Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water or thermally polluted lakes or streams. Member are pathogenic for man. Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent for LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.
An acute, sometimes fatal, pneumonia-like bacterial infection characterized by high fever, malaise, muscle aches, respiratory disorders and headache. It is named for an outbreak at the 1976 Philadelphia convention of the American Legion.
Infections with bacteria of the genus LEGIONELLA.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A species of free-living soil amoebae in the family Acanthamoebidae. It can cause ENCEPHALITIS and KERATITIS in humans.
The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A genus of free-living amoebae found in fresh water. The cysts usually pass harmlessly through the intestinal tract of man and may thus be found in feces. Occasionally, these organisms cause respiratory tract infections or generalized fatal meningoencephalitis.
A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
A branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and maintenance of environmental facilities conducive to public health, such as water supply and waste disposal.
Members of a family of highly conserved proteins which are all cis-trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE). They bind the immunosuppressant drugs CYCLOSPORINE; TACROLIMUS and SIROLIMUS. They possess rotamase activity, which is inhibited by the immunosuppressant drugs that bind to them.
A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.
A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that do not form endospores or microcysts.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS and through early Golgi compartments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the lung parenchyma as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
The immersion or washing of the body or any of its parts in water or other medium for cleansing or medical treatment. It includes bathing for personal hygiene as well as for medical purposes with the addition of therapeutic agents, such as alkalines, antiseptics, oil, etc.
An inhibitor of apoptosis protein that was initially identified during analysis of CHROMOSOME DELETIONS associated with SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHY. Naip contains a nucleotide binding oligomerization domain and a carboxy-terminal LEUCINE rich repeat.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
Inbred strain A mice are genetically identical descendants of a single founder mouse, produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, primarily used in biomedical research for their genetic uniformity and experimental reproducibility.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Water that is intended to be ingested.
Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.
An order of ameboid protozoa that is commonly uninucleate and possess mitochondria. Most organisms are nonpathogenic.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.
An enzyme that catalyzes the isomerization of proline residues within proteins. EC
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Use for material on dental facilities in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
A supergroup (some say phylum) of ameboid EUKARYOTES, comprising ARCHAMOEBAE; LOBOSEA; and MYCETOZOA.
A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.
Constructions built to access underground water.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.

Legionella taurinensis sp. nov., a new species antigenically similar to Legionella spiritensis. (1/757)

A group of 42 Legionella-like organisms reacting specifically with Legionella spiritensis serogroup 1 antisera were collected throughout Europe by the Centre National de Reference (French National Reference Centre) for Legionella. This group of isolates differed somewhat from L. spiritensis in terms of biochemical reactions, ubiquinone content and protein profile. The latter two analyses revealed that one of these L. spiritensis-like isolates, Turin I no. 1T, was highly related, but not identical to any of the red autofluorescent species of Legionella. In fact, this strain was the first of these particular isolates recognized to emit a red autofluorescence when exposed to UV light. Profile analysis of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA established that the red autofluorescent L. spiritensis-like isolates constituted a homogeneous group distinct from Legionella rubrilucens and Legionella erythra. DNA-DNA hybridization studies involving the use of S1 nuclease confirmed that the indicated group of isolates are a new species of Legionella, for which the name Legionella taurinensis is proposed with strain Turin I no. 1T (deposited as ATCC 700508T) as the type strain.  (+info)

Bilateral pleuritis caused by Legionella micdadei. (2/757)

A 58-year-old woman was hospitalized because of progressive respiratory distress. She had a history of myasthenia gravis and invasive thymoma. After thymectomy, she had been administered oral prednisolone and intrathoracic anti-cancer drugs postoperatively. Her chest radiograph revealed bilateral pleural effusions. Legionella micdadei (L. micdadei) was isolated from the pleural effusions, and she was diagnosed as pleuritis caused by L. micdadei. She died despite intensive therapy with mechanical ventilation, drainage tube in the chest and intravenous erythromycin. Although only two cases of Legionellosis caused by L. micdadei have been reported in Japan, clinicians should be aware of L. micdadei as one of the candidates for infection in immunosuppressed hosts.  (+info)

Usefulness of fatty acid composition for differentiation of Legionella species. (3/757)

Numerical analysis of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles of 199 isolates and 76 reference strains, belonging to all validly described species of the genus Legionella that can be cultured in laboratory media, was used to differentiate between the species of this genus. With the exception of the strains that autofluoresced red, it was possible to differentiate all the other Legionella species. The strains of the species L. bozemanii, L. dumoffii, L. feeleii, L. gormanii, L. maceachernii, L. micdadei, and L. quinlivanii did not form single clusters, showing some degree of variability in the fatty acid compositions. The strains of the blue-white autofluorescent species had very similar fatty acid compositions and were difficult to distinguish from each other. Nine isolates had fatty acid profiles unlike those of any of the validly described species and may represent different FAME groups of known species or undescribed Legionella species. The method used in this study was useful for screening and discriminating large number of isolates of Legionella species. Moreover, the results obtained can be included in a database of fatty acid profiles, leading to a more accurate automatic identification of Legionella isolates.  (+info)

The in-vitro activity of moxifloxacin against Legionella species and the effects of medium on susceptibility test results. (4/757)

The in-vitro activities of moxifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and rifampicin against 49 Legionella spp. isolates were determined by an agar dilution method with buffered charcoal yeast extract agar containing alpha-ketoglutarate. Because the inhibitory effects of charcoal in the test media were pronounced (92% for quinolones, 90.5% for rifampicin and 92.5% for erythromycin), the MICs were corrected for the charcoal-bound fraction of the antibiotics. The corrected geometric mean MICs were 0.018 mg/L for moxifloxacin, 0.02 mg/L for ciprofloxacin, 0.27 mg/L for erythromycin and 0.005 mg/L for rifampicin.  (+info)

Comparative analysis of Legionella pneumophila and Legionella micdadei virulence traits. (5/757)

While the majority of Legionnaire's disease has been attributed to Legionella pneumophila, Legionella micdadei can cause a similar infection in immunocompromised people. Consistent with its epidemiological profile, the growth of L. micdadei in cultured macrophages is less robust than that of L. pneumophila. To identify those features of the Legionella spp. which are correlated to efficient growth in macrophages, two approaches were taken. First, a phenotypic analysis compared four clinical isolates of L. micdadei to one well-characterized strain of L. pneumophila. Seven traits previously correlated with the virulence of L. pneumophila were evaluated: infection and replication in cultured macrophages, evasion of phagosome-lysosome fusion, contact-dependent cytotoxicity, sodium sensitivity, osmotic resistance, and conjugal DNA transfer. By nearly every measure, L. micdadei appeared less virulent than L. pneumophila. The surprising exception was L. micdadei 31B, which evaded lysosomes and replicated in macrophages as efficiently as L. pneumophila, despite lacking both contact-dependent cytopathicity and regulated sodium sensitivity. Second, in an attempt to identify virulence factors genetically, an L. pneumophila genomic library was screened for clones which conferred robust intracellular growth on L. micdadei. No such loci were isolated, consistent with the multiple phenotypic differences observed for the two species. Apparently, L. pneumophila and L. micdadei use distinct strategies to colonize alveolar macrophages, causing Legionnaire's disease.  (+info)

Australian isolates of Legionella longbeachae are not a clonal population. (6/757)

Legionella longbeachae is almost as frequent a cause of legionellosis in Australia as Legionella pneumophila, but epidemiological investigation of possible environmental sources and clinical cases has been limited by the lack of a discriminatory subtyping method. The purpose of this study was to examine the genetic variability among Australian isolates of L. longbeachae serogroup 1. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of SfiI fragments revealed three distinct pulsotypes among 57 clinical and 11 environmental isolates and the ATCC control strains of L. longbeachae serogroups 1 and 2. Each pulsotype differed by four bands, corresponding to <65% similarity. A clonal subgroup within each pulsotype was characterized by >88% similarity. The largest major cluster was pulsotype A, which included 43 clinical isolates and 9 environmental isolates and was divided into five subgroups. Pulsotypes B and C comprised smaller numbers of clinical and environmental isolates, which could each be further divided into three subgroups. The ATCC type strain of L. longbeachae serogroup 1 was classified as pulsotype B, subtype B3, while the ATCC type strain of L. longbeachae serogroup 2 was identified as a different pulsotype, LL2. SfiI macrorestriction analysis followed by PFGE showed that the Australian L. longbeachae strains are not a single clonal population as previously reported.  (+info)

Detection of Legionella DNA in peripheral leukocytes, serum, and urine from a patient with pneumonia caused by Legionella dumoffii. (7/757)

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been used to detect Legionella DNA in respiratory tract, serum, and urine samples from patients with pneumonia. In addition, a preliminary study using a guinea pig model suggested that testing of peripheral leukocytes by PCR may be more sensitive than testing of other samples. We used PCR to detect Legionella DNA in serial peripheral leukocyte (buffy coat), serum, and urine samples from a patient with pneumonia caused by Legionella dumoffii. Legionella DNA was detected in all 3 sample types when first collected. Buffy coat and urine samples remained positive up to 56 days after the onset of symptoms, whereas serum samples were positive from 10 up to 16 days after the onset of symptoms. Sequencing of PCR amplicons indicated the presence of L. dumoffii DNA in positive samples. It appears that buffy coat may be a useful sample to test for Legionella DNA, but further study is required to determine the precise sensitivity and to make comparisons with other sample types.  (+info)

Novel phospholipase A activity secreted by Legionella species. (8/757)

Bacterial phospholipases are regarded as a major virulence factor in infection. In bacteria associated with pneumonia, destruction of lung surfactant and host cell membranes by bacterial phospholipases secreted during infection is thought to contribute to the disease. Phospholipase C (PLC) activity has been described in several Legionella species (W. B. Baine, J. Gen. Microbiol. 134:489-498, 1988; W. B. Baine, J. Gen. Microbiol. 131:1383-1391, 1985). By using detection methods such as thin-layer chromatography and mass spectrometry, PLC activity could not be detected in several strains of Legionella pneumophila. Instead, phospholipid degradation was identified to be caused by a novel PLA activity. We could demonstrate that PLA secretion starts at the mid-exponential-growth phase when bacteria were grown in liquid culture. Several Legionella species secreted different amounts of PLA. Legionella PLA may act as a powerful agent in the mediation of pathogenicity due to destruction of lung surfactant and epithelial cells.  (+info)

Legionella is the genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that can cause serious lung infections known as legionellosis. The most common species causing disease in humans is Legionella pneumophila. These bacteria are widely found in natural freshwater environments such as lakes and streams. However, they can also be found in man-made water systems like cooling towers, hot tubs, decorative fountains, and plumbing systems. When people breathe in small droplets of water containing the bacteria, especially in the form of aerosols or mist, they may develop Legionnaires' disease, a severe form of pneumonia, or Pontiac fever, a milder flu-like illness. The risk of infection increases in individuals with weakened immune systems, chronic lung diseases, older age, and smokers. Appropriate disinfection methods and regular maintenance of water systems can help prevent the growth and spread of Legionella bacteria.

"Legionella pneumophila" is a species of Gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are commonly found in freshwater environments such as lakes and streams. It can also be found in man-made water systems like hot tubs, cooling towers, and decorative fountains. This bacterium is the primary cause of Legionnaires' disease, a severe form of pneumonia, and Pontiac fever, a milder illness resembling the flu. Infection typically occurs when people inhale tiny droplets of water containing the bacteria. It is not transmitted from person to person.

Legionnaires' disease is a severe and often lethal form of pneumonia, a lung infection, caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila. It's typically contracted by inhaling microscopic water droplets containing the bacteria, which can be found in various environmental sources like cooling towers, hot tubs, whirlpools, decorative fountains, and large plumbing systems. The disease is not transmitted through person-to-person contact. Symptoms usually appear within 2-10 days after exposure and may include cough, fever, chills, muscle aches, headache, and shortness of breath. Some individuals, particularly those with weakened immune systems, elderly people, and smokers, are at higher risk for developing Legionnaires' disease. Early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment can improve the chances of recovery. Preventive measures include regular testing and maintenance of potential sources of Legionella bacteria in buildings and other facilities.

Legionellosis is a bacterial infection caused by the species Legionella, most commonly Legionella pneumophila. It can manifest in two main clinical syndromes: Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever.

Legionnaires' disease is a severe form of pneumonia characterized by cough, high fever, chills, muscle aches, and headaches. Other symptoms may include chest pain, shortness of breath, confusion, and gastrointestinal problems such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. It is often associated with exposure to contaminated water sources like cooling towers, hot tubs, and decorative fountains.

Pontiac fever, on the other hand, is a milder form of legionellosis that causes flu-like symptoms without pneumonia. Symptoms typically include fever, chills, headache, and muscle aches, but they usually resolve within 2 to 5 days without specific treatment.

Both forms of legionellosis are transmitted through inhalation of contaminated aerosols or droplets, and prompt diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic therapy are essential for the management of Legionnaires' disease.

Water microbiology is not a formal medical term, but rather a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms found in water. It involves the identification, enumeration, and characterization of bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other microscopic organisms present in water sources such as lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater, drinking water, and wastewater.

In a medical context, water microbiology is relevant to public health because it helps to assess the safety of water supplies for human consumption and recreational activities. It also plays a critical role in understanding and preventing waterborne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms that can lead to illnesses such as diarrhea, skin infections, and respiratory problems.

Water microbiologists use various techniques to study water microorganisms, including culturing, microscopy, genetic analysis, and biochemical tests. They also investigate the ecology of these organisms, their interactions with other species, and their response to environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and nutrient availability.

Overall, water microbiology is a vital field that helps ensure the safety of our water resources and protects public health.

'Acanthamoeba castellanii' is a species of free-living amoebae that are widely found in the environment, such as in water, soil, and air. These amoebae are known for their ability to survive under various conditions and can cause opportunistic infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

'Acanthamoeba castellanii' is known to be associated with a range of diseases, including Acanthamoeba keratitis, a sight-threatening eye infection that primarily affects contact lens wearers, and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, a rare but serious central nervous system infection.

It is important to note that while 'Acanthamoeba castellanii' can cause infections in humans, these cases are relatively uncommon and typically occur in individuals with compromised immune systems or those who come into contact with contaminated water or soil. Proper hygiene practices and the use of sterile solutions when handling contact lenses can help reduce the risk of infection.

Air conditioning is the process of controlling and maintaining a comfortable indoor environment through the regulation of temperature, humidity, air movement, and cleanliness. It typically involves the use of mechanical systems that circulate and treat air to meet specific comfort requirements. The goal of air conditioning is to provide a comfortable, healthy, and productive indoor environment while also saving energy and reducing environmental impact.

In medical terms, air conditioning can be particularly important in healthcare settings such as hospitals and clinics, where maintaining proper temperature and humidity levels is essential for the health and well-being of patients and staff. Proper air conditioning can help prevent the growth of bacteria, viruses, and mold, reduce the spread of airborne particles, and minimize the risk of infection and illness.

Air conditioning systems in healthcare facilities may include specialized components such as HEPA filters, UV germicidal irradiation, and humidity control to provide a higher level of air quality and protection against infectious diseases. Regular maintenance and testing of these systems is also critical to ensure their proper functioning and to maintain a safe and healthy indoor environment.

Hartmannella is a genus of free-living amoebae, which are single-celled organisms found in soil and water. These amoebae are known to be able to ingest bacteria and other small particles as part of their feeding process. While they are generally harmless to humans, some species of Hartmannella have been associated with certain types of human illnesses, such as Acanthamoeba keratitis, a rare but serious eye infection that can cause blindness if left untreated. However, it is important to note that Hartmannella itself is not typically considered a pathogenic genus and is mainly studied in the context of environmental and microbiological research.

Acanthamoeba is a genus of free-living, ubiquitous amoebae found in various environments such as soil, water, and air. These microorganisms have a characteristic morphology with thin, flexible pseudopods and large, rounded cells that contain endospores. They are known to cause two major types of infections in humans: Acanthamoeba keratitis, an often painful and potentially sight-threatening eye infection affecting the cornea; and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), a rare but severe central nervous system infection primarily impacting individuals with weakened immune systems.

Acanthamoeba keratitis typically occurs through contact lens wearers accidentally introducing the organism into their eyes, often via contaminated water sources or inadequately disinfected contact lenses and solutions. Symptoms include eye pain, redness, sensitivity to light, tearing, and blurred vision. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing severe complications and potential blindness.

Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis is an opportunistic infection that affects people with compromised immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplant recipients. The infection spreads hematogenously (through the bloodstream) to the central nervous system, where it causes inflammation and damage to brain tissue. Symptoms include headache, fever, stiff neck, seizures, altered mental status, and focal neurological deficits. GAE is associated with high mortality rates due to its severity and the challenges in diagnosing and treating the infection effectively.

Prevention strategies for Acanthamoeba infections include maintaining good hygiene practices, regularly replacing contact lenses and storage cases, using sterile saline solution or disposable contact lenses, and avoiding swimming or showering while wearing contact lenses. Early detection and appropriate medical intervention are essential for managing these infections and improving patient outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "water supply" is not a medical term per se. It is a general term used to describe the system or arrangement providing water for consumption or use, such as a public water supply system or a private well. However, in a medical context, it could refer to the source of water used in a healthcare facility for drinking, cooking, cleaning, and patient care, which must meet certain quality standards to prevent infection and ensure safety.

Sanitary engineering is not typically considered a medical definition, but rather it falls under the field of public health and environmental engineering. However, it is closely related to medicine and public health due to its focus on preventing disease transmission through the design and construction of safe water supplies, sanitary sewage disposal systems, and solid waste management facilities.

Here's a definition of sanitary engineering from the American Public Health Association (APHA):

"Sanitary engineering is the application of engineering principles to public health problems involving the control of environmental factors that affect human health. It includes the design, construction, and maintenance of systems for the collection, treatment, and disposal of wastewater and solid waste; the protection of water supplies from contamination; and the control of vectors of disease through the management of public facilities and environments."

In summary, sanitary engineering involves the application of engineering principles to prevent the spread of diseases by ensuring safe and adequate water supplies, proper sewage disposal, and effective solid waste management.

Immunophilins are a group of intracellular proteins that have peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) activity, which enables them to catalyze the cis-trans isomerization of proline imidic peptide bonds in oligopeptides. They play crucial roles in protein folding, trafficking, and assembly, as well as in immunoregulation and signal transduction processes.

Two major classes of immunophilins are FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs) and cyclophilins. These proteins can bind to immunosuppressive drugs like FK506 (tacrolimus) and cyclosporin A, respectively, forming complexes that inhibit the activity of calcineurin, a phosphatase involved in T-cell activation. This interaction leads to an inhibition of immune responses and is exploited in transplantation medicine to prevent graft rejection.

Immunophilins also participate in various cellular processes, such as protein trafficking, neuroprotection, and regulation of gene expression, by interacting with other proteins or acting as chaperones during protein folding. Dysregulation of immunophilin function has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and viral infections.

An Amoeba is a type of single-celled organism that belongs to the kingdom Protista. It's known for its ability to change shape and move through its environment using temporary extensions of cytoplasm called pseudopods. Amoebas are found in various aquatic and moist environments, and some species can even live as parasites within animals, including humans.

In a medical context, the term "Amoeba" often refers specifically to Entamoeba histolytica, a pathogenic species that can cause amoebiasis, a type of infectious disease. This parasite typically enters the human body through contaminated food or water and can lead to symptoms such as diarrhea, stomach pain, and weight loss. In severe cases, it may invade the intestinal wall and spread to other organs, causing potentially life-threatening complications.

It's important to note that while many species of amoebas exist in nature, only a few are known to cause human disease. Proper hygiene practices, such as washing hands thoroughly and avoiding contaminated food and water, can help prevent the spread of amoebic infections.

Legionellaceae is a family of Gram-negative bacteria that includes the genus Legionella, which are known to cause Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever. These bacteria are commonly found in freshwater environments such as lakes and streams, but can also be found in man-made water systems like cooling towers, hot tubs, and decorative fountains. They thrive in warm water (20-45°C) and can survive in a wide range of temperatures and pH levels.

Legionella bacteria become a health concern when they are aerosolized and inhaled, allowing them to infect the lungs and cause respiratory illnesses. Proper maintenance and disinfection of water systems can help prevent the growth and spread of Legionella bacteria.

RAB1 GTP-binding proteins are a subfamily of the RAS superfamily of small GTPases, which function as molecular switches in intracellular vesicle trafficking. RAB1 proteins exist in two forms, RAB1A and RAB1B, that bind to guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and guanosine diphosphate (GDP).

In their GTP-bound form, RAB1 proteins interact with effector molecules to regulate the formation of transport vesicles at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and their subsequent fusion with the cis-Golgi apparatus. This process is critical for the proper sorting and transport of proteins and lipids between the ER, Golgi, and other cellular membranes.

RAB1 proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of the early secretory pathway and have been implicated in various cellular processes, including autophagy, mitochondrial dynamics, and cytokinesis. Dysregulation of RAB1 GTP-binding proteins has been linked to several human diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

A lung abscess is a localized collection of pus in the lung parenchyma caused by an infectious process, often due to bacterial infection. It's characterized by necrosis and liquefaction of pulmonary tissue, resulting in a cavity filled with purulent material. The condition can develop as a complication of community-acquired or nosocomial pneumonia, aspiration of oral secretions containing anaerobic bacteria, septic embolism, or contiguous spread from a nearby infected site.

Symptoms may include cough with foul-smelling sputum, chest pain, fever, weight loss, and fatigue. Diagnosis typically involves imaging techniques such as chest X-ray or CT scan, along with microbiological examination of the sputum to identify the causative organism(s). Treatment often includes antibiotic therapy tailored to the identified pathogen(s), as well as supportive care such as bronchoscopy, drainage, or surgery in severe cases.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Serotyping is a laboratory technique used to classify microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, based on the specific antigens or proteins present on their surface. It involves treating the microorganism with different types of antibodies and observing which ones bind to its surface. Each distinct set of antigens corresponds to a specific serotype, allowing for precise identification and characterization of the microorganism. This technique is particularly useful in epidemiology, vaccine development, and infection control.

A "colony count" is a method used to estimate the number of viable microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, in a sample. In this technique, a known volume of the sample is spread onto the surface of a solid nutrient medium in a petri dish and then incubated under conditions that allow the microorganisms to grow and form visible colonies. Each colony that grows on the plate represents an individual cell (or small cluster of cells) from the original sample that was able to divide and grow under the given conditions. By counting the number of colonies that form, researchers can make a rough estimate of the concentration of microorganisms in the original sample.

The term "microbial" simply refers to microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Therefore, a "colony count, microbial" is a general term that encompasses the use of colony counting techniques to estimate the number of any type of microorganism in a sample.

Colony counts are used in various fields, including medical research, food safety testing, and environmental monitoring, to assess the levels of contamination or the effectiveness of disinfection procedures. However, it is important to note that colony counts may not always provide an accurate measure of the total number of microorganisms present in a sample, as some cells may be injured or unable to grow under the conditions used for counting. Additionally, some microorganisms may form clusters or chains that can appear as single colonies, leading to an overestimation of the true cell count.

A bath generally refers to the act of immersing or cleaning the body in a mixture of water and sometimes other substances, such as soap or essential oils. In a medical context, there are several types of therapeutic baths that may be prescribed for various purposes:

1. Sitz bath: A shallow bath that only covers the hips and buttocks, used to treat conditions like hemorrhoids, anal fissures, or other localized infections.
2. Hydrotherapy bath: A therapeutic bath using water at different temperatures, pressures, or with added substances (e.g., Epsom salts, essential oils) for relaxation, pain relief, or to improve circulation and promote healing.
3. Balneotherapy: The use of mineral-rich waters from natural springs or artificial mineral baths for therapeutic purposes, often used in the treatment of skin conditions, arthritis, or musculoskeletal disorders.
4. Medicated bath: A bath with added medical substances (e.g., medicated oils, salts) to treat various skin conditions, promote relaxation, or relieve pain.
5. Whirlpool bath: A therapeutic bath using water jets to create a swirling motion and provide hydrotherapy benefits for relaxation, pain relief, or improved circulation.

It is essential to follow medical advice when taking therapeutic baths, as incorrect usage can lead to adverse effects.

NAIP (Neuronal Apoptosis Inhibitory Protein) is a protein involved in inhibiting programmed cell death, also known as apoptosis. It is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family and is primarily expressed in neurons. NAIP plays a crucial role in preventing excessive cell death during nervous system development and after nerve injury. It functions by binding to and inhibiting certain caspases, which are enzymes that play an essential role in initiating and executing apoptosis. Mutations in the gene encoding NAIP have been associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as spinal muscular atrophy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

A phagosome is a type of membrane-bound organelle that forms around a particle or microorganism following its engulfment by a cell, through the process of phagocytosis. This results in the formation of a vesicle containing the ingested material, which then fuses with another organelle called a lysosome to form a phago-lysosome. The lysosome contains enzymes that digest and break down the contents of the phagosome, allowing the cell to neutralize and dispose of potentially harmful substances or pathogens.

In summary, phagosomes are important organelles involved in the immune response, helping to protect the body against infection and disease.

Macrophages are a type of white blood cell that are an essential part of the immune system. They are large, specialized cells that engulf and destroy foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, as well as damaged or dead cells. Macrophages are found throughout the body, including in the bloodstream, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, lungs, and connective tissues. They play a critical role in inflammation, immune response, and tissue repair and remodeling.

Macrophages originate from monocytes, which are a type of white blood cell produced in the bone marrow. When monocytes enter the tissues, they differentiate into macrophages, which have a larger size and more specialized functions than monocytes. Macrophages can change their shape and move through tissues to reach sites of infection or injury. They also produce cytokines, chemokines, and other signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response and recruit other immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

Macrophages have a variety of surface receptors that allow them to recognize and respond to different types of foreign substances and signals from other cells. They can engulf and digest foreign particles, bacteria, and viruses through a process called phagocytosis. Macrophages also play a role in presenting antigens to T cells, which are another type of immune cell that helps coordinate the immune response.

Overall, macrophages are crucial for maintaining tissue homeostasis, defending against infection, and promoting wound healing and tissue repair. Dysregulation of macrophage function has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory conditions.

Bacterial pneumonia is a type of lung infection that's caused by bacteria. It can affect people of any age, but it's more common in older adults, young children, and people with certain health conditions or weakened immune systems. The symptoms of bacterial pneumonia can vary, but they often include cough, chest pain, fever, chills, and difficulty breathing.

The most common type of bacteria that causes pneumonia is Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). Other types of bacteria that can cause pneumonia include Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

Bacterial pneumonia is usually treated with antibiotics, which are medications that kill bacteria. The specific type of antibiotic used will depend on the type of bacteria causing the infection. It's important to take all of the prescribed medication as directed, even if you start feeling better, to ensure that the infection is completely cleared and to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance.

In severe cases of bacterial pneumonia, hospitalization may be necessary for close monitoring and treatment with intravenous antibiotics and other supportive care.

Inbred A mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings. This results in a high degree of genetic similarity among individuals within the strain, making them useful for research purposes where a consistent genetic background is desired. The Inbred A strain is maintained through continued brother-sister mating. It's important to note that while these mice are called "Inbred A," the designation does not refer to any specific medical condition or characteristic. Instead, it refers to the breeding practices used to create and maintain this particular strain of laboratory mice.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

Agglutination tests are laboratory diagnostic procedures used to detect the presence of antibodies or antigens in a sample, such as blood or serum. These tests work by observing the clumping (agglutination) of particles, like red blood cells or bacteriophages, coated with specific antigens or antibodies when mixed with a patient's sample.

In an agglutination test, the sample is typically combined with a reagent containing known antigens or antibodies on the surface of particles, such as latex beads, red blood cells, or bacteriophages. If the sample contains the corresponding antibodies or antigens, they will bind to the particles, forming visible clumps or agglutinates. The presence and strength of agglutination are then assessed visually or with automated equipment to determine the presence and quantity of the target antigen or antibody in the sample.

Agglutination tests are widely used in medical diagnostics for various applications, including:

1. Bacterial and viral infections: To identify specific bacterial or viral antigens in a patient's sample, such as group A Streptococcus, Legionella pneumophila, or HIV.
2. Blood typing: To determine the ABO blood group and Rh type of a donor or recipient before a blood transfusion or organ transplantation.
3. Autoimmune diseases: To detect autoantibodies in patients with suspected autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
4. Allergies: To identify specific IgE antibodies in a patient's sample to determine allergic reactions to various substances, such as pollen, food, or venom.
5. Drug monitoring: To detect and quantify the presence of drug-induced antibodies, such as those developed in response to penicillin or hydralazine therapy.

Agglutination tests are simple, rapid, and cost-effective diagnostic tools that provide valuable information for clinical decision-making and patient management. However, they may have limitations, including potential cross-reactivity with other antigens, false-positive results due to rheumatoid factors or heterophile antibodies, and false-negative results due to the prozone effect or insufficient sensitivity. Therefore, it is essential to interpret agglutination test results in conjunction with clinical findings and other laboratory data.

The medical definition of 'charcoal' is referred to as activated charcoal, which is a fine, black powder made from coconut shells, wood, or other natural substances. It is used in medical situations to absorb poison or drugs in the stomach, thereby preventing their absorption into the body and reducing their toxic effects. Activated charcoal works by binding to certain chemicals and preventing them from being absorbed through the digestive tract.

Activated charcoal is generally safe for most people when taken as directed, but it can cause side effects such as black stools, constipation, and regurgitation of the charcoal. It should be used under medical supervision and not as a substitute for seeking immediate medical attention in case of poisoning or overdose.

It's important to note that activated charcoal is different from regular charcoal, which is not safe to consume and can contain harmful chemicals or substances.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Dental equipment refers to the various instruments and devices used by dental professionals to perform oral health examinations, diagnose dental conditions, and provide treatment to patients. Here are some examples:

1. Dental chair: A specially designed chair that allows patients to recline while receiving dental care.
2. Examination light: A bright light used to illuminate the oral cavity during examinations and procedures.
3. Dental mirror: A small, angled mirror used to help dentists see hard-to-reach areas of the mouth.
4. Explorer: A sharp instrument used to probe teeth for signs of decay or other dental problems.
5. Dental probe: A blunt instrument used to measure the depth of periodontal pockets and assess gum health.
6. Scaler: A handheld instrument or ultrasonic device used to remove tartar and calculus from teeth.
7. Suction device: A vacuum-like tool that removes saliva, water, and debris from the mouth during procedures.
8. Dental drill: A high-speed instrument used to remove decayed or damaged tooth structure and prepare teeth for fillings, crowns, or other restorations.
9. Rubber dam: A thin sheet of rubber used to isolate individual teeth during procedures, keeping them dry and free from saliva.
10. Dental X-ray machine: A device that uses radiation to capture images of the teeth and surrounding structures, helping dentists diagnose conditions such as decay, infection, and bone loss.
11. Curing light: A special light used to harden dental materials, such as composite fillings and crowns, after they have been placed in the mouth.
12. Air/water syringe: A handheld device that delivers a stream of air and water to clean teeth and rinse away debris during procedures.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to consume and meets the health-based standards established by regulatory agencies for human consumption. It is free from harmful levels of contaminants, including microorganisms, chemicals, radiological elements, and aesthetic factors such as taste, odor, and appearance.

Drinking water can come from various sources, including surface water (e.g., rivers, lakes), groundwater (e.g., wells), and treated wastewater that has undergone advanced purification processes. The treatment of drinking water typically involves several steps, such as coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection, to remove or inactivate pathogens and other contaminants.

Access to safe drinking water is essential for human health, as it helps prevent various waterborne diseases and ensures proper hydration. Regular monitoring and testing of drinking water sources and distribution systems are necessary to maintain the quality and safety of the water supply.

Disinfection is the process of eliminating or reducing harmful microorganisms from inanimate objects and surfaces through the use of chemicals, heat, or other methods. The goal of disinfection is to reduce the number of pathogens to a level that is considered safe for human health. Disinfection is an important step in preventing the spread of infectious diseases in healthcare settings, food processing facilities, and other environments where there is a risk of infection transmission.

It's important to note that disinfection is not the same as sterilization, which is the complete elimination of all microorganisms, including spores. Disinfection is generally less effective than sterilization but is often sufficient for most non-critical surfaces and objects. The choice between disinfection and sterilization depends on the level of risk associated with the item or surface being treated and the intended use of that item or surface.

"Amoebida" is not a recognized term in current medical terminology or classification systems for human diseases, such as the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) or the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Classification of Health Interventions (ICHI). It appears to be a variant spelling of "Amoebida," which is an outdated term used in older classifications of protozoa, specifically within the order Amoebida.

In modern medical and scientific contexts, it's more appropriate to use the current taxonomic classification for these organisms. If you are looking for information on specific amoeboid protists or human diseases caused by them, please provide a more precise term or context.

Bacteriological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and study of bacteria. These techniques are essential in fields such as medicine, biotechnology, and research. Here are some common bacteriological techniques:

1. **Sterilization**: This is a process that eliminates or kills all forms of life, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. Common sterilization methods include autoclaving (using steam under pressure), dry heat (in an oven), chemical sterilants, and radiation.

2. **Aseptic Technique**: This refers to practices used to prevent contamination of sterile materials or environments with microorganisms. It includes the use of sterile equipment, gloves, and lab coats, as well as techniques such as flaming, alcohol swabbing, and using aseptic transfer devices.

3. **Media Preparation**: This involves the preparation of nutrient-rich substances that support bacterial growth. There are various types of media, including solid (agar), liquid (broth), and semi-solid (e.g., stab agar). The choice of medium depends on the type of bacteria being cultured and the purpose of the investigation.

4. **Inoculation**: This is the process of introducing a bacterial culture into a medium. It can be done using a loop, swab, or needle. The inoculum should be taken from a pure culture to avoid contamination.

5. **Incubation**: After inoculation, the bacteria are allowed to grow under controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, and atmospheric composition. This process is called incubation.

6. **Staining and Microscopy**: Bacteria are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Therefore, they need to be stained and observed under a microscope. Gram staining is a common method used to differentiate between two major groups of bacteria based on their cell wall composition.

7. **Biochemical Tests**: These are tests used to identify specific bacterial species based on their biochemical characteristics, such as their ability to ferment certain sugars, produce particular enzymes, or resist certain antibiotics.

8. **Molecular Techniques**: Advanced techniques like PCR and DNA sequencing can provide more precise identification of bacteria. They can also be used for genetic analysis and epidemiological studies.

Remember, handling microorganisms requires careful attention to biosafety procedures to prevent accidental infection or environmental contamination.

U937 cells are a type of human histiocytic lymphoma cell line that is commonly used in scientific research and studies. They are derived from the peripheral blood of a patient with histiocytic lymphoma, which is a rare type of cancer that affects the immune system's cells called histiocytes.

U937 cells have a variety of uses in research, including studying the mechanisms of cancer cell growth and proliferation, testing the effects of various drugs and treatments on cancer cells, and investigating the role of different genes and proteins in cancer development and progression. These cells are easy to culture and maintain in the laboratory, making them a popular choice for researchers in many fields.

It is important to note that while U937 cells can provide valuable insights into the behavior of cancer cells, they do not necessarily reflect the complexity and diversity of human cancers. Therefore, findings from studies using these cells should be validated in more complex models or clinical trials before being applied to patient care.

Peptidylprolyl Isomerase (PPIase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of peptidyl-prolyl bonds in proteins. This isomerization process, which involves the rotation around a proline bond, is a rate-limiting step in protein folding and can be a significant factor in the development of various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

PPIases are classified into three families: cyclophilins, FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs), and parvulins. These enzymes play important roles in protein folding, trafficking, and degradation, as well as in signal transduction pathways and the regulation of gene expression.

Inhibitors of PPIases have been developed as potential therapeutic agents for various diseases, including transplant rejection, autoimmune disorders, and cancer. For example, cyclosporine A and FK506 are immunosuppressive drugs that inhibit cyclophilins and FKBPs, respectively, and are used to prevent transplant rejection.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

Dental facilities refer to establishments that provide dental care and treatment. These facilities can include private dental practices, community health centers, hospital dental departments, and specialized dental clinics. They are equipped with the necessary dental equipment and staffed by dental professionals such as dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants. Dental facilities offer a range of services including routine check-ups, cleanings, fillings, extractions, root canals, orthodontic treatment, and oral surgery. Some dental facilities may also offer specialized services such as periodontics, prosthodontics, and endodontics.

Vacuoles are membrane-bound organelles found in the cells of most eukaryotic organisms. They are essentially fluid-filled sacs that store various substances, such as enzymes, waste products, and nutrients. In plants, vacuoles often contain water, ions, and various organic compounds, while in fungi, they may store lipids or pigments. Vacuoles can also play a role in maintaining the turgor pressure of cells, which is critical for cell shape and function.

In animal cells, vacuoles are typically smaller and less numerous than in plant cells. Animal cells have lysosomes, which are membrane-bound organelles that contain digestive enzymes and break down waste materials, cellular debris, and foreign substances. Lysosomes can be considered a type of vacuole, but they are more specialized in their function.

Overall, vacuoles are essential for maintaining the health and functioning of cells by providing a means to store and dispose of various substances.

Amoebozoa is a supergroup of unicellular eukaryotic organisms that includes various kinds of amoebas and slime molds. These organisms are characterized by the presence of lobose pseudopodia, which are temporary protrusions of cytoplasm used for locomotion and feeding. Amoebozoa is a diverse group with over 9,000 described species, including both free-living and symbiotic forms. Some amoebozoans can form multicellular structures during their life cycle, such as slime molds, which are known for their complex behaviors and social interactions. The study of Amoebozoa is important for understanding the evolutionary history and diversity of eukaryotic organisms.

Flagellin is a protein that makes up the structural filament of the flagellum, which is a whip-like structure found on many bacteria that enables them to move. It is also known as a potent stimulator of the innate immune response and can be recognized by Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) in the host's immune system, triggering an inflammatory response. Flagellin is highly conserved among different bacterial species, making it a potential target for broad-spectrum vaccines and immunotherapies against bacterial infections.

Erythromycin is a type of antibiotic known as a macrolide, which is used to treat various types of bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the bacteria's ability to produce proteins, which are necessary for the bacteria to survive and multiply. Erythromycin is often used to treat respiratory tract infections, skin infections, and sexually transmitted diseases. It may also be used to prevent endocarditis (inflammation of the lining of the heart) in people at risk of this condition.

Erythromycin is generally considered safe for most people, but it can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It may also interact with other medications, so it's important to tell your doctor about all the drugs you are taking before starting erythromycin.

Like all antibiotics, erythromycin should only be used to treat bacterial infections, as it is not effective against viral infections such as the common cold or flu. Overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which makes it harder to treat infections in the future.

I must clarify that the term "Guinea Pigs" is not typically used in medical definitions. However, in colloquial or informal language, it may refer to people who are used as the first to try out a new medical treatment or drug. This is known as being a "test subject" or "in a clinical trial."

In the field of scientific research, particularly in studies involving animals, guinea pigs are small rodents that are often used as experimental subjects due to their size, cost-effectiveness, and ease of handling. They are not actually pigs from Guinea, despite their name's origins being unclear. However, they do not exactly fit the description of being used in human medical experiments.

Water pollution is defined medically as the contamination of water sources by harmful or sufficient amounts of foreign substances (pathogens, chemicals, toxic compounds, etc.) which tend to interfere with its normal functioning and can have negative effects on human health. Such pollutants can find their way into water bodies through various means including industrial waste disposal, agricultural runoff, oil spills, sewage and wastewater discharges, and accidental chemical releases, among others.

Exposure to polluted water can lead to a range of health issues, from minor problems like skin irritation or stomach upset, to severe conditions such as neurological disorders, reproductive issues, cancer, and even death in extreme cases. It also poses significant risks to aquatic life, disrupting ecosystems and leading to the decline or extinction of various species. Therefore, maintaining clean and safe water supplies is critical for both human health and environmental preservation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Fresh Water" is not a medical term. It is a term used to describe water that contains low concentrations of dissolved salts and other dissolved minerals. It is distinguished from saline water, which includes saltwater found in the ocean and brackish water found in estuaries. Fresh water is essential for many biological processes and is the primary source of water for human consumption, agriculture, and industrial use.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

Water purification is the process of removing or reducing contaminants in water to make it safe and suitable for specific uses, such as drinking, cooking, irrigation, or medical purposes. This is typically achieved through physical, chemical, or biological methods, or a combination thereof. The goal is to eliminate or reduce harmful substances like bacteria, viruses, parasites, heavy metals, pesticides, and other pollutants that can cause illness or negatively impact human health, aquatic life, or the environment.

The specific purification methods used may vary depending on the nature of the contaminants and the desired level of purity for the intended use. Common techniques include filtration (using various types of filters like activated carbon, ceramic, or reverse osmosis), disinfection (using chemicals like chlorine or UV light to kill microorganisms), sedimentation (allowing particles to settle and be removed), and distillation (heating water to create steam, which is then condensed back into pure water).

"Water wells" are not a medical term, but rather a term used in environmental and public health fields. A water well is a structure created to access groundwater in underground aquifers. They can be drilled or dug, and the water they provide is often used for drinking, irrigation, and other purposes.

In the context of medicine and public health, water wells are important because they can provide a safe source of clean water, which is essential for preventing waterborne diseases such as cholera, typhoid fever, and hepatitis A. However, if water wells are not constructed or maintained properly, they can become contaminated with bacteria, viruses, chemicals, or other pollutants that can cause illness. Therefore, it's important to regularly test and monitor the quality of water from wells to ensure it's safe for consumption.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT) is a type of immunofluorescence assay used in laboratory medicine and pathology for the detection and localization of specific antigens or antibodies in tissues, cells, or microorganisms. In this technique, a fluorescein-labeled antibody is used to selectively bind to the target antigen or antibody, forming an immune complex. When excited by light of a specific wavelength, the fluorescein label emits light at a longer wavelength, typically visualized as green fluorescence under a fluorescence microscope.

The FAT is widely used in diagnostic microbiology for the identification and characterization of various bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It has also been applied in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and certain cancers by detecting specific antibodies or antigens in patient samples. The main advantage of FAT is its high sensitivity and specificity, allowing for accurate detection and differentiation of various pathogens and disease markers. However, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to perform and interpret the results.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

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... is a bacterium from the genus Legionella which has been isolated from water from a hot spring in Tokyo on ... Parte, A.C. "Legionella". LPSN. "Legionella thermalis". Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M (2016). ... "Legionella thermalis sp. nov., isolated from hot spring water in Tokyo, Japan". Microbiology and Immunology. 60 (3): 203-208. ... Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M (eds.). "Nomenclature Abstract for Legionella thermalis Ishizaki et al. 2016". The ...
... is a bacterium from the genus Legionella which has been isolated from a biopurification system. LPSN ... Type strain of Legionella norrlandica at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description ... Rizzardi, K; Winiecka-Krusnell, J; Ramliden, M; Alm, E; Andersson, S; Byfors, S (February 2015). "Legionella norrlandica sp. ... "Legionella norrlandica sp. nov., isolated from the biopurification systems of wood processing plants". International Journal of ...
... is a Gram-negative, oxidase- and catalase-positive bacterium from the genus Legionella with a single ... Legionella taurinensis sp. nov., a new species antigenically similar to Legionella spiritensis François Lo Presti, Serge ... EzBioCloud Type strain of Legionella taurinensis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short ... LPSN Straininfo of Legionella taurinensis International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology (1999),49, 397-403, ...
... is a Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, aerobic bacterium from the genus Legionella which was ... LPSN Straininfo of Legionella cincinnatiensis Legionellen im Trinkwasser Dr. Peter Schindler, Bayerisches ... ATCC Taxonomy Browser Type strain of Legionella cincinnatiensis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e ( ...
... is a bacterium from the genus Legionella which was isolated from industrial wastes in contaminated soils ... "Legionella impletisoli sp. nov. And Legionella yabuuchiae sp. nov., isolated from soils contaminated with industrial wastes in ... LPSN Straininfo of Legionella yabuuchiae Kuroki, H.; Miyamoto, H.; Fukuda, K.; Iihara, H.; Kawamura, Y.; Ogawa, M ... UniProt Type strain of Legionella yabuuchiae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short ...
LPSN Straininfo Legionella erythra UniProt Lipopolysaccharides of Legionella erythra and Legionella ... Legionella erythra is a Gram-negative bacterium from the genus Legionella which was isolated from cooling-tower water in ... 1994 Type strain of Legionella erythra at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description ...
... is a Gram-negative bacterium from the genus Legionella which has been isolated from sewage water from ... Parte, A.C. "Legionella". LPSN. "Legionella saoudiensis". Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M (2016). ... Type strain of Legionella saoudiensis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description ... Bajrai, LH; Azhar, EI; Yasir, M; Jardot, P; Barrassi, L; Raoult, D; La Scola, B; Pagnier, I (November 2016). "Legionella ...
... is a Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, aerobic bacterium from the genus Legionella, which was ... LPSN Straininfo of Legionella birminghamensis Wilkinson, HW; Thacker, WL; Benson, RF; Polt, SS; Brookings, E; ... ATCC UniProt WHO Type strain of Legionella birminghamensis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles ... Mayberry, WR; Brenner, DJ; Gilley, RG; Kirklin, JK (1987). "Legionella birminghamensis sp. nov. isolated from a cardiac ...
... is a Gram-negative bacterium from the genus Legionella isolated from hypersaline lake water from the ... LPSN Straininfo of Legionella tunisiensis Journal of Bacteriology [1] EzBioCloud Leibniz Institut DSMZ Deutsche ... Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH [2] Journal of Bacteriology Type strain of Legionella tunisiensis at BacDive ...
... is a Gram-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive bacterium from the genus Legionella with a single ... LPSN Straininfo of Legionella lansingensis Thacker, WL; Dyke, JW; Benson, RF; Havlichek, DH Jr; Robinson-Dunn, B; ... Journal of Clinical Microbiology [1] eol Type strain of Legionella lansingensis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... Stiefel, H; Schneider, W; Moss, CW; Mayberry, WR; Brenner, DJ (1992). "Legionella lansingensis sp. nov. isolated from a patient ...
... is a Gram-negative bacterium from the genus Legionella with a single polar flagellum, which was isolated ... LPSN Straininfo of Legionella tucsonensis ATCC Journal of Clinical Microbiology [1] Journal of Clinical ... Microbiology Taxonomy Browser Type strain of Legionella tucsonensis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e ( ...
... is a Gram-negative bacterium from the genus Legionella which was isolated from a potable water cistern ... LPSN Straininfo of Legionella maceachernii Taxonomie Browser Journal of Clinical Microbiology [1] UniProt Thomas, ... E; Gupta, NK; van der Westhuizen, NG; Chan, E; Bernard, K (1992). "Fatal Legionella maceachernii pneumonia in Canada". J Clin ...
... is a Gram-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-spore-forming, motile bacterium from the genus ... Type strain of Legionella sainthelensi at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description ... LPSN Straininfo of Legionella sainthelensi Applied and Environmental Microbiology [1] UniProt Loeb, M; Simor, AE; ... "Two nursing home outbreaks of respiratory infection with Legionella sainthelensi". J Am Geriatr Soc. 47 (5): 547-52. doi: ...
... is a Gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming bacterium from the genus Legionella. Legionellen im ...
... is a Gram-negative bacterium from the genus Legionella which was isolated from a sample of hot spring ... LPSN Straininfo of Legionella nagasakiensis Yang, G; Benson, RF; Ratcliff, RM; Brown, EW; Steigerwalt, AG; Thacker ... UniProt Furuhata, K; Edagawa, A; Miyamoto, H; Goto, K; Yoshida, S; Fukuyama, M (2011). "The first case of Legionella ... International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology Legionella nagasakiensis sp. nov., isolated from water ...
... is a Gram-negative, oxidase-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming bacterium from the genus Legionella ... LPSN Straininfo of Legionella dresdenensis Lück, PC; Jacobs, E; Röske, I; Schröter-Bobsin, U; Dumke, R; Gronow, S ... nov., isolated from river water [1] Type strain of Legionella dresdenensis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v ... UniProt International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology Legionella dresdenensis sp. ...
... is a Gram-negative bacterium from the genus Legionella which was isolated from water from a cooling ... "Legionella tunisiensis sp. nov. and Legionella massiliensis sp. nov., isolated from environmental water samples". Int J Syst ... LPSN Straininfo of Legionella massiliensis Campocasso, A; Boughalmi, M; Fournous, G; Raoult, D; La Scola, B (2012 ... EzBioCloud Leibniz-Institut dsmz-Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH [1] Type strain of Legionella ...
... is a bacterium from the genus Legionella isolated from sputum from a patient in Los Angeles. It can ... Type strain of Legionella wadsworthii at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description ... LPSN Straininfo of Legionella wadsworthii ATCC UniPot Edelstein, PH; Brenner, DJ; Moss, CW; Steigerwalt, AG; ... Francis, EM; George, WL (1982). "Legionella wadsworthii species nova: a cause of human pneumonia". Ann Intern Med. 97 (6): 809- ...
... is a Gram-negative catalase- and oxidase-positive bacterium from the genus Legionella with a single polar ... Legionella waltersii may can cause pneumonia. LPSN Straininfo of Legionella waltersii Benson, RF.; Thacker, WL.; ... Jul 1996). "Legionella waltersii sp. nov. and an unnamed Legionella genomospecies isolated from water in Australia". ... Type strain of Legionella waltersii at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description, ...
... is a gram-negative bacterium from the genus Legionella. LPSN Straininfo of Legionella ... Type strain of Legionella geestiana at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description, ... "Five new Legionella species isolated from water". Int J Syst Bacteriol. 43 (2): 329-37. doi:10.1099/00207713-43-2-329. PMID ...
Compared to other Legionella species, L. cherrii is 6-35% related. Legionella cherrii and other Legionella species are ... Legionella cherrii is an aerobic, flagellated, Gram-negative bacterium from the genus Legionella. It was isolated from a heated ... The genus Legionella is named after the 1976 pneumonia (Legionella pneumophila) outbreak at the American Legion convention at ... Legionella species are mostly found in freshwater environments. However, various strains of Legionella can congregate in water ...
... is a Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, aerobic bacterium from the genus Legionella which was isolated ... LPSN Straininfo of Legionella adelaidensis Journal of Clinical Microbiology [1] Legionellen im Trinkwasser Dr. ... Journal of Clinical Microbiology Taxonomy Browser Type strain of Legionella adelaidensis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ...
... is a Gram-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive bacterium from the genus Legionella with a single ... "RpoB - Legionella busanensis". UniProt Consortium. 3 April 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-17. Type strain of Legionella busanensis at ... "Legionella". LSPN. Retrieved 2013-09-17. "Legionella busanensis Taxon Passport - StrainInfo". StrainInfo. 2013. Retrieved 2013- ... Park, Mi-Yeoun; Ko, Kwan Soo; Lee, Hae Kyung; Park, Man-Suk; Kook, Yoon-Hoh (2003). "Legionella busanensis sp. nov., isolated ...
... is a Gram-negative bacterium from the genus Legionella which was isolated from tap water in Los Angeles ... "Isolation of Legionella rubrilucens from a pneumonia patient co-infected with Legionella pneumophila". Journal of Medical ... doi:10.1099/jmm.0.016089-0. Type strain of Legionella rubrilucens at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e ( ... LPSN Straininfo of Legionella rubrilucens ATCC Taxonomy Browser Journal of Medical Microbiology [1] Furuhata, K; ...
... is a Gram-negative bacterium from the genus Legionella which was isolated from hot spring water in ... Type strain of Legionella londiniensis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description ... LPSN Straininfo of Legionella londiniensis Taxonomy Browser Furuhata, K; Ogihara, K; Ishizaki, N; Oonaka, K; ... Stallworth, C; Steed, L; Fisher, MA; Nolte, FS (2012). "Legionnaires' disease caused by Legionella londiniensis". J Clin ...
... is a Gram-negative bacterium from the genus Legionella. LPSN Straininfo of Legionella lytica ... Taxonomy Browser UniProt Research Letter Cellular envelope phospholipids from Legionella lytica Marta Palusinska-Szysz, Rafal ...
... is a Gram-negative bacterium from the genus Legionella which was isolated from a cooling tower pond in ... Current Microbiology Legionella quinlivanii sp. nov. isolated from water Robert F. Benson, W. Lanier Thacker, Reginald P. ... LPSN Straininfo of Legionella quinlivanii ATCC UniProt Birtles, RJ; Doshi, N; Saunders, NA; Harrison, TG (1991). " ... "Second serogroup of Legionella quinlivanii isolated from two unrelated sources in the United Kingdom". Journal of Applied ...
Infection with Legionella bacteria can present as two different types of illness: Legionnaires disease and Pontiac fever. The ... These patients with confirmed Legionnaires disease or Pontiac fever may have been exposed to Legionella at the same time or ... Doctors most often diagnose Pontiac fever when there are other known cases of Legionella infection that lab tests confirmed. ...
Legionella dies within 2 minutes 60 °C (140 °F) - Legionella dies within 32 minutes 55 °C (131 °F) - Legionella dies within 5 ... Many hospitals use the Legionella urinary antigen test for initial detection when Legionella pneumonia is suspected. Some of ... A biomonitoring solution exists in a Legionella-specific aptamer-based assay. Control of Legionella growth can occur through ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Legionella. Wikispecies has information related to Legionella. European Working Group ...
Legionella Pneumonia) is caused by bacteria. You get it by breathing in mist from water that contains the bacteria. Learn more. ... Legionella Tests (National Library of Medicine) Also in Spanish * Legionnaires Disease (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education ... Legionella (Legionnaires Disease and Pontiac Fever) Prevention (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Also in Spanish ... Legionella (Legionnaires Disease and Pontiac Fever): Signs and Symptoms (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Also in ...
The state has adopted the same regulations to combat legionella in cooling towers the City Council passed last week, Gov. ... Cuomo, de Blasio and Mark-Viverito Announce Joint Regulations for Legionella By Jillian Jorgensen ...
What are Legionella? Legionella are bacteria that are naturally found in freshwater sources such as lakes and streams. However ... Infection with Legionella (also called "legionellosis) can result in two different illnesses: Legionnaires disease (a serious ... CDC About Legionella (Legionnaires Disease and Pontiac Fever) website - English , Spanish (Españo​l). ... Most healthy people exposed to Legionella do not develop Legionnaires disease.. What is Pontiac fever?. Pontiac fever is a ...
Learn how you can protect yourself and your family from Legionella germs when using a hot tub or spa. ... Legionella causes Legionarres disease, one of the most common waterborne diseases in the United States. ... Legionella and Hot Tubs/Spas. Legionella is a germ that can cause a severe type of pneumonia (lung infection) called ... that contain Legionella. Legionella is found naturally in freshwater environments, like lakes and streams. It becomes a health ...
HSE Guidance L8 The Control of Legionella Bacteria in Water Systems. *Review of own organisations control of legionella ... Managing Legionella Legionnaires disease is a potentially fatal form of pneumonia which can affect anybody, but which ... The aim of this occupational health and safety training course is to develop delegates awareness of legionella and how to ... All delegates who successfully complete the course in full will be awarded the RoSPA Managing Legionella Certificate of ...
Soon after, the etiologic agent was identified as a fastidious gram-negative bacillus and named Legionella pneumophila. ... encoded search term (Legionella Infection) and Legionella Infection What to Read Next on Medscape ... Legionella Infection. Updated: Jun 05, 2023 * Author: Mobeen H Rathore, MD, CPE, FAAP, FIDSA; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, ... Bullous emphysema after Legionella pneumonia in a two-year-old child. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000 Jan. 19(1):86-7. [QxMD MEDLINE ...
... Our legionella monitoring software offers fast, easy access to one centralised legionella ... 1 Day Offshore Legionella Awareness Course (Short & Refresher). *2 Day Offshore Legionella and Water Hygiene Management Course ... Our legionella monitoring software delivers an auditable trail of tasks associated with mitigating legionella control. ... Following your legionella risk assessments, password access to the web-based system is granted and your regular monitoring will ...
... Comprehensive offshore water and legionella management is key to safeguarding the ... 1 Day Offshore Legionella Awareness Course (Short & Refresher). *2 Day Offshore Legionella and Water Hygiene Management Course ... We can deliver legionella awareness training to your personnel, offer monitoring through our web-based legionella management ... Offshore water and legionella management forms an integral part of the health and safety strategies of the Oil and Gas Industry ...
Results for legionella pneumophila from leading brands. Compare and contact a supplier near you ... Wastewater treatment and water reuse system for combatting Legionella. Legionella pneumophila is a bacterium that can cause ... Chemical solutions for the legionella control areas. Effective Legionella Control Requires an Effective Biofilm Control Program ... Legionella Bacteria for Treatment. Advanced oxidation processes eliminate pathogens by interfering with the redox balance in ...
Results for legionella prevention from leading brands. Compare and contact a supplier near you ... Biofilm Sensor for Legionella Prevention. of environment greatly increases Legionella possibility of survival and growth. Thus ... Legionella Control with Chlorine Dioxide. Chlorine Dioxide has been shown to be extremely effective in the control of ... Water treatment solutions for legionella prevention and control sector. Whether you find yourself in a hotel bath room, cruise ...
Legionella bacteria occur naturally in the environment. Legionella bacteria thrive in warm water environments such as ... The family Legionellaceae consists of a single genus, Legionella. This genus includes the species Legionella pneumophila, the ... Legionella bacteria can be inhaled in fine water mists where they can infect the lungs. Many people infected with the bacteria ... More about Legionella Research Paper. *. Small Pox Research Paper. 219 Words , 1 Pages ...
Legionella - Sharing our stories on preparing for and responding to public health events ...
It was not possible at this stage to formulate a standard method for the detection of legionella from industrial samples which ... In addition, a commercially available rapid test for the detection of legionella was to be examined for its suitability for use ... Identification of legionella by means of fluorescence microscopy. Project No. BGIA 2069 ... The objective of the project was to develop a method employing fluorescence microscopy for the detection of legionella in ...
Anyone involved in monitoring and managing hot and cold water systems to ensure the risk presented by legionella bacteria is ... On successful completion of the course, delegates will be awarded the Level 2 Award in Legionella Awareness (QCF) accredited by ... Explain the key requirements of legislation, codes of practice and guidance relating to the management of Legionella ... Identify key role and responsibilities associated with the management if legionella bacteria ...
... of Legionella bacteria could play a key role in identifying the source of Legionnaires disease outbreaks, research suggests. ... Our study indicates that regular sampling of water systems and genome sequencing of Legionella could be used to identify the ... The results revealed a new level of detail and fresh insights into the characteristics of Legionella bacteria and its ... Genetic analysis key to understanding Legionella risk. Routine sampling of water supplies and genomic sequencing - ...
... announced today the launch of its new Legionella servic ... After Legionella grows and multiplies in a building water ... As part of its new offering, ChemREADY works with customers to create and update Legionella Water Management Plans, Legionella ... Legionella remediation and secondary disinfection products," said Benjamin Frieders, one of ChemREADYs certified Legionella ... ChemREADY Announces New Legionella Water Treatment Chemicals and Disinfection Services New offerings are targeted to building ...
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Letter to the Editor: Fighting Legionella Is About Saving Lives Share on Facebook Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on ... As these efforts show, we are steadfastly devoted to preventing the growing threat of Legionella, but we can do so only with ... Home About NSF News Letter to the Editor: Fighting Legionella Is About Saving Lives ... We call on all interested parties to help us fight Legionella and ultimately help save hundreds, if not thousands, of lives ...
Legionella pneumophila subsp. pascullei strain U8W is a bacterial type strain that was isolated from water from a shower head. ... Legionella pneumophila subsp. pascullei Brenner et al. Depositors. A Brown Cross references. GenBank AF122885 Legionella ... Legionella pneumophila subsp. pascullei Brenner et al. 33737™ Download Genome Learn about our Enhanced Authentication ... Legionella pneumophila subsp. pascullei strain U8W is a bacterial type strain that was isolated from water from a shower head. ...
... Just £4 per report exc. vat. Speedy, accurate & slick. Call us on 01225 667 570 for more ... Legionella Report Software. You can produce legionella risk assessment reports using Quidos iQ Energy software. Just £4 per ... If you are interested in producing legionella risk assessment reports with Quidos, then all you have to do is tell us via the ... Please note: Quidos legionella report software is available to Quidos members only. ...
As the news broke that rail workers on Thameslink services are threatening to strike over fears of a Legionella outbreak, the ... The guides Safe Water Guide: Scald Prevention and Legionella and Legionella risk assessing in domestic properties are also ... In Legionella, Health, Public Health As the news broke that rail workers on Thameslink services are threatening to strike over ... Legionella was found to be present in a small number of Thameslink Class 700 train toilets. On discovery, Thameslink locked the ...
The city is set to launch a new cooling tower academy to teach property owners and managers how to test for Legionella bacteria ...
Health would like to remind healthcare providers about important testing and specimen collection considerations for Legionella ... The Legionella urinary antigen test only detects Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, whereas Legionella culture can detect ... Testing for Legionella is not recommended for asymptomatic individuals.. For more information on Legionella testing, please see ... Legionella urinary antigen test. Obtaining a lower respiratory sample for Legionella culture in addition to urinary antigen ...
None of them was detected to have a total legionella count at or above the upper threshold, which is 1 000 colony-forming units ... EMSD announces latest sampling results for legionella at fresh water cooling towers ... with the Code of Practice for Fresh Water Cooling Towers issued by the department to prevent the proliferation of legionella. ... locations of buildings which were served with nuisance notices during the preceding three-month period as the total legionella ...
Ghosal, D., Kim, K.W., Zheng, H. et al. Publisher Correction: In vivo structure of the Legionella type II secretion system by ... Publisher Correction: In vivo structure of the Legionella type II secretion system by electron cryotomography. *Debnath Ghosal1 ... Publisher Correction: In vivo structure of the Legionella type II secretion system by electron cryotomography ...
Legionella. What We Do. , Indoor Environmental Quality. , Legionella. What We Do. *COVID-19 Pandemic Response *Safe School ... Legionella Risk Management Plans. To proactively reduce the risk of Legionnaires Disease in your facility, EH&Es team of ... We have conducted Legionella responses for national and international clients including hospitals, hotels and resorts, cruise ... Testing to identify sources of Legionella bacteria.. *Engineering review of mechanical plant, ventilation, plumbing, and ...
Water specialists should make Legionella reduction a top priority ... In order for Legionella outbreaks to occur, a series of events ... Legionella Methods. A variety of analytical methods is available for the detection of Legionella. Screening tests include ... control of Legionella by necessity includes controlling the populations of other microorganisms and shifts in HPC; Legionella ... Legionella samples may be collected as either swabs or water samples or preferably both. At faucets and showers, swab samples, ...
  • Infection with Legionella bacteria can present as two different types of illness: Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever. (
  • These patients with confirmed Legionnaires' disease or Pontiac fever may have been exposed to Legionella at the same time or place as other patients with a suspected illness. (
  • Legionella is a genus of pathogenic gram-negative bacteria that includes the species L. pneumophila, causing legionellosis (all illnesses caused by Legionella) including a pneumonia-type illness called Legionnaires' disease and a mild flu-like illness called Pontiac fever. (
  • Most healthy people exposed to Legionella do not develop Legionnaires' disease. (
  • Legionella is a germ that can cause a severe type of pneumonia (lung infection) called Legionnaires' disease. (
  • People can get Legionnaires' disease or Pontiac fever when they breathe in small droplets of water (mist) that contain Legionella . (
  • Organisations need to be sure that they meet the requirements of the revised Approved Code of Practice (ACOP) and guidance - Legionnaires' disease: the control of legionella bacteria in water systems. (
  • Legionella micdadei and L dumoffii are the second and third most common species to cause Legionnaires disease in children, respectively. (
  • Legionella species are implicated in 2 clinical syn- clinical strains either from Europe or with limited time-span dromes: Legionnaires' disease (LD) and Pontiac fe- coverage ( 10 - 12 ). (
  • This genus includes the species Legionella pneumophila, the most frequent cause of human legionellosis and it known as Legionnaires' disease. (
  • Routine sampling of water supplies and genomic sequencing - determination of the entire genetic makeup - of Legionella bacteria could play a key role in identifying the source of Legionnaires' disease outbreaks, research suggests. (
  • Legionella - the bacteria that causes the potentially fatal Legionnaires' disease - has an incubation period of just 2-10 days. (
  • Kevin Wellman, CEO of the CIPHE said, "While there have been no recorded Legionnaires' disease outbreaks due to train toilets to date, Legionella is a very serious issue and should never be underestimated. (
  • To proactively reduce the risk of Legionnaires' Disease in your facility, EH&E's team of experts can develop Legionella Risk Management Plans that meet ASHRAE Standard 188. (
  • Identify risk factors for Legionella and Legionnaires' Disease (both environmental conditions and operational risks). (
  • Both potable and non-potable (utility) water supplies harbor Legionella pneumophila , and have been linked to outbreaks of both hospital- and community-acquired Legionnaires' disease. (
  • Legionnaires' disease is a respiratory disease caused by Legionella bacteria, which can be found in the water systems of large buildings. (
  • Legionnaires' disease is a potentially fatal pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila , an aquatic bacterium often found within the biofilm niche. (
  • The Legionella pneumophila bacterium, the root cause of Legionnaires' disease, causes 90% of legionellosis cases. (
  • Legionnaires' disease is caused by a type of bacteria called Legionella pneumophila. (
  • Pontiac Fever is a mild form of illness caused by the same bacteria as Legionnaires' disease (Legionella pneumophial). (
  • The course includes brief facts about Legionnaires' Disease and Legionella, an overview of government and industry guidelines, and detailed preventive measures for the design, operation, installation, and maintenance of plumbing systems and cooling towers. (
  • In this article the water safety specialists at Legionella Control International review the latest Legionnaires' Disease Surveillance Report published by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). (
  • A version of this story summarising the ECDC's Legionnaires' surveillance report for 2020 appeared in Legionella Control International's newsletter. (
  • Legionnaires' disease is contracted by someone inhaling water droplets or vapour that contain Legionella bacteria . (
  • Health & Safety Executive's Approved Code of Practice ACOP L8 "Legionnaires' disease: Control of legionella bacteria in water systems", and with responsibility for hot and cold water services, evaporative cooling systems including cooling towers, and other risk systems. (
  • Knowledge of the origins of Legionnaires' disease, legionella bacteria and the multiplication factors which allow it to proliferate in engineered water systems. (
  • An alliance to prevent Legionnaire's disease has recently launched a brand new website ( aimed at providing the public with information about Legionella bacteria, its source and how individuals become infected with Legionnaires' disease. (
  • Rather Legionnaires is contracted when an individual inhales aerosolized water particles or mist which contains the legionella bacterium. (
  • Legionella infections include the potentially fatal Legionnaires' disease, an atypical form of pneumonia, with a high mortality rate. (
  • Legionella pneumophila is a particularly virulent form of the Legionella bacteria which can cause Legionnaires' disease, a potentially fatal form of pneumonia. (
  • Additionally, it is recognized in Legionella guidance documentation that inadequate management, lack of Legionella training and poor communication can be contributory factors in outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease. (
  • Legionella pneumophila causes legionellosis (Legionnaires disease) and can be found in soil and in aquatic environments such as cooling towers (1,2). (
  • Legionella bacteria usually infect the lungs, causing legionnaires' disease. (
  • Hot tub displays at temporary events may pose a risk for Legionnaires' disease, a type of pneumonia caused by inhaling mist containing Legionella bacteria. (
  • This makes display hot tubs at temporary events a risk for Legionnaires' disease if they contain Legionella bacteria. (
  • Exposure to Legionella via aerosol or aspiration of water containing Legionella can lead to Legionnaires' disease or Pontiac fever. (
  • Doctors most often diagnose Pontiac fever when there are other known cases of Legionella infection that lab tests confirmed. (
  • only a culture will detect infection by non-LP1 strains or other Legionella species and that isolates of Legionella are not obtained, which impairs public health investigations of outbreaks. (
  • Small water droplets or mist from these sources can contain Legionella bacteria, which people can inhale, causing infection in the lungs. (
  • The measures could also inform public health measures to limit the spread of infection, according to a genomic study of the Legionella bacteria that causes the disease. (
  • Part 1 of this article (January 2002) reviewed legionellosis (the diseases caused by Legionella infection), the sources and transmission of Legionella bacteria and conditions that tend to promote colonization. (
  • SPRINGFIELD - Preliminary test results show the possible presence of Legionella bacteria in the Illinois Capitol Complex's hot water system and officials have removed aerators and shut off the showers to reduce the possibility of infection. (
  • Describe signs and symptoms of Legionella infection, how it spreads, and how it can be prevented. (
  • Since Legionella is a cause of 2% to 15% of all community-acquired pneumonias that require hospitalization, legionellosis should be taken into account in an atypical pulmonary infection and not be forgotten. (
  • Lab tests from sputum samples revealed an infection caused by Legionella longbeache . (
  • Although Legionella bacteria could not be isolated from respiratory samples, molecular methods implicated the sink faucet of the patient 's room as the probable infection source. (
  • On January 18, 1977, the causative agent was identified as a previously unknown bacterium subsequently named Legionella. (
  • Legionella pneumophila is a bacterium that can cause severe pneumonia in humans. (
  • The disease-causing bacterium, Legionella pneumophila , is a waterborne pathogen found in natural and man-made water systems. (
  • Legionella claims are not "strict liability" claims which bind or hold the premise where the bacterium was contracted responsible. (
  • Where is legionella bacterium found? (
  • Attending members of the American Legion were exposed to the legionella bacterium during an outbreak resulting in 221 cases of pneumonia and 34 deaths. (
  • The best way to prevent legionellosis is to reduce exposure to water sources where Legionella grow. (
  • Although several other species of the genus Legionella were subsequently identified, L pneumophila is the most frequent cause of human legionellosis and a relatively common cause of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia in adults. (
  • Although more than 70 Legionella serogroups have been identified among 50 species, L pneumophila causes most legionellosis. (
  • Among the 52 species and 70 serogroups of Legionella serogroup 1 (Lp1) is the most commonly reported etiologic species ( 3 ), L. pneumophila is the major cause of sporadic agent of legionellosis. (
  • Legionella genus includes aerobic, motile, gram-negative bacteria that are the etiological agents of legionellosis. (
  • Legionella and the prevention of legionellosis. (
  • citation needed] Although the plating method is quite specific for most species of Legionella, one study has shown that a coculture method that accounts for the close relationship with amoebae may be more sensitive, since it can detect the presence of the bacteria even when masked by their presence inside the amoebae. (
  • Analyses of genome sequences from Legionellales have identified 24 conserved signature indels (CSIs) in diverse proteins including 30S ribosomal protein S8, periplasmic serine endoprotease DegP precursor, DNA polymerase I, and ABC transporter permease, etc. that are specifically present in different species from the genus Legionella. (
  • The Legionella urinary antigen test only detects Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, whereas Legionella culture can detect other serogroups of Legionella pneumophila or other species of Legionella . (
  • Presence of multiple Legionella species in hospital water? (
  • When water samples are positive for Legionella , is it common or rare to find more than one species present? (
  • It is not unusual to find multiple Legionella species and serogroups in a water system. (
  • In this study, the anti-biofilm activity of previously fabricated polyamino-phenolic ligands and polyamidoamine dendrimers was investigated against legionella mono-species and multi-species biofilms formed by L. pneumophila in association with other bacteria that can be found in tap water ( Aeromonas hydrophila , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae ). (
  • While Macrophen and Double Macrophen were the most active substances among polyamino-phenolic ligands, dendrimers were overall twofold more effective than all other compounds with a reduction up to 85 and 73% of legionella and multi-species biofilms, respectively. (
  • Legionella DNA was detected in all two sample species when first collected. (
  • L. longbeachae is highly adapted to the soil and is typically transmitted from potting soils and compost," said Diane Miskowski, MPH, Legionella Program Manager at EMSL Analytical, Inc. "LD outbreaks from this species are routinely monitored in Australia where many outbreaks annually are identified from exposure to potting soil. (
  • EMSL Analytical testing of commercial potting soil and compost has identified many types of Legionella species, so it was just a matter of time until this link was identified in North America. (
  • Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLI) ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • From analysis of the genetic code, researchers found that Legionella infections following travel were often closely related to other variants from the same UK or international travel destination. (
  • The training will also cover the codes, and the resources, understanding, and skills needed to conduct a facility risk assessment and implement a water safety and management program to reduce the risk of infections due to Legionella. (
  • To get infected, you must breathe in contaminated droplets from a source of Legionella bacteria. (
  • Anyone involved in monitoring and managing hot and cold water systems to ensure the risk presented by legionella bacteria is minimised. (
  • Legionella acquired its name after an outbreak in 1976 of a then-unknown "mystery disease" made 221 people sick and caused 34 deaths. (
  • Healthcare facilities are particularly vulnerable to a Legionella outbreak. (
  • New Joint Commission regulations went into effect on January 1, 2022 that outlines requirements for facility managers to maintain Water Management Plans to guard against a Legionella outbreak. (
  • As part of its new offering, ChemREADY works with customers to create and update Legionella Water Management Plans, Legionella testing services, remediation and outbreak control services, and equipment for supplemental secondary disinfection for potable systems. (
  • As the news broke that rail workers on Thameslink services are threatening to strike over fears of a Legionella outbreak, the Chartered Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering (CIPHE) is urging caution when it comes to the hazards of Legionella and other biofilm contamination of water systems. (
  • Thus, a Legionella outbreak often begins in a building's water supply. (
  • If requested by outbreak lead investigator, collect water and swab samples for Legionella testing. (
  • As an example of added value to the capacity and preparedness for such emergencies, I stress the legionella outbreak that occurred in Portugal in the fall 2014, an unprecedented outbreak (second largest at an international level), which was controlled in two weeks. (
  • After Legionella grows and multiplies in a building water system, water containing Legionella can spread in droplets small enough for people to breathe. (
  • In a statement, Thameslink sought to minimise the risk stating, "Legionella can potentially be spread through atomised water droplets in the air in enclosed spaces, but water in our toilets is gravity-fed, which makes this extremely unlikely and further lowers the already very low risk. (
  • Two decrees were signed Monday December 13, 2004, reinforcing prevention of legionella risks. (
  • Dr. Cooley transferred to the Respiratory Diseases Branch in 2015 and is devoted to Legionella surveillance, response, and prevention work. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is alerting environmental and public health practitioners about the public health need to maintain, clean and disinfect hot tubs properly to reduce potential exposure to Legionella . (
  • Many hospitals use the Legionella urinary antigen test for initial detection when Legionella pneumonia is suspected. (
  • Obtaining a lower respiratory sample for Legionella culture in addition to urinary antigen test is of particular importance. (
  • A nosocomial case of Legionella pneumophila pneumonia likely caused by a serogroup 3 strain was detected by a urinary antigen test in Spain in 2018. (
  • Our Legionella program allows our customers to analyze and combat the risk of water-borne pathogens through consulting, testing, Legionella remediation and secondary disinfection products," said Benjamin Frieders, one of ChemREADY's certified Legionella Water Safety and Management Specialists. (
  • The company works with industrial and municipal customers to clean and re-use water for industrial processes, manage water-borne pathogens such as Legionella , and keep closed-loop systems (boilers and cooling towers) operating at peak efficiency. (
  • The International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials (IAPMO), in conjunction with Special Pathogens Laboratory (SPL), will offer an interactive ASSE 12080 Legionella Water Safety and Management Specialist Certification Training. (
  • The program will focus on the development of a risk assessment analysis, and water management and sampling plan, for protection from Legionella and other waterborne pathogens. (
  • The company has also introduced seven new satellite seminars on Legionella and other waterborne pathogens. (
  • In the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, Legionella pneumophila serogroup-1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Burkholderia cepacia and filamentous fungi Scedosporium apiospermum and Scedosporium prolificans were detected. (
  • Legionella pneumophila and most often affect the lungs, causing pneumonia and flu-like symptoms. (
  • People with symptoms of Legionella exposure who have recent exposure to a hot tub filled with water should be encouraged to seek medical care. (
  • Transmission occurs by means of aerosolization or aspiration of water contaminated with Legionella organisms. (
  • The aim of this occupational health and safety training course is to develop delegates' awareness of legionella and how to control the risks. (
  • Legionella monitoring software presents a convenient and reliable option for ensuring that water supplies in the oil and gas and other industries are not compromised by microbiological risks. (
  • However, insufficient monitoring or system malfunctions can result in contamination so steps must be taken to manage the risks associated with hazardous bacteria, such as legionella. (
  • The CIPHE is urging facilities managers, landlords and business owners to acquaint themselves with the risks of Legionella and the importance of only ever using professional plumbers to assess water quality. (
  • Typical candidates will have day-to-day responsibility for the management and control of legionella risks created by hot and cold water services, evaporative cooling systems including cooling towers, air conditioning equipment and other engineered water systems that may present a risk. (
  • None, although prior knowledge of health and safety management, engineered water systems and issues dealing with the control of legionella risks would be of benefit. (
  • You should review your risk assessment and manage the legionella risks when you reinstate a water system or start using it again. (
  • Effective Legionella Control Requires an Effective Biofilm Control Program. (
  • As those in the trade know, Legionella and other biofilm-associated bacteria can thrive in stagnant, or standing water. (
  • Disinfection methods currently used in water systems have been shown to be ineffective against legionella over the long-term, allowing recolonization by the biofilm-protected microorganisms. (
  • Legionella can also cause Pontiac fever, a milder illness without pneumonia. (
  • EMSL Analytical offers Legionella testing to assist with possible occupation exposure. (
  • Duke University announced Thursday an estimated 84 people are being treated for illnesses related to likely exposure to the bacteria Legionella while in attendance for the K Academy, an adult fantasy camp involving Blue Devils basketball coach Mike Krzyzewski, on the North Carolina campus. (
  • The information strongly suggests that there is a potentially increased risk of Legionella exposure for those people staying in hotels or similar accommodation when the sites come back into full use in 2021. (
  • This Health Advisory provides guidance for environmental and public health practitioners to minimize risk for Legionella exposure from hot tub displays at temporary events (e.g., fairs, home and garden shows, conventions). (
  • Environmental health practitioners should work with event planners and hot tub vendors to minimize the risk of Legionella exposure even if the hot tub is only for display. (
  • 4] Interim conclusions from the investigation suggest that exposure to Legionella bacteria occurred in an events center building where vendors were displaying hot tubs. (
  • Attendees who pass the exam will become certified as Legionella Water Safety and Management Specialists. (
  • In man-made water systems microbial biofilms increase the resistance of legionella to disinfection, posing a significant threat to public health. (
  • With us as your water and legionella management Total Quality Assurance partner, you will gain access to world-class guidance, supported by our cutting-edge technologies, laboratories and centres of excellence around the globe. (
  • If you want to improve your knowledge on Legionella and risk assessments, the CIPHE has produced free guidance on its website on mitigating the risk of building water systems post Covid-19 . (
  • On May 30, 2018, NACCHO hosted a webinar exploring national guidance and local experiences on Legionella. (
  • Additionally, this course will also give candidates the skills and technical knowledge to implement, manage and review appropriate legionella control measures and risk management strategies specific to hot and cold water services, evaporative cooling systems including cooling towers, air conditioning equipment and other engineered water systems that may present a risk in accordance with the HSE's ACOP L8, and the health and safety guidance documents HSG274 Parts 1, 2 and 3. (
  • We report on two tsunami survivors with severe pneumonia potentially caused by Legionella pneumophila . (
  • A respiratory disease caused by the germ Legionella is one of the most common waterborne diseases in the United States. (
  • However, Legionella bacteria can grow and spread in human-made water systems, such as hot tubs, cooling towers (which use water to cool air as part of centralized air conditioning systems for buildings or industrial processes), hot water tanks, decorative fountains, and large buildings with complex water systems. (
  • Legionella can also be found in other human-made water systems such as cooling towers, plumbing systems, and decorative fountains. (
  • Offshore oil and gas employers, or those in control of premises, are obliged by law to understand and monitor their water systems, appoint a person responsible for maintenance and to conduct legionella risk assessments. (
  • Our study indicates that regular sampling of water systems and genome sequencing of Legionella could be used to identify the source of new pathogenic variants before they become a clinical problem. (
  • TWINSBURG, Ohio--( BUSINESS WIRE )--ChemREADY ( ), a premier water and wastewater treatment chemicals provider, announced today the launch of its new Legionella services and product program, to combat the water-borne pathogen in building water systems. (
  • Legionella bacteria can become a serious health concern when they grow in building water systems like domestic hot and cold-water systems, potable water tanks, decorative fountains, cooling towers, evaporative condensers of large air-conditioning systems, even hot tubs or ice machines. (
  • Legionella anisa is a common colonizer of water distribution systems. (
  • Minimizing the Risk of Legionella in Plumbing Systems and Cooling Towers" is a new one-day seminar for facility managers, engineers, plumbing code officials, plumbing inspectors, maintenance personnel and technicians. (
  • LCA 9011 is a City & Guilds accredited three day classroom based legionella training course covering the control of legionella in cooling towers, and hot and cold water systems. (
  • There is a marked increase in the numbers of samples testing positive for Legionella before and after lockdown, even in systems where Legionella colonisation was not easily detectable before March 2020. (
  • For some systems two-thirds of samples taken were positive for Legionella in post-lockdown sampling. (
  • Data also suggests that chlorine dioxide treated systems have much lower levels of Legionella than systems treated with temperature. (
  • It appears that the protective effect of an appropriate biocide , provides greater inhibition of Legionella growth in these systems, thus reducing risk in these circumstances. (
  • Commenting on the results, Feedwater Technical Manager, Gary Hogben, stated that 'Owners and operators of water systems must not assume that successful historic control of Legionella means that the systems have remained under control during the low usage period. (
  • Legionella bacteria can build-up in man-made water systems, including air conditioning and filtration systems and if not carefully controlled and frequently flushed the bacteria can cause serious harm to the health of individuals in the premises. (
  • Therefore those staff expected to undertake the management of water systems or control measures should have sufficient knowledge and understanding of the risk from legionella bacteria and the measures used to mitigate the risk. (
  • There have not been published reports about Legionella in these systems in Qatar. (
  • Legionella organisms are aerobic, motile, and nutritionally fastidious pleomorphic gram-negative rods. (
  • ISO 11731-2:2004 describes a monitoring method for the isolation and enumeration of Legionella organisms in water intended for human use (e.g. hot and cold water, water used for washing), for human consumption and for treated bathing waters (e.g. swimming pools). (
  • Intracellular parasites (Listeria, Legionella), viruses (EBV) and cytomegaloviruses (CMV) cause lethal complications. (
  • You can produce legionella risk assessment reports using Quidos iQ Energy software. (
  • Just £4 per legionella risk assessment report through iQ-Energy excluding VAT. (
  • If you are interested in producing legionella risk assessment reports with Quidos, then all you have to do is tell us via the contact form at the bottom of this page and we will set you up. (
  • Explain strategies employed by one local health department for investigating reported outbreaks due to Legionella. (
  • Legionella are bacteria that are naturally found in freshwater sources such as lakes and streams. (
  • Legionella is found naturally in freshwater environments, like lakes and streams. (
  • A team from the Universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow, Public Health Scotland and the Scottish Legionella Reference Laboratory conducted a comparison of the entire genome or genetic code of more than 3,000 Legionella bacteria samples found in patients and water sources from Scotland and around the world. (
  • Legionella was found to be present in a small number of Thameslink Class 700 train toilets. (
  • The EMSD also announced the locations of buildings which were served with nuisance notices during the preceding three-month period as the total legionella count was found in the fresh water cooling towers to be equal to or above the upper threshold. (
  • We have found Legionella in a sink and floor drain of a building on campus, some of the results have come back as "present, but below quantifiable levels", and others in the 500 cells/swipe area. (
  • Legionella bacteria are found naturally in the environment usually in water. (
  • LONDON (AP) - Britain's plan to house asylum seekers on a barge moored off the south coast of England ran into another hurdle on Friday as authorities were forced to evacuate the first residents after legionella bacteria was found in the water system. (
  • An August 2013 report by the VA's Office of Inspector General found that many VA facilities tested positive for Legionella and that current methods of hyper-chlorination and super heating were not sustainable in treating the water. (
  • Review of own organisations control of legionella policy/procedure. (
  • Our legionella monitoring software delivers an auditable trail of tasks associated with mitigating legionella control. (
  • The legionella monitoring software will send your nominated responsible personnel email notifications informing them of tasks due to be performed as defined in your agreed control scheme. (
  • So, control of Legionella would occur in the liquid phase. (
  • HC Information Resources Inc. offers the training, and Matt Freije, author of Legionellae Control in Health Care Facilities: A Guide for Minimizing Risk, is the instructor. (
  • Home / Legionella Training Courses / Responsible Person: Legionella Control in Cooling Towers, Hot & Cold. (
  • The data shows that even in premises considered under control prior to the pandemic, Legionella become much more commonly detected bacteria in samples taken post-lockdown. (
  • UK safety regulators including the HSE (Health & Safety Executive) and CQC (Care Quality Commission) expect anyone with responsibility for legionella control to be trained to an appropriate level. (
  • Testing to identify sources of Legionella bacteria. (
  • A number of concerns are outlined in the letter to OSHA including possible long-term health concerns for patients and staff who are exposed to hyper-chlorinated water, the VA's questionable testing methods that do not adequately identify the strain of Legionella present, and the agency's failure to follow guidelines delineated by its own inspector general. (
  • For water distribution system, it has been established that quantitative counts of Legionella from the distal fixtures (faucets) do not correlate with the incidence of the disease in hospitals. (
  • Legionella DNA copy number (CN) was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. (
  • Le nombre de copies de l'ADN des Legionella a été évalué par PCR quantitative en temps réel. (
  • The state has adopted the same regulations to combat legionella in cooling towers the City Council passed last week, Gov. Andrew Cuomo said. (
  • The EMSD publishes the latest statistics of the above information on a half-monthly basis on its website ( ). (
  • They should arrange regular inspections, timely maintenance and periodic testing of the water quality in their cooling towers in accordance with the Code of Practice for Fresh Water Cooling Towers issued by the department to prevent the proliferation of legionella. (
  • One reason it has been well nigh impossible to calculate such a dose is that cooling towers are probably not the source of the legionella in most of the reported outbreaks). (
  • Legionella survival in sea water cooling towers? (
  • There is some anecdotal evidence that water samples collected from sea water cooling towers were negative for Legionella . (
  • bae, yet it can infect human alveolar representative of other cooling towers For detection and quantitation of the macrophages ( 3 ) causing severe lung in Qatar in the absence of studies in Legionella DNA copy number from disease ( 4 ). (
  • Cooling towers provide optimum en- June 2014. (
  • Common laboratory procedures for the detection of Legionella in water concentrate the bacteria (by centrifugation and/or filtration through 0.2-μm filters) before inoculation onto a charcoal yeast extract agar containing selective agents (e.g. glycine, vancomycin, polymixin, cyclohexamide, GVPC) to suppress other flora in the sample. (
  • As legionella can thrive at temperatures between 20 and 45C (68 and 113F), water tanks, towers, bathing pools and showers are vulnerable to contamination. (
  • According to the Southern Nevada Health District (SNHD) legionella are ubiquitous in the environment and can enter a facility through the water supply. (
  • Make sure disinfectants in hot tubs/spas (like chlorine) are kept at the level and pH needed to reduce the risk of spreading germs like Legionella . (
  • Also if there is chlorine in the water and Legionella builds up in the air lines is the Legionella killed off when the air is turned on when it passes through the chlorinated water? (
  • Legionella must be in contact with the active biocide (chlorine, bromine, etc.) for a sufficient amount of time and at a concentration of the biocide that is active against Legionella . (
  • Warm temperatures also make it hard to keep disinfectants, such as chlorine, at the levels needed to kill bacteria like Legionella . (
  • Survival of Legionella in marine environments is limited by both salinity and warmer temperature. (
  • These molecular signatures provide novel and reliable means for distinguishing members of the genus Legionella from all other bacteria and for their diagnostics. (
  • The hybridization technique developed in the "Development of a quick test for determination of legionella pneumophila by molecular biological methods" project No. FFFF0202 was to be optimized, and the time required for processing of the samples reduced as a result. (
  • New techniques for the rapid detection of Legionella in water samples have been developed, including the use of polymerase chain reaction and rapid immunological assays. (
  • The objective of the project was to develop a method employing fluorescence microscopy for the detection of legionella in industrial samples from a range of working areas. (
  • Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) was subsequently tested in conjunction with a range of oligonucleotide probes for the detection of legionella in environmental samples. (
  • In addition, a commercially available rapid test for the detection of legionella was to be examined for its suitability for use with industrial samples. (
  • It was not possible at this stage to formulate a standard method for the detection of legionella from industrial samples which described direct detection of the legionella on a filter and computer-aided quantification of the cells. (
  • The reasons for this are, on the one hand, the sensitivity of the method to interference from chemical substances in these samples, and on the other, the associated microbiological flora, which is generally present here in high concentrations and which presents an obstacle to the automated microscopic detection of legionella. (
  • Evidence is emerging of the significant increase in Legionella growth in premises offering overnight accommodation where the usage/occupancy was affected during the 2020/21 COVID lockdown. (
  • Fatal Case of Nosocomial Legionella pneumophila Pneumonia, Spain, 2018. (
  • Who should take a Legionella awareness course? (
  • This is achieved via a legionella awareness course, duty holder and responsible person course, or regular refreshers and compliance workshops. (
  • Average rates were calculated by dividing disease counts mitted for Legionella isolation from 1978 through 1979. (
  • The number and type of samples should be guided by the circumstances and objectives of monitoring, but for purposes of this discussion it will be assumed a facility is thought to be at risk for Legionella and a baseline of data is required. (
  • Legionella samples may be collected as either swabs or water samples or preferably both. (
  • Britain is removing 39 asylum seekers from a barge moored in southern England after environmental samples showed legionella bacteria in the water system. (
  • Legionella DNA was detected in 100% of the samples. (