging on any one formula.
NORRIS, T.N. (PRWEB) December 09, 2014 -- Pharma Packaging Solutions announced the release of a new white paper which can be downloaded here:
By Lance O. Leider, J.D., The Health Law Firm Beginning on October 1, 2014, out-of-state compounding pharmacies may be required to hold a compounded sterile product permit. Thats because the Regulated Industries Committee of the Florida Senate voted on March 13, 2014, to approve a bill increasing the restrictions on out-of-state compounding pharmacies that ship…
If we cant persuade them to cease this unfair use of much too easily misled citizens then we should use the enemys weapons against him, but do it better. That billboard is the pits. Its the obvious product of someone with little experience in advertising. If I saw that thing while driving at 65 mph Id likely ignore it. Able to study it at length on the web I am still unmoved. Yeah, I know its sarcasm, the point being that union bosses are venial, mercenary and only in it for the money -- the same could be said of most lawyers. But sarcasm it not an effective rhetorical tool. Its like Carl Chessman making sarcastic expressions at the jury whenever a prosecution witness speaks. He was hoping to make the jury doubt the testimony, but instead he was persuading them he was an arrogant jerk, a guilty arrogant jerk. The billboard needs to come down. It wont have the desired effect; it makes the sponsor look like an arrogant jerk ...
Joseph L Fink III, BSPharm, JD, was recently included in a list of 25 faculty members who have been "movers and shapers" of the University of Kentucky (UK) over the past 25 years. The list included faculty members from a variety of disciplines who were, or continue to be, influential and visionary in moving the university forward academically and enhancing its reputation nationally and internationally. Dr. Fink is a professor of pharmacy law and policy in the UK College of Pharmacy. In addition, he has faculty appointments as professor of health administration in the Martin School of Public Policy and Administration at UK and as professor of health services management in the UK College of Public Health. Dr. Fink also writes the Pharmacy Times Pharmacy Law column (see page 72 for this months article). The profile of Dr. Fink in the compilation reads, "Professor of Pharmacy Joseph Fink has served in more than half a dozen important administrative roles in his 25-year career at UK, including ...
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By George F. Indest III, J.D., M.P.A., LL.M., Board Certified by The Florida Bar in Health Law The victims and survivors of the meningitis outbreak are now filing lawsuits against the physicians and clinics that administered the tainted steroids. According to an article in The Tennessean, on January 29, 2013, a husband who lost his…
Dyslipidemia is defined as elevated total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins (LDL) or triglycerides (TGs), low high-density lipoproteins (HDL), or a combination of these abnormalities1,2. Total cholesterol is a composite of different types of lipoproteins. Cholesterol is transported as lipoproteins in the blood stream as complexes of lipid and proteins. The three major classes of lipoproteins consist of LDL, HDL, and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). VLDL supply the body tissues with triglycerides (TGs). Non-HDL is equal to the difference between the total cholesterol and HDL. Increases in non-HDL, LDL, and TG contribute to higher risk for coronary heart disease (CHD), and cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular arterial diseases. As fat deposits and accumulates on the wall of arteries, over time, it can lead to atherosclerosis. Non-HDL cholesterol is a better predictor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events than LDL. Elevated TGs are a rare risk factor associated with ...
Health,The Nation Health Care System of Britain the NHS has been in constan... A recent report by the Office of Fair Trading has expressed that t... A conclusive study carried out by the watchdog from 1995 on the pur...It is anticipated that the Head of The Office of Fair Trading John ... Currently branded Pharma companies under the Pharmaceutical Price ...,Drug,Companies,May,Be,Penalize,For,Overcharging,NHS,Tax,Payers,Money,on,Branded,Drugs,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
The Rebalancing Medicines Legislation and Pharmacy Regulation Programme Board, established by the Department of Health to rebalance pharmacy legislation and regulation, is expected to meet again in late January 2017.
The biopharmaceutical industry can bring new medicines to market in a faster, safer, and less expensive way than current government and industry...
Path ADGE: 13 days duration, 1 day of slack. You see that path ACFE has the longest duration, which is 14 days. You also see that path ACFE has no slack. When the path has no slack, the tasks on it cannot finish later than the baseline schedule without increasing the duration of the project. When they have slack, they can increase their duration until they use up all of their slack. At that point, that path becomes the critical path.. Chris Pimbock was a new project manager in his organization and he was preparing the schedule to present to the project sponsor. The sponsor was very clear during the initial planning session that the project had to be finished within 45 days. When Chris checked the first draft of the schedule, the duration of the project was 50 days. Chris knew he had to shorten the project duration. Chris calculated the duration of each of the four paths through the project and found that the critical path was indeed 50 days long. However, the other three paths were all less than ...
In a layout system of a logic circuit, a buffer inserted into a critical path is arranged/wired in an arranged region of a circuit block of a primitive layout in such a manner that delay time of the critical path in the primitive layout can be limited to an allowable value. The layout system is comprised of unarranged region information extracting means for extracting a position and a size of an unarranged region from layout data after an arranging/wiring process; virtual node inserting means for inserting a virtual node into a wiring segment located adjacent to the unarranged region, the virtual node constituting a connection point between the wiring segment and the unarranged region; wiring parameter extracting means for extracting a wiring parameter constructed of a wiring resistance and a wiring capacitance of the wiring segment; and path delay time calculating means for calculating delay time of a path based upon the wiring parameter and a delay parameter specific to an element.
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Solve the following CPM/PERT Network Analysis problem: Given the following network and activity time estimates, determine (ES, LS, EF, LF) earliest and latest activity times, slack, the expected project completion time and.
Seven of the worlds largest pharmaceutical companies have signed up to a ground-breaking consortium aimed at accelerating the development of safe and effective therapies for Parkinsons.
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Little evidence exists on health care provider (HCP) prescriptions for childrens outdoor physical activity (PA). Semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 childrens HCPs to explore perspectives on outdoor PA prescription programs for children and barriers to implementation. Thematic analytic techniques were used to analyze the data. Most participants reported an awareness of health benefits to children being in the outdoors. Ten themes emerged from the data related to 3 thematic categories: (1) current strategies that HCPs are using to promote PA among children, (2) barriers that HCPs see to prescribing outdoor PA, and (3) potential strategies for promoting outdoor PA among children ...
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How has the introduction of the Falsified Medicines Directive (FMD) by the EU impacted the global healthcare and pharmaceutical supply chains?
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In the waning days of 1964, University of California, Berkeley, students inspired by the fight for racial equality found their collective voice in challenging a campus ban on political advocacy.
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This course is designed to introduce students to the importance of project management in business environments. Project management is the discipline of planning and organizing resources to bring about the successful completion of specific goals while managing constraints of scope, costs and time.. Students will explore the process of project management and will learn the critical steps to: Identify needs and turn them into a project proposal; Create a project plan (using work breakdown structures, activities definitions and relationships); Create a project schedule (using durations and early/late start and finish dates); Determine activities within the critical path; Create a project budget; Monitor the progress of the project using Gantt charts; Modify the plan as variations develop within the project. They will then take a project of their choice and complete it by applying these steps. Learners will research and participate in leadership, team building and communication activities to allow ...
This unit of study focuses on the integrated management of project scope, time and cost for effective control and delivery of projects. The scope of the subject matter includes delivering comprehensive theoretical knowledge and application skills in integrated management and control of cost and schedule in complex projects. By successful completion of this unit of study, students should achieve a clear understanding of the time and cost management and appropriate control measures in project development environments. Students should be able to: Discuss the project management trade-offs on balancing the triple-constraint; Explain the integrated cost and schedule control processes; Construct work breakdown structure (WBS) using given project information; Discuss scope monitoring and change control system; Produce networks diagrams for project scheduling; Apply critical path analysis (CPA) in network scheduling; Apply critical chain method in project scheduling; Estimate the project cost and ...
Evaluating technological investments has been a central concern in industrial engineering research and practice for decades. Critical path method (CPM), PERT and project portfolio management (PPM) are intangible frameworks that are most widely used to attain utmost efficiency and increase the technical and financial benefits in small scale industries to big corporate companies. The benefits of adopting PPM includes maximizes the value of investments while minimizing risk, improves communication between design and manufacturing teams, alignment between product innovation and business leaders, encouraging business leaders to act as team players, allowing planners to allocate resources more efficiently and to ceasing the loss generating products/projects. The present research study aims to evaluate the benefits of implementation of PPM technique and find the major benefit factor by employing the technique in manufacturing industry. The primary data that was required for analysis was collected from ...
So, you and I? Need to do some home work to be a little ready for some events just for the heck of it. The idea of having a small store of basic supplies is a good one. The idea of having an in case of emergency plan for your circle of people is a good one. The idea of having some knowledge of skills to survive in harsh situations is valid. I would not be extreme about it and get all camo over it but I would postulate that the majority of todays people do not have core skills needed to deal with simple concerns like getting clean water, dealing with injuries in the field, staying warm, how to make hard choices in a critical path scenerio to survival. ...
REMOVE THIS ITEM FROM THE SCHEDULE?? From 8/31/11 SAIF AP CALL: Austin: No sooner than having a SAIF IG for the BF. Patrick: From a tooling perspective, it takes a long time for this work. Probably a 2013/2014 timeframe. In the meantime, until the generator is ready, manual work will create the technical artifacts. Jane: Another dependency is that there will be other balloted items coming out of the the SAIF IG, and there are other items on the tooling priority list before getting to the BF work. Austin: The generator wont be on the critical path for moving forward ...
Determine the probability of completing this project in time for the product launch in 34 weeks. The critical path is 33.5 weeks with a standard
Please view the attached pdf and complete a network diagram and respond to the questions. 1. Scheduled completion of the project 2. Critical path of the project 3. EST, LST, EF and LF for activities 4. Float for activities 5.
Metody síťové analýzy. CPM - Critical Path Method. Teoretický podklad k řešení. Metody síťové analýzy se uplatňují při řešení časových vazeb mezi jednotlivými prvky složitých systémů, např. při plánování vývoje a technické přípravy výroby. Slideshow 6721136 by nelle-pickett
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Downloadable! On April 1, 2005, Denmark changed the way references prices, a main determinant of reimbursements for pharmaceutical purchases, are calculated. The previous reference prices, which were based on average EU prices, were substituted to minimum domestic prices. Novel to the literature, we estimate the joint effects of this reform on prices and quantities. Prices decreased more than 26 percent due to the reform, which reduced patient and government expenditures by 3.0 percent and 5.6 percent, respectively, and producer revenues by 5.0 percent. The prices of expensive products decreased more than their cheaper counterparts, resulting in large differences in patient benefits from the reform.
If you agree to take part in this study, you will take part in a focus group. The focus group will consist of about 8 people who will discuss beliefs about generic medication, awareness of discount generic prescription programs, and use of the discount generic prescription program. The focus group will last about 90 minutes.. During the focus group, you will complete a form that asks for basic demographic information (such as your age and sex).. The focus group discussions will be taped, and the recorded tapes will be transcribed word-for-word. The taped recording of the focus group study will be stored in a safe and secured locker by the study chair. The taped recordings will be destroyed after 5 years.. Length of Study:. Your participation on this study will end once you complete the focus group.. This is an investigational study. ...
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The FDAs new guidance aims to make it easier for generic firms to plan how they can copy complex drugs like epinephrine auto-injectors, which should ultimately lower pharmaceutical prices.
Downloadable! The aim of this paper is to empirically analyse the responses by general practitioners to promotional activities for ethical drugs by pharmaceutical companies. Promotion can be beneficial as a means of providing information, but it can also be harmful in the sense that it lowers price sensitivity of doctors and it merely is a means of maintaining market share, even when cheaper, therapeutically equivalent drugs are available. A model is estimated that includes interactions of promotion expenditures and prices and that explicitly exploits the panel structure of the data, allowing for drug specific effects and dynamic adjustments, or habit persistence. The data used are aggregate monthly GP prescriptions per drug together with monthly outlays on drug promotion for the period 1994-1999 for 11 therapeutic markets, covering more than half of the total prescription drug market in the Netherlands. Identification of price effects is aided by the introduction of the Pharmaceutical Prices Act,
We are deeply concerned about proposed legislation that would lead to negotiation of pharmaceutical prices by the federal government for the new Medicare Part D drug benefit.. Under current law, negotiations over prices are conducted between the pharmaceutical producers and private firms administering drug benefit programs for Medicare beneficiaries. With federal spending on pharmaceuticals is projected to grow to about $100 billion in 2007 over 40 percent of the U.S. total some policymakers now advocate federal negotiation of prices with the pharmaceutical producers, in order to use the large size and bargaining power of the federal government to achieve sharply lower prices.. Federal price negotiations would represent a policy change carrying significant risks for research and development investment in new and improved medicines. A substantial body of research shows that similar federal drug programs impose prices substantially lower than those negotiated in the private sector, and that such ...
Spectroscopic Methods. Enabling Molecular Analysis with Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) using Chemometrics. Principal Investigator: Patrick J. Faustino. Public Health Issue: Quality assurance of drug substances and drug products depends on sophisticated analytical and spectroscopic tools. New technologies such as Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) can provide powerful methods of detection and quantitation not previously available.. Regulatory Contribution: The scientific assessment of LIBS evolved out of the novel technologies program whose mission was to identify cutting edge technologies that could be utilized as effective "critical path" tools. The research and development of this technology (atomic and molecular spectroscopy) will provide the Agency with critical path tools that will significantly impact the Agencys scientific and regulatory understanding and oversight of chemistry, manufacturing and controls (CMC) quality issues. Research Approach: Chemometric analysis ...
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International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences (ISSN:2230-7605)" IJPBS Scientific Publications is established in the year of JAN-2011 with people from various avenues of pharmacy profession, who have come together in a single platform to redefine the structure of pharmacy profession in the country, where it is seen only as an industry oriented profession. We are pleased to introduce ourselves as the novel, imminent and sovereign online pharmacy information services in India. The foundation aims to support every effort to "empower pharmacy education and research/Young research pharmacy scholors". With a first of its kind website in the country, it strive to improve the knowledge of students and professionals in the various fields of pharmacy by providing valuable resources in the form of ebooks, articles etc. It is a platform for all students, budding pharmacists and pharma professionals to develop their career further. Mainly focusing on Students/ Young research pharmacy Scholors, the ...
Many pharmacists have reasons to contend that they are victims of abusive auditing practices by CVS Caremark, as well as other administrators of prescription plans. These pharmacists, as well as our professional organizations, should monitor this situation involving CVS and CMS very closely. If CVS Caremark escapes with no penalty or only a minor one, it must not be permitted to engage in auditing practices that are any stricter than those it is willing to accept when it makes the error. One of the noteworthy parts of the response plan on which CVS consulted with CMS is that the offer of a refund would be for the price difference between the inaccurate and actual prices. If an error is made in a non-CVS pharmacy in a prescription program administered by CVS Caremark, is the pharmacy held responsible for the specific dollar amount that the error might be considered to represent, or the entire cost of a prescription that consists primarily of the cost of the drug product ...
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NCPA supports Ore. reimbursement, audit, pharmacy choice legislation - Drug Store NewsNCPA supports Ore. reimbursement, audit, pharmacy choice legislation - Drug Store News

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  • A recent case she worked on involved a pharmacist at a compounding pharmacy who made an error when mixing components of the medication. (crainsdetroit.com)
  • The 30 CPD points requirement is not a new decision as the Pharmacy Board had at its 101th Meeting on 30th September 2013 decided that the minimum number of CPD point per year shall be 30 for renewal of Pharmacist Annual Retention, though there has been flexibility in achieving the 30 points. (mps.org.my)
  • Legislation requires the supervision of certain pharmacy technician's activities by a pharmacist. (wikipedia.org)
  • There has been a recent activity concerning community pharmacy in that some have been visited by Enforcement officers of the Pharmaceutical Services Division and a certain product, Olivenol was confiscated as it was deem not a registered product. (mps.org.my)
  • The current Chair is Nigel Clarke, a lay member with experience of the General Osteopathic Council and chairing the Future Professional Body for Pharmacy and then the Transitional Committee, which created the prospectus for the reformed Royal Pharmaceutical Society The GPhC Exam or GPhC Registration Assessment exam was set by the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, but since September 2010 has been the responsibility of the GPhC. (wikipedia.org)
  • PSA is committed to developing capability within the pharmacy profession by supporting both individuals and businesses to make the most of future opportunities. (psa.org.au)
  • It is important that pharmacies have technologies they need to work smarter and faster,' PDX CEO Jeff Farris said. (drugstorenews.com)
  • We call on Congress to work in a bipartisan manner to pass Congressman Markey's legislation, which is necessary to protect our families from these predictable, preventable tragedies. (drugs.com)
  • The Pharmacy Order 2010 requires not only that the GPhC sets acceptable standards of continuing professional development (CPD), but that it ensures that all registrants meet those required standards, and that there are processes in place for various remedial measures, including removal of a registrant from the register if they either fail to meet these standards, or make a false statement in relation to their CPD. (wikipedia.org)
  • The service, which will be offered at no cost to pharmacies, is meant to decrease the administrative hassles of prior authorizations, improve turnaround time and help to stop prescription abandonment. (drugstorenews.com)
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  • This highlights both the lack of online pharmacy services and a low level of awareness among customers about existing services. (drugstorenews.com)
  • For chain pharmacies that cannot compete on price alone, loyalty programs give customers an incentive for returning and set them apart from other pharmacy chains that, according to our research, are often not leveraging these programs and promotions with consumers. (drugstorenews.com)
  • Empathica also found loyalty programs represented an area of improvement as core pharmacy services become commoditized. (drugstorenews.com)
  • Pharmacies that do not offer loyalty programs or targeted promotions miss an opportunity to turn customers into loyal customers and advocates. (drugstorenews.com)
  • TORONTO - More than half of U.S. consumers would not recommend a particular pharmacy to family and friends, according to a new report by a Canadian customer experience management firm. (drugstorenews.com)
  • According to the report, by Empathica, scheduled for release later this week, the 60% of consumers who would not recommend a pharmacy indicate that most consumers do not have a loyal relationship with any one chain or mass retail pharmacy despite what the firm called a 'promising future' for the industry, with more than three-fifths of surveyed consumers saying they would not cut pharmacy spending regardless of the economy. (drugstorenews.com)
  • The report attributed the lack of customer engagement to a slow adoption of technology by pharmacies. (drugstorenews.com)
  • Empathica said online prescription drug sales are expected to grow at a faster rate than in-store sales, but 40% of pharmacies don't have an online presence, and among those that do, half of customers are unaware of web offerings, while less than 20% have received information or offers promoting them. (drugstorenews.com)
  • The New England Compounding Center (NECC), a compounding pharmacy located in Rep. Markey's Congressional District, has been found to be the source of contaminated injectable steroids that have led to 28 deaths and 377 illnesses in 19 states. (drugs.com)
  • The legislation has been endorsed by Cancer Prevention and Treatment Fund, Jacobs Institute for Women's Health, National Consumers League, National Research Center for Women & Families, Our Bodies Ourselves, and Union of Concerned Scientists. (drugs.com)
  • We remain focused on delivering solutions and services our pharmacy partners require to remain efficient, such as those offered by CoverMyMeds. (drugstorenews.com)
  • A copy of the VALID Compounding Act can be found HERE http://markey.house.gov/document/2012/valid-act-legislation#overlay-context=document/2012/valid-act-one-pager. (drugs.com)
  • I look forward to working with my colleagues in Congress on a bipartisan basis to move this legislation forward. (drugs.com)