A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.
Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water or thermally polluted lakes or streams. Member are pathogenic for man. Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent for LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.
An acute, sometimes fatal, pneumonia-like bacterial infection characterized by high fever, malaise, muscle aches, respiratory disorders and headache. It is named for an outbreak at the 1976 Philadelphia convention of the American Legion.
Infections with bacteria of the genus LEGIONELLA.
A species of free-living soil amoebae in the family Acanthamoebidae. It can cause ENCEPHALITIS and KERATITIS in humans.
A genus of free-living amoebae found in fresh water. The cysts usually pass harmlessly through the intestinal tract of man and may thus be found in feces. Occasionally, these organisms cause respiratory tract infections or generalized fatal meningoencephalitis.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.
A branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and maintenance of environmental facilities conducive to public health, such as water supply and waste disposal.
The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS and through early Golgi compartments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that do not form endospores or microcysts.
A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.
Members of a family of highly conserved proteins which are all cis-trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE). They bind the immunosuppressant drugs CYCLOSPORINE; TACROLIMUS and SIROLIMUS. They possess rotamase activity, which is inhibited by the immunosuppressant drugs that bind to them.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
An inhibitor of apoptosis protein that was initially identified during analysis of CHROMOSOME DELETIONS associated with SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHY. Naip contains a nucleotide binding oligomerization domain and a carboxy-terminal LEUCINE rich repeat.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
The immersion or washing of the body or any of its parts in water or other medium for cleansing or medical treatment. It includes bathing for personal hygiene as well as for medical purposes with the addition of therapeutic agents, such as alkalines, antiseptics, oil, etc.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.
An order of ameboid protozoa that is commonly uninucleate and possess mitochondria. Most organisms are nonpathogenic.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria in the genus LEGIONELLA, first isolated in Long Beach, California. Infection is associated with the use of contaminated potting SOIL.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Hospital department whose primary function is the upkeep and supervision of the buildings and grounds and the maintenance of hospital physical plant and equipment which requires engineering expertise.
A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the lung parenchyma as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.
A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the isomerization of proline residues within proteins. EC 5.2.1.8.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
In GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA, multiprotein complexes that function to translocate pathogen protein effector molecules across the bacterial cell envelope, often directly into the host. These effectors are involved in producing surface structures for adhesion, bacterial motility, manipulation of host functions, modulation of host defense responses, and other functions involved in facilitating survival of the pathogen. Several of the systems have homologous components functioning similarly in GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA.
Use for material on dental facilities in general or for which there is no specific heading.
A type of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where polyribosomes are present on the cytoplasmic surfaces of the ER membranes. This form of ER is prominent in cells specialized for protein secretion and its principal function is to segregate proteins destined for export or intracellular utilization.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that grows preferentially in the vacuoles of the host cell. It is the etiological agent of Q FEVER.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)
Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a single fatty acid ester bond in lysoglycerophosphatidates with the formation of glyceryl phosphatidates and a fatty acid. EC 3.1.1.5.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Therapy by various hot or warm baths in natural mineral waters, spas, or "cures". It includes not only bathing in, but also drinking the waters, but it does not include whirlpool baths (HYDROTHERAPY).
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Water that is intended to be ingested.
Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.

Legionnaires' disease on a cruise ship linked to the water supply system: clinical and public health implications. (1/1055)

The occurrence of legionnaires' disease has been described previously in passengers of cruise ships, but determination of the source has been rare. A 67-year-old, male cigarette smoker with heart disease contracted legionnaires' disease during a cruise in September 1995 and died 9 days after disembarking. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from the patient's sputum and the ship's water supply. Samples from the air-conditioning system were negative. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates from the water supply matched the patient's isolate, by both monoclonal antibody subtyping and genomic fingerprinting. None of 116 crew members had significant antibody titers to L. pneumophila serogroup 1. One clinically suspected case of legionnaires' disease and one confirmed case were subsequently diagnosed among passengers cruising on the same ship in November 1995 and October 1996, respectively. This is the first documented evidence of the involvement of a water supply system in the transmission of legionella infection on ships. These cases were identified because of the presence of a unique international system of surveillance and collaboration between public health authorities.  (+info)

Natural competence for DNA transformation by Legionella pneumophila and its association with expression of type IV pili. (2/1055)

We have recently described the expression of two pili of different lengths on the surface of Legionella pneumophila (B. J. Stone and Y. Abu Kwaik, Infect. Immun. 66:1768-1775, 1998). Production of long pili requires a functional pilEL locus, encoding a type IV pilin protein. Since type IV pili in Neisseria gonorrhoeae are associated with competence for DNA transformation, we examined the competence of L. pneumophila for DNA transformation under conditions that allowed the expression of type IV pili. We show that L. pneumophila is naturally competent for DNA transformation by isogenic chromosomal DNA and by plasmid DNA containing L. pneumophila DNA. Many different L. pneumophila loci are able to transform L. pneumophila after addition of plasmid DNA, including gspA, ppa, asd, and pilEL. The transformation frequency is reduced when competing DNA containing either L. pneumophila DNA or vector sequences is added to the bacteria, suggesting that uptake-specific sequences may not be involved in DNA uptake. Competence for DNA transformation correlates with expression of the type IV pili, and a pilEL mutant defective in expression of type IV pili is not competent for DNA transformation. Complementation of the mutant for competence is restored by the reintroduction of a cosmid that restores production of type IV pili. Minimal competence is restored to the mutant by introduction of pilEL alone. We conclude that competence for DNA transformation in L. pneumophila is associated with expression of the type IV pilus and results in recombination of L. pneumophila DNA into the chromosome. Since expression of type IV pili also facilitates attachment of L. pneumophila to mammalian cells and protozoa, we designated the type IV pili CAP (for competence- and adherence-associated pili).  (+info)

Concurrent infection with Legionella pneumophila and Pneumocystis carinii in a patient with adult T cell leukemia. (3/1055)

A 48-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with high fever, chills, cough, and exertional dyspnea. On admission, the chest roentgenogram and computed tomography scan showed bilateral alveolar infiltration in the middle and lower lung fields. Microscopic examination of the bronchial lavage fluid showed flower cells typical for adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and cysts of Pneumocystis carinii, and Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 grew on buffered charcoal yeast extract (BCYE)-alpha agar. The patient was successfully treated with antibiotics including trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, and sparfloxacin. Remission of ATL was achieved after three courses of antileukemic chemotherapy. Mixed infection of opportunistic pathogens should be considered in patients with ATL.  (+info)

Legionella pneumophila utilizes the same genes to multiply within Acanthamoeba castellanii and human macrophages. (4/1055)

In previous reports we described a 22-kb Legionella pneumophila chromosomal locus containing 18 genes. Thirteen of these genes (icmT, -R, -Q, -P, -O, -M, -L, -K, -E, -C, -D, -J, and -B) were found to be completely required for intracellular growth and killing of human macrophages. Three genes (icmS, -G, and -F) were found to be partially required, and two genes (lphA and tphA) were found to be dispensable for intracellular growth and killing of human macrophages. Here, we analyzed the requirement of these genes for intracellular growth in the protozoan host Acanthamoeba castellanii, a well-established important environmental host of L. pneumophila. We found that all the genes that are completely required for intracellular growth in human macrophages are also completely required for intracellular growth in A. castellanii. However, the genes that are partially required for intracellular growth in human macrophages are completely required for intracellular growth in A. castellanii. In addition, the lphA gene, which was shown to be dispensable for intracellular growth in human macrophages, is partially required for intracellular growth in A. castellanii. Our results indicate that L. pneumophila utilizes the same genes to grow intracellularly in both human macrophages and amoebae.  (+info)

Surface-associated heat shock proteins of Legionella pneumophila and Helicobacter pylori: roles in pathogenesis and immunity. (5/1055)

Bacterial heat shock proteins (Hsps) are abundantly produced during the course of most microbial infections and are often targeted by the mammalian immune response. While Hsps have been well characterized for their roles in protein folding and secretion activities, little attention has been given to their participation in pathogenesis. In the case of Legionella pneumophila, an aquatic intracellular parasite of protozoa and cause of Legionnaires' disease, Hsp60 is uniquely located in the periplasm and on the bacterial surface. Surface-associated Hsp60 promotes attachment and invasion in a HeLa cell model and may alter an early step associated with the fusion of phagosomes with lysosomes. Avirulent strains of L. pneumophila containing defined mutations in several dot/icm genes are defective in localizing Hsp60 onto their surface and are reduced approximately 1000-fold in their invasiveness towards HeLa cells. For the ulcer-causing bacterium Helicobacter pylori, surface-associated Hsp60 and Hsp70 mediate attachment to gastric epithelial cells. The increased expression of these Hsps following acid shock correlates with both increased association with and inflammation of the gastric mucosa. A role for Hsps in colonization, mucosal infection and in promoting inflammation is discussed.  (+info)

Molecular typing of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with SfiI and comparison of this method with restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis. (6/1055)

A panel of 131 well-characterised Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains, previously used to evaluate a restriction fragment-length polymorphisms (RFLP) typing scheme, was examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with the restriction endonuclease SfiI. The data obtained show that PFGE with SfiI is a highly discriminatory method yielding an index of discrimination (IOD) of 0.992 and 0.975, with 100% and 90% similarity thresholds respectively, compared with an IOD of 0.909 for the RFLP typing method. Reproducibility of PFGE profiles within gels was excellent and it was possible to compare the profiles visually. However, the reproducibility of the technique between gels was poor and visual comparison of the patterns was extremely difficult. Computer-aided analysis assisted the assessment of inter-gel reproducibility. Of 11 duplicates examined only four pairs showed 100% similarity, although 9 of 11 showed > or =90% similarity. In an attempt to determine if the PFGE banding patterns were sufficiently unambiguous to allow the method to be used as a definitive typing method, 20 coded strains were examined. At a 90% similarity level, 16 of these were placed in the correct PFGE type and four were not allocated to a type. Partial digestion of DNA by SfiI was noted despite careful control of DNA and enzyme concentrations, suggesting that an alternative enzyme might give more reproducible results.  (+info)

Multiple types of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 6 in a hospital heated-water system associated with sporadic infections. (7/1055)

Five sporadic cases of nosocomial Legionnaires' disease were documented from 1989 to 1997 in a hospital in northern Italy. Two of them, which occurred in a 75-year-old man suffering from ischemic cardiopathy and in an 8-year-old girl suffering from acute leukemia, had fatal outcomes. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 6 was isolated from both patients and from hot-water samples taken at different sites in the hospital. These facts led us to consider the possibility that a single clone of L. pneumophila serogroup 6 had persisted in the hospital environment for 8 years and had caused sporadic infections. Comparison of clinical and environmental strains by monoclonal subtyping, macrorestriction analysis (MRA), and arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) showed that the strains were clustered into three different epidemiological types, of which only two types caused infection. An excellent correspondence between the MRA and AP-PCR results was observed, with both techniques having high discriminatory powers. However, it was not possible to differentiate the isolates by means of ribotyping and analysis of rrn operon polymorphism. Environmental strains that antigenically and chromosomally matched the infecting organism were present at the time of infection in hot-water samples taken from the ward where the patients had stayed. Interpretation of the temporal sequence of events on the basis of the typing results for clinical and environmental isolates enabled the identification of the ward where the patients became infected and the modes of transmission of Legionella infection. The long-term persistence in the hot-water system of different clones of L. pneumophila serogroup 6 indicates that repeated heat-based control measures were ineffective in eradicating the organism.  (+info)

Pneumothorax complicating fatal bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. (8/1055)

Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) is an uncommon pulmonary disorder, the clinical spectrum of which is variable. We present a fatal case of BOOP, which developed spontaneous pneumothorax, a complication considered rare. Unusual was also the upper lobe distribution of the infiltrates. The histologically diagnosed disease failed to respond to antibiotics and corticosteroids and the 74-year-old patient eventually succumbed with acute respiratory distress syndrome, 50 days after disease onset. Spontaneous pneumothorax should be added to the complications of BOOP, which may adversely affect prognosis.  (+info)

Species of the Gram-negative genus Legionella are the causative agent of Legionnaires disease. These bacteria are parasites of fresh amoebae in aquatic environments, which are considered the primary source of infection in Legionnaires disease outbreaks. Currently, 7 Legionella pneumophila genomes are available, all from clinical isolates, i.e., the six serogroup 1 strains 130b (1), Alcoy (2), Corby (3), Lens (4), Paris (4), and Philadelphia 1 (5) and the serogroup 12 strain 570-CO-H (6). These genomic data have provided the information necessary for large-scale comparative genomic analysis, which is instrumental to the study of the evolution of virulence of this important pathogen (7, 8).. To gain insights into the potential differences between clinical L. pneumophila isolates and environmental strains, we determined the entire genome sequence of a strain (L. pneumophila LPE509) that was isolated from the water distribution system of a hospital in Shanghai, China (9). Genomic DNA was used to ...
A chemically defined medium containing 21 amino acids and inorganic salts was developed which supported the growth of four isolates of Legionnaires disease bacterium (Legionella pneumophila). Growth in liquid defined medium at 37 degrees C with shaking approximated the generation time and growth kinetics observed for growth in complex media. After a 3-h lag, the culture grew exponentially with a generation time of 6 h and reached a maximum optical density of 230 Klett units (170 Klett units corrected for pigment). A soluble brown pigment was first observed as the culture entered late exponential to early stationary phase of growth. Morphologically, L. pneumophila grew in the liquid defined medium with extensive filamentation and numerous intracellular lipid granuoles. L-Serine, L-methionine, and L-cysteine were required for optimum growth. The latter amino acid could be replaced by L-cystine or reduced glutathione but not by D-cysteine, thiomalate, thioglycollate, or 2-mercaptoethanol. Ferric ...
Legionella pneumophila, the bacteria responsible for the most severe forms of Legionnaires Disease, is not a significant river water contaminant in Michigan. Legionella pneumophila normally lives within common soil dwelling protozoa, such as Acanthamoeba, because this bacteria is dormant below 68 F. The Legionella pneumophila bacteria needs the heat of the amoeba cells and the insulation of soil to survive in Michigans cold winters. Michigans rivers usually exceed 68 F only in the late summer months: July, August, and September. The first Genesee Legionnaires Disease outbreak extended from June 2014 to March 2015, over Michigans cold winter months, when river waters are just above freezing. The Flint River was not the source of the Legionella pneumophila responsible for the Legionnaires Disease outbreak.. So how could Legionella pneumophila have gotten in the Flint water system? Water main breaks. Flints water system is old and water main breaks have sorely taxed the capacity of the Flint ...
The intracellular bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila causes an inflammatory pneumonia called Legionnaires Disease. For virulence, L. pneumophila requires a Dot/Icm type IV secretion system that translocates bacterial effectors to the host cytosol. L. pneumophilalacking the Dot/Icm system is recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLRs), leading to a canonical NF-κB-dependent transcriptional response. In addition, L. pneumophila expressing a functional Dot/Icm system potently induces unique transcriptional targets, including proinflammatory genes such as Il23a and Csf2. Here we demonstrate that this Dot/Icm-dependent response, which we term the effector-triggered response (ETR), requires five translocated bacterial effectors that inhibit host protein synthesis. Upon infection of macrophages with virulent L. pneumophila, these five effectors caused a global decrease in host translation, thereby preventing synthesis of IκB, an inhibitor of the NF-κB transcription factor. Thus, macrophages infected
Citable URI: http://udspace.udel.edu/handle/19716/21656 Advisor: Ramona Neunuebel, PhD. Publisher: University of Delaware. Date Issued: 2017-05. Abstract: Legionella pneumophila is a gram-negative opportunistic bacterial pathogen that infects human alveolar macrophages, which causes a severe form of pneumonia known as Legionnaires disease. During infection, Legionella pneumophila avoids lysosomal degradation by employing a Type IVB secretion system to translocate over 300 effector proteins into the host cytosol. These effector proteins hijack endoplasmic reticulum derived vesicles and allow for the formation of a replication permissive vacuole known as the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). Several effector proteins bind and/or modify host phosphoinositides in order to establish the LCV. Phosphoinositides are a type of glycerolipid containing two non-polar fatty acid tails, a glycerol backbone, and a polar myoinositol head group. The myoinositol ring can be reversibly phosphorylated at its ...
Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of human Legionnaires disease. During infection, the bacterium invades macrophages and lung epithelial cells, and replicates intracellularly. However, little is known about its interaction with T cells. We investigated the ability of L. pneumophila to infect and stimulate the production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in T cells. The objective of this study was to assess whether L. pneumophila interferes with the immune system by interacting and infecting T cells. Wild-type L. pneumophila and flagellin-deficient Legionella, but not L. pneumophila lacking a functional type IV secretion system Dot/Icm, replicated in T cells. On the other hand, wild-type L. pneumophila and Dot/Icm-deficient Legionella, but not flagellin-deficient Legionella or heat-killed Legionella induced IL-8 expression. L. pneumophila activated an IL-8 promoter through the NF-κB and AP-1 binding regions. Wild-type L. pneumophila but not flagellin-deficient Legionella activated NF-κB, p38 mitogen
Restriction of Legionella pneumophila growth in macrophages requires the concerted action of cytokine and Naip5/Ipaf signalling pathways.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
The water-borne pathogen Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp1) is the most commonly reported etiologic agent of legionellosis. To examine the genetic diversity, the long-term epidemiology, and the molecular evolution of Lp1 clinical isolates, we conducted sequence-based typing on a collection of clinical isolates representing 3 decades of culture-confirmed legionellosis in Ontario, Canada. Analysis showed that the population of Lp1 in Ontario is highly diverse and combines lineages identified worldwide with local strains. Identical types were identified in sporadic and outbreak-associated strains. In the past 15 years, the incidence of some lineages distributed worldwide has tended to decrease, and local endemic clones and lineages have emerged. Comparative geographic distribution analysis suggests that some lineages are specific to eastern North America. These findings have general clinical implications for the study of Lp1 molecular evolution and for the identification of Lp1 circulating strains in
Microbial pathogens employ sophisticated virulence strategies to cause infections in humans. The intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila encodes RidL to hijack the host scaffold protein VPS29, a component of retromer and retriever complexes critical for endosomal cargo recycling. Here, we determined the crystal structure of L. pneumophila RidL in complex with the human VPS29-VPS35 retromer subcomplex. A hairpin loop protruding from RidL inserts into a conserved pocket on VPS29 that is also used by cellular ligands, such as Tre-2/Bub2/Cdc16 domain family member 5 (TBC1D5) and VPS9-ankyrin repeat protein for VPS29 binding. Consistent with the idea of molecular mimicry in protein interactions, RidL outcompeted TBC1D5 for binding to VPS29. Furthermore, the interaction of RidL with retromer did not interfere with retromer dimerization but was essential for association of RidL with retromer-coated vacuolar and tubular endosomes. Our work thus provides structural and mechanistic evidence into how ...
Macrophages can be niches for bacterial pathogens or antibacterial effector cells depending on the pathogen and signals from the immune system. Here we show that type I and II IFNs are master regulators of gene expression during Legionella pneumophila infection, and activators of an alveolar macrophage-intrinsic immune response that restricts bacterial growth during pneumonia. Quantitative mass spectrometry revealed that both IFNs substantially modify Legionella-containing vacuoles, and comparative analyses reveal distinct subsets of transcriptionally and spatially IFN-regulated proteins. Immune-responsive gene (IRG)1 is induced by IFNs in mitochondria that closely associate with Legionella-containing vacuoles, and mediates production of itaconic acid. This metabolite is bactericidal against intravacuolar L. pneumophila as well as extracellular multidrug-resistant Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Our study explores the overall role IFNs play in inducing substantial remodeling of bacterial ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A Legionella effector kinase is activated by host inositol hexakisphosphate. AU - Sreelatha, Anju. AU - Nolan, Christine. AU - Park, Brenden C.. AU - Pawłowski, Krzysztof. AU - Tomchick, Diana R.. AU - Tagliabracci, Vincent S.. PY - 2020/5/1. Y1 - 2020/5/1. N2 - The transfer of a phosphate from ATP to a protein substrate, a modification known as protein phosphorylation, is catalyzed by protein kinases. Protein kinases play a crucial role in virtually every cellular activity. Recent studies of atypical protein kinases have highlighted the structural similarity of the kinase superfamily despite notable differences in primary amino acid sequence. Here, using a bioinformatics screen, we searched for putative protein kinases in the intracellular bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila and identified the type 4 secretion system effector Lpg2603 as a remote member of the protein kinase superfamily. Employing an array of biochemical and structural biology approaches, including in ...
L. pneumophila grows intracellularly and kills the host cell due to the activity of the Icm/Dot type IV secretion system, which is believed to form a protein complex that translocates effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm into the host cell. The icm/dot system was recently discovered also in C. burnetii and included all of the icm/dot genes except for icmR (30, 31). The icmR gene, together with icmQLp, is located in region IIa; their gene products are predicted to be found in the bacterial cytoplasm and are not homologous to conjugation-related proteins encoded by plasmid R64. This information, together with the finding that C. burnetii contains the entire icm/dot system except for icmR, led us to focus on region IIa as a potential cause for differences between bacteria that contain the Icm/Dot virulence system.. Besides L. pneumophila, several pathogenic Legionella species have been described, and we chose to study two of them: L. micdadei which is the second most common agent of ...
Vesicle transport and membrane trafficking in eukaryotic cells is highly regulated and depends on the function of more than 60 Rab GTPases, which play pivotal roles in these processes. Rabs control vesicle budding, membrane localization, and recruitment of effectors to direct cargo to their correct destination. It is for this reason that several pathogenic bacteria manipulate these proteins to establish a replicative niche for themselves. The focus of our laboratory is to elucidate how intracellular bacterial pathogens manipulate Rab function to promote their virulence and to uncover fundamental principles of membrane traffic. To accomplish this, we will utilize the intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila as a model. Legionella pneumophila is responsible for a severe pneumonia called Legionnaires disease and cause infection via inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Following phagocytosis by host alveolar macrophages, L. pneumophila avoids fusion with endo-lysosomes and instead hijacks the ...
Abs confer protection from secondary infection with Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of a severe form of pneumonia known as Legionnaires disease. In this study, we demonstrate that Ab-mediated protection is effective across L. pneumophila serogroups, suggesting that Abs specific for conserved protein Ags are sufficient to mediate this protective effect. We used two independent methods to identify immunogenic L. pneumophila protein Ags, namely, the screening of a λ phage library representing the complete L. pneumophila genome and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with Western blot analysis and protein spot identification by mass spectrometry. A total of 30 novel L. pneumophila B cell Ags were identified, the majority of which are located in or associated with the bacterial membrane, where they are accessible for Abs and, therefore, likely to be relevant for Ab-mediated protection against L. pneumophila. Selected B cell Ags were recombinantly expressed and tested in a ...
Legionellosis is a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila and other legionella species. Two distinct clinical and epidemiological syndromes are associated with Legionella species: Legionnaires disease is the more severe form of the infection, which may involve pneumonia, and Pontiac fever is a milder respiratory illness. The pathogenesis of L. pneumophila is derived from its growth within lung macrophages. One of the L. pneumophilas type IV secretion systems, the Dot/Icm secretion system, is of critical importance for its ability to replicate and to cause disease. The Dot/Icm substrates modulate multiple host cell processes and in particular, redirect trafficking of the L. pneumophila phagosome and mediate its conversion into an ER-derived organelle competent for intracellular bacterial replication. L. pneumophila also manipulates host cell death and survival pathways in a way that allows continued intracellular replication ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Periplasmic copper-zinc superoxide dismutase of Legionella pneumophila. T2 - Role in stationary-phase survival. AU - St. John, Gregory. AU - Steinman, Howard M.. PY - 1996/3. Y1 - 1996/3. N2 - Copper-zinc superoxide dismutases (CuZnSODs) are infrequently found in bacteria although widespread in eukaryotes. Legionella pneumophila, the causative organism of Legionnaires disease, is one of a small number of bacterial species that contain a CuZnSOD, residing in the periplasm, in addition to an iron SOD (FeSOD) in their cytoplasm. To investigate CuZnSOD function, we purified the enzyme from wild-type L. pneumophila, obtained amino acid sequence data from isolated peptides, cloned and sequenced the gene from a L. pneumophila library, and then constructed and characterized a CuZnSOD null mutant. In contrast to the cytoplasmic FeSOD, the CuZnSOD of L. pneumophila is not essential for viability. However, CuZnSOD is critical fur survival during the stationary phase of growth. The CuZnSOD ...
First isolated in 1977, Legionella pneumophila, a Gram-negative, intracellular bacterial pathogen is the agent causing the severe form of pneumonia named Legionnaires disease, as well as the less severe flu-like Pontiac fever [1]. It has drawn much attention for its capability of intracellular replication in both protozoa and human beings. After the endocytosis by protozoan hosts like amoebae or human alveolar macrophages, the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) inhibits phagolysosomal fusion and recruits mitochondria followed by the association of ribosome-studded membranes that later disguise LCV as endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Within this ER-like compartment, the bacterium replicates to high numbers and eventually is released through lysing the host cell for the next invasion [2].. During this process, L. pneumophila requires most protein products of 27 dot/icm (defect in organelle trafficking/intracellular multiplication) genes to constitute a type IVB secretion system (T4BSS) [2]. Although ...
The pathogenic bacterium Legionella pneumophila replicates in host cells within a distinct ER‐associated compartment termed the Legionella‐containing vacuole (LCV). How the dynamic ER network contributes to pathogen proliferation within the nascent LCV remains elusive. A proteomic analysis of purified LCVs identified the ER tubule‐resident large GTPase atlastin3 (Atl3, yeast Sey1p) and the reticulon protein Rtn4 as conserved LCV host components. Here, we report that Sey1/Atl3 and Rtn4 localize to early LCVs and are critical for pathogen vacuole formation. Sey1 overproduction promotes intracellular growth of L. pneumophila, whereas a catalytically inactive, dominant‐negative GTPase mutant protein, or Atl3 depletion, restricts pathogen replication and impairs LCV maturation. Sey1 is not required for initial recruitment of ER to PtdIns(4)P‐positive LCVs but for subsequent pathogen vacuole expansion. GTP (but not GDP) catalyzes the Sey1‐dependent aggregation of purified, ER‐positive ...
3. Vincent CD, Jeong KC, Sexton J, Buford E, Vogel JP. 2006. The Legionella pneumophila Dot/Icm Type IV Secretion System. In Legionella: State of the Art 30 Years After Its Recognition. Ed. N. Cianciotto et al, ASM Press, Washington, D.C. Pages 184-191 ...
Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent of Legionnaires disease, replicates intracellularly in protozoan and human hosts. Successful colonization and replication of this pathogen in host cells requires the Dot/Icm type IVB secretion system, which translocates approximately 300 effector proteins into the host cell to modulate various cellular processes. In this study, we identified RavK as a Dot/Icm substrate that targets the host cytoskeleton and reduces actin filament abundance in mammalian cells upon ectopic expression. RavK harbors an H 95E XXH 99 motif associated with diverse metalloproteases, which is essential for the inhibition of yeast growth and for the induction of cell rounding in HEK293T cells. We demonstrate that the actin protein itself is the cellular target of RavK and that this effector cleaves actin at a site between residues Thr351 and Phe352. Importantly, RavK-mediated actin cleavage also occurs during L. pneumophila infection. Cleavage by RavK abolishes the ability of ...
This study is designed to determine the contamination degree of hospital water supplies with |i|Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella pneumophila|/i|, and |i|E. coli|/i| in Gilan, Iran. Samples were collected directly into sterile containers and concentrated by centrifuge. Half part of any sample transferred to yeast extract broth and the second part transferred to Trypticase Soy Broth and incubated for 3 days. DNA was extracted by using commercial kit. Four rounds of PCR were performed as follows: multiplex PCR for detecting |i|Pseudomonas aeruginosa|/i|, Integron 1, and Metallo-|i|β|/i|-lactamases gene; PCR for detecting |i|Legionella pneumophila|/i| and |i|mip|/i| gene separately; PCR for detecting |i|E. coli|/i|; and another PCR for detecting whole bacterial presence. Contamination rates of cold, warm, and incubator water samples with |i|P. aeruginosa|/i|, were 16.6%, 37.5%, and 6.8% consequently. Degrees of contamination with |i|L. pneumophila|/i| were 3.3%, 9.3%, and 10
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Article Enumeration of Legionella pneumophila in cooling tower water systems. Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires disease, is known to colonise and frequently grow in cooling tower waters. Disease is acquired by inhaling aeros...
Lien vers Pubmed [PMID] - 29733858. J. Mol. Biol. 2018 Jun;430(13):1912-1925. RomA is a SET-domain containing protein lysine methyltransferase encoded by the Gram-negative bacterium Legionella pneumophila. It is exported into human host cells during infection and has been previously shown to methylate histone H3 at lysine 14 [Rolando et al. (2013), Cell Host Microbe, 13, 395-405]. Here, we investigated the substrate specificity of RomA on peptide arrays showing that it mainly recognizes a G-K-X-(PA) sequence embedded in a basic amino acid sequence context. Based on the specificity profile, we searched for possible additional RomA substrates in the human proteome and identified 34 novel peptide substrates. For nine of these, the corresponding full-length protein or protein domains could be cloned and purified. Using radioactive and antibody-based methylation assays, we showed that seven of them are methylated by RomA, four of them strongly, one moderately, and two weakly. Mutagenesis confirmed ...
The Legiolert test detects Legionella pneumophila in potable and nonpotable water samples. This test is based on a bacterial enzyme-detection technology that signals the presence of Legionella pneumophila through utilization of a substrate present in the Legiolert reagent. Legionella pneumophila cells grow rapidly and reproduce using the rich supply of amino acids, vitamins, and other nutrients present in the Legiolert reagent. Actively growing strains of Legionella pneumophila use the added substrate to produce a brown color indicator. The Legiolert test detects Legionella pneumophila at 1 organism in 100 mL within 7 days.. ...
Legionella pneumophila is a ubiquitous microorganism widely distributed in aquatic environments and can cause Legionellosis in humans. A promising approach to detect viable cells in water samples involves the use of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in combination with photoactivatable DNA intercalator propidium monoazide (PMA). However, the PMA efficiency could be different depending on the experimental conditions used. The aim of this study was to compare two PMA exposure protocols: (A) directly on the membrane filter or (B) in liquid after filter washing. The overall PMA-induced qPCR means reductions in heat-killed L. pneumophila cells were 2.42 and 1.91 log units for exposure protocols A and B, respectively. A comparison between the results obtained reveals that filter exposure allows a higher PMA-qPCR signal reduction to be reached, mainly at low concentrations (p < 0.05). This confirms the potential use of this method to quantify L. pneumophila in water with low contamination.
Cloning and sequencing of the Legionella pneumophila fur gene.: Iron is required for the intracellular and extracellular growth of Legionella pneumophila (Lp).
Legionella pneumophila subsp. pneumophila ATCC ® 33152™ Designation: Philadelphia-1 TypeStrain=True Application: Media testing Emerging infectious disease research Respiratory research
Rasch et al. recently published an article describing antimicrobial properties of cycloheximide derivatives with adamantyl moieties against Legionella pneumophila. Ten different cycloheximide derivatives were synthesized in this study, and five were found to inhibit L. pneumophila growth at a concentration of 30 uM or 40 uM. Interestingly, several other clinically significant Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens were not susceptible to these derivatives which suggests a very narrow spectrum of activity which may be limited specifically to L. pneumophila ...
We investigated an outbreak of fever, most likely due to a contaminated whirlpool, among nine adults and six children residing in a summerhouse. The outbreak was characterized by a high attack rate, short incubation periods, influenza-like symptoms, and rapid recoveries, all features typical of Pontiac fever. However, the children had less-characteristic symptoms than the adults, and they did not have any sequelae. Findings on the childrens chest radiographs were unremarkable, and none of the children had leukocytosis. Evidence of Legionella pneumophila infection was found in six cases: in one case by isolation of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 and detection of legionellae by PCR, and in five cases by seroconversion to the clinical isolate. Six additional cases had presumptive evidence of legionella infection, with seroconversion to Legionella micdadei antigen; a PCR assay was also positive for legionellae for one of these cases. In contrast, two adult nonusers of the whirlpool had no symptoms and ...
Low-flow building water systems designed to conserve water pose potential health hazards because they may cause an increase in disease-causing organisms such as the bacterium Legionella pneumophila, which causes Legionnaires disease; the brain-eating amoeba Naegleria fowleri; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an antibiotic-resistant pathogen associated with serious illnesses; and Mycobacterium avium, which causes respiratory illness, especially in immunocompromised people. The three-year collaborative research project is also funded with $1.1 million from non-federal sources including Whirlpool, Citizens Energy Group, and the Avon Community School Corporation. Read more. ...
The prevalence of anti-Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 antibodies in 777 blood donors of the Turin area was determined by the indirect immunofluorescence assay IFA and by the microagglutination test MA. Low titers IFA of 1/16 and MA of 1/8 were found in 0.3% of the subjects. A statistically significant difference was not observed by sex and...
Legionella pneumophila can pose a significant health threat to humans, most notably to immunocompromised persons, if present in human-made aquatic environments (37). To understand infections by this pathogen, especially regarding its epidemiological aspects, an identification of strains at the subspecies level is necessary. Molecular tools based on the analysis of bacterial DNA, such as MLST or MLVA, have become widely accepted in molecular typing studies of pathogenic bacteria (15, 17, 18, 24). The MLVA analysis is based on polymorphic minisatellites (VNTRs) on different loci, where recombination and DNA polymerase slipping often happen. If occurring with certain frequencies, these events can result in changes of the repeat sizes between different strains at a given locus (38). Currently, MLVA data for L. pneumophila and several other pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, can be obtained from the central GPMS website (http://minisatellites.u-psud.fr/ ), and ...
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We have studied the interaction between virulent egg yolk-grown Legionella pneumophila Philadelphia 1 and human blood monocytes in vitro. The leukocytes were cultured in antibiotic-free tissue culture medium supplemented with 15% autologous human serum.. ...
Legionellosis is a life threatening disease caused by pathogenic Legionella pneumophila. L. pneumophila is found in natural and engineered water systems where ...
Entry of L. pneumophila is mediated by PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. These results suggest an important role for PI3K and Akt in the L. pneumophila infection process. They point to possible novel strategies for undermining L. pneumophila host uptake and reducing pathogenesis of Legionnaires disease.
The use of the published FISH probe for direct detection of Leg. pneumophila (Grimm et al. 1998) led to unsatisfactory results in terms of signal intensity and background fluorescence in our cooling tower samples. We therefore developed a CARD-FISH protocol which significantly improved detectability of the cells. The cells were much brighter and larger and could be easily differentiated from background fluorescence. However, when applying this protocol to a series of related Legionella species, we observed a high degree of cross-hybridization. Actually, all tested Legionella species showed a rather strong fluorescence signal. A sequence comparison using the ribosomal databases RDPII, SILVA and Greengenes revealed that almost all legionellae showed the same two mismatches in comparison with the Leg. pneumophila target sequence. By applying the newly designed competitor probe, cross-hybridization could be prevented completely. For specific detection of Leg. pneumophila in environmental samples ...
Sixty-three environmental water samples from various sources were examined for the presence of Legionella pneumophila with a commercially available direct fluorescent monoclonal antibody (GS), an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and culture. GS detected L. pneumophila in 94% and 100% of env …
To transit from intra- to extracellular environments, Legionella pneumophila differentiates from a replicative/non-virulent to a transmissive/virulent form using the two-component system LetA/LetS and the global repressor protein CsrA. While investigating how both regulators act co-ordinately we characterized two ncRNAs, RsmY and RsmZ, that link the LetA/LetS and CsrA regulatory networks. We demonstrate that LetA directly regulates their expression and show that RsmY and RsmZ are functional in Escherichia coli and are able to bind CsrA in vitro. Single mutants have no (ΔrsmY) or a little (ΔrsmZ) impact on virulence, but the ΔrsmYZ strain shows a drastic defect in intracellular growth in Acanthamoeba castellanii and THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages. Analysis of the transcriptional programmes of the ΔletA, ΔletS and ΔrsmYZ strains revealed that the switch to the transmissive phase is partially blocked. One major difference between the ΔletA, ΔletS and ΔrsmYZ strains was that the latter
Abstract: Antitryptic activity of human blood serum was decreased after incubation with metalloproteinase from Legionella pneumophila. The enzymatic activity depends on the time of incubation as well as on the ratio between the enzyme content and blood serum total protein. Cross immunoelectrophoresis, involving monospecific rabbit antiserum towards the alpha 1-antitrypsin, demonstrated highly effective hydrolysis of alpha 1-antitrypsin by the metalloproteinase. As shown by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis the metalloproteinase hydrolyzed acid stable inhibitor of serine proteinases into fragments with distinct loss of the inhibitor activity. Thermolysine hydrolyzed similarly the proteins studied but at a lower rate. The metalloproteinase from L. pneumophila appears to be mainly responsible for production of utilizable components from protein substrates involved in vital activity of the bacteria. It may not be excluded that the enzyme is able to impair some host protective mechanisms ...
ImmuView® P&L is the only urinary Antigen Test capable of identifying both S. pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila at the same time - with just one test.. Quick, accurate and easy diagnosis is crucial because S. pneumoniae is the leading cause of community acquired pneumonia. Additionally, Legionella pneumophila causes costly hospital and ICU admissions. Patients that are suffering from either disease present symptoms that are difficult to tell apart. This is a huge challenge, as the treatment for each disease is different. Thats why medical guidelines recommend double testing. ...
To the editor: The causative organisms in Legionnaires disease, Pontiac fever, and Pittsburgh pneumonia are rod-shaped bacteria that are refractory to most bacteriologic and histologic stains. They are considered to be gram-negative, although they usually stain very weakly even after prolonged exposure to safranin in the Gram staining procedure. The initial successful demonstration of Legionella pneumophila in culture smears was made by McDade and colleagues (1) using the Giménez stain and in human lung tissue sections by Chandler and associates (2) using a modified Dieterle silver impregnation procedure. These staining procedures are still the most widely used in studies of ...
Light micrograph of legionella pneumophila, the bacterium responsible for legionnaires disease (pneumonia). Image colorization and HDRI treatments. Magnification 1000x. - Stock Image C028/3458
With this discovery, they have dissected the complex roles of legions of immune cells that interact to destroy the bacterium.. Legionella pneumophila is the bacterium that causes legionnaires disease. The bacterium preferentially grows within pond amoebae, but can accidentally cause serious lung infections in susceptible humans.. It is not passed from person to person, but people contract the disease through inhaling contaminated water, in the form of water vapour (small droplets) produced by air-conditioning units, spas and other water sources. Legionella causes disease when it invades and destroys our amoeba-like macrophages in the lungs.. PhD student at the University of Melbournes Bio21 Institute, Andrew Brown, used a recent Belgian study that characterised immune cell populations in inflamed tissues as a basis to look at what was going on in the lung when it was infected with Legionella bacteria.. He uncovered a new population of immune cells that was playing a significant role: the ...
GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) from pathogenic bacteria and eukaryotic host organisms deactivate Rab GTPases by supplying catalytic arginine and glutamine fingers in trans and utilizing the cis-glutamine in the DXXGQ motif of the GTPase for binding rather than catalysis. Here, we report the transition state mimetic structure of the Legionella pneumophila GAP LepB in complex with Rab1 and describe a comprehensive structure-based mutational analysis of potential catalytic and recognition determinants. The results demonstrate that LepB does not simply mimic other GAPs but instead deploys an expected arginine finger in conjunction with a novel glutamic acid finger, which forms a salt bridge with an indispensible switch II arginine that effectively locks the cis-glutamine in the DXXGQ motif of Rab1 in a catalytically competent though unprecedented transition state configuration. Surprisingly, a heretofore universal transition state interaction with the cis-glutamine is supplanted by an elaborate polar
L. pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires disease (LD) expresses numerous lipolytic enzymes. According to sequence homology or determined lipolytic activities, up to 17 open reading frames of the L. pneumophila genome may encode functional phospholipases. In addition to secreted and/or injected lipolytic enzymes, it was shown that the pathogen expresses a highly active and membrane-bound phospholipase A/lysophospholipase A with hemolytic activity, designated PlaB. As PlaB does not belong to any established bacterial or eukaryotic protein family of lipolytic enzymes nor does it show sequence homology to conserved motifs harboring the catalytically important amino acids, we analyzed putative catalytic centers using site-directed mutagenesis. This study shows that PlaB exhibits a catalytic triad of serine, aspartate and histidine residues, most commonly found within lipolytic and proteolytic enzyme families. However, surrounding motifs differ significantly from described ones. Thus, PlaB ...
The interactions between the L. pneumophila phagosome and monocyte lysosomes were investigated by prelabeling the lysosomes with thorium dioxide, an electron-opaque colloidal marker, and by acid phosphatase cytochemistry. Phagosomes containing live L. pneumophila did not fuse with secondary lysosomes at 1 h after entry into monocytes or at 4 or 8 h after entry by which time the ribosome-lined L. pneumophila replicative vacuole had formed. In contrast, the majority of phagosomes containing formalin-killed L. pneumophila, live Streptococcus pneumoniae, and live Escherichia coli had fused with secondary lysosomes by 1 h after entry into monocytes. Erythromycin, a potent inhibitor of bacterial protein synthesis, at a concentration that completely inhibits L. pneumophila intracellular multiplication, had no influence on fusion of L. pneumophila phagosomes with secondary lysosomes. However, coating live L. pneumophila with antibody or with antibody and complement partially overcame the inhibition of ...
A middle-aged man had deteriorated rapidly in hospital after being misdiagnosed with acute alcoholic hepatitis. Acute Legionnaires disease (Legionellosis) was subsequently diagnosed on rapid antigen urinary testing and further confirmed serologically. This led to appropriate antibiotic treatment and complete clinical resolution. Physicians caring for patients with alcohol-related liver disease should consider Legionella pneumophila in their differential diagnosis even with a paucity of respiratory symptoms. ...
The Orange County Health Care Agency announced Friday that they have discovered the likely source for an outbreak of Legionnaires disease that occurred last month in Anaheim. The culprit appears to be two large cooling towers in Disneyland near the New Orleans Square Train Station. Officials at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention became concerned in September when reports emerged of 12 different cases of Legionnaires disease, a lung infection caused by the bacteria Legionella pneumophila. The Legionella pneumophila bacteria flourishes in warm water and is easily spread through water droplets. When the contaminated droplets are inhaled by humans, they can develop a lung infection. Most people infected with Legionella pneumophila never show any symptoms. However, people with lung problems or with immune disorders are particularly vulnerable to Legionnaires disease. All 12 of the infected patients are residents of Anaheim or had been in Anaheim within the last month. Nine of the ...
In this study, we analyzed L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates by SBT from three water sources in China: cooling towers, hot springs, and potable water systems. Furthermore, isolates from China were compared with isolates from Japan and South Korea. Our findings revealed that STs had several unique allelic profiles and that ST1 of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 was the most prevalent sequence type in China. Additionally, the distributions of isolate STs differed among the water sources and cities.. Even though 23 of the 42 STs obtained in this study were unique to China, the EWGLI SBT database indicated that there were single-locus variants abroad of the majority of the STs. Therefore, a few STs might be unique to China. In our previous study, we reported four Legionnaires disease cases attributed to ST36 and ST346 strains (22). However, no isolates belonging to these two STs were isolated in this study. In 2011, we detected a case of Legionnaires disease caused by an L. pneumophila serogroup 1 ...
1] Waterer GW, Baselski VS, & Wunderink RG: Legionella and community-acquired pneumonia: a review of current diagnostic tests from a clinicians viewpoint. Am J Med 2001; 110:41-48. [2] Lindsay DS, Abraham WH, Findlay W, et al: Laboratory diagnosis of legionnaires disease due to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1: comparison of phenotypic and genotypic methods. J Med Microbiol 2004; 53(Pt 3):183-187. [3] Murdoch DR: Diagnosis of Legionella infection.. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 36:64-69. [4] Helbig JH, Uldum SA, Bernander S, et al: Clinical utility of urinary antigen detection for diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia, travel-associated, and nosocomial legionnaires disease.. J Clin Microbiol 2003; 41:37-43. [5] Dominguez JA, Gali N, Pedroso P, et al: Comparison of the Binax Legionella urinary antigen enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with the Biotest Legionella Urin antigen EIA for detection of Legionella antigen in both concentrated and nonconcentrated urine samples. J Clin Microbiol 1998; ...
The bacterium Legionella pneumophila is the responsible agent for Legionnaires disease and has recently been shown to harbor a gene encoding a kinase that confers resistance to the aminoglycoside antibiotic spectinomycin (Suter, T. M., Viswanathan, V. K., and Cianciotto, N. P. (1997) Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41, 1385-1388). We report the overproduction, purification, and characterization of this spectinomycin kinase from an expressing system in Escherichia coli. The purified protein shows stringent substrate specificity for spectinomycin with Km = 21.5 microM and kcat = 24.2 s-1 and does not bind other aminoglycosides including kanamycin, amikacin, neomycin, butirosin, streptomycin, or apramycin. Purification of spectinomycin phosphate followed by characterization by mass spectrometry and 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR established the site of phosphorylation to be at the hydroxyl group at position 9. Thus this enzyme is designated APH(9)-Ia (where APH is aminoglycoside kinase). The enzyme was inactivated by
Although the European reports highlight an increase in community-acquired Legionnaires’ disease cases, the risk of Legionella spp. in private houses is underestimated. In Pisa (Italy) we performed a three-year survey on Legionella presence in 121 buildings with an independent hot water production (IB); 64 buildings with a central hot water production (CB); and 35 buildings with a solar thermal system for hot water production (TB). From all the 220 buildings Legionella spp. was researched in two hot water samples collected either at the recirculation point or at on the first floor and on the last floor, while the potable water quality was analyzed in three cold water samples collected at the inlet from the aqueduct network, at the exit from the autoclave, and at the most remove remote? tap. Legionella pneumophila sg1, Legionella pneumophila sg2-16 and not-pneumophila Legionella species were detected in 26% of the hot water networks, mostly in CB and TB. In these buildings we detected correlations
Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide (HP) use as a disinfectant in the hospital water network for the control of Legionella spp. colonization. Methods: Following the detection of high levels of Legionella contamination in a 136-bed general hospital water network, an HP treatment of the hot water supply (25 mg/L) was adopted. During a period of 34 months, the effectiveness of HP on Legionella colonization was assessed. Legionella was isolated in accordance with ISO-11731 and identification was carried out by sequencing of the mip gene. Results: Before HP treatment, L. pneumophila sg 2-15 was isolated in all sites with a mean count of 9950±8279 cfu/L. After one-month of HP treatment, we observed the disappearance of L. pneumophila 2-15, however other Legionella species previously not seen were found; Legionella pneumophila 1 was isolated in one out of four sampling sites (2000 cfu/L) and other non-pneumophila species were present in all sites (mean load 3000±2887 ...
They are actively investigating these deaths and their relationship to the outbreak. The Health Department is testing water from cooling towers and other potential sources in the area to determine the source of the outbreak. New Yorkers with respiratory symptoms, such as fever, cough, chills and muscle aches, are advised to promptly seek medical attention.. We are concerned about this unusual increase in Legionnaires disease cases in the South Bronx, said Health Commissioner Dr. Mary Bassett. We are conducting a swift investigation to determine the source of the outbreak and prevent future cases. I urge anyone with symptoms to seek medical attention right away.. Last December, officials issued a health alert due to a Legionnaires disease outbreak at Co-Op City in the Bronx.. Legionnaires disease is caused by the bacteria Legionella. Additional symptoms include: headache, fatigue, loss of appetite, confusion and diarrhea. Symptoms usually appear two to 10 days after significant exposure to ...
All five patients illnesses were confirmed by Legionella urinary antigen testing, and one patient was also culture positive for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. One patient died from the disease.. University Hospital is taking measures to address a suspected risk associated with the hospitals hot-water system.. Legionellosis is a disease caused by a bacterium called Legionella, which is naturally found in the environment, usually in water. The bacteria grow best in warm water and can thrive in hot tubs, detachable shower nozzles, cooling towers, hot water tanks, large plumbing systems or parts of the air-conditioning systems of large buildings.. People can become ill when they breathe in a mist or vapor (small droplets of water in the air) contaminated with Legionella. The disease is not spread by contact with an infected person.. Legionellosis can present in one of the following ways: as Legionnaires disease or as Pontiac fever. Symptoms of Legionnaires disease usually begin two to 10 ...
AMPylation, a posttranslational modification in which adenosine monophosphate (AMP) is added to hydroxyl side chains of protein substrates, is employed by many bacterial pathogens to subvert host signaling pathways during infection. The Legionella pneumophila effector protein SidM is a multifunctional enzyme that targets the guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Rab1 to manipulate intracellular vesicular trafficking in the host cell. SidM recruits Rab1 to the membranes of Legionella-containing vacuoles and activates Rab1 through its guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity. SidM then AMPylates Rab1, converting it into a constitutively active form that cannot be accessed by LepB, a GTPase-activating protein that is secreted by L. pneumophila. However, the molecular event that eventually leads to Rab1 inactivation and subsequent removal from Legionella-containing vacuoles has remained unknown. New evidence has identified SidD as a de-AMPylase that removes AMP from Rab1, which enables its ...
MEMPHIS, Tenn. - Health officials are investigating a Legionnaires disease outbreak in the hotel located at Graceland, the tourist attraction centred on the life of late singer Elvis Presley in Memphis, Tennessee.. The Shelby County Health Department said in a news release Thursday that three people have been diagnosed with Legionnaires disease and the pool and hot tub at The Guest House at Graceland hotel are temporarily closed. The hotel is located near the Graceland museum.. People who visited the hotel between May 15 and June 26 and have symptoms should contact the department. Legionnaires disease has symptoms similar to pneumonia, including cough, high fever and headaches. Symptoms can last between two and 14 days after exposure.. In a statement released by the department, the hotel says it is co-operating with health officials.. Read more at: http://www.660news.com/2017/06/29/officials-legionnaires-disease-outbreak-at-graceland-hotel/ ...
Legionellosis, also known as Legionnaires Disease, is a pulmonary disease caused by the bacteria Legionella pneumophila. It is transmitted by droplets from contaminated water sources.
Legionella pneumophila is the bacteria that causes Legionnaires disease. The is a pneumonic illness. It was first discovered in Philadelphis in 1976, when it caused an outbreak of pneumonia at an American Legion Convention, infecting 221 people and killing 34. Legionnaires disease is difficult to distinguish from any other type of pneumonia. The four major methods for diagnosis are: determination of antibody level, demonstration of the bacterium in tissues or body fluids by using immunofluorescent microscopy, actual isolation of the organism on culture media, and detection of antigenuria. If left untreated, the disease has a 5-80% mortality rate. Immunocompromised individuals are less likely to survive an infection than immunocompetent patients. Risk factors for Legionnaires disease include: immunosuppression, cigarette smoking, renal failure, age greater than 50 years, AIDS, hematologic malignancies, and lung cancer. In addition, males are more likely to become infected with L. pneumophila ...
Local health officials in Quebec announced Sunday that a deadly Legionnaires disease outbreak has struck more than 100 people and killed eight in Quebec City in the past month. I am anxious to say to the population of Quebec that we take this position very seriously, said Yves Bolduc, minister of health and social services. We will deploy all the necessary resources to ensure the health and safety of the population.. In response to the most severe Legionnaires outbreak in 25 years, regional and local health agencies assembled a special team late in July to investigate. Last week a reported 89 cooling towers suspected to be the source of the bacteria were disinfected.. So far, there have been 104 cases reported, but officials say more are expected to surface in the coming weeks.. Legionella, the bacterium that causes Legionnaires disease, spreads via mist or aerosolized water, like that found in cooling or ventilation systems. If inhaled, the bacteria can cause a pneumonia that is fatal in ...
A simplistic quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) based on the maximum risk curve (r = 1) was developed for Legionella within a water distribution system. Both biofilms and a thermophilic isolate of acanthamoebae were shown to increase the resistance of Legionella to conventional thermal disinfection by between one and two logs respectively. The level of risk presented to consumers was shown to exceed the USEPA 10-4 benchmark in many cases tested. This was caused, in part, by the sensitivity of the risk model but also through a lack of reliable dose-response data for Legionella. Notwithstanding this, the current study provided comparative information on the efficacy of conventional disinfection against Legionella. Combined chlorine was shown to reduce the risk of infection by as much as 1-log when compared to free chlorine, although thermal disinfection provided the most effective means of risk reduction. Biofilm detachment and the interaction of Legionella with acanthamoebae were two ...
Update: after posting this I found that actual experts have proposed a different hypothesis). So the recent Legionnaires Disease Outbreak in Flint, Michigan has been getting quite a bit of press recently. For example in the last few days here are pieces from The Atlantic, The Washington Post, and CNN.. The very short version of the story is that over the last couple of years, Flint has seen a huge increase in the number of Legionella cases in the area. This correlates with a switch from using from Lake Huron water (via Detroit) to using water from the nearby Flint River. That switch clearly caused a number of issues due to iron and lead in the water… but its not clear if the Legionella outbreak is directly related.. Many of the news stories seem to mash together things like color and smell of the water (presumably unrelated to the risk of Legionella infection), the water quality issues, and the outbreak.. Since presumably neither Lake Huron nor the Flint River are host to significant number ...
This is a list of Legionnaires disease outbreaks; Legionnaires is a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by gram negative, aerobic bacteria belonging to the genus Legionella. The first reported outbreak was in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1976 during a Legionnaires Convention at the Bellevue-Stratford Hotel. The guidance issued by the UK governments Health and Safety Executive (HSE) now recommends that microbiological monitoring for wet cooling systems, using a dipslide, should be performed weekly. The guidance now also recommends that routine testing for legionella bacteria in wet cooling systems be carried out at least quarterly, and more frequently when a system is being commissioned, or if the bacteria have been identified on a previous occasion. Further non-statutory UK guidance from the Water Regulations Advisory Scheme now exists for pre-heating of water in applications such as solar water heating systems. The City of Garland, Texas requires yearly testing for legionella ...
Travel Daily News reports that the suit claims that Thomas Boyle, from Britain, and Elodie Nogues, from France, contracted Legionnaires disease after staying at the Dubai Westin Mina Seyahi in January and February of 2009. The health of the pair deteriorated rapidly and resulted in hospital stays. A third guest, BBC radio commentator Bill Frindall, 69, passed away as a result of contracting the disease.. The legionella bacterion that causes Legionnaires (a form of pneumonia) can be found in natural water sources such as lakes and rivers, but also on occasion in man-made water systems such as cooling towers, whirlpool spas, and also in air-conditioning units. People become infected by inhaling water droplets containing the bacterium. Since the disease was first identified in 1976 - at a meeting of retired US military personnel, or legionnaires - outbreaks have been linked to hotels, cruise ships, and other types of holiday accommodation. About 5-15% of cases prove fatal, with elderly people ...
Eight guests and one worker at Disneyland have contracted Legionnaires disease, prompting the Anaheim, Calif., theme park to close a pair of cooling towers.. After the Orange County Health Care Agency reported an increase of Legionnaires cases in Anaheim, the park investigated and found two towers had had elevated levels of Legionella bacteria.. The 12 cases range in age from 52 to 94, Good said.. Nine people contracted Legionnaires disease after visiting Disneyland in September, a Disneyland spokesperson confirmed Saturday. One patient, who hadnt visited the park, has died. According to health officials, the person who died in connection to the Disneyland outbreak had additional health issues. The health agency said there is no ongoing risk to the public and no other cases have been reported, although they cautioned public health officials to be aware of the situation. People can get Legionnaires disease when they breathe in small droplets of water in the air that contain the ...
A 2013 outbreak of Legionnaires disease in a Brisbane hospital caused a sense of panic.. A 60 year old cancer patient died and a women went into intensive care after being diagnosed with Legionnaires disease suspected to have originated in hot water taps in the Wesley Private Hospital.. Legionnaires disease is a serious and sometimes fatal form of pneumonia caused by the bacteria Legionella.. Legionella bacteria are found naturally in the environment and thrive in warm water and warm damp places. They are commonly found in lakes, rivers, streams, soil and mud.. The bacteria organism multiplies at temperatures ranging from 20-45ºC, with maximum growth occurring at between 32-43ºC. They can survive freezing and are killed with increasing rapidity as temperatures exceed 45ºC.. The disease is not contagious and is not known to spread directly from person to person, nor can it be contracted through drinking water.. It is contracted by breathing in dust or small droplets contaminated with the ...
A nosocomial pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophilaserogroup 2oc-14oc curred in a 7-year-old patient following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for thalassemia major. The patient was diagnosed as nosocomial Legionella pneumonia by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from bronchoalveolar lavage and a culture of L. pneumophilaserogroup 2-14 from patients room faucet water. Legionella was eradicated from our hospitals water distribution system by superheating and chemical eradication methods (hyper-chlorination and hydrogen peroxide). We did not detect any case after this event. Early recognition of contamination of hospital water system with Leigonella proves the importance of prevention new cases. ...
Allen J, Myatt T, MacIntosh DL, Ludwig J, Minegishi T, Stewart J, Connors B, Grant M, McCarthy J. 2012. Assessing Risk of Nosocomial Legionnaires Disease from Environmental Sampling - The Limits of Using a Strict Percent Positivity Approach. American Journal of Infection Control, 40(10):917-921.. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22633439. ...
• JOB: 13 Mar 2017 - Subversion of phagocyte functions by the intracellular pathogen Legionella. Legionella pneumophila is a ubiquitous environmental bacterium that replicates within protozoa, including the genetically tractable social amoeba Dictyostelium . Upon inhalation of contaminated aerosols, the opportunistic pathogen grows within macrophages in the
Alere BinaxNOW® Legionella Urinary Antigen Test is a rapid assay for the qualitative detection of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 antigen in urine samples from patients with symptoms of pneumonia.
Looking for online definition of L. pneumophila in the Medical Dictionary? L. pneumophila explanation free. What is L. pneumophila? Meaning of L. pneumophila medical term. What does L. pneumophila mean?
FISH colony hybridisation. A new service/Kit which is offered by BioVisible is detection of Legionella using the FISH technique. In this procedure the Legionella bacteria are grown on Legionella specific plates for 1 day. The resulting micro-colonies are than stained with a Legionella specific probe which makes the Legionella bacteria fluorescent. These fluorescent bacteria can than be detected using a fluorescence microscope. The whole procedure takes less than 24 hours. This technique combines the traditional growth of Legionella bacteria on plates with the speed and accuracy of modern molecular detection techniques.. The Legionella Fast Service is only available for the Netherlands. For questions, please contact Mr. J. de Vogel: [email protected] ...
Rikers Inmate Has Legionnaires Disease; Officials Find No Link to OutbreakNew York TimesA Rikers Island inmate has Legionnaires disease, New York City officials said on Tuesday, quickly adding that it was unlikely the case was connected to an outbreak in the South Bronx that has killed 12 people since early July. The 63-year-old inmate ...Cuomo, de Blasio Move to Jointly Fight Legionnaires Disease OutbreakWall Street JournalBronx hotel eyed as possible Legionnaires disease source accuses NYC of ...New York Daily NewsNew York City jail inmate diagnosed with Legionnaires diseaseCBS NewsNew York Post -Newsday -CBS Localall 126 news articles ...
A DNA test method called polymerase chain reaction allowed New York City health officials to identify the source of a Legionnaires disease outbreak within hours of specimen collection and should be considered in all Legionnaires outbreak investigations, researchers say in the April issue of the Journal of Environmental Health.
Impact of Electronic Faucets and Water Efficiency Guidelines on a Legionnaires Disease Outbreak in a Healthcare Facility | Tim Keane - Legionella Risk Mana...
Several molecular biological methods are increasingly being used for the identification of legionellae in man-made aquatic environments. Currently, the genus Legionella is known to include 51 species. Some of the species have been isolated only from environmental sources up to now, but it is generally accepted that all species may cause pneumonia, especially in immunocompromised persons. These huge numbers of Legionella spp. represent a very wide serological heterogeneity that can lead to unsatisfying sensitivity and specificity of serological identification tools. The specificity of Duopath Legionella was calculated by testing 50 bacterial strains isolated from water samples and grown on GVPC agar plates. The latex agglutination assay Legionella spp. recognizes seven of the most frequent Legionella non-pneumophila species causing Legionnaires disease but not the wide range of legionellae found in water systems, which are also suspected to be pneumonia pathogens. In many countries, water or
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Health officials are investigating a Legionnaires disease outbreak in the hotel located at Graceland, the tourist attraction centered on the life of late singer Elvis Presley in Memphis, Tennessee.
The objective of this study was to develop and optimize the combined methods of air sampling and real time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) for quantifying aerosol Legionella spp. Primers and TaqMan hydrolysis probe based on 5S rRNA gene specific for Legionella spp were used to amplify a specific DNA product of 84 bp. The impinger air sampler plus T-100 sampling pump was used to collect aerosol Legionella and as low as 10 fg of Legionella DNA per reaction could detected. Preliminary studies demonstrated that the developed method could detect aerosol Legionella spp 1.5-185 organisms /500 l of air within 5 hours, in contrast to culture method, that required a minimum of 7-10 days.
New York is leading the way to prevent Legionnaires disease. In August of this year, Governor Cuomo of New York addressed a growing issue across the country- the spread of Legionella bacteria.. This is the first regulation in the country to mandate that all cooling towers across the state must be registered, inspected and tested to help prevent the spread of Legionella bacteria. The new law even sets a numeric limit where disinfection is required. This emergency health regulation comes after 12 people died and at least 124 people were infected with the bacteria in the South Bronx. Its arguably the worst outbreak of Legionnaries disease in the history of New York.. Building owners that have an existing cooling tower now have 30 days to register the tower with the State Department of Health. They must collect samples and do culture testing as well. Hospitals and even nursing homes must have their cooling towers tested for Legionella and concentrations above 100 CFU/mL have to be immediately ...
Background The source of infection for most sporadic cases of Legionnaires disease remains unknown. This study aims quantify the relationship between cases and wet cooling systems (WCS), a potential source of aerosolised legionella bacteria. Methods The study analysed data on 1163 sporadic, community-acquired cases of Legionnaires disease in England and Wales with onset between 1996 and 2006, and 11630 postcode controls randomly sampled in proportion to population size and matched on region, age group and sex. The relationship between risk of Legionnaires disease and distance from a WCS was analysed by conditional logistic regression. Results Cases and controls had a mean age of 56.3 years; 79.3% were male. Cases lived appreciably closer to WCS than their controls (mean distance of cases 2.11 km, controls 2.58 km; mean difference 0.47 km (95% CI 0.28 to 0.65)). The OR for disease within 1 km of a WCS compared with over 6 km (a distance taken to reflect background rates of Legionnaires ...
People usually get Legionnaires disease or Pontiac fever when they breathe in a mist or vapor (small droplets of water in the air) that contains the bacteria. One example might be from breathing in the steam from a whirlpool spa that has not been properly cleaned and disinfected. Other sources include fountains and water sources in hotels, cruise ships, nursing homes, and hospitals.. These diseases arent contagious. The bacteria are not spread from one person to another person. You can get the diseases again if you are exposed to the bacteria again.. Legionnaires disease typically affects people older than 45, especially if they smoke or have a long-term lung disease such as asthma.footnote 1People with a weak immune systemare also more likely to get the condition. Despite its being named after infecting a large group of people, Legionnaires disease usually occurs in single cases, not in large groups at one time (an outbreak).. Pontiac fever usually occurs in otherwise healthy people.. ...
Legionnaires disease (LD) was recognized in 1976 after an outbreak of pneumonia at an American Legion convention in Philadelphia. Soon after, the etiologic agent was identified as a fastidious gram-negative bacillus and named Legionella pneumophila.
BUTLER TWP - A water test at VA Butler Healthcare found traces of the germ that causes Legionnaires disease. During a routine preventive testing and monitoring of the campuss water system, one positive Legionella bacteria sample was identified in preliminary testing results. However, no one has been sickened by the bacteria. There are no cases of Legionnaires disease as a result of this preliminary finding, said spokeswoman Amanda Kurtz in a statement this morning. The positive was found in Building 2 on the hospitals campus. Services provided in this building include outpatient rehabilitation, physical therapy, prosthetics and administrative offices. The hospital is shutting down the water system to that building and implementing contingency plans for water and hand sanitizing. The water system also will be treated and retested. The contingency plan will remain in place until tests results are negative. Clinical care at the hospital will continue uninterrupted throughout this process, ...
Disneyland is a magical place that people love to visit. But on November 12, 2017, Orange County health officials confirmed that nine people contracted Legionnaires disease at Disneyland in California. An additional three people, who had not been to the theme park, have also contracted Legionnaires disease in September after…
During an 11-year run, the bacteria that causes Legionnaires disease increased 249 percent across the country and put nearly half the people who contracted it in intensive care units, federal investi
Legionnaires Disease Is Aptly Named-The serious illness was discovered and named following a 1976 outbreak at an American Legion Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. After the convention, a number of Legionnaires that attended began experiencing mysterious symptoms such as high fevers that reached 107 degrees, as well as pneumonia. A month later, nearly half of the 14 infected men had died, however, a cause for the illnesses could not be determined. Amid fears of an epidemic, the outbreak made national headlines. Several months after the initial outbreak, doctors linked the illness to a bacterium, which they named Legionella pneumophila. Moreover, they discovered that Legionella grows in warm water and the outbreak at the convention was spread via the hotels air-conditioning system ...
What are the symptoms of Legionnaires disease. Caused by Legionella bacteria contaminated water can result in Legionnaires disease. The condition is a serious pneumonia like infection affecting the lungs. Learn more about the symptoms of Legionnaires disease here.
Back in the summer of 2018, over 60 people contracted a severe case of Legionnaires Disease. The disease is airborne and similar to pneumonia. It comes from a bacteria known as Legionella, which tends to be found in uncleaned cooling towers. Thats exactly how this outbreak was caused in New York that launched a lawsuit against the Broadway Housing Communities. The lawsuit also includes Clarity Water of Technologies, the company that was hired to clean these cooling towers. The suit goes on to accuse both companies of violating cooling tower regulations and negligence.. This outbreak so so severe, it ended up killing two people and hospitalizing 57 others. This is a growing problem in New York, with 130 people catching the disease in the Bronx alone in 2015. The problem is that negligent housing complexes allow warm water to sit in their cooling towers for months on end, without any maintenance to clean the towers. This creates the perfect breeding ground for Legionella. Outbreaks of the disease ...
This test has been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturers instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements ...
A minority of types of bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Legionella pneumophila reach the lungs via contaminated ... and Legionella pneumophila. A number of drug-resistant versions of the above infections are becoming more common, including ... and Legionella pneumophila. Exposure to birds is associated with Chlamydia psittaci; farm animals with Coxiella burnetti; ... Pneumonia caused by Legionella may occur with abdominal pain, diarrhea, or confusion. Pneumonia caused by Streptococcus ...
Cianciotto NP (June 2007). "Iron acquisition by Legionella pneumophila". Biometals. 20 (3-4): 323-31. doi:10.1007/s10534-006- ...
The bacterium was later named Legionella pneumophila. Legionella pneumophila is the most common cause, but sometimes other ... 1999 Bovenkarspel legionellosis outbreak Legionella pneumophila Legionnaires' disease List of Legionellosis outbreaks Klaus ... occasion in which a cluster of a particular type of pneumonia cases were determined to be caused by the Legionella pneumophila ... In January 1977, the Legionella bacterium was finally identified and isolated and was found to be breeding in the cooling tower ...
Grossowicz, N. (1990). "Phytohormones as specific inhibitors of Legionella pneumophila growth". Isr J Med Sci. 26 (4): 187-190 ...
Oxidase Variable Legionella pneumophila may be oxidase-positive. OX− normally means the bacterium does not contain cytochrome c ...
In 2011 studies of Legionella pneumophila, Charpentier et al. tested 64 toxic molecules to determine which ones induce ... "Antibiotics and UV radiation induce competence for natural transformation in Legionella pneumophila". J Bacteriol. 193 (5): ... also showed that UV irradiation induces competence in L. pneumophila and further suggested that competence for transformation ...
She has investigated the water-borne pathogen Legionella pneumophila. Swanson is interested in the metabolic cues that underpin ... Ari B. Molofsky; Michele S. Swanson (1 July 2004). "Differentiate to thrive: lessons from the Legionella pneumophila life cycle ... Swanson has studied how Legionella pneumophila remains virulent in different environments. She identified that the pathogen ... Swanson MS; Isberg RR (1 September 1995). "Association of Legionella pneumophila with the macrophage endoplasmic reticulum". ...
Black WJ, Quinn FD, Tompkins LS (May 1990). "Legionella pneumophila zinc metalloprotease is structurally and functionally ... Dreyfus LA, Iglewski BH (March 1986). "Purification and characterization of an extracellular protease of Legionella pneumophila ...
Flournoy DJ, Guthrie PJ, Lawrence CH, Silberg SL, Beaver S (January 1990). "Incidence of Legionella pneumophila infections ... Legionella pneumophila (Legionnaires' disease) measles viruses Mycobacterium leprae (leprosy) Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( ...
2016-04-08). "Legionella pneumophila: The Paradox of a Highly Sensitive Opportunistic Waterborne Pathogen Able to Persist in ... Legionella pneumophila is a bacterium that causes Legionnaire's disease, a respiratory infection. Mycobacterium avium complex ( ... Chahin A, Opal SM (March 2017). "Severe Pneumonia Caused by Legionella pneumophila: Differential Diagnosis and Therapeutic ...
"Comprehensive Identification of Protein Substrates of the Dot/Icm Type IV Transporter of Legionella pneumophila". PLoS ONE. 6 ( ... "Genome-Scale Identification of Legionella pneumophila Effectors Using a Machine Learning Approach". PLoS Pathogens. 5 (7). doi: ... "The E Block motif is associated with Legionella pneumophila translocated substrates". Cellular Microbiology. 13 (2): 227-245. ...
Legionella pneumophila also prevents EEA1 recruitment through a currently unknown mechanism. The related pathogen Legionella ... Urwyler S, Nyfeler Y, Ragaz C, Lee H, Mueller LN, Aebersold R, Hilbi H (Jan 2009). "Proteome analysis of Legionella vacuoles ... Asare R, Abu Kwaik Y (Jun 2007). "Early trafficking and intracellular replication of Legionella longbeachaea within an ER- ...
"Allosteric regulation and substrate activation in cytosolic nucleotidase II from Legionella pneumophila". FEBS Journal. 281 (6 ...
Other organisms that cause lobar pneumonia are Legionella pneumophila and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Like other types of pneumonia ...
"Allosteric regulation and substrate activation in cytosolic nucleotidase II from Legionella pneumophila". The FEBS Journal. 281 ...
Legionella pneumophila, Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Haemophilus influenzae and Vibrio cholerae. It has also ... thus enhancing the frequency of transformation Using Legionella pneumophila, Charpentier et al. tested 64 toxic molecules to ... "Antibiotics and UV radiation induce competence for natural transformation in Legionella pneumophila". Journal of Bacteriology. ... pneumophila. Charpentier et al. suggested that competence for transformation probably evolved as a DNA damage response. ...
Charpentier, X (2010). "Antibiotics and UV Radiation Induce Competence for Natural Transformation in Legionella pneumophila". ...
... being derived from L-citrulline or L-arginine In the bacterium Legionella pneumophila, mitomycin C induces competence for ... "Antibiotics and UV radiation induce competence for natural transformation in Legionella pneumophila". J. Bacteriol. 193 (5): ...
14 June 2017). "Grey water reuse - Assessment of the health risk induced by Legionella pneumophila". Sustainable Earth ... These could transmit legionella disease and bring a potential health risk for people. However, the result of the research shows ...
Transient association with amoebae has been reported for a number of different bacteria, including Legionella pneumophila, many ... Dictyostelium, a tractable model host organism for Legionella. In: Heuner K, Swanson M, editors. Legionella: Molecular ... "Macroautophagy is dispensable for intracellular replication of Legionella pneumophila in Dictyostelium discoideum". Molecular ... The bacterial genus Legionella includes the species that causes legionnaire's disease in humans. D. discoideum is also a host ...
Legionella pneumophila Legionellosis (Pontiac fever) Legionella pneumophila Leishmaniasis Leishmania species Leprosy ...
"Use of Galleria mellonella as a Model Organism to Study Legionella pneumophila Infection". Journal of Visualized Experiments ( ...
Legionella pneumophila, a facultative intracellular parasite, has been used as a model. It is known that Legionella pneumophila ... Bartonella henselae Francisella tularensis Listeria monocytogenes Salmonella Typhi Brucella Legionella Mycobacterium Nocardia ...
"Inflammasome activation restricts Legionella pneumophila replication in primary microglial cells through flagellin detection". ...
Poor maintenance of air conditioning systems has led to outbreaks of Legionella pneumophila. Hospital-acquired airborne ...
Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, also establishes residence within macrophages. ...
Legionella pneumophila, the species of intracellular bacteria parasite responsible for Legionnaire's disease, has been seen to ... "the developmental network of Legionella pneumophila". Frontiers in Microbiology. 5: 670. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00670. ISSN ...
DrrA is the Dot/Icm type IV translocation system substrate DrrA from Legionella pneumophila. It is the effector secreted by L. ... pneumophila to modify GTPases of the host cells. This modification increases the survival of bacteria in host cells. DrrA is ...
Banga S, Gao P, Shen X, Fiscus V, Zong WX, Chen L, Luo ZQ (Mar 2007). "Legionella pneumophila inhibits macrophage apoptosis by ...
Haemophilus influenzae that does not produce Beta-lactamase and Legionella pneumophila. Tigecycline is given intravenously and ...
... diacetylbacillosamine in Legionella pneumophila". Biochemistry 47: 3272-3282. PMID 18275154. *↑ Schoenhofen, I.C., Vinogradov, ...
Legionella pneumophila at Gram-negative bacilli.[15] Ang ilang mga lumalaban sa gamot na bersyon ng mga impeksiyong nasa itaas ... at Legionella pneumophila. Ang pagkakalantad sa mga ibon ay iniuugnay sa Chlamydia psittaci; ang mga hayop sa bukid ay ... Ang kaunti sa mga uri ng bakterya tulad ng Mycobacterium tuberculosis at Legionella pneumophila ay nakakarating sa baga sa ... Darby, J; Buising, K (October 2008). "Could it be Legionella?". Australian family physician. 37 (10): 812-5. PMID 19002299.. ...
Legionella pneumophila Causes a severe form of pneumonia with a relatively high mortality rate, known as legionellosis or ... At the time that atypical pneumonia was first described, organisms like Mycoplasma, Chlamydophila, and Legionella were not yet ... Older people are more often infected by Legionella. "Atypical Pneumonia (Walking Pneumonia)". Cleveland Clinic. Walter C, McCoy ...
Legionella pneumophila/Legionella longbeachae *Legionnaires' disease. *Coxiella burnetii *Q fever. Thiotrichales. *Francisella ...
Buffered charcoal yeast extract agar is selective for certain Gram-negative bacteria, especially Legionella pneumophila. ...
Legionella pneumophila, a facultative intracellular parasite, has been used as a model. It is known that Legionella pneumophila ... Heuner K; Swanson M (editors). (2008). Legionella: Molecular Microbiology. Caister Academic Press.[page needed] ...
Legionella pneumophila/Legionella longbeachae *Legionnaires' disease. *Coxiella burnetii *Q fever. Thiotrichales. *Francisella ...
Legionella pneumophila/Legionella longbeachae *Legionnaires' disease. *Coxiella burnetii *Q fever. Thiotrichales. *Francisella ...
Legionella pneumophila, the causing agent of legionellosis (Legionnaires' disease) utilizes a type IVB secretion system, known ...
Ohtlikeks patogeenideks on veel leegionäride haigust põhjustav bakter (Legionella pneumophila) ja lihasööjabakter ( ...
"Isolation of Legionella pneumophila from clinical specimens via amoebae, and the interaction of those and other isolates with ...
Legionella pneumophila/Legionella longbeachae (Legionellosis) · Coxiella burnetii (ക്യു പനി). Thiotrichales. Francisella ...
Haemophilus influenzae/Legionella pneumophila *Buffered charcoal yeast extract agar. *Pseudomonas aeruginosa *Cetrimide agar ...
Ohtlikeks patogeenideks on veel leegionäride haigust põhjustav bakter (Legionella pneumophila) ja lihasööjabakter ( ...
Legionella, and in particular the most virulent strain, Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, can cause infections when inhaled ... Other pathogens which can colonise pools and spas including those on cruise ships include Legionella, the bacteriium which ... The Cruise industry Vessel Sanitation Program has specific public health requirements to control and prevent Legionella.[24] ...
"Allosteric regulation and substrate activation in cytosolic nucleotidase II from Legionella pneumophila". FEBS J. 281 (6): 1613 ...
Legionella pneumophila/Legionella longbeachae *Legionnaires' disease. *Coxiella burnetii *Q fever. Thiotrichales. *Francisella ...
"Use of Galleria mellonella as a Model Organism to Study Legionella pneumophila Infection". Journal of Visualized Experiments ( ...
Legionella pneumophila, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Streptococcus pneumoniae.[44] ...
... are often used to treat intracellular pathogens such as Legionella pneumophila and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. For many gram- ...
Legionella pneumophila/Legionella longbeachae *Legionnaires' disease. *Coxiella burnetii *Q fever. Thiotrichales. *Francisella ...
"Antibiotics and UV Radiation Induce Competence for Natural Transformation in Legionella pneumophila". Journal of Bacteriology. ...
Black, W.J., Quinn, F.D. and Tompkins, L.S. (1990). "Legionella pneumophila zinc metalloprotease is structurally and ... "Purification and characterization of an extracellular protease of Legionella pneumophila". Infect. Immun. 70: 736-743. PMID ...
Legionella pneumophila, Mycoplasma pneumoniae….. ...
Legionella pneumophila/Legionella longbeachae *Legionnaires' disease. *Coxiella burnetii *Q fever. Thiotrichales. *Francisella ...
Legionella pneumophila can re-model the phagosome membrane to imitate vesicles in other parts of the secretory pathway, so ... their main food source is the bacteria Legionella pneumophila, which causes Legionnaire's disease in humans.[24] Phagosome ... "Intracellular growth of Legionella pneumophila in Dictyostelium discoideum, a system for genetic analysis of host-pathogen ... of Phagosome Lysosome Fusion and Establishment of a Replicative Organelle by the Intracellular Pathogen Legionella pneumophila ...
Legionella pneumophila/Legionella longbeachae *Legionnaires' disease. *Coxiella burnetii *Q fever. Thiotrichales. *Francisella ...
Quinolones can enter cells easily and therefore are often used to treat intracellular pathogens such as Legionella pneumophila ...
Legionella pneumophila, Moraxella catarrhalis, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), but is less effective against ...
Poorly maintained water cooling towers can promote the growth and spread of microorganisms such as Legionella pneumophila, the ... "Protection Against Legionella". www.health.ny.gov. Retrieved 25 March 2019.. *^ "One in eight U.S. homes uses a programmed ... and testing of cooling towers to protect against Legionella.[55] ...
"Legionella pneumophila": free-full text articles in PubMed Legionella pneumophila, causative agent of Legionnaires disease and ... The Stronghold of Legionella pneumophila. Retrieved 2021-01-30. "Legionnaires Disease, Pontiac Fever Fast Facts - Legionella - ... Legionella pneumophila is a thin, aerobic, pleomorphic, flagellated, non-spore-forming, Gram-negative bacterium of the genus ... One key way in which L. pneumophila uses its effector proteins is to interfere with fusion of the Legionella-containing vacuole ...
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
... pneumonia caused by the bacillus Legionella pneumophila. The name of the disease (and of the bacterium) derives from a 1976 ... pneumonia caused by the bacillus Legionella pneumophila. The name of the disease (and of the bacterium) derives from a 1976 ...
ECDC: Legionella outbreak may be reduced with appropriate controls. A new community outbreak of Legionella in Belgiums ... An EU agreement to monitor tap water for the presence of potentially lethal Legionella bacteria takes into consideration the ... A warmer climate and Europes ageing population create a favourable breeding ground for legionella bacteria, which cause a type ...
This species is one of 49 species belonging to the Legionella genus and is the most frequent cause of legionella infection in ... The entire genome of the intracellular pathogenic bacterium Legionella pneumophila has been sequenced according to a recently ... The entire genome of the intracellular pathogenic bacterium Legionella pneumophila has been sequenced according to a recently ... This species is one of 49 species belonging to the Legionella genus and is the most frequent cause of legionella infection in ...
CHARACTERISTICS: Legionella pneumophila is a gram negative, strictly aerobic bacterium of the Legionellaceae family(3). It ... L. pneumophila is the cause of 1-2% of all pneumonia cases in adults(7). The number of cases reported increases in the summer ... PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: L. pneumophila can be inactivated in water by UV light, and temperatures of 80 °C for 0.4 minutes when ... In lung or sputum samples, L. pneumophila appears as a small to short rod with a length of 3 to 5 μm. When cultured, it appears ...
Legionella pneumophila, the agent responsible for Legionnaires disease, is a facultative intracellular pathogen that can ... Legionella drozanskii sp nov, Legionella rowbothamii sp nov and Legionella fallonii sp nov: three unusual new Legionella ... Legionella pneumophila) with human phagocytes. II. Antibody promotes binding of L. pneumophila to monocytes but does not ... Legionella pneumophila) with human phagocytes. I. L. pneumophila resists killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, antibody, and ...
Legionella pneumophila subsp. pneumophila. Legionella pneumophila subsp. pneumophila ATCC 43290. Legionella pneumophila subsp. ... Legionella pneumophila subsp. pneumophila. Legionella pneumophila subsp. pneumophila ATCC 43290. Legionella pneumophila subsp. ... Legionella pneumophila subsp. pneumophila. Legionella pneumophila subsp. pneumophila ATCC 43290. Legionella pneumophila subsp. ... Legionella pneumophila. Legionella quateirensis. Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1 (strain NSW150). Legionella longbeachae. ...
Legionella pneumophila is a gram-negative bacterial pathogen that is the cause of Legionnaires Disease. Legionella produces ... Naip5 affects host susceptibility to the intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila.. Wright EK1, Goodart SA, Growney JD, ... Here, we report that Naip5 (also known as Birc1e) influences susceptibility to Legionella. Naip5 encodes a protein that is ... In addition, morpholino-based antisense inhibition of Naip5 causes an increase in the Legionella permissiveness of macrophages. ...
Legionella pneumophila has the ability to replicate within human macrophages and amoebal hosts. Here, we report that the host ... Legionella pneumophila is one example among many species of pathogenic bacteria that replicate within mammalian macrophages ... The Dot/Icm T4SS in Legionella pneumophila is a multiprotein nanomachine that is known to translocate over 300 different ... Type II Secretion Substrates of Legionella pneumophila Translocate Out of the Pathogen-Occupied Vacuole via a Semipermeable ...
This is also the case in L. pneumophila where three sRNAs (RsmY, RsmZ, and 6S RNA) were recently shown to be important ... This is also the case in L. pneumophila where three sRNAs (RsmY, RsmZ and 6S RNA) were recently shown to be important ... In mammals, L. pneumophila replicates inside macrophages within a modified vacuole. Many protein regulators have been ... In mammals, L. pneumophila replicates inside macrophages within a modified vacuole. Many protein regulators have been ...
Legionella pneumophila mip gene potentiates intracellular infection of protozoa and human macrophages. N P Cianciotto and B S ... Legionella pneumophila is an intracellular parasite of freshwater protozoa and human macrophages. Recent studies determined ... Legionella pneumophila mip gene potentiates intracellular infection of protozoa and human macrophages ... Legionella pneumophila mip gene potentiates intracellular infection of protozoa and human macrophages ...
We have studied the interaction between virulent egg yolk-grown Legionella pneumophila Philadelphia 1 and human blood monocytes ...
https://www.cdc.gov/legionella/about/. Containment Requirements. BSL2. For all procedures involving known or potentially ...
pneumophila ATCC ® 33152™ Designation: Philadelphia-1 TypeStrain=True Application: Media testing Emerging infectious disease ... Legionella pneumophila subsp. pneumophila Brenner et al. (ATCC® 33152™) Strain Designations: Philadelphia-1 / Type Strain: yes ... Legionella pneumophila subsp. pneumophila Brenner et al. (ATCC® 33152D-5™) Add to ... pneumophila subsp. pneumophila subsp. nov., L. pneumophila subsp. fraseri subsp. nov., and L. pneumophila subsp. pascullei ...
Rabbit polyclonal Legionella pneumophila serogroup 3 antibody validated for Agg. Immunogen corresponding to tissue, cells or ... Legionella pneumophila is a flagellated gram negative bacterium found primarily in warm water environments. Legionella ... pneumophila causes a type of pneumonia called Legionnaire disease and a milder condition called Pontiac fever. Infection is ...
S. L. G. Cirillo, L. E. Bermudez, S. H. El-Etr, G. E. Duhamel, and J. D. Cirillo, "Legionella pneumophila entry gene rtxA is ... Characterization of Legionella pneumophila Isolated from Environmental Water and Ashiyu Foot Spa. Masato Tachibana,1,2 Masaya ... R. M. Ratcliff, M. A. Slavin, N. Sangster, R. M. Doyle, J. F. Seymour, and J. A. Lanser, "Legionella pneumophila mip gene ... R. R. Isberg, S. Rankin, C. R. Roy, M. S. Swanson, and K. H. Berger, "Legionella pneumophila: factors involved in the route and ...
In the last decade, enzymes from some of these pathogens, including Legionella pneumophila, have been cloned and characterized ... Keywords: Legionella pneumophila; carbonic anhydrase; bacteria; inhibitor; antibiotic; virulence factor; sulfonamide Legionella ... This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogen Legionella pneumophila) View Full-Text , Download PDF [1205 KB, uploaded 16 ... In the last decade, enzymes from some of these pathogens, including Legionella pneumophila, have been cloned and characterized ...
... disease to be exposed to Legionella through home water systems containing the bacteria and demonstrates the difficulty of ... disease to be exposed to Legionella through home water systems containing the bacteria and demonstrates the difficulty of ... Abbreviations: CFU = colony forming units; N/A = not applicable; Neg = no Legionella pneumophila isolated; Pos = Legionella ... These tested positive for Legionella pneumophila, and the bacteria remained after an attempt to remediate. The patient and home ...
sp,A5IHA2,ARLY_LEGPC Argininosuccinate lyase OS=Legionella pneumophila (strain Corby) OX=400673 GN=argH PE=3 SV=1 ... cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Gammaproteobacteria › Legionellales › Legionellaceae › LegionellaLegionella ... Legionella pneumophila (strain Corby). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_ ...
Methane metabolism - Legionella pneumophila subsp. pneumophila LPE509 [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download ...
A simple and reproducible method has been developed to transform Legionella pneumophila by electroporation. Effects of ... Efficient transformation of Legionella pneumophila by high-voltage electroporation Microbiol Res. 2006;161(3):246-51. doi: ... A simple and reproducible method has been developed to transform Legionella pneumophila by electroporation. Effects of ... This optimized transformation procedure should efficiently facilitate gene manipulations in L. pneumophila, such as plasmid ...
Crucially for the infection process, L. pneumophila uses a typ … ... The Gram-negative bacterium Legionella pneumophila is a parasite of eukaryotic cells. It has evolved to survive and replicate ... Effector proteins translocated by Legionella pneumophila: strength in numbers Trends Microbiol. 2007 Aug;15(8):372-80. doi: ... The Gram-negative bacterium Legionella pneumophila is a parasite of eukaryotic cells. It has evolved to survive and replicate ...
pneumophila reference standards from Microorganisms. Available to purchase online at LGC Standards. ...
Legionella pneumophila inhibits macrophage apoptosis by targeting pro-death members of the Bcl2 protein family. Simran Banga, ... Legionella pneumophila is a facultative intracellular pathogen capable of multiplying in a wide spectrum of eukaryotic cells. ... Legionella pneumophila inhibits macrophage apoptosis by targeting pro-death members of the Bcl2 protein family ... Legionella pneumophila inhibits macrophage apoptosis by targeting pro-death members of the Bcl2 protein family ...
Legionella pneumophila [leʺjə-nelʹə nooʺmo-filʹə]. In the summer of 1976, as the United States was celebrating the bicentennial ... Henry R. Etymologia: Legionella pneumophila. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(11):1851. doi:10.3201/eid2311.et2311.. ... Henry R. Etymologia: Legionella pneumophila. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(11):1851. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2311.et2311. ... Henry, R. (2017). Etymologia: Legionella pneumophila. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(11), 1851. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/ ...
... The Gram-negative bacterium Legionella pneumophila naturally ... The Gram-negative bacterium Legionella pneumophila naturally parasitises environmental amoebae, but is also able to infect ... Finsel, Ivo (2014): Characterisation of the Legionella pneumophila effector RidL. Dissertation, LMU München: Medizinische ... Like most T4SS substrate mutants, L. pneumophila lacking ridL showed no phenotype for growth in liquid AYE medium and uptake ...
Research Topics about Legionella pneumophila subsp. pneumophila str. Philadelphia 1 ... Legionella pneumophila , Legionella pneumophila subsp. pneumophila , Legionella pneumophila subsp. pneumophila str. ... Legionella pneumophila subsp. pneumophila str. Philadelphia 1. Summary. Alias: Legionella pneumophila subsp. pneumophila ... legionella pneumophila*phytol*electron transferring flavoproteins*tandem mass spectrometry*acyl coenzyme a*aminopeptidases*iron ...
Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires disease, is known to colonise and frequently grow in cooling tower ... Article Enumeration of Legionella pneumophila in cooling tower water systems. ... Enumeration of Legionella pneumophila in cooling tower water .... Enumeration of Legionella pneumophila in cooling tower water ... Disease is acquired by inhaling aerosol contaminated by legionellae. Determination of the count of Legionella pneumophila in ...
... of the Gram-negative bacterium Legionella pneumophila. Each bacterium has a single flagellum which is faintly visible in ... The bacteria was subsequently named L. pneumophila and the disease, a form of pneumonia, legionnaires disease or ... legionella based, legionella pneumophila, legionellosis, legionnaires disease, magnified image, micro-organisms, microbe, ... Caption: False-colour transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of the Gram-negative bacterium Legionella pneumophila. Each ...
  • L. pneumophila is the primary human pathogenic bacterium in this group and is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, also known as legionellosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A warmer climate and Europe's ageing population create a favourable breeding ground for legionella bacteria, which cause a type of pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease, Professor Martin Exner said in an interview. (euractiv.com)
  • A new community outbreak of Legionella in Belgium's Flanders region renewed public attention to the so-called Legionnaires' disease, which is increasing in the EU, according to the EU agency for infectious diseases control. (euractiv.com)
  • PATHOGENICITY/TOXICITY: L. pneumophila infection can cause Legionnaires' disease, a severe form of pneumonia(4,5). (msdsonline.com)
  • Legionella pneumophila is a gram-negative bacterial pathogen that is the cause of Legionnaires' Disease. (nih.gov)
  • Infection of macrophages and amoebae plays a central role in the pathogenesis of L. pneumophila , the agent of Legionnaires' disease. (asm.org)
  • Classification of the Legionnaires' disease bacterium: Legionella pneumophila, genus novum, species nova, of the family Legionellaceae, familia nova. (atcc.org)
  • Legionnaires' disease is a severe pneumonia caused by the waterborne bacteria Legionella . (cdc.gov)
  • This case highlights the potential for immunocompromised persons and others at risk for Legionnaires' disease to be exposed to Legionella through home water systems containing the bacteria and demonstrates the difficulty of home remediation. (cdc.gov)
  • Lung cells with intra-alveolar exudate containing macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes after infection with Legionella pneumophila , the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease. (cdc.gov)
  • These bacteria were determined to be the etiologic organism of Legionnaires' disease and were eventually named Legionella (for the Legionnaires) pneumophila (Greek pneumon [lung] + philos [loving]) ( Figure 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires disease, is known to colonise and frequently grow in cooling tower waters. (environmental-expert.com)
  • L. pneumophila serogroup 1 was found in 44% of the isolated strains, which is primarily responsible for the majority of Legionnaires disease. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Abs confer protection from secondary infection with Legionella pneumophila , the causative agent of a severe form of pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease. (jimmunol.org)
  • To determine the clinical relevance of these findings, we tested Legionnaires' disease patient sera for reactivity with the identified L. pneumophila Ags. (jimmunol.org)
  • Fields BS, Benson RF, Besser RE (2002) Legionella and Legionnaires' disease: 25 years of investigation. (springer.com)
  • Legionella pneumophila , the causative agent of Legionnaires' pneumonia, replicates within alveolar macrophages by preventing phagosome-lysosome fusion. (sciencemag.org)
  • Growth of Legionnaires disease bacterium (Legionella pneumophila) in chemically defined medium. (asm.org)
  • A chemically defined medium containing 21 amino acids and inorganic salts was developed which supported the growth of four isolates of Legionnaires disease bacterium (Legionella pneumophila). (asm.org)
  • Legionnaires' disease is a potentially fatal pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila , an aquatic bacterium often found within the biofilm niche. (frontiersin.org)
  • L. pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease (LD) expresses numerous lipolytic enzymes. (hu-berlin.de)
  • The overwhelming majority of cases of Legionnaires' disease are caused by Legionella pneumophila ( Joseph and Ricketts 2010 ). (wiley.com)
  • The Legionnaires' disease bacterium (Legionella pneumophila) inhibits phagosome-lysosome fusion in human monocytes. (rupress.org)
  • Formation of a novel phagosome by the Legionnaires' disease bacterium (Legionella pneumophila) in human monocytes. (rupress.org)
  • Legionella pneumophila is an intracellular pathogen that causes a severe pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Legionella pneumophila , the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, is an aerobic Gram-negative pathogen that multiplies intracellularly in human phagocytic cells and in freshwater protozoa [1] , [2] . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Legionella pneumophila (Legionellosis) - Pontiac Fever and Legionnaires' Disease. (arupconsult.com)
  • Legionellosis refers to two clinical syndromes caused by bacteria of the genus Legionella - Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever. (arupconsult.com)
  • Legionella pneumophila (Lp) is a flagellated, intracellular bacterium that can cause Legionnaires' disease (LD). (eur.nl)
  • Legionnaires' disease is normally acquired by inhalation of legionellae from a contaminated environmental source. (aaem.pl)
  • Hospital characteristics associated with colonization of water systems by Legionella and risk of nosocomial legionnaires' disease: a cohort study of 15 hospitals. (aaem.pl)
  • L. pneumophila, an ubiquitous aquatic bacterial organism, which thrives in warm environments, primarily at temperatures ranging from 32 degrees to 45 degrees C, and causes over 90 percent of Legionnaires' disease, (LD), in the United States. (ciriscience.org)
  • Legionnaires' disease caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroups 5 and 10, China. (aaem.pl)
  • Legionnaires' disease is caused by Legionella bacteria infecting your lungs. (homehealth-uk.com)
  • Legionnaires' disease is a serious lung infection caused by Legionella bacteria . (homehealth-uk.com)
  • UNLABELLED Legionella pneumophila is a natural parasite of environmental amoebae and the causative agent of a severe pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease. (uzh.ch)
  • 2004). Between 1995 and 2005, a total of 4 056 culture-confirmed cases of Legionnaires' disease from European countries were notified to the European Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLI) (Diereden, 2008). (scielo.org.za)
  • The IDEXX Legiolert test is a rapid method for the detection of Legionella pneumophila, the primary causative agent of Legionnaires' disease. (thecleanzine.com)
  • This study indicates that patients with Legionnaires' disease under treatment with erythromycin and rifampin require host defenses to eliminate L. pneumophila, and that inadequate host defenses may result in relapse after cessation of therapy. (columbia.edu)
  • Infection with Legionella pneumophila is called Legionnaires' disease. (sa.gov.au)
  • Legionella pneumophila is a gram-negative opportunistic bacterial pathogen that infects human alveolar macrophages, which causes a severe form of pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease. (udel.edu)
  • Legionella pneumophila, the causative organism of Legionnaires' disease, is one of a small number of bacterial species that contain a CuZnSOD, residing in the periplasm, in addition to an iron SOD (FeSOD) in their cytoplasm. (elsevier.com)
  • Sloughed legionella from biofilms in plumbing systems can be aerosolized through faucets, showers, sprinklers, and other fixtures which can lead to infection after prolonged exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pontiac fever is a non-pneumonic form of L. pneumophila infection(2). (msdsonline.com)
  • Killing of mammalian cells by L. pneumophila has been proposed to occur through induction of apoptosis during the early stages of the infection. (springer.com)
  • Both antigen-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses are induced during Legionella infection. (springer.com)
  • Although Legionella -specific antibodies are produced during human or murine infection, acquired cell-mediated immune response is believed to play a stronger role in Legionella clearance. (springer.com)
  • Legionella pneumophila is one example among many species of pathogenic bacteria that replicate within mammalian macrophages during infection. (asm.org)
  • L. pneumophila accomplishes this through the activity of the ∼330 effector proteins that are injected into host cells during infection. (asm.org)
  • We have previously demonstrated that the T2S system of L. pneumophila greatly contributes to intracellular infection. (asm.org)
  • To determine whether Mip is also involved in L. pneumophila infection of protozoa, we examined the ability of a strain lacking Mip to parasitize Hartmannella amoebae and Tetrahymena ciliates. (pnas.org)
  • L. pneumophila serogroup 3) and confirmation of the infection source. (cdc.gov)
  • Crucially for the infection process, L. pneumophila uses a type IV secretion system called Dot/Icm to translocate bacterial proteins into host cells. (nih.gov)
  • In mammalian cells, infection by L. pneumophila leads to the activation of two independent cell death pathways. (pnas.org)
  • In murine macrophages expressing a restrictive allele of birc1e , a gene encoding a member of the nucleotide binding oligomerization (NOD) proteins that sense the presence of intracellular invaders ( 10 ), infection of L. pneumophila leads to activation of caspase 1 and subsequent cell death ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Critical environments, including water systems in recreational settings, represent an important source of Legionella pneumophila infection in humans. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Legionella pneumophila is an important opportunistic pathogen for which environmental reservoirs are crucial for the infection of humans. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we used a ubiquitous amoeba and bacterial endosymbiont to investigate the impact of this common association on L. pneumophila infection. (asm.org)
  • Pronounced gene expression changes in the presence of the symbiont indicate that interference with the transition to the transmissive phase impedes the L. pneumophila infection. (asm.org)
  • Legionella infection generally leads to rapid host cell lysis. (asm.org)
  • It was therefore surprising to observe that amoebae, including fresh environmental isolates, were well protected during Legionella infection when the bacterial symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila was also present. (asm.org)
  • Legionella pneumophila is accounted for more than 80% of Legionella infection. (springer.com)
  • No patient with Legionella pneumonia had been intubated before infection. (ovid.com)
  • Only one patient has been reported to have an unexplained hemolytic anemia in the presence of Legionella pneumophila infection (1). (annals.org)
  • During analysis of Legionella pneumophila genome sequence, the team from the Biology of Intracellular Bacteria Unit (Institut Pasteur/CNRS), headed by Carmen Buchrieser, identified genes coding for proteins that were predicted to be involved in the infection of human cells. (pasteur.fr)
  • Finally, we examined the intracellular localization of both LecE and LpdA in human macrophages during L. pneumophila infection and found that both effectors are localized to the bacterial phagosome. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Following infection, the bacteria use a Type-IVB secretion system to translocate multiple effector proteins into macrophages and generate the Legionella -containing vacuole (LCV). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Neutrophil depletion by administration of granulocyte-specific mAb RB6-8C5 at 1 day before infection rendered mice ∼100-fold more susceptible to lethal pneumonia induced by L. pneumophila . (jimmunol.org)
  • Taken together, these data demonstrated that neutrophils play crucial roles in primary L. pneumophila infection, not via direct killing but more immunomodulatory effects. (jimmunol.org)
  • Early accumulation of neutrophils to sites of infection is a consistent observation in Legionella pneumonia in both animal models and humans ( 11 , 16 , 17 ), and neutropenia is known to be an important risk factors for this disease ( 18 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Acute Legionella pneumophila infection masquerading as acute alcoholic hepatitis -- Hunter et al. (bmj.com)
  • In manmade water systems, proliferation of L. pneumophila can lead to legionella infection in humans. (iwaponline.com)
  • The intracellular multiplication of L. pneumophila is inhibited by erythromycin and rifampin, as measured by colony-forming units, whether the antibiotics are added just before or just after infection of monocytes with L. pneumophila, or 2 d after infection when L. pneumophila is in the logarithmic phase of growth in monocytes. (columbia.edu)
  • During infection, Legionella pneumophila avoids lysosomal degradation by employing a Type IVB secretion system to translocate over 300 effector proteins into the host cytosol. (udel.edu)
  • A) L. pneumophila infection increases IL-8 mRNA expression in A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An EU agreement to monitor tap water for the presence of potentially lethal Legionella bacteria takes into consideration the emergence of newer, more effective testing methods, a national public health expert told EURACTIV. (euractiv.com)
  • Unlike phagosomes containing inert particles or avirulent bacteria, the L. pneumophila -containing vacuoles avoid fusion with lysosomes, recruiting rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. (springer.com)
  • A rapid induction of necrosis by L. pneumophila also occurs upon entry into the post-exponential phase of growth within both macrophages and protozoa, when the bacteria become cytotoxic. (springer.com)
  • Legionella bacteria remained following a remediation attempt. (cdc.gov)
  • These tested positive for Legionella pneumophila, and the bacteria remained after an attempt to remediate. (cdc.gov)
  • These substrates enhance uptake efficiency into phagocytes and direct formation of a replication-permissive compartment, called the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV), and ultimately the egress of the bacteria. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Like most T4SS substrate mutants, L. pneumophila lacking ridL showed no phenotype for growth in liquid AYE medium and uptake into phagocytes compared to wild-type bacteria. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The bacteria was subsequently named L. pneumophila and the disease, a form of pneumonia, 'legionnaire's disease' or legionellosis. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The 318 samples containing the largest numbers of positive bacteria which were morphologically consistent with L. pneumophila were injected into guinea pigs for attempted isolations. (asm.org)
  • To identify risk factors for nosocomial L. pneumophila pneumonia, we compared the 22 endemic cases of nosocomial pneumonia due to L. pneumophila with the 264 cases due to other bacteria. (ovid.com)
  • A Major Commercial complex with 5,500 RT HVAC system using BCP 1015 (Classic DTEA II ) for: Legionella Bacteria Control Program (BCP) Biofilm Control Program (BCP) Cleaner/Penetrant Aid/Dispersant Cooling System Before Application of BCP 1015 (Classic DTEA II) Cooling System After Application of BCP 1015 (Classic DTEA II) Legionella Bacteria levels Before BCP (Biofilm Control Program) Legionella Bacteria levels Before BCP (Biofilm Control Program) Conclusion Chemical treatment program before. (environmental-expert.com)
  • In this study, the anti-biofilm activity of previously fabricated polyamino-phenolic ligands and polyamidoamine dendrimers was investigated against legionella mono-species and multi-species biofilms formed by L. pneumophila in association with other bacteria that can be found in tap water ( Aeromonas hydrophila , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Legionella genus includes aerobic, motile, gram-negative bacteria that are the etiological agents of legionellosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • In contrast to phagosomes containing live bacteria, the majority of phagosomes containing formalin-killed L. pneumophila were fused with lysosomes by acid phosphatase cytochemistry. (rupress.org)
  • Kusnetsov J, Torvinen E, Perola O, Nousiainen T, Katila ML. Colonization of hospital water systems by Legionellae, mycobacteria and other heterotrophic bacteria potentially hazardous to risk group patients. (aaem.pl)
  • L. pneumophila multiplied only in the adherent fraction of the mononuclear cell population indicating that monocytes but not lymphocytes support growth of the bacteria. (columbia.edu)
  • The expression of the Piol promoter and bacterial uptake of inositol required the alternative sigma factor RpoS, a key virulence regulator of L. pneumophila Finally, the parental strain and ΔiolG mutant bacteria but not the ΔiolT mutant strain accumulated [U-(14)C6]inositol, indicating that IolT indeed functions as an inositol transporter. (uzh.ch)
  • Many different species of bacteria called Legionella are commonly found in the environment and some of these are known to cause illness in people. (sa.gov.au)
  • The repeats in toxin (Rtx) are an important pathogenicity factor involved in host cells invasion of Legionella pneumophila and other pathogenic bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast to the extracellular bacteria Vibrio cholerae , in which the rtx gene is highly conserved and flanking genes have lost synteny and similarity, the gene region coding for the Rtx toxin in the intracellular pathogen L. pneumophila shows a rapid evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Within the amoebae, L. pneumophila activates a complex regulatory pathway that enables the bacteria to resist amoebal digestion and to replicate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the methods used to release intracellular L. pneumophila cells on the culturability of the bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, the standard method ISO 11731:1998 for the recovery and enumeration of Legionella from water samples was evaluated for its suitability to quantify intracellular bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among these bacteria, the relationship between Acanthamoeba and L. pneumophila is one of the most studied due to the associated health risk. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Previous studies have shown that the internalization of L. pneumophila leads to an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived organelle that supports intracellular replication of the bacteria. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In contrast to the control experiment with Escherichia coli -containing phagosomes, both proteins decorated the replicative vacuole of L. pneumophila during the entire growth phase of the bacteria. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Internalization of the bacteria appears to occur through phagocytosis however L. pneumophila is also capable of infecting non-phagocytic cells through an unknown mechanism. (meddic.jp)
  • The entire genome of the intracellular pathogenic bacterium Legionella pneumophila has been sequenced according to a recently published report. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • CHARACTERISTICS: Legionella pneumophila is a gram negative, strictly aerobic bacterium of the Legionellaceae family(3). (msdsonline.com)
  • Legionella pneumophila is a flagellated gram negative bacterium found primarily in warm water environments. (abcam.com)
  • The Gram-negative bacterium Legionella pneumophila is a parasite of eukaryotic cells. (nih.gov)
  • The Gram-negative bacterium Legionella pneumophila naturally parasitises environmental amoebae, but is also able to infect human alveolar macrophages in a mechanistically similar manner. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Since L. pneumophila does not contain endogenous plasmalogens, we hypothesize that LpYhhN may serve to protect the bacterium from lysis by lysoplasmalogen derived from plasmalogens of the host. (labome.org)
  • False-colour transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of the Gram-negative bacterium Legionella pneumophila. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Light micrograph of legionella pneumophila, the bacterium responsible for legionnaire's disease (pneumonia). (sciencephoto.com)
  • The data suggest that Legionella pneumophila is part of the natural aquatic environment and that the bacterium is capable of surviving extreme ranges of environmental conditions. (asm.org)
  • Legionella pneumophila is a gram-negative bacterium which normally exists in water, in soil, and within free-living unicellular protozoa, yet it has developed unique strategies that permit multiplication within the phagosomes of human macrophages. (asm.org)
  • The capacity of L. pneumophila to inhibit phagosome-lysosome fusion may be a critical mechanism by which the bacterium resists monocyte microbicidal effects. (rupress.org)
  • How does Legionella pneumophila, the bacterium causing legionellosis, use the host cell machinery to its own advantage? (pasteur.fr)
  • This emerging disease is caused by Legionella pneumophila, an environmental bacterium that can grow in hot water systems. (pasteur.fr)
  • Legionella pneumophila is an intracellular bacterium that has a very sophisticated system to exploit the host cell functions to its own advantage. (pasteur.fr)
  • The collaborative research of scientists belonging to different international teams has revealed that the bacterium Legionella pneumophila (a prokaryote) has acquired a eukaryotic gene that is coding for a major player in lipid metabolism in human cell membranes. (pasteur.fr)
  • The effect of growth temperature on the virulence of a strain of broth-grown serogroup 1 Legionella pneumophila (Wadsworth F889) was examined by growing the bacterium at different temperatures and then infecting guinea pigs (by intratracheal injection) and guinea pig alveolar macrophages. (asm.org)
  • Legionella pneumophila bacterium: Created on September 9th, 2007. (ciriscience.org)
  • RomA is a SET-domain containing protein lysine methyltransferase encoded by the Gram-negative bacterium Legionella pneumophila. (pasteur.fr)
  • Since L. pneumophila survives extensive periods of dormancy between growth within hosts, CuZnSOD may contribute to the ability of this bacterium to be a pathogen. (elsevier.com)
  • L. pneumophila is a facultative intracellular bacterium that can invade and replicate inside amoebae in the environment, which can thus serve as a reservoir for L. pneumophila , as well as provide protection from environmental stresses, such as chlorination. (meddic.jp)
  • In humans, L. pneumophila invades and replicates inside macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Legionella pneumophila , the agent responsible for Legionnaire's disease, is a facultative intracellular pathogen that can replicate within protozoa and macrophages. (springer.com)
  • In humans, L. pneumophila reaches the lungs, where it is ingested by alveolar macrophages. (springer.com)
  • Intracellular replication of L. pneumophila is inhibited in IFN- γ -activated mouse and human primary macrophages. (springer.com)
  • Legionella produces disease because it can replicate inside a specialized compartment of host macrophages. (nih.gov)
  • Macrophages isolated from various inbred mice exhibit large differences in permissiveness for intracellular replication of Legionella. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, morpholino-based antisense inhibition of Naip5 causes an increase in the Legionella permissiveness of macrophages. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that polymorphisms in Naip5 are involved in the permissiveness differences of mouse macrophages for intracellular Legionella replication. (nih.gov)
  • The immune signaling factor interferon gamma (IFN-γ) blocks L. pneumophila replication in macrophages and is an essential component of the immune response to. (asm.org)
  • Legionella pneumophila has the ability to replicate within human macrophages and amoebal hosts. (asm.org)
  • In mammals, L. pneumophila replicates inside macrophages within a modified vacuole. (frontiersin.org)
  • Once in the lungs, L. pneumophila infects and replicates inside alveolar macrophages. (frontiersin.org)
  • Legionella pneumophila is an intracellular parasite of freshwater protozoa and human macrophages. (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, they support the hypothesis that the ability of L. pneumophila to parasitize macrophages and hence to cause human disease is a consequence of its prior adaptation to intracellular growth within protozoa. (pnas.org)
  • A. Marra, S. J. Blander, M. A. Horwitz, and H. A. Shuman, "Identification of a Legionella pneumophila locus required for intracellular multiplication in human macrophages," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 89, no. 20, pp. 9607-9611, 1992. (hindawi.com)
  • In permissive macrophages, early studies suggested that L. pneumophila actively induces apoptosis via the activation of caspase 3 ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Instead, macrophages harboring actively replicating L. pneumophila exhibit strong resistance to exogenous cell death stimuli ( 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • To directly examine the influence of RidL on retrograde trafficking, the retromer-dependent transport of cholera and Shiga toxin inside cells was analysed in macrophages infected with wild-type or ridL L. pneumophila, and in HeLa cells ectopically producing RidL, respectively. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Legionella pneumophila replicates within alveolar macrophages by preventing acidification of the nascent phagosome and subsequent fusion with lysosomes ( 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Several L. pneumophila genes ( dotA and icmWXYZ ) that are required for growth in macrophages have been identified ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Twenty-six spontaneous mutants were isolated on the basis of the observation that L. pneumophila strains resistant to low amounts of sodium chloride are often unable to replicate in macrophages ( 5 , 6 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Complementation of these mutants revealed two 20-kb regions on the L. pneumophila chromosome that contain a large number of genes required for growth in macrophages (Fig. 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Legionella pneumophila genes required for growth in macrophages. (sciencemag.org)
  • Previous studies have shown that L. pneumophila multiplies intracellularly in human monocytes and alveolar macrophages within a membrane-bound cytoplasmic vacuole studded with ribosomes. (rupress.org)
  • Macrophages of A/J mice are believed to be specifically permissive for L. pneumophila and pneumonia induced in these animals resembles human disease in both pathological findings and cytokine responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • Indeed, inositol added to L. pneumophila-infected amoebae or macrophages promoted intracellular growth of the parental strain, but not of the ΔiolT or ΔiolG mutant, and growth stimulation by inositol was restored by complementation of the mutant strains. (uzh.ch)
  • Rowbotham TJ (1980) Preliminary report on the pathogenicity of Legionella pneumophila for freshwater and soil amoebae. (springer.com)
  • Since PlaB of non-pneumophila strains, such as L. spiritensis, express comparable activities against glycerol-containing lipids, but are reduced in their hydrolytic potential to cleave choline-containing substrates, PC-targeting activity could be an important contribution to the pathogenicity of L. pneumophila, the most common cause of LD. (hu-berlin.de)
  • The haploid amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is a versatile host system for studying cellular aspects of Legionella pathogenicity. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • One key way in which L. pneumophila uses its effector proteins is to interfere with fusion of the Legionella-containing vacuole with the host's endosomes, and thus protect against lysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • To establish a vacuole that supports bacterial replication, Legionella pneumophila translocates a large number of bacterial proteins into host cells via the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system. (pnas.org)
  • These translocated bacterial proteins are believed to reorchestrate host cellular processes, thus allowing the vacuole containing internalized L. pneumophila to undergo a unique trafficking route that bypasses the endocytic pathways. (pnas.org)
  • By intercepting vesicles originating from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the L. pneumophila -containing vacuole eventually is transformed into a compartment characteristic of rough ER ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • The proteins delivered by the Dot/Icm system target host factors that play evolutionarily conserved roles in controlling membrane transport in eukaryotic cells, which enables L. pneumophila to create an endoplasmic reticulum-like vacuole that supports intracellular replication in both protozoan and mammalian host cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Phagosomes containing live L. pneumophila did not fuse with secondary lysosomes at 1 h after entry into monocytes or at 4 or 8 h after entry by which time the ribosome-lined L. pneumophila replicative vacuole had formed. (rupress.org)
  • After entry into monocytes, L. pneumophila resides in a membrane-bound vacuole. (rupress.org)
  • Erythromycin, at concentrations that completely inhibit the intracellular multiplication of L. pneumophila, has no effect on vacuole formation. (rupress.org)
  • Formalin-killed L. pneumophila also reside in a membrane-bound vacuole after entry into monocytes. (rupress.org)
  • 1: Legionella manipulates Rab33b-Rab6 cascade to escort LCV to the host ER and we identified the candidate effectors that recruits Rab33b to the Legionella containing vacuole (LCV). (nii.ac.jp)
  • These effector proteins hijack endoplasmic reticulum derived vesicles and allow for the formation of a replication permissive vacuole known as the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). (udel.edu)
  • A rare form of phagocytosis known as coiling phagocytosis has been described for L. pneumophila, but this is not dependent on the Dot/Icm (intracellular multiplication/defect in organelle trafficking genes) bacterial secretion system and has been observed for other pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • L. pneumophila encodes for over 330 "effector" proteins, which are secreted by the Dot/Icm translocation system to interfere with host cell processes to aid bacterial survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic line expressing a nonpermissive allele of Naip5 exhibits a reduction in macrophage Legionella permissiveness. (nih.gov)
  • Legionella pneumophila is a gram-negative bacterial species that is ubiquitous in almost any aqueous environment. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cells infected by L. pneumophila exhibited resistance to apoptotic stimuli, but the bacterial protein directly involved in this process remained elusive. (pnas.org)
  • Intracellular growth of L. pneumophila requires the Dot/Icm type IV protein translocation system that injects a large number of bacterial effectors into host cells ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Consistent with this notion, L. pneumophila modulates the activities of vesicle trafficking regulatory molecules such as small GTPases Arf1 and Rab1 by translocated guanine nucleotide exchange factors specific for these proteins, thus facilitating the acquisition of ER materials and the subsequent intracellular bacterial multiplication ( 6 - 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • A total of 30 novel L. pneumophila B cell Ags were identified, the majority of which are located in or associated with the bacterial membrane, where they are accessible for Abs and, therefore, likely to be relevant for Ab-mediated protection against L. pneumophila . (jimmunol.org)
  • Mice immunized with either single-protein Ags or an Ag combination showed reduced bacterial titers in bronchoalveolar lavage and lung after L. pneumophila challenge. (jimmunol.org)
  • A virulence strategy used by the intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila is to manipulate host cellular processes using bacterial proteins that are delivered into the cytosolic compartment of the host cell by a specialized secretion system called Dot/Icm. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This review focuses on intracellular trafficking of L. pneumophila and describes how bacterial proteins contribute to modulation of host processes required for survival within host cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, the significance of other bacterial players for L. pneumophila ecology is poorly understood. (asm.org)
  • A number of intracellular bacterial pathogens, such as Chlamydia trachomatis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , and Legionella pneumophila , grow within membrane-bound compartments diverted from the normal endocytic pathway of host cells ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Erythromycin, a potent inhibitor of bacterial protein synthesis, at a concentration that completely inhibits L. pneumophila intracellular multiplication, had no influence on fusion of L. pneumophila phagosomes with secondary lysosomes. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, environmental temperature may play an important role in modulating the virulence of L. pneumophila, possibly by affecting bacterial adherence to host cells. (asm.org)
  • This kit contains primers for amplification of Legionella pneumophila mip gene, with reagents sufficient to treat 80 bacterial cultures with PMA and perform 200 PCR reactions. (biotium.com)
  • By fluorescence microscopy using fluorescein conjugated rabbit anti-L. pneumophila antiserum, the number of monocytes containing L. pneumophila increased in parallel with bacterial growth in the culture. (columbia.edu)
  • Lysis of these cells at various times during logarithmic growth of L. pneumophila was followed by cessation of bacterial multiplication. (columbia.edu)
  • These findings indicate that L. pneumophila falls into a select category of bacterial pathogens that evade host defenses by parasitizing monocytes. (columbia.edu)
  • The IDEXX Legiolert test is a culture method based on a bacterial enzyme detection technology that signals the presence of Legionella pneumophila through utilisation of a substrate present in the Legiolert reagent. (thecleanzine.com)
  • The effectiveness of the eight release treatments applied to L. pneumophila and Acanthamoeba strains in a free-living state varied between bacterial strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, a reduced bacterial recovery rate was observed for the second L. pneumophila strain used, and this difference is likely linked to the survival of the amoebae. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ABSTRACT This study in Iraq investigated the occurrence of Legionella. (who.int)
  • Naip5 affects host susceptibility to the intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila. (nih.gov)
  • We used expression of the competence gene comEA as a reporter of competence development and screened several hundred molecules for their ability to induce competence in the freshwater living pathogen Legionella pneumophila . (asm.org)
  • The intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila translocates a large number of effector proteins into host cells via the Icm/Dot type-IVB secretion system. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Although up to 85-90% of cases can be attributed to L. pneumophila , approximately half of the remaining 49 species in the genus have caused disease in humans(6). (msdsonline.com)
  • Transmission of L. pneumophila to humans is facilitated by its ability to grow in Acanthamoeba species. (asm.org)
  • Legionella pneumophila is a Gram-negative intracellular pathogen that often causes a serious and a life-threatening pneumonia in humans ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Legionella organisms usually infect humans via inhalation of contaminated aerosols from waterborne environmental sources. (jimmunol.org)
  • Biofilm formation is a key point in the spread and transmission to humans of L. pneumophila . (iwaponline.com)
  • In contrast, L. pneumophila multiplying intracellularly is resistant to killing by these concentrations of erythromycin and rifampin or by concentrations equal to or greater than peak serum levels in humans. (columbia.edu)
  • pneumonia caused by the bacillus Legionella pneumophila . (britannica.com)
  • Lück PC , Hahn F , Senger M , Boers SA , Brandsema P . European network cooperation to identify hotel as source for pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • A nosocomial pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2oc-14oc curred in a 7-year-old patient following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for thalassemia major. (bmj.com)
  • Pneumonia caused by Legionella may occur with abdominal pain, diarrhea, or confusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Legionella pneumophila subsp. (atcc.org)
  • Legionella pneumophila serogroup Lansing 3 isolated from a patient with fatal pneumonia, and descriptions of L. pneumophila subsp. (atcc.org)
  • pneumophila subsp. (atcc.org)
  • L. pneumophila subsp. (atcc.org)
  • Pentose phosphate pathway - Legionella pneumophila subsp. (genome.jp)
  • Here, we report that the host cell cycle influences L. pneumophila intracellular replication. (asm.org)
  • S. Sturgill-Koszycki and M. S. Swanson, " Legionella pneumophila replication vacuoles mature into acidic, endocytic organelles," Journal of Experimental Medicine , vol. 192, no. 9, pp. 1261-1272, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • Taken together, we postulate that RidL (Retromer interactor decorating LCVs) inhibits retrograde trafficking at endosomes by binding to the retromer subunit Vps26 and/or by competition with sorting nexins, thus promoting intracellular replication of L. pneumophila. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Screening Legionella effectors for antiviral effects reveals Rab1 GTPase as a proviral factor coopted for tombusvirus replication. (annals.org)
  • At least 35 different serovars of L. pneumophila have been described, as well as several other species being subdivided into a number of serovars. (wikipedia.org)
  • L. pneumophila is a facultative intracellular parasite that can invade and replicate inside amoebae in the environment, especially species of the genera Acanthamoeba and Naegleria, which can thus serve as a reservoir for L. pneumophila. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is conjectured that up to 40% of cases involving these rare pathogens, attributed to species and groups other than L. pneumophila serogroup 1, are missed clinically if commercially available urine antigen detection kits, which target only L. pneumophila serogroup 1, are used exclusively for diagnosis(4). (msdsonline.com)
  • three unusual new Legionella species. (springer.com)
  • Sheehan KB, Henson JM, Ferris MJ (2005) Legionella species diversity in an acidic biofilm community in Yellowstone National Park. (springer.com)
  • However it is difficult to discriminate between the L. pneumophila and non- L. pneumophila species rapidly. (springer.com)
  • LS-LAMP amplifies the fragment of the 16S rRNA gene to detect all species of Legionella genus. (springer.com)
  • Cloud JL, Carroll KC, Pixton P, Erali M, Hillyard DR (2000) Detection of Legionella species in respiratory specimens using PCR with sequencing confirmation. (springer.com)
  • Diogo A, Verissimo A, Nobre MF, da Costa MS (1999) Usefulness of fatty acid composition for differentiation of Legionella species. (springer.com)
  • Gobin I, Newton PR, Hartland EL, Newton HJ (2009) Infections caused by nonpneumophila species of Legionella . (springer.com)
  • Sequencing of several Legionella pneumophila genomes revealed high genetic diversity within the species and the presence of multiple virulence-associated eukaryotic-like genes thought to have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer ( 4 , 5 , 8 , 10a ). (asm.org)
  • While Macrophen and Double Macrophen were the most active substances among polyamino-phenolic ligands, dendrimers were overall twofold more effective than all other compounds with a reduction up to 85 and 73% of legionella and multi-species biofilms, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • Alternative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocols have been proposed, but they result in faint fluorescence signals and lack specificity because of cross-hybridization with other Legionella species. (wiley.com)
  • Assessment of relative potential for Legionella species or surrogates inhalation exposure from common water uses. (aaem.pl)
  • The genus Legionella comprises more than 40 species and 64 serogroups with approximately half of those species associated with human diseases. (scielo.org.za)
  • Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 is the most common pathogenic species and is responsible for up to 80% of legionellosis cases in the world. (scielo.org.za)
  • The genus Legionella comprises more than 40 species and 64 serogroups (O'Connell et al. (scielo.org.za)
  • The patient and home isolates were identified as L. pneumophila serogroup 3, sequence type 93, by whole-genome multilocus sequence typing. (cdc.gov)
  • The Legionella pneumophila genome evolved to accommodate multiple regulatory mechanisms controlled by the CsrA-system. (labome.org)
  • Thus the L. pneumophila genome has evolved to acclimate at least five different modes of regulation by CsrA giving it a truly unique position in its life cycle. (labome.org)
  • We used two independent methods to identify immunogenic L. pneumophila protein Ags, namely, the screening of a λ phage library representing the complete L. pneumophila genome and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with Western blot analysis and protein spot identification by mass spectrometry. (jimmunol.org)
  • According to sequence homology or determined lipolytic activities, up to 17 open reading frames of the L. pneumophila genome may encode functional phospholipases. (hu-berlin.de)
  • The L. pneumophila genome harbors the cluster lpg1653 to lpg1649 putatively involved in the metabolism of the abundant carbohydrate myo-inositol (here termed inositol). (uzh.ch)
  • Amino acids are thought to represent the prime source of carbon and energy for L. pneumophila However, genome, transcriptome, and proteome studies indicate that the pathogen not only utilizes amino acids as carbon sources but possesses broader metabolic capacities. (uzh.ch)
  • The complete genome sequences of three strains of L. pneumophila Paris, Lens and Philadelphia 1 are available at the time of writing Cazalet et al. (78stepshealth.us)
  • In this study, we demonstrate that Ab-mediated protection is effective across L. pneumophila serogroups, suggesting that Abs specific for conserved protein Ags are sufficient to mediate this protective effect. (jimmunol.org)
  • Smears of the concentrated samples were screened microscopically for serogroups of L. pneumophila by the direct fluorescent-antibody technique. (asm.org)
  • The iso-estimation maps show clearly the most contaminated pipe and the difference in the diffusion of the different L. pneumophila serogroups. (aaem.pl)
  • The study aims to carry out a three-year retrospective review of routine Legionella follow-up analyses in various samples taken mostly from hospitals in the province of Erzurum and nearby provinces, and to discover a the frequency of isolation of the agent and serogroups from each kind of media. (aaem.pl)
  • G. Segal, J. J. Russo, and H. A. Shuman, "Relationships between a new type IV secretion system and the icm/dot virulence system of Legionella pneumophila ," Molecular Microbiology , vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 799-809, 1999. (hindawi.com)
  • In order to assess the potential risk for legionellosis, we analyzed Legionella contamination of water distribution systems in 36 recreational facilities equipped with swimming pools. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of waterborne strains of Legionella to eight antimicrobials commonly used in legionellosis therapy. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Here we describe a case of hotel-associated legionellosis in an immuno-competent man caused byLegionella pneumophila serogroup 2, sequence type (ST) 39 that was identified through European cooperation. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Legionellosis is a life threatening disease caused by pathogenic Legionella pneumophila. (omicsonline.org)
  • Biofilm detachment and the interaction of Legionella with acanthamoebae were two important ecological factors that significantly increased the risk of legionellosis, and thus should be further considered in the refinement of QMRA models. (iwaponline.com)
  • While L. pneumophila is categorized as a Gram-negative organism, it stains poorly due to its unique lipopolysaccharide content in the outer leaflet of the outer cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Legiolert detects Legionella pneumophila within 7 days at one organism in a 100ml sample for potable water and at 100 organisms in a 100 ml non-potable sample, such as cooling tower water. (thecleanzine.com)
  • Legionella pneumophila is a gram negative, gamma-proteobacteria organism whose natural hosts are amoebae and protozoa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • K. H. Berger and R. R. Isberg, "Two distinct defects in intracellular growth complemented by a single genetic locus in Legionella pneumophila ," Molecular Microbiology , vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 7-19, 1993. (hindawi.com)
  • Distribution of 19 major virulence genes in Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates from patients and water in Queensland, Australia," Journal of Medical Microbiology , vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 993-997, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • We also provide a model for sRNA-mediated control of gene expression that serves as a framework for understanding the regulation of virulence-related properties of L. pneumophila . (frontiersin.org)
  • X72354 L.pneumophila Sgp.1 (ATCC 33152) gene for 5S ribosomal RNA. (atcc.org)
  • U68079 Legionella pneumophila coded portion of proteolysis tag tmRNA gene. (atcc.org)
  • Z30431 L.pneumophila Serogroup 1 Philadelphia-1 gene for 23S ribosomal RNA and 5S ribosomal RNA. (atcc.org)
  • AF095231 Legionella pneumophila strain ATCC 33152 defect in organelle trafficking protein (dotA) gene, partial cds. (atcc.org)
  • This optimized transformation procedure should efficiently facilitate gene manipulations in L. pneumophila, such as plasmid transfer, transposon mutagenesis, library transformation for complementation cloning, etc. (nih.gov)
  • A specific sequence appears at the 16S rRNA gene of L. pneumophila , while non- L. pneumophila strains have a variable sequence in this site, which can be recognized by the primer of LP-LAMP. (springer.com)
  • To investigate regulatory networks in Legionella pneumophila , the gene encoding the homolog of the Escherichia coli stress and stationary-phase sigma factor RpoS was identified by complementation of an E. coli rpoS mutation. (asm.org)
  • An insertion mutation was constructed in the rpoS gene on the chromosome of L. pneumophila , and the ability of this mutant strain to survive various stress conditions was assayed and compared with results for the wild-type strain. (asm.org)
  • A duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting 543 bp region of P1 adhesin gene of M. pneumoniae and 375 bp region of macrophage infectivity potentiator (mip) gene of L. pneumophila was standardized for simultaneous detection of these atypical pathogens. (ajtmh.org)
  • Similarly for L. pneumophila , 50 cases (11%) were serologically positive for IgM antibodies, one was positive by PCR ( mip gene) and urine antigen detection. (ajtmh.org)
  • A total of eight samples were positive by duplex PCR for M. pneumoniae P1 gene ( N = 7) and L. pneumophila mip gene ( N = 1). (ajtmh.org)
  • Taken together, intracellular L. pneumophila metabolizes inositol through the iol gene products, thus promoting the growth and virulence of the pathogen. (uzh.ch)
  • In this study, we analyzed the metabolism of inositol by extra- and intracellularly growing L. pneumophila By using genetic, biochemical, and cell biological approaches, we found that L. pneumophila accumulates and metabolizes inositol through the iol gene products, thus promoting the intracellular growth, virulence, and fitness of the pathogen. (uzh.ch)
  • The comparative analysis of rtx gene among 6 strains of L. pneumophila showed modularity in their structures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To investigate CuZnSOD function, we purified the enzyme from wild-type L. pneumophila, obtained amino acid sequence data from isolated peptides, cloned and sequenced the gene from a L. pneumophila library, and then constructed and characterized a CuZnSOD null mutant. (elsevier.com)
  • It has been predicted that the genus Legionella encodes more than 10,000 and possibly up to ~18,000 effectors that have a high probability to be secreted into their host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • M19444 L.pneumophila (strain Philadelphia-1) 16S rRNA, partial, segment 2 of 3. (atcc.org)
  • Furthermore, significantly less SNX1- and SNX2-positive LCVs were detected in cells infected with wild-type L. pneumophila compared to the ridL mutant strain. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 (NCTC12821) was used as a reference strain and to evaluate real-time PCR performance. (scielo.org.za)
  • We have previously reported that virulent egg yolk-grown Legionella pneumophila, Philadelphia 1 strain, multiplies intracellularly in human blood monocytes and only intracellularly under tissue culture conditions. (columbia.edu)
  • In this work, we analyse the mosaic structure of an RtxA toxin from the highly virulent L. pneumophila strain 2300/99. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, inhibiting the functions of host pro-death proteins by translocated effectors constitutes a mechanism for L. pneumophila to protect host cells from apoptosis. (pnas.org)
  • Characterization of Mip proteins of Legionella pneumophila. (rcsb.org)
  • This suggests that one virulence strategy of Legionella pneumophila is to mimic the functions of human proteins. (pasteur.fr)
  • In this study, I analyzed four novel Legionella pneumophila effector proteins that bind to PIPs and identified the PIP binding regions of the proteins. (udel.edu)
  • Confocal microscopic time series with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged calnexin and calreticulin demonstrated the accumulation of both proteins in the phagocytic cup of L. pneumophila -infected host cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Protozoa are considered to play a central role in the pathogenesis and ecology of L. pneumophila . (springer.com)
  • Legionella pneumophila is commonly found in almost all natural and engineered water systems where it replicates in a variety of phagocytic protozoa, including Hartmannella vermiformis . (frontiersin.org)
  • These data suggest that L. pneumophila employs similar genes and mechanisms to infect human cells and protozoa. (pnas.org)
  • Albert-Weissenberger C, Cazalet C, Buchrieser C (2007) Legionella pneumophila -a human pathogen that co-evolved with fresh water protozoa. (springer.com)
  • These data suggest that L. pneumophila possesses a growth phase-dependent resistance to stress that is independent of RpoS control and that RpoS likely regulates genes that enable it to survive in the environment within protozoa. (asm.org)
  • Legionella pneumophila is a Gram-negative pathogen that targets the alveolar macrophage in its human host or the unicellular protozoa in its natural environment. (asm.org)
  • Legionella effectors that promote nonlytic release from protozoa. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In nature, L. pneumophila infects freshwater and soil amoebae of the genera Acanthamoeba and Naegleria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rowbotham TJ (1986) Current views on the relationships between amoebae, legionellae and man. (springer.com)
  • In the environment, free-living amoebae represent key hosts providing nutrients and shelter for highly efficient intracellular proliferation of L. pneumophila , which eventually leads to lysis of the protist. (asm.org)
  • Instead, we observed reduced virulence of L. pneumophila released from symbiont-containing amoebae. (asm.org)
  • Legionella pneumophila is an important human respiratory pathogen that survives and multiplies in biofilms or intracellularly within protists, such as amoebae. (asm.org)
  • Legionella was not prevented from invading amoebae but was impeded in its ability to develop fully virulent progeny and were ultimately cleared in the presence of the symbiont. (asm.org)
  • Legionella sometimes survives as an intracellular parasite of amoebae and ciliates (Ratcliff et al. (scielo.org.za)
  • Free-living amoebae (FLA) and particularly acanthamoebae serve as vehicles and hosts for Legionella pneumophila , among other pathogenic microorganisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the last decade, enzymes from some of these pathogens, including Legionella pneumophila , have been cloned and characterized in detail. (mdpi.com)
  • In contrast to other intracellular pathogens such as Leishmania , Mycobacterium , and Toxoplasma which use many of the same strategies for survival ( 73 ), L. pneumophila can be genetically manipulated and grown with relative ease both on bacteriological media and intracellularly within cell culture lines and protozoan hosts. (asm.org)
  • Atypical pathogens including Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila are increasingly recognized as important causes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). (ajtmh.org)
  • T1-polarized cytokine productions may be a critical event for resistance to intracellular pathogens including Legionella, although how T1/T2 balance is organized in vivo, or which cell types are crucial to determine the course of disease, T1-directed self-limiting or T2-directed progressive, is still poorly understood. (jimmunol.org)
  • It remains to be determined whether cell-mediated immunity plays a dominant role in host defense against L. pneumophila as it does against other intracellular pathogens. (columbia.edu)
  • The origin of pathogens and the evolution of virulence lie within the dominion of microbial ecology, and the life cycle of L. pneumophila surely is no exception. (78stepshealth.us)
  • A rare form of phagocytosis known as coiling phagocytosis has been described for L. pneumophila however this is not dependent on the Dot/Icm secretion system and has been observed for other pathogens. (meddic.jp)
  • Detection of Legionella spp. (hindawi.com)
  • We found that the specificity was 100% for both LS-LAMP and LP-LAMP, and the sensitivity of LAMP assay for L. pneumophila detection was between 52 and 5.2 copies per reaction. (springer.com)
  • The results suggest that real-time LAMP, as a new assay, provides a specific and sensitive method for rapid detection and differentiation of Legionella spp. (springer.com)
  • and L. pneumophila and should be utilized to test environmental water samples for increased rates of detection. (springer.com)
  • Aurell H, Catala P, Farge P, Wallet F, Le Brun M, Helbig JH, Jarraud S, Lebaron P (2004) Rapid detection and enumeration of Legionella pneumophila in hot water systems by solid-phase cytometry. (springer.com)
  • Detection of Legionella RNA is a viable method, since RNA degrades rapidly after microbe death and hence correlates with microbe activity. (omicsonline.org)
  • Impedance spectroscopy provides a rapid and simple method to detect the presence of L. pneumophila through detection of 16s RNA. (omicsonline.org)
  • We present a microfluidic device with microfabricated interdigitated electrodes to perform impedance spectroscopy detection of L. pneumophila rRNA. (omicsonline.org)
  • Hospital acquired pneumonia: comparison of culture and real-time PCR assays for detection of Legionella pneumophila from respiratory specimens at Tehran Hospitals. (aaem.pl)
  • This document specifies a method for the detection and quantification of Legionella spp. (bsigroup.com)
  • A rapid one step test for the qualitative detection of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 antigen in human urine. (launchdiagnostics.com)
  • Legionella has been shown to proliferate on the walls of pipes in biofilms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Murga R, Forster TS, Brown E, Pruckler JM, Fields BS, Donlan RM (2001) Role of biofilms in the survival of Legionella pneumophila in a model potablewater system. (springer.com)
  • Because L. pneumophila has evolved in a variety of niches, including aquatic environments, biofilms as well as within diverse hosts, different stress response pathways and virulence pathways must be correctly regulated. (frontiersin.org)
  • In man-made water systems microbial biofilms increase the resistance of legionella to disinfection, posing a significant threat to public health. (frontiersin.org)
  • Both biofilms and a thermophilic isolate of acanthamoebae were shown to increase the resistance of Legionella to conventional thermal disinfection by between one and two logs respectively. (iwaponline.com)
  • Because of biofilms, L. pneumophila can persist in potable water systems and survive for a long time. (iwaponline.com)
  • Therefore, the prevention of biofilms occupies an important role in the elimination of L. pneumophila . (iwaponline.com)
  • Actively growing strains of Legionella pneumophila use the added substrate to produce a brown colour indicator. (thecleanzine.com)
  • Mip protein of Legionella pneumophila exhibits peptidyl-prolyl-cis/trans isomerase (PPlase) activity. (rcsb.org)
  • Ecological distribution of Legionella pneumophila. (asm.org)
  • Legionella pneumophila is a facultative intracellular pathogen capable of multiplying in a wide spectrum of eukaryotic cells. (pnas.org)
  • Different environmental amoeba isolates containing the symbiont were equally well protected as different L. pneumophila isolates were diminished, suggesting ecological relevance of this symbiont-mediated defense. (asm.org)
  • pneumophila in different drinking-water sources in Basra governorate as well as the susceptibility of isolates to several antibiotics. (who.int)
  • Urine samples were subjected for detecting L. pneumophila antigen. (ajtmh.org)
  • One colored line appears in the control line region (C). No line appears in the test line region (T). A negative result indicates that Legionella pneumophila antigen is not present in the specimen, or is present below the detectable level of the test. (homehealth-uk.com)
  • The findings confirmed the presence of L. pneumophila in sources of crude water, in general drinking water supplies and drinking water tankers. (who.int)
  • The prevalence of L. pneumophila, especially serogroup 1, is a strong indicator of unsuitability of drinking water and requires appropriate action. (who.int)
  • L. pneumophila replicates poorly within host. (asm.org)
  • 3: It is known that Legionella replicates inside host ER. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Subsequently, Legionella moves to rough ER and starts to replicates. (nii.ac.jp)
  • IDEXX has announced that the Legiolert test, used for the rapid, confirmed enumeration of Legionella pneumophila in hot and cold sanitary water and cooling tower water, has been granted the NF Validation by AFNOR Certification, under the reference No IDX 33/06 - 06/19. (thecleanzine.com)
  • Western blot analysis showed that the level of L. pneumophila RpoS increased in stationary phase. (asm.org)
  • This finding indicates that L. pneumophila RpoS is not required for a stationary-phase-dependent resistance to stress. (asm.org)
  • Extracellular L. pneumophila in stationary phase is also resistant to killing by erythromycin and rifampin. (columbia.edu)
  • A two-component regulator induces the transmission phenotype of stationary-phase Legionella pneumophila. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Genetic evidence that Legionella pneumophila RpoS modulates expression of the transmission phenotype in both the exponential phase and the stationary phase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In wild-type L. pneumophila, the specific activity of CuZnSOD increased during the transition from exponential to stationary-phase growth while the FeSOD activity was constant. (elsevier.com)
  • These data support a role of periplasmic CuZnSOD in survival of L. pneumophila during stationary phase. (elsevier.com)
  • St. John, G & Steinman, HM 1996, ' Periplasmic copper-zinc superoxide dismutase of Legionella pneumophila: Role in stationary-phase survival ', Journal of Bacteriology , vol. 178, no. 6, pp. 1578-1584. (elsevier.com)
  • Because the case was suspected to be nosocomial, health care facility water samples were tested for Legionella . (cdc.gov)
  • Risk factors for nosocomial Legionella pneumophila pneumonia. (ovid.com)
  • The major risk factors for Legionella pneumonia delineated in this study should be considered in the clinical approach to and empiric therapy of patients with suspected nosocomial pneumonia. (ovid.com)
  • Osawa K, Shigemura K, Abe Y, Jikimoto T, Yoshida H, Fujisawa M, Arakawa S. A case of nosocomial Legionella pneumonia associated with a contaminated hospital cooling tower. (aaem.pl)
  • The patient was diagnosed as nosocomial Legionella pneumonia by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from bronchoalveolar lavage and a culture of L. pneumophila serogroup 2-14 from patient's room faucet water. (bmj.com)
  • The development of the A/J mouse model of L. pneumophila pneumonia has provided a valuable tool to analyze pathogenesis of this disease ( 10 , 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Disinfection methods currently used in water systems have been shown to be ineffective against legionella over the long-term, allowing recolonization by the biofilm-protected microorganisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Notwithstanding this, the current study provided comparative information on the efficacy of conventional disinfection against Legionella . (iwaponline.com)
  • As a consequence of favourable temperatures, and lack of or poor disinfection, levels of legionellae may be of concern in these systems. (scielo.org.za)
  • Disinfection of Legionella pneumophila by photocatalytic oxidation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Intracellular survival requires that acidification of the Legionella -containing phagosome and fusion with lysosomes be prevented ( 33 , 35 , 36 , 82 ). (asm.org)
  • The interactions between the L. pneumophila phagosome and monocyte lysosomes were investigated by prelabeling the lysosomes with thorium dioxide, an electron-opaque colloidal marker, and by acid phosphatase cytochemistry. (rupress.org)
  • In contrast, the majority of phagosomes containing formalin-killed L. pneumophila, live Streptococcus pneumoniae, and live Escherichia coli had fused with secondary lysosomes by 1 h after entry into monocytes. (rupress.org)
  • Also activating the monocytes promoted fusion of a small proportion of phagosomes containing live L. pneumophila with secondary lysosomes. (rupress.org)
  • Acid phosphatase cytochemistry revealed that phagosomes containing live L. pneumophila did not fuse with either primary or secondary lysosomes. (rupress.org)
  • We have studied the interaction between virulent egg yolk-grown Legionella pneumophila Philadelphia 1 and human blood monocytes in vitro. (jci.org)
  • To transit from intra- to extracellular environments, Legionella pneumophila differentiates from a replicative/non-virulent to a transmissive/virulent form using the two-component system LetA/LetS and the global repressor protein CsrA. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Characterization of the selective inhibition of growth of virulent Legionella pneumophila by supplemented Mueller-Hinton medium. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Our investigations of the novel L. pneumophila effector RidL revealed that the LCV also communicates with the retrograde vesicle trafficking pathway of infected cells. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • In line with these findings, siRNA knockdown experiments revealed that a functional retrograde pathway restricted intracellular growth of L. pneumophila. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Wang J, Li X, Chen A, Lu Y. [Legionella pneumophila eukaryotic-like effector LegK3 inhibits growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and modulates its vesicle trafficking pathway]. (labome.org)
  • The most common causative agent of LD is L. pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp1)(9,10). (msdsonline.com)
  • During the first hour after entry, vacuoles containing L. pneumophila are found surrounded by smooth vesicles fusing with or budding off from the vacuolar membrane and by mitochondria closely apposed to the vacuolar membrane. (rupress.org)
  • In contrast to the situation with live L. pneumophila, cytoplasmic organelles are not found surrounding vacuoles containing formalin-killed L. pneumophila at any time after entry. (rupress.org)
  • By electron microscopy, L. pneumophila in such monocytes were found in membrane-bound cytoplasmic vacuoles studded with structures resembling host cell ribosomes. (columbia.edu)
  • Typing of Legionella pneumophila strains by polymerase chain reaction-mediated DNA fingerprinting. (asm.org)
  • Fingerprinting of L. pneumophila by polymerase chain reaction appeared to have the potential of being as epidemiologically useful as other genotypic methods. (asm.org)
  • and L. pneumophila using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). (bsigroup.com)
  • The data further demonstrate the effectiveness of the direct fluorescent-antibody technique for detecting L. pneumophila in natural aquatic systems. (asm.org)
  • Legionellae are ubiquitous in the natural environment, being present in soils and aquatic ecosystems (Fliermans et al. (scielo.org.za)
  • The phagosome containing Legionella pneumophila within protozoan Hartmannella vermiformis is surrounded by the rough endoplasmatic reticulum. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Intracellular multiplication of L. pneumophila is inhibited by 1.25 microgram/ml but not less than or equal to 0.125 microgram/ml erythromycin and 0.01 microgram/ml but not less than or equal to 0.001 microgram/ml rifampin. (columbia.edu)
  • Multiplication of L. pneumophila in the logarithmic phase of growth in monocytes is inhibited within 1 h of the addition of antibiotics. (columbia.edu)
  • when the antibiotics are removed from infected monocyte cultures after 2 d, L. pneumophila resumes multiplication. (columbia.edu)
  • Well-defined Legionella pneumophila strains were analyzed by amplification of variable genomic regions with arbitrary and repeat sequence primers. (asm.org)
  • Legionella pneumophila S1P-lyase targets host sphingolipid metabolism and restrains autophagy, PNAS, February 1st, 2016. (pasteur.fr)
  • To assess inositol metabolism by L. pneumophila, we constructed defined mutant strains lacking lpg1653 or lpg1652, which are predicted to encode the inositol transporter IolT or the inositol-2-dehydrogenase IolG, respectively. (uzh.ch)
  • This parasexual response to DNA damage may have enabled L. pneumophila to acquire and propagate foreign genes, contributing to the emergence of this human pathogen. (asm.org)
  • P. Dennis, "Isolation of Legionella from environmental specimens," in A Laboratory Manual for Legionella , T. G. Harrison and A. G. Taylor, Eds. (hindawi.com)
  • This case also illustrates the role of lower respiratory tract specimens in the identification of less common Legionella infections (e.g. (cdc.gov)
  • For determining whether this was the result of relapse or reinfection, Legionella pneumophila strains, cultured from sputum specimens and his home water supply, were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Several lines of evidence indicate that L. pneumophila grows within monocytes. (columbia.edu)
  • a) In the absence of leukocytes, L. pneumophila did not grow in tissue culture medium with or without serum even if the medium was conditioned by monocytes. (columbia.edu)