Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mannose-Binding Lectins: A subclass of lectins that are specific for CARBOHYDRATES that contain MANNOSE.Wheat Germ Agglutinins: Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.Galectins: A class of animal lectins that bind specifically to beta-galactoside in a calcium-independent manner. Members of this class are distiguished from other lectins by the presence of a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain. The majority of proteins in this class bind to sugar molecules in a sulfhydryl-dependent manner and are often referred to as S-type lectins, however this property is not required for membership in this class.Glycoconjugates: Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)Peanut Agglutinin: Lectin purified from peanuts (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA). It binds to poorly differentiated cells and terminally differentiated cells and is used in cell separation techniques.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Galactosides: Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of galactose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-galactosides.Galanthus: A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes classified as Amaryllidaceae). Galanthus nivalis L. is the source of GALANTHAMINE.Acetylgalactosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.Fetuins: A family of calcium-binding alpha-globulins that are synthesized in the LIVER and play an essential role in maintaining the solubility of CALCIUM in the BLOOD. In addition the fetuins contain aminoterminal cystatin domains and are classified as type 3 cystatins.Receptors, Mitogen: Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes, that react with molecules of antilymphocyte sera, lectins, and other agents which induce blast transformation of lymphocytes.Hemagglutination: The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Agglutination: The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Canavalia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Canavalia ensiformis is the source of CONCANAVALIN A.Artocarpus: A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. Puag-haad extract, from A. lakoocha, contains STILBENES and related 4-substituted RESORCINOLS.Ricinus: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. The seed of Ricinus communis L. is the CASTOR BEAN which is the source of CASTOR OIL; RICIN; and other lectins.PolysaccharidesGalactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Ribosome Inactivating Proteins, Type 2: Ribosome inactivating proteins consisting of two polypeptide chains, the toxic A subunit and a lectin B subunit, linked by disulfide bridges. The lectin portion binds to cell surfaces and facilitates transport into the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Agglutinins: Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)FucoseAsialoglycoproteins: Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.Mannosides: Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-mannosides.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Acetylglucosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.Mistletoe: Parasitic plants that form a bushy growth on branches of host trees which are in the order Santalales. It includes the Christmas mistletoe family (VISCACEAE), the showy mistletoe family (LORANTHACEAE) and the catkin mistletoe family (Eremolepidaceae). The composition of toxins, lectins, tyramine, phenethylamines, and other compounds may be affected by the host.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ribosome Inactivating Proteins: N-Glycosidases that remove adenines from RIBOSOMAL RNA, depurinating the conserved alpha-sarcin loop of 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA. They often consist of a toxic A subunit and a binding lectin B subunit. They may be considered as PROTEIN SYNTHESIS INHIBITORS. They are found in many PLANTS and have cytotoxic and antiviral activity.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.N-Acetylneuraminic Acid: An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)Receptors, N-Acetylglucosamine: Cell surface receptors that bind to ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Methylmannosides: Mannosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with methyl alcohol. They include both alpha- and beta-methylmannosides.Abrin: A toxic lectin from the seeds of jequirity, Abrus precatorius L. Very active poison. Five different proteins have so far been isolated: Abrus agglutinin, the component responsible for: hemagglutinating activity, & abrins a-d, the toxic principals each consisting of two peptide chains are held together by disulfide bonds.Phytohemagglutinins: Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Erythrina: A genus of leguminous shrubs or trees, mainly tropical, yielding useful compounds such as ALKALOIDS and PLANT LECTINS.Galectin 1: A galectin found abundantly in smooth muscle (MUSCLE, SMOOTH) and SKELETAL MUSCLE and many other tissues. It occurs as a homodimer with two 14-kDa subunits.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Sambucus: A plant genus in the family CAPRIFOLIACEAE known for elderberries.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Receptors, Concanavalin A: Glycoprotein moieties on the surfaces of cell membranes that bind concanavalin A selectively; the number and location of the sites depends on the type and condition of the cell.Galectin 3: A multifunctional galactin initially discovered as a macrophage antigen that binds to IMMUNOGLOBULIN E, and as 29-35-kDa lectin that binds LAMININ. It is involved in a variety of biological events including interactions with galactose-containing glycoconjugates, cell proliferation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Collectins: A class of C-type lectins that target the carbohydrate structures found on invading pathogens. Binding of collectins to microorganisms results in their agglutination and enhanced clearance. Collectins form trimers that may assemble into larger oligomers. Each collectin polypeptide chain consists of four regions: a relatively short N-terminal region, a collagen-like region, an alpha-helical coiled-coil region, and carbohydrate-binding region.Galectin 4: A galectin found in the small and large intestine and the stomach. It occurs as a homodimer with two 36-kDa subunits and is localized to sites of cell adhesion where it may play role in assembly of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS.Castor Bean: Common name for Ricinus communis, a species in the family EUPHORBIACEAE. It is the source of CASTOR OIL.Aralia: A plant genus in the family ARALIACEAE, order Apiales, subclass Rosidae. It includes Aralia californica S. Watson, Aralia nudicaulis L., and Aralia racemosa L.Sea Cucumbers: A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Datura stramonium: A plant species of the genus DATURA, family SOLANACEAE, that contains TROPANES and other SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS.Ricin: A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.Liliaceae: A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.Musa: A plant genus of the family Musaceae, order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Soybean Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Arachis hypogaea: A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Bauhinia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain isoacteoside, luteolin, indole-3-carboxylic acid.Horseshoe Crabs: An arthropod subclass (Xiphosura) comprising the North American (Limulus) and Asiatic (Tachypleus) genera of horseshoe crabs.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Mannose-Binding Lectin: A specific mannose-binding member of the collectin family of lectins. It binds to carbohydrate groups on invading pathogens and plays a key role in the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.Glycomics: The systematic study of the structure and function of the complete set of glycans (the glycome) produced in a single organism and identification of all the genes that encode glycoproteins.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Amino Sugars: SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.

Structure of CD94 reveals a novel C-type lectin fold: implications for the NK cell-associated CD94/NKG2 receptors. (1/3925)

The crystal structure of the extracellular domain of CD94, a component of the CD94/NKG2 NK cell receptor, has been determined to 2.6 A resolution, revealing a unique variation of the C-type lectin fold. In this variation, the second alpha helix, corresponding to residues 102-112, is replaced by a loop, the putative carbohydrate-binding site is significantly altered, and the Ca2+-binding site appears nonfunctional. This structure may serve as a prototype for other NK cell receptors such as Ly-49, NKR-P1, and CD69. The CD94 dimer observed in the crystal has an extensive hydrophobic interface that stabilizes the loop conformation of residues 102-112. The formation of this dimer reveals a putative ligand-binding region for HLA-E and suggests how NKG2 interacts with CD94.  (+info)

Association of the aggrecan keratan sulfate-rich region with collagen in bovine articular cartilage. (2/3925)

Aggrecan, the predominant large proteoglycan of cartilage, is a multidomain macromolecule with each domain contributing specific functional properties. One of the domains contains the majority of the keratan sulfate (KS) chain substituents and a protein segment with a proline-rich hexapeptide repeat sequence. The function of this domain is unknown but the primary structure suggests a potential for binding to collagen fibrils. We have examined binding of aggrecan fragments encompassing the KS-rich region in a solid-phase assay. A moderate affinity (apparent Kd = 1.1 microM) for isolated collagen II, as well as collagen I, was demonstrated. Enzymatic digestion of the KS chains did not alter the capacity of the peptide to bind to collagen, whereas cleavage of the protein core abolished the interaction. The distribution of the aggrecan KS-rich region in bovine tarsometatarsal joint cartilage was investigated using immunoelectron microscopy. Immunoreactivity was relatively low in the superficial zone and higher in the intermediate and deep zones of the uncalcified cartilage. Within the pericellular and territorial matrix compartments the epitopes representing the aggrecan KS-rich region were detected preferentially near or at collagen fibrils. Along the fibrils, epitope reactivity was non-randomly distributed, showing preference for the gap region within the D-period. Our data suggest that collagen fibrils interact with the KS-rich regions of several aggrecan monomers aligned within a proteoglycan aggregate. The fibril could therefore serve as a backbone in at least some of the aggrecan complexes.  (+info)

The leukocyte Ig-like receptor (LIR)-1 for the cytomegalovirus UL18 protein displays a broad specificity for different HLA class I alleles: analysis of LIR-1 + NK cell clones. (3/3925)

Leukocyte Ig-like receptor (LIR)-1 is a member of the Ig superfamily which has been shown to bind the human cytomegalovirus MHC class I homologue UL-18 protein. In this study, we have analyzed the expression and function of LIR-1 in human NK cells. We show that LIR-1 is expressed by a subset of NK cells variable in size among different donors. When compared to the known HLA class I-specific NK receptors, the expression of LIR-1 was found to be partially overlapped with that of CD94-NKG2A or with that of killer inhibitory receptors (KIR) belonging to the Ig superfamily. The use of the soluble form of UL-18 molecule revealed, in double fluorescence analysis, a selective binding to LIR-1 + cells while no correlation was observed between expression of either KIR or CD94-NKG2A molecules and ability to bind UL18. We further determined whether LIR-1 could also function as receptor for HLA class I molecules. To this end, we assessed the capability of LIR-1 + NK cell clones of lysing HLA class I- target cells transfected with different class I alleles, including HLA-A, -B, -C and -G alleles. Data revealed that LIR-1 functions as a broad HLA class I-specific inhibitory receptor recognizing different alleles coded for by different HLA loci.  (+info)

Resistance of CD7-deficient mice to lipopolysaccharide-induced shock syndromes. (4/3925)

CD7 is an immunoglobulin superfamily molecule involved in T and natural killer (NK) cell activation and cytokine production. CD7-deficient animals develop normally but have antigen-specific defects in interferon (IFN)-gamma production and CD8(+) CTL generation. To determine the in vivo role of CD7 in systems dependent on IFN-gamma, the response of CD7-deficient mice to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced shock syndromes was studied. In the high-dose LPS-induced shock model, 67% of CD7-deficient mice survived LPS injection, whereas 19% of control C57BL/6 mice survived LPS challenge (P < 0.001). CD7-deficient or C57BL/6 control mice were next injected with low-dose LPS (1 microgram plus 8 mg D-galactosamine [D-gal] per mouse) and monitored for survival. All CD7-deficient mice were alive 72 h after injection of LPS compared with 20% of C57BL/6 control mice (P < 0.001). After injection of LPS and D-gal, CD7-deficient mice had decreased serum IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha levels compared with control C57BL/6 mice (P < 0.001). Steady-state mRNA levels for IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha in liver tissue were also significantly decreased in CD7-deficient mice compared with controls (P < 0.05). In contrast, CD7-deficient animals had normal liver interleukin (IL)-12, IL-18, and interleukin 1 converting enzyme (ICE) mRNA levels, and CD7-deficient splenocytes had normal IFN-gamma responses when stimulated with IL-12 and IL-18 in vitro. NK1.1(+)/ CD3(+) T cells are known to be key effector cells in the pathogenesis of toxic shock. Phenotypic analysis of liver mononuclear cells revealed that CD7-deficient mice had fewer numbers of liver NK1.1(+)/CD3(+) T cells (1.5 +/- 0.3 x 10(5)) versus C57BL/6 control mice (3.7 +/- 0.8 x 10(5); P < 0.05), whereas numbers of liver NK1.1(+)/CD3(-) NK cells were not different from controls. Thus, targeted disruption of CD7 leads to a selective deficiency of liver NK1.1(+)/ CD3(+) T cells, and is associated with resistance to LPS shock. These data suggest that CD7 is a key molecule in the inflammatory response leading to LPS-induced shock.  (+info)

Fatty acids modulate the composition of extracellular matrix in cultured human arterial smooth muscle cells by altering the expression of genes for proteoglycan core proteins. (5/3925)

In diabetes-associated microangiopathies and atherosclerosis, there are alterations of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the intima of small and large arteries. High levels of circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) are present in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. High concentrations of NEFAs might alter the basement membrane composition of endothelial cells. In arteries, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are the major producers of proteoglycans and glycoproteins in the intima, and this is the site of lipoprotein deposition and modification, key events in atherogenesis. We found that exposure of human arterial SMCs to 100-300 micromol/albumin-bound linoleic acid lowered their proliferation rate and altered cell morphology. SMCs expressed 2-10 times more mRNA for the core proteins of the proteoglycans versican, decorin, and syndecan 4 compared with control cells. There was no change in expression of fibronectin and perlecan. The decorin glycosaminoglycan chains increased in size after exposure to linoleic acid. The ECM produced by cells grown in the presence of linoleic acid bound 125I-labeled LDL more tightly than that of control cells. Darglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma ligand, neutralized the NEFA-mediated induction of the decorin gene. This suggests that some of the NEFA effects are mediated by PPAR-gamma. These actions of NEFAs, if present in vivo, could contribute to changes of the matrix of the arterial intima associated with micro- and macroangiopathies.  (+info)

PU.1 and USF are required for macrophage-specific mannose receptor promoter activity. (6/3925)

In the current study we report the isolation of 854 base pairs of the rat mannose receptor promoter. Analysis of the sequence revealed one Sp1 site, three PU.1 sites, and a potential TATA box (TTTAAA) 33 base pairs 5' of the transcriptional start site. The tissue specificity of the promoter was determined using transient transfections. The promoter was most active in the mature macrophage cell line NR8383 although the promoter also showed activity in the monocytic cell line RAW. No activity was observed in pre-monocytic cell lines or epithelial cell lines. Mutation of the TTTAAA sequence to TTGGAA resulted in a 50% decrease in activity in transient transfection assays suggesting that the promoter contains a functional TATA box. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and mutagenesis we established that the transcription factors Sp1, PU.1, and USF bound to the mannose receptor promoter, but only PU.1 and USF contributed to activation. Transient transfections using a dominant negative construct of USF resulted in a 50% decrease in mannose receptor promoter activity, further establishing the role of USF in activating the rat mannose receptor promoter. Comparison of the rat, mouse, and human sequence demonstrated that some binding sites are not conserved. Gel shifts were performed to investigate differences in protein binding between species. USF bound to the rat and human promoter but not to the mouse promoter, suggesting that different mechanisms are involved in regulation of mannose receptor expression in these species. From these results we conclude that, similar to other myeloid promoters, transcription of the rat mannose receptor is regulated by binding of PU.1 and a ubiquitous factor at an adjacent site. However, unlike other myeloid promoters, we have identified USF as the ubiquitous factor, and demonstrated that the promoter contains a functional TATA box.  (+info)

Immune responses to cartilage link protein and the G1 domain of proteoglycan aggrecan in patients with osteoarthritis. (7/3925)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients with osteoarthritis (OA) express cellular immunity to cartilage link protein (LP) and the G1 globular domain of proteoglycan (PG) aggrecan, and whether immunity to the G1 domain is influenced by the removal of keratan sulfate (KS). METHODS: LP and the G1 globular domain of PG were isolated from human and/or bovine cartilage and used in proliferation assays with peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from 42 patients with OA and 40 healthy control subjects. RESULTS: Patients with OA expressed a higher prevalence of cellular immunity to human cartilage LP (42.4%) compared with the control group (13.3%). The prevalence of immune reactivity to bovine LP in patients with OA was lower (35.7%) compared with the immunity to human LP, but remained similar in the control group (13.8%). PBL from patients with OA exhibited low reactivity to the native G1 domain of bovine PG. However, removal of KS chains from the G1 globular domain resulted in increased cellular immune responses to the G1 domain in OA patients (45.8%) compared with the control group (7.7%). CONCLUSION: These results indicate the presence of immunity to cartilage-derived LP and the G1 globular domain of PG aggrecan in patients with OA and the inhibitory effect of KS chains on the G1 domain on the expression of this immunity in OA patients. This immune reactivity is commonly observed in patients with inflammatory joint disease and can experimentally induce arthritis. Thus, it may be involved in the pathogenesis of OA.  (+info)

Changes in joint cartilage aggrecan after knee injury and in osteoarthritis. (8/3925)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the concentrations of aggrecan fragments in synovial fluid from patients with knee joint injury, osteoarthritis (OA), or acute pyrophosphate arthritis (PPA; pseudogout), and to test their relative reactivity with the 846 epitope, a putative marker of cartilage aggrecan synthesis. METHODS: Samples of knee joint fluid from 385 patients and 9 healthy-knee volunteers were obtained in a cross-sectional study. Study groups were acute PPA/ pseudogout (n = 60), anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture (n = 159), meniscus lesion (n = 129), and primary knee OA (n = 37). The 846 epitope on aggrecan was assayed by competitive solution-phase radioimmunoassay. Aggrecan fragments were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a monoclonal antibody (1-F21). Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), C-propeptide of type II collagen (CPII), bone sialoprotein, matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 3, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 were previously quantified by immunoassays. RESULTS: Reactivity of the 846 epitope was increased in all study groups compared with the reference group, and was highest in patients with primary OA. The median levels (in microg fetal aggrecan equivalents/ml) of the epitope were 0.28 (range 0.24-0.47) in the reference group, 0.48 (range 0.26-1.32) in PPA/pseudogout, 0.61 (range 0.12-2.87) in ACL rupture, 0.53 (range 0.22-3.02) in meniscus lesion, and 0.68 (range 0.31-4.31) in primary OA. The 846 epitope reactivity per microg aggrecan fragments in the joint fluid was higher in late-stage OA than in early-stage OA. Epitope 846 reactivity correlated positively with several markers of matrix turnover, particularly with COMP (r(s) = 0.421) and CPII (r(s) = 0.307). CONCLUSION: The observed differences in 846 epitope reactivity in synovial fluid, and its concentration in relation to aggrecan and other markers of matrix turnover, were consistent with marked ongoing changes in aggrecan turnover after joint injury and in the development of OA. OA is thus a disease characterized by dynamic changes in tissue macromolecule turnover, which is reflected by measurable changes in aggrecan epitopes in the synovial fluid.  (+info)

*Galectin-9

The protein encoded by this gene is an S-type lectin. This galectin is strongly overexpressed in Hodgkin's disease tissue and ... "Entrez Gene: LGALS9 lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 9 (galectin 9)". Hirashima M, Kashio Y, Nishi N, et al. (2004). " ... 2006). "The Tim-3 ligand galectin-9 negatively regulates T helper type 1 immunity". Nat. Immunol. 6 (12): 1245-52. doi:10.1038/ ...

*FCN3

In human serum, there are two types of ficolins, both of which have lectin activity. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... Matsushita M, Kuraya M, Hamasaki N (2002). "Activation of the lectin complement pathway by H-ficolin (Hakata antigen)". J. ... thereby aiding in host defense through the activation of the lectin pathway. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and two ... a member of the ficolin/opsonin p35 lectin family". J Biol Chem. 273 (33): 20721-7. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.33.20721. PMID 9694814 ...

*Legume lectin

The legume lectins (or L-type lectins) are a family of sugar-binding proteins or lectins found in the seeds and, in smaller ... The legume lectins are also interesting from the point of view of protein structure. Despite the conserved structure of the ... The exact function of the legume lectins in vivo is unknown but they are probably involved in the defense of plants against ... PDBe Browser for legume lectin assemblies Hamelryck TW, Moore JG, Chrispeels MJ, Loris R, Wyns L (June 2000). "The role of weak ...

*Galectin-3

... has varying effects in different types of cancer. One approach to cancers with high galectin-3 expression is to use ... "Entrez Gene: LGALS3 lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 3". Liu FT, Patterson RJ, Wang JL (September 2002). "Intracellular ... Galectin-3 is a member of the lectin family, of which 14 mammalian galectins have been identified. Galectin-3 is approximately ... A correlation between galectin-3 expression levels and various types of fibrosis has been found. Galectin-3 is upregulated in ...

*Concanavalin A

... structure World of Lectin, Gateway to lectins Proteopedia 1bxh con A in complex with methyl alpha1-2 ... Yu M, Sato H, Seiki M, Thompson EW (Aug 1995). "Complex regulation of membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase expression and ... and carbohydrate-binding specificity of lectins". In Liener, Irvin E.; Sharon, Nathan; Goldstein, Irwin J. The Lectins ... Like most lectins, ConA is a homotetramer: each sub-unit (26.5KDa, 235 amino-acids, heavily glycated) binds a metallic atom ( ...

*C-type lectin

A C-type lectin (CLEC) is a type of carbohydrate-binding protein domain known as a lectin. The C-type designation is from their ... C-Type Lectin at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Drickamer K (October 1999). "C-type lectin ... "Genomic analysis of C-type lectins". Biochem. Soc. Symp. (69): 59-72. PMID 12655774. NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptors at the US ... classified C-type lectins into 7 subgroups (I to VII) based on the order of the various protein domains in each protein. This ...

*L-type lectin domain

In molecular biology the L-like lectin domain is a protein domain found in lectins which are similar to the leguminous plant ... "Structural basis for recognition of high mannose type glycoproteins by mammalian transport lectin VIP36". J. Biol. Chem. 282 ( ... "A putative novel class of animal lectins in the secretory pathway homologous to leguminous lectins". Cell. 77 (5): 625-6. doi: ... The L-like lectin domain has an overall globular shape composed of a beta-sandwich of two major twisted antiparallel beta- ...

*C-type lectin domain family 4 member F

... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLEC4F gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... C-type lectin domain family 4 member F". Retrieved 2017-07-31. ...

*Pattern recognition receptor

... type lectin 1 (Dectin1) subfamily which includes dectin 1/CLEC7A DNGR1/CLEC9A Myeloid C‑type lectin‑like receptor (MICL) ( ... The name lectin is a bit misleading because the family includes proteins with at least one C-type lectin domain (CTLD) which is ... C-type Lectins. In: Varki A, Cummings RD, Esko JD, et al., editors. Essentials of Glycobiology. 2nd edition. Cold Spring Harbor ... Membrane-bound PRRs include Toll like receptors (TLRs) and C-type lectin receptors (CLRs). Cytoplasmic PRRs include NOD-like ...

*Mannose 6-phosphate receptor

Varki A, Cummings RD, Esko JD, Freeze HH, Stanley P, Bertozzi CR, Hart GW, Etzler M (2009). "P-type Lectins". Essentials of ... The CI-MPR and CD-MPR are structurally distinct receptors however they share an overall general structure as they are both type ... Imperial College Lectins Research Information UniProtKB/ Swiss-Prot entry for the human cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate ... Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the CI-MPR locus has been displayed in multiple cancer types including liver and breast. ...

*CLEC7A

... is a member of the C-type lectin/C-type lectin-like domain (CTL/CTLD) superfamily. The encoded glycoprotein is a small ... "Evolutionary analysis reveals collective properties and specificity in the C-type lectin and lectin-like domain superfamily". ... C-type lectin domain family 7 member A or Dectin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLEC7A gene. ... The C-type lectin receptors are class of signalling pattern recognition receptors which are involved in antifungal immunity, ...

*Visna virus

Another study suggests that C-type lectins part of the mannose receptor (MR) family play a role as an alternative SRLV receptor ... The mannose receptor is a 180-kDa transmembrane protein with eight tandem C-type lectin carbohydrate recognition domains (CRD) ... Kerrigan AM, Brown GD (2009). "C-type lectins and phagocytosis". Immunobiology. 214 (7): 562-575. doi:10.1016/j.imbio.2008.11. ... The term viral tropism refers to the cell types a virus infects. Visna virus is generally known to target cells of the immune ...

*Basigin

"Wikipedia: C-type lectin". "WikiGenes: MRC2 - mannose receptor C, type 2 Homo sapiens". "Wikipedia: Epithelial-mesenchymal ... Basigin interacts with the fourth C-type lectin domain in the receptor Endo180 to form a molecular epithelial-mesenchymal ... Basigin is a type I integral membrane receptor that has many ligands, including the cyclophilin (CyP) proteins Cyp-A and CyP-B ... The human basigin protein contains 269 amino acids that form two heavily glycosylated C2 type immunoglobulin-like domains at ...

*CLEC5A

... also known as C-type lectin superfamily member 5 (CLECSF5) and myeloid DAP12-associating lectin 1 (MDL1) is a C-type lectin ... "Evolutionary analysis reveals collective properties and specificity in the C-type lectin and lectin-like domain superfamily". ... Drickamer K (1999). "C-type lectin-like domains". Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 9 (5): 585-90. doi:10.1016/S0959-440X(99)00009-3. ... C-type lectin domain family 5 member A or CLEC5A, ... C-type lectin domain family 5". Bakker AB, Baker E, Sutherland ...

*CLEC1A

This gene encodes a member of the C-type lectin/C-type lectin-like domain (CTL/CTLD) superfamily. Members of this family share ... "Evolutionary analysis reveals collective properties and specificity in the C-type lectin and lectin-like domain superfamily". ... C-type lectin domain family 1 member A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLEC1A gene. ... "Entrez Gene: CLEC1A C-type lectin domain family 1, member A". Human CLEC1A genome location and CLEC1A gene details page in the ...

*CLEC12A

This gene encodes a member of the C-type lectin/C-type lectin-like domain (CTL/CTLD) superfamily. Members of this family share ... "Evolutionary analysis reveals collective properties and specificity in the C-type lectin and lectin-like domain superfamily". ... C-type lectin domain family 12 member A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLEC12A gene. ... 2005). "C-type lectin-like molecule-1: a novel myeloid cell surface marker associated with acute myeloid leukemia". Cancer Res ...

*SIGLEC

These lectins are placed into the group of I-type lectins because the lectin domain is an immunoglobulin fold. All Siglecs are ... Varki then suggested the term Siglec as a better alternative and as a subset of I-type (Ig-type) lectins. This nomenclature was ... They are found primarily on the surface of immune cells and are a subset of the I-type lectins. There are 14 different ... Varki A, Angata T (January 2006). "Siglecs--the major subfamily of I-type lectins". Glycobiology. 16 (1): 1R-27R. doi:10.1093/ ...

*Ajit Varki

Varki A, Angata T (January 2006). "Siglecs-the major subfamily of I-type lectins". Glycobiology. 16 (1): 1R-27R. doi:10.1093/ ... which he co-discovered and named as a sub-group of I-type Lectins), and also by the binding proteins of various pathogens. The ... This can allow type of dangerous E.coli toxin to affect the human body. Also, humans develop antibodies against this foreign Gc ...

*Sialome

Varki, Ajit; Takashi Angata (2006). "Siglecs-the major subfamily of I-type lectins". Glycobiology. 16 (1): 1R-27R. doi:10.1093/ ... The total complement of sialic acid types and linkages and their modes of presentation on a particular organelle, cell, tissue ...

*CHODL

Chondrolectin is a type I membrane protein with a carbohydrate recognition domain characteristic of C-type lectins in its ... a novel type I transmembrane protein homologous to C-type lectins". Genomics. 80 (1): 62-70. doi:10.1006/geno.2002.6806. PMID ... Zelensky AN, Gready JE (Dec 2005). "The C-type lectin-like domain superfamily". FEBS J. 272 (24): 6179-6217. doi:10.1111/j.1742 ... a novel C-type lectin predominantly expressed in muscle cells". Gene. 308: 21-29. doi:10.1016/s0378-1119(03)00425-6. PMID ...

*Galectin

They are also termed S-type lectins due to their dependency on disulphide bonds for stability and carbohydrate binding. There ... The high mannose oligomers are pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMPs) and are recognised by the C-type lectin DC-SIGN ... Carbohydrate binding is calcium independent, unlike C-type lectins. The strength of ligand binding is determined by a number of ... Galectin-3 has one CRD and a long non-lectin domain. Galectin-3 can exist in monomeric form or can associate via the non-lectin ...

*Mincle receptor

Macrophage inducible Ca2+-dependent lectin receptor, (abbreviated to Mincle), is a member of the C-type lectin superfamily ... Cord factor also binds and activates the related C-type lectin MCL. A wide range of ligands promote signalling through Mincle, ... Richardson, Mark B.; Williams, Spencer J. (2014-06-23). "MCL and Mincle: C-Type Lectin Receptors That Sense Damaged Self and ... Pattern recognition receptors C-type lectin Moody, DB; Matsunaga, I (2009). "Mincle is a long sought receptor for mycobacterial ...

*Attractin

... is a Group XI C-type lectin. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms exist for this gene. One of the ...

*T helper 17 cell

Vautier, Simon; Sousa, Maria da Glória; Brown, Gordon D. "C-type lectins, fungi and Th17 responses". Cytokine & Growth Factor ... September 2009). "A human colonic commensal promotes colon tumorigenesis via activation of T helper type 17 T cell responses". ... Th17 overactivation against autoantigen will cause type 3 immune complex and complement-mediated hypersensitivity. Rheumatoid ... "Interleukin 17-producing CD4+ effector T cells develop via a lineage distinct from the T helper type 1 and 2 lineages". Nature ...

*REG3A

It has similarity to the C-type lectin superfamily. The enhanced expression of this gene is observed during pancreatic ... Reg3A (UniProt Q0614 1) is a bactericidal C-type lectin that is constitutively produced in the intestine that has antibacterial ... 1994). "Structural organization and chromosomal localization of a human gene (HIP/PAP) encoding a C-type lectin overexpressed ... "The antibacterial lectin RegIIIγ promotes the spatial segregation of microbiota and host in the intestine". Science. 334 (6053 ...

*GANC

Land A, Braakman I (Aug 2001). "Folding of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein in the endoplasmic ... 1-deoxynojirimycin on the lectin binding to HIV-1 glycoproteins". Japanese Journal of Medical Science & Biology. 43 (3): 75-87 ... Dedera DA, Gu RL, Ratner L (Mar 1992). "Role of asparagine-linked glycosylation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ... native gp120 and gp160 of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1". AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. 6 (3): 371-80. doi: ...

*Protein-carbohydrate interaction

I-type lectin named from the immunoglobulin-like domain. Sialoadhesin is one of the I-type lectin, which binds specifically to ... Generally, there are two types of protein carbohydrate binding important in biological processes: Lectin and antibody. Lectin ... Carbohydrate biosensor As Lectin can strongly bind to specific carbohydrate, scientists develop several lectin-based ... Mannose-binding protein (MBP) contains the C-type CRD. Two types mannose-6-phosphate can recognize phosphorylated saccharide. ...
Tetraspanins are a superfamily of glycoproteins that function as organisers of membranes by clustering with each other to form tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, into which certain other receptors and signalling proteins are recruited and regulated. Tetraspanin microdomains have been implicated in a range of biological processes including cell signalling, adhesion, intracellular trafficking, cell-cell fusion and viral entry. The tetraspanin CD37 was recently shown to negatively regulate the C-type lectin-like receptor dectin-1, which is essential for innate immune responses to fungal pathogens. The aim of this thesis was to firstly develop a cell line model system to investigate the mechanism by which tetraspanins inhibit dectin-1, and to secondly extend this work to the dectin-1-related CLEC-2, which is essential for platelet thrombus formation and stability. Using a nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) transcriptional reporter assay in the Jurkat T-cell line, transient over-expression ...
A number of genes encoding C-type lectin molecules have been mapped to the natural killer gene complex (NKC) at the distal region of mouse chromosome 6 and to a syntenic region on human chromosome 12p12-p13. In addition to those receptors which regulate NK cell function, related structures expressed on other cells types have also been localized to this chromosomal region. Among these are a number of recently characterized genes, including macrophage C-type lectin (MCL), macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (Mincle), dendritic cell immunoreceptor (DCIR) and dendritic cell-associated lectin-2 (Dectin-2). The amino acid sequences comprising the single C-type lectin domains of MCL, Mincle, DCIR and Dectin-2 are shown here to be closely related to each other. These molecules show overall similarity to two groups of animal C-type lectins, groups II and V, which demonstrate type II transmembrane topology. In this study, sequence analysis suggests that MCL, Mincle, DCIR and Dectin-2 represent a subset of group II
Antigen uptake and processing by innate immune cells is crucial to initiate the immune response. Therein, the endocytic C-type lectin receptors serve as pattern recognition receptors, detecting pathogens by their glycan structures. Herein, we studied the carbohydrate recognition domain of Langerin, a C-type lectin receptor involved in the host defense against viruses such as HIV and influenza as well as bacteria and fungi. Using a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular dynamics simulations, we unraveled the molecular determinants underlying cargo capture and release encoded in the receptor architecture. Our findings revealed receptor dynamics over several time scales associated with binding and release of the essential cofactor Ca(2+) controlled by the coupled motions of two loops. Applying mutual information theory and site-directed mutagenesis, we identified an allosteric intradomain network that modulates the Ca(2+) affinity depending on the pH, thereby promoting fast ligand ...
Macrophages act as the primary effector cells during Leishmania infection through production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta). However, how macrophage-killing mechanisms are activated during Leishmania-macrophage interactions is poorly understood. Here, we report that the macrophage response against Leishmania infantum in vivo is characterized by an M2b-like phenotype and C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) signature composed of Dectin-1, mannose receptor (MR), and the DC-SIGN homolog SIGNR3 expression. Dectin-1 and MR were crucial for the microbicidal response as indicated by the fact that they activated Syk-p47phox and arachidonic acid (AA)-NADPH oxidase signaling pathways, respectively, needed for ROS production and also triggered Syk-coupled signaling for caspase-1-induced IL-1 beta secretion. In contrast, SIGNR3 has divergent functions during Leishmania infantum pathogenesis; this CLR favored parasite resilience through inhibition of the LTB4-IL-1 beta axis. ...
Aquesta tesi es centra en lestudi dels receptors lectina de tipus C NKG2 en cèl·lules Natural Killer i T CD4+. Demostrem que les cèl·lules T CD4+ específiques pel Cytomegalovirus Humà poden expressar diferents receptors NK, i que el receptor lectina tipus C NKG2D sexpressa en cèl·lules citotòxiques i de memòria, potenciant la proliferació i secreció de citocines depenent del TCR. La segona part daquesta tesi es centra en lestudi de lexpressió dels receptors CD94/NKG2 en cèl·lules NK. Mostrem com lexpressió de CD94/NKG2A sindueix en cèl·lules CD94/NKG2C+ estimulades amb IL-12 o cultivades amb cèl·lules dendrítiques infectades pel Cytomegalovirus Humà, i que lexpressió de CD94/NKG2A inhibeix la resposta de clons NK CD94/NKG2C+ envers dianes HLA-E+, constituint un possible mecanisme de feedback negatiu per controlar lactivació cel·lular. En resum, els nostres resultats demostren que lexpressió dels receptors lectina tipus C NKG2 pot ser modificada durant les ...
Natural killer (NK) cells express multiple calcium-dependent (C-type) lectin-like receptors, such as CD94 (KLRD1; MIM 602894) and NKG2D (KLRC4; MIM 602893), that interact with major histocompatibility complex class I molecules and either inhibit or activate cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion. CLEC2 is a C-type lectin-like receptor expressed in myeloid cells and NK cells (Colonna et al., 2000 [PubMed 10671229]).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2011 ...
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This gene encodes a member of the C-type lectin/C-type lectin-like domain (CTL/CTLD) superfamily. The encoded glycoprotein is a small type II membrane receptor with an extracellular C-type lectin-like domain fold and a cytoplasmic domain with an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif. It functions as a pattern-recognition receptor that recognizes a variety of beta-1,3-linked and beta-1,6-linked glucans from fungi and plants, and in this way plays a role in innate immune response. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. This gene is closely linked to other CTL/CTLD superfamily members on chromosome 12p13 in the natural killer gene complex region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
This chapter focuses on those members of the C-type lectin family that contain a classical carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) and are expressed and functional on phagocytic cells of the immune system, such as neutrophils, dendritic cells (DCs), and macrophages. C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) exist either as transmembrane proteins or as soluble proteins, but all contain one or more CRDs for binding to carbohydrate structures. Ca2+ is required for the interaction of carbohydrates with the CRD. Peptide fragments resulting from lysosomal degradation are eventually complexed onto major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules and exposed at the cell surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to be inspected by T cells for self / nonself discrimination. A variety of molecules stimulate chemotaxis of innate immune cells, including microbial products such as the bacterial peptide formyl-methionyl-leucylphenylalanine (fMLP), activated complement (C5a), cytokines such as IL-8 and macrophage
Dr. Maria Fernandes is the principal investigator on a research project titled "The characterization of MICL, a novel negative regulator of the immune response in arthritis." She and her co-investigator Philippe Tessier, were recently awarded a five year operating grant to support this project. CIHR - IMHA is pleased to profile her work in this issue.. Dr. Fernandes received her PhD in Biochemical Genetics from McGill University before pursing postdoctoral training at Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. There, she cloned two novel genes that code for proteins belonging to the C-type lectin family. According to Dr. Fernandes, "C-type lectins play important roles in the immune response. Fascinated by these receptors, I pursued a second post-doctorate in inflammation during which I specialized in myeloid receptor signaling to eventually investigate the role of C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) in the immune system.". Her interest in CLRs and arthritis led her to develop her ...
Clone KVa7-6E7 specifically recognizes mouse dendritic cell-associated C-type lectin 2 (Dectin-2). Dectin-2 is a type II membrane protein and contains a single carbohydrate recognition domain. Like other C-type lectins, mouse Dectin-2 has conserved motifs for the Ca2+ -dependent recognition of mannose. Dectin-2 is located in the natural killer gene complex of chromosome 6. Genomic analyses show that beside a full length Dectin-2 transcript two truncated isoforms are produced by alternative splicing, encoding transmembrane proteins of 168-209 amino acids.¹, ² The expression of Dectin-2 on mouse monocytes and macrophages can be induced by zymosan and thioglycollate.3 Dectin-2 plays a physiological role in antigen presentation and antigen targeting via Dectin-2 can induce a CD8+ T cell response.4 - USA
Clone KVa7-6E7 specifically recognizes mouse dendritic cell-associated C-type lectin 2 (Dectin-2). Dectin-2 is a type II membrane protein and contains a single carbohydrate recognition domain. Like other C-type lectins, mouse Dectin-2 has conserved motifs for the Ca2+ -dependent recognition of mannose. Dectin-2 is located in the natural killer gene complex of chromosome 6. Genomic analyses show that beside a full length Dectin-2 transcript two truncated isoforms are produced by alternative splicing, encoding transmembrane proteins of 168-209 amino acids.¹, ² The expression of Dectin-2 on mouse monocytes and macrophages can be induced by zymosan and thioglycollate.3 Dectin-2 plays a physiological role in antigen presentation and antigen targeting via Dectin-2 can induce a CD8+ T cell response.4 - USA
RecName: Full=C-type lectin domain family 7 member A;AltName: Full=Beta-glucan receptor;AltName: Full=C-type lectin superfamily member 12;AltName: Full=Dendritic cell-associated C-type lectin 1; Short=DC-associated C-type lectin 1; Short=D ...
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) suppresses innate and adaptive immune responses via multiple mechanisms. TGF-β also importantly contributes to the formation of an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment thereby promoting tumor growth. Amongst others, TGF-β impairs tumor recognition by cytotoxic lymphocytes via NKG2D. NKG2D is a homodimeric C-type lectin-like receptor expressed on virtually all human NK cells and cytotoxic T cells, and stimulates their effector functions upon engagement by NKG2D ligands (NKG2DL). While NKG2DL are mostly absent from healthy cells, their expression is induced by cellular stress and malignant transformation, and, accordingly, frequently detected on various tumor cells. Hence, the NKG2D axis is thought to play a decisive role in cancer immunosurveillance and, obviously, often is compromised in clinically apparent tumors. There is mounting evidence that TGF-β, produced by tumor cells and immune cells in the tumor microenvironment, plays a key role in blunting the
Cell surface receptors are responsible for regulating cellular function on the front line, the cell membrane. Interestingly, accumulating evidence clearly reveals that the members of cell surface receptor families have very similar extracellular ligand-binding regions but opposite signaling systems, either inhibitory or stimulatory. These receptors are designated as paired receptors. Paired receptors often recognize not only physiological ligands but also non-self ligands, such as viral and bacterial products, to fight infections. In this review, we introduce several representative examples of paired receptors, focusing on two major structural superfamilies, the immunoglobulin-like and the C-type lectin-like receptors, and explain how these receptors distinguish self and non-self ligands to maintain homeostasis in the immune system. We further discuss the evolutionary aspects of these receptors as well as the potential drug targets for regulating diseases.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are key players in the induction and re-elicitation of T helper (Th) 2 immune responses to allergens. Recent data by our group have shown that different C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) on DCs play a major role in allergen recognition and uptake. Particularly, mannose receptor (MR), through modulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signalling pathway, can regulate indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) activity favouring Th2 responses. IDO is the rate limiting enzyme involved in tryptophan (TRP) catabolism and it is well known for its role in modulating immune responses through TRP depletion and generation of immune-regulatory metabolites known as kynurenines (KYN). Interestingly, another CLR named dendritic cell-specific intracellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) has been suggested to support Th1 responses; however, the mechanisms involved are unknown. Therefore, the main objective of this project was to evaluate the role of CLRs, with focus on MR and ...
DC-SIGN is a dendritic cell-specific C-type lectin receptor that recognizes highly glycosylated ligands expressed on the surface of various pathogens. This receptor plays an important role in the early stages of many viral infections, including HIV, which makes it an interesting therapeutic target. Glycomimetic compounds are good drug candidates for DC-SIGN inhibition due to their high solubility, resistance to glycosidases, and nontoxicity. We studied the structural properties of the interaction of the tetrameric DC-SIGN extracellular domain (ECD), with two glycomimetic antagonists, a pseudomannobioside (1) and a linear pseudomannotrioside (2). Though the inhibitory potency of 2, as measured by SPR competition experiments, was 1 order of magnitude higher than that of 1, crystal structures of the complexes within the DC-SIGN carbohydrate recognition domain showed the same binding mode for both compounds. Moreover, when conjugated to multivalent scaffolds, the inhibitory potencies of these compounds
The authors wish to add this correction on their paper published in IJMS [1]. Galectin-1 was misclassified as a C-type lectin. Galectin-1 belongs to the family of the S-type lectins, i.e., the galectins. These errors have been amended in an amended version of the manuscript, which is available from the International Journal of Molecular Sciences website. The authors and publisher apologize for the inconvenience. [...]
Toyonaga K, Torigoe S, Motomura Y, Kamichi T, Hayashi JM, Morita YS, Noguchi N, Chuma Y, Kiyohara H, Matsuo K, Tanaka H, Nakagawa Y, Sakuma T, Ohmuraya M, Yamamoto T, Umemura M, Matsuzaki G, Yoshikai Y, Yano I, Miyamoto T, Yamasaki S. C-Type Lectin Receptor DCAR Recognizes Mycobacterial Phosphatidyl-Inositol Mannosides to Promote a Th1 Response during Infection. Immunity. 2016 Dec 20; 45(6):1245-1257. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2016.10.012 ...
Gene Information This gene encodes a member of the C-type lectin/C-type lectin-like domain (CTL/CTLD) superfamily. Members of this family share a common protein fold and have diverse functions such as cell adhesion cell-cell signalling glycoprotein turnover and roles in inflammation and immune response. The encoded type 2 transmembrane protein may play a role in inflammatory and immune response. Multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. This gene is closely linked to other CTL/CTLD superfamily members on chromosome 12p13 in the natural killer gene complex region. [provided by RefSeq Jul 2008]. ...
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Background Tuberculosis, which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. The C-type lectin DC-SIGN is known to be the major M. tuberculosis receptor on human ...
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Complete information for CLEC2A gene (Protein Coding), C-Type Lectin Domain Family 2 Member A, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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Gene target information for CLEC5A - C-type lectin domain containing 5A (human). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
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NK cells are the first line of defense against infected and transformed cells. Defective NK cell activity was shown to increase susceptibility for viral infections and reduce tumor immune-surveillance. With age, the incidence of infectious diseases and malignancy rises dramatically, suggesting that impaired NK cell function might contribute to disease in these individuals. We found an increased frequency of NK cells with high expression of the inhibitory killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 (KLRG1) in individuals |70 y. The role of KLRG1 in ageing is not known, and the mechanism of KLRG1-induced inhibition of NK cell function is not fully understood. We report that NK cells with high KLRG1 expression spontaneously activate the metabolic sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and that activation of AMPK negatively regulates NK cell function. Pre-existing AMPK activity is further amplified by ligation of KLRG1 in these cells, which leads to internalization of the receptor and allows interaction with
NK cells are the first line of defense against infected and transformed cells. Defective NK cell activity was shown to increase susceptibility for viral infections and reduce tumor immune-surveillance. With age, the incidence of infectious diseases and malignancy rises dramatically, suggesting that impaired NK cell function might contribute to disease in these individuals. We found an increased frequency of NK cells with high expression of the inhibitory killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 (KLRG1) in individuals |70 y. The role of KLRG1 in ageing is not known, and the mechanism of KLRG1-induced inhibition of NK cell function is not fully understood. We report that NK cells with high KLRG1 expression spontaneously activate the metabolic sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and that activation of AMPK negatively regulates NK cell function. Pre-existing AMPK activity is further amplified by ligation of KLRG1 in these cells, which leads to internalization of the receptor and allows interaction with
Looking for online definition of C-type lectin domain family 4, member J in the Medical Dictionary? C-type lectin domain family 4, member J explanation free. What is C-type lectin domain family 4, member J? Meaning of C-type lectin domain family 4, member J medical term. What does C-type lectin domain family 4, member J mean?
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KLRC3, human recombinant protein, Killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily C, NKG2-E; NKG2E validated in (PBV10978r-100), Abgent
The C-type lectin-like receptor, CLEC-2, is constitutively expressed on platelets, with reported expression on a number of leukocyte subsets in adult mice. Constitutive or platelet-specific deletion of CLEC-2 in mice induces cerebral haemorrhaging by midgestation. In this thesis, I investigated the basis of this defect, hypothesising that it is mediated by the loss of CLEC-2 activation by its endogenous ligand, podoplanin, expressed on the developing neural tube. Podoplaninfl/fl mice were crossed to mice expressing PGK-Cre to induce deletion of podoplanin at the two-cell stage. Developing blood vessels were visualized by 3-dimensional microscopy and found to be aberrantly patterned in CLEC-2- and podoplanin-deficient mice, culminating in widespread cerebral haemorrhaging by mid-gestation. Haemorrhages were also observed following Nestin-Cre driven deletion of podoplanin on neural progenitors and following deletion of the platelet integrin, αIIbβ3. Together these studies support that neuro-epithelial
C-type lectin domain family 4 member A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLEC4A gene. This gene encodes a member of the C-type lectin/C-type lectin-like domain (CTL/CTLD) superfamily. Members of this family share a common protein fold and have diverse functions, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell signalling, glycoprotein turnover, and roles in inflammation and immune response. The encoded type 2 transmembrane protein may play a role in inflammatory and immune response. Multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. This gene is closely linked to other CTL/CTLD superfamily members on chromosome 12p13 in the natural killer gene complex region. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000111729 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000030148 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Bates EE, Fournier N, Garcia E, Valladeau J, Durand I, Pin JJ, Zurawski SM, Patel S, Abrams JS, Lebecque S, Garrone P, ...
Dendritic cells are the link between innate and adaptive immunity and are the most potent antigen presenting cells in the immune system. As such these cells represent an ideal target for modulating the immune response to implanted materials, combination products, and vaccine conjugates. Dendritic cells (DCs) have evolved to respond to a variety of pathogens via a vast array of membrane bound and intracellular receptors known as pattern recognition receptors or PRRs. These receptors recognize both endogenous and exogenous motifs and depending on which receptors are stimulated, and to what extent, modulate the ultimate DC phenotype. A particular class of PRRs known as C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) has recently been identified as a prevalent class of receptor on dendritic cells. C-type lectin receptors recognize characteristic pathogen and danger associated carbohydrate motifs. The functional outcome from the stimulation of these receptors, what the ideal surface presentation method of the glycan ...
Targeting of myeloid-dendritic cell receptor DC-SIGN by numerous chronic infectious realtors, including mutant traces to present that pathogen-differentiated mDCs from principal human-monocytes screen anti-apoptotic profile, exhibited by high phosphorylated-Foxo1, phosphorylated-Akt1, and decreased Bim-expression. resistant program and are connecting hyperlink between non-adaptive and adaptive resistant responses. The useful variety and era of adaptive defenses by DCs is normally essential U-104 supplier to research pathogenesis of illnesses triggered by contagious realtors, vaccine replies, malignancies, and autoimmune illnesses1,2,3,4,5. The typical setting of difference of Compact disc14+ monocytes into premature monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) can become caused by IL-4 and GM-CSF through its small (Mfa-1) fimbriae. The persistent U-104 supplier periodontitis individuals display an boost in DC-SIGN+ Compact disc1c+ mDCs in peripheral bloodstream7,8. These mDCs are companies or sponsor for Mfa-1 ...
Controlled angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis are essential for tissue development, function, and repair. However, aberrant neovascularization is an essential pathogenic mechanism in many human diseases, including diseases involving tumor growth and survival. Here, we have demonstrated that mice deficient in C-type lectin family 14 member A (CLEC14A) display enhanced angiogenic sprouting and hemorrhage as well as enlarged jugular lymph sacs and lymphatic vessels. CLEC14A formed a complex with VEGFR-3 in endothelial cells (ECs), and CLEC14A KO resulted in a marked reduction in VEGFR-3 that was concomitant with increases in VEGFR-2 expression and downstream signaling. Implanted tumor growth was profoundly reduced in CLEC14A-KO mice compared with that seen in WT littermates, but tumor-bearing CLEC14A-KO mice died sooner. Tumors in CLEC14A-KO mice had increased numbers of nonfunctional blood vessels and severe hemorrhaging. Blockade of VEGFR-2 signaling suppressed these vascular abnormalities and ...
The CD23 antigen (also called B6) is a 45 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein associated with MHC Class II antigen, which belongs to the C-type lectin family. CD23 is the low affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRII). CD23 antigen is expressed on B lymphocytes, monocytes and follicular dendritic cells (FDC). Expression of CD23 by B lymphocytes is up-regulated following mitogen or antigen activation. Soluble forms of CD23 are generated by proteolytic cleavage of the membrane molecule ...
Carbohydrate binding proteins of the C-type lectin family are involved in the mechanisms by which cell traffic during an inflammatory response, in the processes...
The laboratorys main purpose is to understand as the innate immune system recognizes pathogens through surface receptors - basically CLRs or C-type lectins and galectins-expressed mainly in macrophages and dendritic cells. In the past year we have developed a system of study that includes the full complement of glycan recognition proteins (human and murine) immobilized microarray format that will allow us to get a snapshot of how a particular pathogen is "seen" by the immune system. The results of studies using this predictive system may provide clues as to bias the immune response generated against a particular pathogen. A second objective is to define routes signaling / transduction induced in antigen presenting cells by the interaction of C-type lectins and galectinshaptens with their glycans. Knowing the nature of these pathways is essential for the identification of pathogen molecules that may act as regulators / immune modulators and hence serve as potential therapeutic targets for ...
Langerin Associated Lectin, 0.1 mg. A newly-identified human endothelial cell homolog of the mouse Kupffer-cell receptor (Clec4F, member of C-type lectins) has been cloned from DNA sequence of human langerin.
Homo sapiens killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily C, member 3 (KLRC3), transcript variant 2, mRNA. (H00003823-R04) - Products - Abnova
Homo sapiens killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily C, member 1 (KLRC1), transcript variant 1, mRNA. (H00003821-R05) - Products - Abnova
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This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 ...
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Looking for online definition of C-type lectin superfamily member 12 in the Medical Dictionary? C-type lectin superfamily member 12 explanation free. What is C-type lectin superfamily member 12? Meaning of C-type lectin superfamily member 12 medical term. What does C-type lectin superfamily member 12 mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dectin-2 Is a C-Type Lectin Receptor that Recognizes Pneumocystis and Participates in Innate Immune Responses. AU - Kottom, Theodore J.. AU - Hebrink, Deanne M.. AU - Jenson, Paige E.. AU - Marsolek, Paige L.. AU - Wüthrich, Marcel. AU - Wang, Huafeng. AU - Klein, Bruce. AU - Yamasaki, Sho. AU - Limper, Andrew Harold. PY - 2018/2/1. Y1 - 2018/2/1. N2 - Pneumocystis is an important fungal pathogen that causes life-threatening pneumonia in patients with AIDS and malignancy. Lung fungal pathogens are recognized by C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), which bind specific ligands and stimulate innate immune responses. The CLR Dectin-1 was previously shown to mediate immune responses to Pneumocystis spp. For this reason, we investigated a potential role for Dectin-2. Rats with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) exhibited elevated Dectin-2 mRNA levels. Soluble Dectin-2 carbohydrate-recognition domain fusion protein showed binding to intact Pneumocystis carinii (Pc) and to native Pneumocystis ...
In the early events of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, immature dendritic cells (DCs) expressing the DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) receptor capture small amounts of HIV-1 on mucosal surfaces and spread viral infection to CD4(+) T cells in lymph nodes (22, 34, 45). RNA interference has emerged as a powerful tool to gain insight into gene function. For this purpose, lentiviral vectors that express short hairpin RNA (shRNA) for the delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) into mammalian cells represent a powerful tool to achieve stable gene silencing. In order to interfere with DC-SIGN function, we developed shRNA-expressing lentiviral vectors capable of conditionally suppressing DC-SIGN expression. Selectivity of inhibition of human DC-SIGN and L-SIGN and chimpanzee and rhesus macaque DC-SIGN was obtained by using distinct siRNAs. Suppression of DC-SIGN expression inhibited the attachment of the gp120 envelope glycoprotein of ...
The C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2)activates platelets through Src and Syk tyrosine kinases via a single cytoplasmic YxxL motif known as a hem immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (hemITAM).Here, we demonstrate using sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation and methyl--cyclodextrin treatment that CLEC-2 translocates to lipid rafts upon ligand engagement and that translocation is essential for hemITAM phosphorylation and signal initiation. HemITAM phosphorylation, but not translocation, is also critically dependent on actin polymerization,Rac1 activation, and release of ADP and thromboxane A2 (TxA2). The role of ADP and TxA2 in mediating hosphorylation is dependent on ligand engagement and rac activation but is independent of platelet aggregation. In contrast,tyrosine phosphorylation of the GPVIFcR -chain ITAM, which has 2 YxxL motifs,is independent of actin polymerization and secondary mediators. These results reveal a unique series of proximal events in CLEC-2 phosphorylation ...
FUNCTION: Involved in the natural killer (NK)-mediated cytolysis of PHA-induced lymphoblasts. SUBUNIT: Homodimer. TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Strongly expressed in peripheral blood leukocytes and spleen, with weaker expression in lymph node and adult liver, and no expression detected in bone marrow, thymus, and fetal liver. Not expressed in brain, heart, placenta, lung, kidney, skeletal muscle, and pancreas. Within peripheral blood leukocyte and immunocyte cell lines, expression was predominant in NK cells but was also detected in monocytes ...
CD93 (Cluster of Differentiation 93) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD93 gene. CD93 is a C-type lectin transmembrane receptor which plays a role not only in cell-cell adhesion processes but also in host defense. CD93 belongs to the Group XIV C-Type lectin family, a group containing two other members, endosialin (CD248) and thrombomodulin, a well characterized anticoagulant. All of them contain a C-type lectin domain, a series of epidermal growth factor like domains, a highly glycosylated mucin-like domain, a unique transmembrane domain and a short cytoplasmic tail. Due to their strong homology and their close proximity on chromosome 20, CD93 has been suggested to have arisen from the thrombomodulin gene through a duplication event. CD93 was originally identified in mice as an early B cell marker through the use of AA4.1 monoclonal antibody. Then this molecule was shown to be expressed on an early population of hematopoietic stem cells, which give rise to the entire spectrum of ...
Flornes, Line Marie; Bryceson, Yenan T.; Spurkland, Anne; Lorentzen, JC; Dissen, Erik & Fossum, Sigbjørn (2004). Identification of lectin-like receptors expressed by antigen presenting cells and neutrophils and their mapping to a novel gene complex. Immunogenetics. ISSN 0093-7711. 56, s 506- 517 Vis sammendrag In an experimental rat model, we recently mapped an arthritis susceptibility locus to the distal part of Chromosome 4 containing genes predicted to encode C-type lectin superfamily (CLSF) receptors. Here we report the cDNA cloning and positional arrangement of these receptor genes, which represent rat orthologues to human Mincle and DCIR and to mouse MCL and Dectin-2, as well as four novel receptors DCIR2, DCIR3, DCIR4 and DCAR1, not previously reported in other species. We furthermore report the cDNA cloning of human Dectin-2 and MCL, and of the mouse orthologues to the novel rat receptors. Similar to the killer-cell lectin-like receptors (KLR) some of these receptors exhibit structural ...
CLEC10A Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_006335), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. This gene encodes a member of the C-type lectin/C-type lectin-like domain (CTL/CTLD) superfamily. Members of this family share a common protein fold and have diverse functions, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell signalling, glycoprotein turnover, and roles in inflammation and immune response. The encoded type 2 transmembrane protein may function as a cell surface antigen. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene.
CLEC5A (abbreviazione dellinglese C-type LECtin domain family 5 member A) è una lectina che sembra avere un ruolo significativo nella attivazione della linea mieloide dellemopoiesi. ^ Entrez Gene: C-type lectin domain family 5, ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. ^ Bakker AB, Baker E, Sutherland GR, Phillips JH, Lanier LL, Myeloid DAP12-associating lectin (MDL)-1 is a cell surface receptor involved in the activation of myeloid cells, in Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., vol. 96, agosto 1999, pp. 9792-6, DOI:10.1073/pnas.96.17.9792, PMC 22289, PMID 10449773. Chen ST, Lin YL, Huang MT, et al., CLEC5A is critical for dengue-virus-induced lethal disease., in Nature, vol. 453, 2008, pp. 672-6, DOI:10.1038/nature07013, PMID 18496526. Davila S, Froeling FE, Tan A, et al., New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine., in Genes Immun., vol. 11, 2010, pp. 232-8, DOI:10.1038/gene.2010.1, PMID 20237496. Scherer SW, Cheung J, MacDonald JR, et al., Human chromosome 7: DNA sequence and ...
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Mannose Receptor, C type 1 (MRC1) is a membrane receptor that mediates the endocytosis of glycoproteins by macrophages. MRC1 binds mannose structures on the surface of viruses, bacteria, and fungi to be neutralized by phagocytosis. Changes in MCR1 have been associated with multiple diseases including the development of leprosy, sarcoidosis, Alzheimers disease, and asthma. Human has more copies of MRC1 than any other primate which could have had important implications for the multiple diseases that MRC1 may be involved in.. ...
Antigen uptake by dendritic cells and intracellular routing of antigens to specific compartments is regulated by C-type lectin receptors that recognize glycan structures. The OVA-LeX-induced enhancement of T cell cross-priming is MGL1-dependent as shown by reduced CD8+ effector T cell frequencies in MGL1-deficient mice. Moreover MGL1-mediated cross-presentation of OVA-LeX neither required TAP-transporters nor Cathepsin-S and […]. Read More ». ...
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Figure 2: Overview to helminth and DC interactions. Helminth products are recognized by receptors such as TLRs, CLRs or Scavenger receptors. These cells remain in an immature state and unresponsive to further TLR stimuli probably due to interaction and signalling of parasite molecules through CLRs. Signalling pathways that implicate ERK phosphorylation, c-Fos up-regulation and expression of SOCS proteins may play a role in downregulation of DC responses particularly by suppressing IL-12 production. Once again, interactions of helminth molecules with CLRs but also with TLRs may be involved in these inhibitory effects. Finally, these helminth-conditioned DC induce a Th2 or Treg lymphocyte responses ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-MRC1 Antibody against Human mannose receptor, C type 1. Validated for Immunohistochemistry and Western Blot
DC-SIGN cell surface distribution during monocyte-derived DC development. DC-SIGN binding activity was monitored during development of monocyte-derived DCs. As
Researchers at the University of Tokyo demonstrated that an innate immune receptor Dectin-1 directly recognizes cancer cells to activate anti-tumor innate immunity and serves an important role in the instruction of tumor cell-killing by natural killer cells.
Gourdine, Jean-Philippe, Markiv, Anatoliy and Smith-Ravin, Juliette (2007) The three-dimensional structure of codakine and related marine C-type lectins. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 23 (4). pp. 831-839. ISSN 1050-4648 ...
DC-SIGN microdomains on immature DCs bind virus-sized particles. Green fluorescent microbeads (40-nm diam) were coated with gp120 and added to the cells in a ra
J:113221 Rupp C, Dolznig H, Puri C, Sommergruber W, Kerjaschki D, Rettig WJ, Garin-Chesa P, Mouse endosialin, a C-type lectin-like cell surface receptor: expression during embryonic development and induction in experimental cancer neoangiogenesis. Cancer Immun. 2006;6:10 ...
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FUNCTION: Plays an inhibitory role on natural killer (NK) cells and T-cell functions upon binding to their non-MHC ligands. May mediate missing self recognition by binding to a highly conserved site on classical cadherins, enabling it to monitor expression of E-cadherin/CDH1, N-cadherin/CDH2 and R-cadherin/CDH4 on target cells. SUBUNIT: Forms a monomer and homodimer; disulfide-linked. Interacts (via ITIM motif) with PTPN11 and INPP5D. TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Expressed specifically on natural killer (NK) cells and T-cells, mainly CD8 T-cells. INDUCTION: By pathogens and viruses infections. DOMAIN: Contains 1 copy of a cytoplasmic motif that is referred to as the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitor motif (ITIM). This motif is involved in modulation of cellular responses. Upon phosphorylation of ITIM motif KLRG1 associates with the two phosphatases PTPN11 and INPP5D (By similarity ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Lectin that functions as pattern receptor specific for beta-1,3-linked and beta-1,6-linked glucans, such as cell wall constituents from pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Induces phosphorylation of SCIMP after binding beta-glucans (PubMed:27288407). Necessary for the TLR2-mediated inflammatory response and for TLR2-mediated activation of NF-kappa-B. Enhances cytokine production in macrophages and dendritic cells. Mediates production of reactive oxygen species in the cell. Mediates phagocytosis of C.albicans conidia. Binds T-cells in a way that does not involve their surface glycans and plays a role in T-cell activation. Stimulates T-cell proliferation. Induces phosphorylation of SCIMP after binding beta-glucans (PubMed:27288407).
... responses to tumors and virus-like infections. been determined, including NKp30CN7-L6, great cell lectin-like receptor G1Ccadherin, and NKp80CAICL. Right here, we explain crystal clear constructions established to day of NK cell receptors destined to MHC, MHC-related, and non-MHC ligands. Jointly, these constructions reveal the varied solutions that NK receptors possess created to understand these substances, therefore allowing the legislation of NK cytolytic activity by both sponsor and virus-like ligands. discussion), but also types on the same cell (discussion) (59, 60), as discussed below. LILR Reputation of UL18, a Viral MHC-I Mirror Among the bacteria that possess attained LY 2874455 great achievement in inventing strategies for resistant evasion are the cytomegaloviruses, whose genomes ITGAM encode necessary protein that get in the way with both NK T-cell and cell identification, as well as antigen application and ...
Neutrophils are among the first responders at sites of infection and are an essential arm of the innate immune system. They attack invading pathogens through a number of mechanisms, including phagocytosis and the release of lytic enzymes and reactive oxygen species, leading to an acute proinflammatory response (see commentary by Cassatella et al.). Zhang et al. investigated the responses of mouse neutrophils to bacteria and various agonists of pattern-recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and C-type lectin receptors (CLRs). Whereas individual TLR agonists (particularly Pam3, which stimulates TLR2) activated neutrophils in vitro, they did not induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines; rather, they stimulated neutrophils to produce small quantities of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10). Exposure of neutrophils to bacteria resulted in the production of much greater amounts of IL-10, which led the authors to investigate which other signals might ...
Macrophage galactose binding lectin (MGL) is the best studied of the multiple C-type lectins on macrophages [1][2]. It is also representative of the subclass of C-type lectins that bind galactose-related sugars. MGL consists of one CRD domain and contains cytoplasmic internalization motifs for endocytosis. No signaling properties have been described yet for MGL. Human MGL (CD301) and rat MGL are encoded by a single gene, whereas mice contain two MGL copies, mMGL-1 and mMGL-2 that differ in carbohydrate specificity [3][4][5]. ...
CD93是一個高度醣基化的穿膜蛋白,普遍地表現在內皮細胞、嗜中性白血球、幹細胞裡。因為CD93與thrombomodulin 的結構相似;且同屬於C-type lectin-like domain superfamily。目前已知thrombomodulin 在細胞與細胞之間貼附扮演重要角色,可以透過其lectin-like domain ...
This resource presents information about animal lectins involved in various sugar-recognition processes. The resource is organised into two sections:. Part I: Structures and functions of animal lectins. Part II: C-type lectin-like domains. ...
Carbohydrate profiling reveals a distinctive role for the C-type lectin MGL in the recognition of helminth parasites and tumor antigens by dendritic ...
Dendritic cells are immune cells, whose main function is to stimulate the differentiation of lymphocytes in lymphoid organs. During TB, dendritic cells activate, through the production of interleukin (IL)-12, T helper 1 (Th1) lymphocytes, which produce gamma interferon. Gamma interferon activates macrophages to control the TB bacillus. Thus, Th1 cells are required for protection against TB, yet their uncontrolled activation leads to inflammatory destruction of the lung tissue.The scientists discovered that a protein expressed in dendritic cells, DCIR, is required for controlling IL-12 production and Th1 differentiation by sustaining type I interferon signaling, which inhibits IL-12 synthesis. DCIR-deficient dendritic cells are impaired in responding to type I interferon, produce more IL-12 and induce an increased differentiation of Th1 cells.. ...
CD205LY-75, CLEC13BLy-75, C-type lectin domain family 13 member B, DEC-205CD205 antigen, gp200-MR6, GP200-MR6, lymphocyte antigen ...
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Edmonds-Karp come to the rescue with an insight that controls the order in which Ford-Fulkerson explores paths.. Notice that in the example above, if the shortest paths (by number of edges, not considering weight) are considered first, then the anomaly does not occur. We would find augmenting path 〈(A,B), (B,D)〉 to increase flow by 1000, then finish the job with augmenting path 〈(A,C), (C,D)〉, or find the second and then the first.. Edmonds-Karp is the Ford-Fulkerson algorithm but with the constraint that augmenting paths are computed by Breadth-First Search of Gf. ( I told you that those search algorithms are widely useful!). A proof in the CLRS text shows that the number of flow augmentations performed by Edmunds-Karp is O(VE). Since each BFS is still O(E) in a connected graph, Edunds-Karp runs in O(V E2) time. (This is O(V3) in sparse graphs and O(V5)in dense graphs.) The proof in CLRS works by bounding distances to vertices in Gf. Even better bounds are possible: this has been a very ...
High expression of DC SIGN/R was observed on DCs infected with HIV-1 (p= 0.01). DC sIGNR expression in DCs was maximally downregulated by siRNA at 24 hrs (p=0.002) and was associated with significant reduction in expression of CD40 (p= 0.003), CD80 (p=0.008), CD86 (p=0.007) and P38 MAPK (p=0.005). Transfection of DC SIGNR on DCs at 24 hours followed by infection with clade C HIV-1 demonstrated lower levels of p24 compared to that in untransfected DCs (p=0.0008). ...
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Chronic liver disease with cirrhosis is the 12th leading cause of death in the United States, and alcoholic liver disease accounts for approximately half of all cirrhosis deaths. Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with intestinal bacterial dysbiosis, yet we understand little about the contribution of intestinal fungi, or mycobiota, to alcoholic liver disease. Here we have demonstrated that chronic alcohol administration increases mycobiota populations and translocation of fungal β-glucan into systemic circulation in mice. Treating mice with antifungal agents reduced intestinal fungal overgrowth, decreased β-glucan translocation, and ameliorated ethanol-induced liver disease. Using bone marrow chimeric mice, we found that β-glucan induces liver inflammation via the C-type lectin-like receptor CLEC7A on Kupffer cells and possibly other bone marrow-derived cells. Subsequent increases in IL-1β expression and secretion contributed to hepatocyte damage and promoted development of ...
Chronic liver disease with cirrhosis is the 12th leading cause of death in the United States, and alcoholic liver disease accounts for approximately half of all cirrhosis deaths. Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with intestinal bacterial dysbiosis, yet we understand little about the contribution of intestinal fungi, or mycobiota, to alcoholic liver disease. Here we have demonstrated that chronic alcohol administration increases mycobiota populations and translocation of fungal β-glucan into systemic circulation in mice. Treating mice with antifungal agents reduced intestinal fungal overgrowth, decreased β-glucan translocation, and ameliorated ethanol-induced liver disease. Using bone marrow chimeric mice, we found that β-glucan induces liver inflammation via the C-type lectin-like receptor CLEC7A on Kupffer cells and possibly other bone marrow-derived cells. Subsequent increases in IL-1β expression and secretion contributed to hepatocyte damage and promoted development of ...
BackgroundAn experimental approach for improving vaccine efficacy involves targeting antigens to mannose receptors (MRs) on dendritic cells (DCs) and other professional antigen presenting cells. Previously, we demonstrated that mannosylated Pichia pastoris-derived recombinant proteins exhibited increased immunogenicity compared to proteins lacking mannosylation. In order to gain insight into the mechanisms responsible for this observation, the present study examined the cellular uptake of the mannosylated and deglycosylated recombinant proteins.Methodology/Principal FindingsUtilizing transfected cell lines, roles for the macrophage mannose receptor (MMR, CD206) and DC-SIGN (CD209) in the recognition of the mannosylated, but not deglycosylated, antigens were demonstrated. The uptake of mannosylated antigens into murine bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) was inhibited by yeast mannans (YMs), suggesting a mannose-specific C-type lectin receptor-dependent process, while the uptake of deglycosylated antigens
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human C-type natriuretic peptide. AU - Ogawa, Yoshihiro. AU - Nakao, Kazuwa. AU - Nakagawa, Osamu. AU - Komatsu, Yasato. AU - Hosoda, Kiminori. AU - Suga, Shin Ichi. AU - Arai, Hiroshi. AU - Nagata, Kiyoshi. AU - Yoshida, Nobuo. AU - Imura, Hiroo. PY - 1992/6. Y1 - 1992/6. N2 - We isolated the human C-type natriuretic peptide gene and identified the peptide in the brain. The human C-type natriuretic peptide gene appeared to be composed of at least two exons and one intron. In the 5′-flanking region, there is an array of cis elements (an inverted CCA AT box, two GC boxes, and a cyclic AMP response element-like sequence) that is not present in upstream sequences of the atrial and brain natriuretic peptide genes. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence revealed that human prepro C-type natriuretic peptide comprises 126 amino acids and that the C-terminal 22-residue peptide (G-L-S-K-G-C-F-G-L-K-L-D-R-I-G-S-M-S-G-L-G-C) preceded by Lys-Lys is identical to the porcine ...
Both the upper (endocervix and uterus) and lower (ectocervix and vagina) female genital tract mucosa are considered to be target sites for sexual transmission of HIV. There are a few reports on the T cell and antigen-presenting cell distribution in human endometrial tissue however, there is little known about the expression of the HIV co-receptor CCR5 and HIV-binding C-type lectin receptors on endometrial cell subsets. We therefore assessed endometrial tissue sections from HIV seronegative women undergoing hysterectomy of a benign and non-inflammatory cause for phenotypic characterization of potential HIV target cells and receptors by immunohistochemistry. Langerin was expressed on intraepithelial CD1a+CD4+ and CD11c+CD4+ Langerhans cells. Furthermore, CCR5+CD4+CD3+ T cells, DC-SIGN+MR+CD11c+ myeloid dendritic cells and MR+CD68+ macrophages were found within or adjacent to the epithelium of the uterine lumen. In addition, occasional CD123+BDCA-2+ plasmacytoid dendritic cells were detected deep ...
Background: Versican, an extracellular matrix proteoglycan, has been noted to be expressed in several malignant tumours and has been suggested to play an important role in cancer development and tumour growth.. Aims: To investigate whether the versican expression level in the peritumoural stromal tissue of primary oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) predicts relapse-free or disease-specific survival. Also, to study the associations between versican expression and several other clinicopathological variables, as well as tumour cell proliferation.. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to study the expression of versican and tumour cell proliferative activity in 139 OSCCs. All pertinent clinical data were collected retrospectively from the hospital records.. Results: In this cohort, versican expression did not correlate with the clinicopathological factors or tumour cell proliferation. In univariate analyses, higher risk for disease recurrence was associated with higher stromal versican expression ...
Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which recognize a wide range of microbial pathogens and pathogen-related products, play important roles in innate immunology. Macrophages have a variety of TLRs, and pathogen binding to TLR resulted in the activation of macrophages. R-848, an immune response modifier, is an analog of imidazoquinoline derivative and binds to an endosome-localized TLR to exert an anti-viral response on leukocytes. In the present study, we verified that co-treatment of R-848 with other TLR agonists would enhance immune response. The culture supernatant of Aureobasidium pullulans (A. pullulans, which contains predominantly soluble β-glucan), which binds to cell membrane-localized TLR, and to C-type lectin receptor Dectin-1, was treated together with R-848 to THP-1 macrophages. Compared to R-848 treatment alone, co-treatment of R-848 with A. pullulans culture supernatant significantly augmented TNF-α and IL-12p40 cytokine expression. Next, we investigated whether or not apoptotic cell uptake
This study aims to characterize the mannose receptor (MR) gene in sheep and its role in ovine visna/maedi virus (VMV) infection. The deduced amino acid sequence of ovine MR was compatible with a transmembrane protein having a cysteine-rich ricin-type amino-terminal region, a fibronectin type II repeat, eight tandem C-type lectin carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRD), a transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic carboxy-terminal tail. The ovine and bovine MR sequences were closer to each other compared to human or swine MR. Concanavalin A (ConA) inhibited VMV productive infection, which was restored by mannan totally in ovine skin fibroblasts (OSF) and partially in blood monocyte-derived macrophages (BMDM), suggesting the involvement of mannosylated residues of the VMV ENV protein in the process. ConA impaired also syncytium formation in OSF transfected with an ENV-encoding pN3-plasmid. MR transcripts were found in two common SRLV targets, BMDM and synovial membrane (GSM) cells, but not in OSF. ...

Global Glycomics/ Glycobiology Market Size, Share, Growth, Trends, Opportunities and Forecast 2017 To 2025 - Credence Research ...Global Glycomics/ Glycobiology Market Size, Share, Growth, Trends, Opportunities and Forecast 2017 To 2025 - Credence Research ...

For the purpose of this study, the glycomics market is segmented on the basis of product type such as enzymes (glycosidases, ... lectin arrays, MALDI-TOF, mass spectrometers, other instruments), kits (glycan labeling kits, glycan purification kits, glycan ...
more infohttp://www.prismcoalition.org/global-glycomics-glycobiology-market-size-share-growth-trends-opportunities-and-forecast-2017-to-2025-credence-research/

Glycomics/ Glycobiology Market Is Expected To Reach US$ 1,891.9 Mn By 2025 - Credence Research | US Share Markets		Glycomics/ Glycobiology Market Is Expected To Reach US$ 1,891.9 Mn By 2025 - Credence Research | US Share Markets

For the purpose of this study, the glycomics market is segmented on the basis of product type such as enzymes (glycosidases, ... lectin arrays, MALDI-TOF, mass spectrometers, other instruments), kits (glycan labeling kits, glycan purification kits, glycan ...
more infohttp://www.ussharemarkets.com/story/140998/glycomics-glycobiology-market-is-expected-to-reach-us-18919-mn-by-2025-credence-research.html

Glycomics/ Glycobiology Market Is Expected To Reach US$ 1,891.9 Mn By 2025 - Credence Research | Annapolis News Updates		Glycomics/ Glycobiology Market Is Expected To Reach US$ 1,891.9 Mn By 2025 - Credence Research | Annapolis News Updates

For the purpose of this study, the glycomics market is segmented on the basis of product type such as enzymes (glycosidases, ... lectin arrays, MALDI-TOF, mass spectrometers, other instruments), kits (glycan labeling kits, glycan purification kits, glycan ... Digital Thread Market Global Analysis and Forecasts by Type, Components, Landscape and its Growth Prospects over the coming ...
more infohttp://www.annapolisnewsupdates.com/story/127504/glycomics-glycobiology-market-is-expected-to-reach-us-18919-mn-by-2025-credence-research.html

What is it? / Mistletoe  (Viscum album) / Herbal products / CAM-CancerWhat is it? / Mistletoe (Viscum album) / Herbal products / CAM-Cancer

The dosing regimens vary according to extract type and either follow a constant or a variable dose. In most cases, subcutaneous ... Mengs U, Göthel D, Leng-Peschlow E: Mistletoe extracts standardized to mistletoe lectins in oncology: review on current status ... Janssen O, Scheffler A, Kabelitz D: In vitro effects of mistletoe extracts and mistletoe lectins. Cytotoxicity towards tumour ... From ill-defined extracts to the immunomodulatory lectin: will there be a reason for oncological application of mistletoe? ...
more infohttp://ws.cam-cancer.org/The-Summaries/Herbal-products/Mistletoe-Viscum-album/What-is-it

Carbon sequestration rate of Artocarpus integrifolia | ZanranCarbon sequestration rate of Artocarpus integrifolia | Zanran

chain) Artocarpus integrifolia; contains Pfam profile PF01419 jacalin-like lectin .... protein similar to jacalin Artocarpus ...
more infohttp://www.zanran.com/q/Carbon_sequestration_rate_of_Artocarpus_integrifolia

Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) - Ermas Nutrition CenterJackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) - Erma's Nutrition Center

Jackfruit lectin: properties of mitogenicity and the inhibition of herpesvirus infection. Jpn.J Infect.Dis 2000;53(4):156-161. ... Jackfruit leaves may improve glucose tolerance in normal and type 2 diabetes patients. Caution is advised when using herbs or ... Mitogenic activity of new lectins from seeds of wild Artocarpus species from Vietnam. C.R.Acad.Sci III 1996;319(5):405-409. ... Jacalin: a lectin mitogenic for human CD4 T lymphocytes. Clin Exp Immunol 1990;80(3):420-425. ...
more infohttp://www.ermasnutritioncenter.com/ns/DisplayMonograph.asp?storeID=14266C65F09F4E5C89990CB4ADD1FCE4&DocID=bottomline-jackfruit

Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) - Ermas Nutrition CenterMistletoe (Viscum album L.) - Erma's Nutrition Center

Two major types of mistletoe, European and American, contain very similar proteins and are reputed to have different uses. ... Immunologic effects of mistletoe lectins: a placebo-controlled study in healthy subjects. J Soc Integr Oncol 2006 Winter;4(1):3 ... However, mistletoe has not been proven to be effective for any one type of cancer. Larger, well-designed studies are needed ... Extracts have been studied for many types of human cancers, including bladder, breast, cervical, central nervous system (CNS), ...
more infohttp://www.ermasnutritioncenter.com/ns/DisplayMonograph.asp?storeID=14266C65F09F4E5C89990CB4ADD1FCE4&DocID=bottomline-mistletoe

Information about the P-type lectinsInformation about the P-type lectins

P-type CRDs and MRH domains. The P-type CRD was originally identified in two type I transmembrane proteins, the cation- ... P-type lectins. Sequence alignment Interpro entries: 1) Mannose 6-phosphate receptor, binding. 2) Cation-dependent mannose 6- ... The yeast protein, Yos9p, functions together with the M-type lectins in the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway used to ... Recently P-type CRD-like domains have been found in proteins with different architectures to the MPRs, and have been termed MPR ...
more infohttp://www.imperial.ac.uk/research/animallectins/ctld/classes/P-type1.html

Characterisation and differentiation of lactobacilli by lectin typingCharacterisation and differentiation of lactobacilli by lectin typing

The 56 isolates were divided into 15 different lectin types by their lectin agglutination patterns. Proteolytic treatment ... The 56 isolates were divided into 15 different lectin types by their lectin agglutination patterns. Proteolytic treatment ... The 56 isolates were divided into 15 different lectin types by their lectin agglutination patterns. Proteolytic treatment ... Characterisation and differentiation of lactobacilli by lectin typing. Annuk, Heidi; Hynes, Sean O.; Hirmo, Siiri; Mikelsaar, ...
more infohttps://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/1118646

C-type lectins in immunity: recent developments.  - PubMed - NCBIC-type lectins in immunity: recent developments. - PubMed - NCBI

C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) comprise a large superfamily of proteins, which recognise a diverse range of ligands, and are ... C-type lectins in immunity: recent developments.. Dambuza IM1, Brown GD2. ... Publication types, MeSH terms, Substances, Grant support. Publication types. *Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... defined by the presence of at least one C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD). Of particular interest are the single extracellular ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25553393

C-type lectin fold (IPR016187) | InterPro | EMBL-EBIC-type lectin fold (IPR016187) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

There are at least twelve structural families of lectins, of which C-type (Ca+-dependent) lectins is one. C-type lectins can be ... The C-type lectin fold as an evolutionary solution for massive sequence variation.. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 12 886-92 2005 ... This entry represents a structural domain found in C-type lectins, as well as in other proteins, including:. *The N-terminal ... Divergent roles for C-type lectins expressed by cells of the innate immune system.. Mol. Immunol. 41 1109-21 2004 ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR016187

C-type lectin - WikipediaC-type lectin - Wikipedia

A C-type lectin (CLEC) is a type of carbohydrate-binding protein domain known as a lectin. The C-type designation is from their ... C-Type Lectin at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Drickamer K (October 1999). "C-type lectin ... "Genomic analysis of C-type lectins". Biochem. Soc. Symp. (69): 59-72. PMID 12655774. NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptors at the US ... classified C-type lectins into 7 subgroups (I to VII) based on the order of the various protein domains in each protein. This ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C-type_lectin

C-type lectin domain family 4, member E (CLEC4E)C-type lectin domain family 4, member E (CLEC4E)

Homo sapiens C-type lectin domain family 4, member E, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:1246 IMAGE:3507103), complete cds. PA. ... C-type lectin domain family 4, member E (CLEC4E). Human protein-coding gene CLEC4E. Represented by 46 ESTs from 28 cDNA ... PREDICTED: C-type lectin domain family 4 member E isoform 2. P. troglodytes. 99.5. 218. ... PREDICTED: c-type lectin domain family 4 member E. M. mulatta. 90.0. 218. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/UniGene/clust.cgi?ORG=Hs&CID=236516

L-type lectin domain - WikipediaL-type lectin domain - Wikipedia

In molecular biology the L-like lectin domain is a protein domain found in lectins which are similar to the leguminous plant ... "Structural basis for recognition of high mannose type glycoproteins by mammalian transport lectin VIP36". J. Biol. Chem. 282 ( ... "A putative novel class of animal lectins in the secretory pathway homologous to leguminous lectins". Cell. 77 (5): 625-6. doi: ... The L-like lectin domain has an overall globular shape composed of a beta-sandwich of two major twisted antiparallel beta- ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L-type_lectin_domain

C-type lectin-like superfamilyC-type lectin-like superfamily

The SCOP classification for the C-type lectin-like superfamily including the families contained in it. Additional information ... C-type lectin-like superfamily. SCOP classification Root: SCOP hierarchy in SUPERFAMILY [. 0] (11) ... There are 124 hidden Markov models representing the C-type lectin-like superfamily. Information on how the models are built, ... Browse and view proteins in genomes which have different domain combinations including a C-type lectin-like domain. ...
more infohttp://supfam.org/SUPERFAMILY/cgi-bin/scop.cgi?ipid=SSF56436

clec-6 - C-type LECtin - Caenorhabditis elegans - clec-6 gene & proteinclec-6 - C-type LECtin - Caenorhabditis elegans - clec-6 gene & protein

IPR001304 C-type_lectin-like. IPR016186 C-type_lectin-like/link_sf. IPR018378 C-type_lectin_CS. IPR016187 CTDL_fold. IPR000859 ... IPR001304 C-type_lectin-like. IPR016186 C-type_lectin-like/link_sf. IPR018378 C-type_lectin_CS. IPR016187 CTDL_fold. IPR000859 ... PS00615 C_TYPE_LECTIN_1, 1 hit. PS50041 C_TYPE_LECTIN_2, 2 hits. PS01180 CUB, 1 hit. ... PS00615 C_TYPE_LECTIN_1, 1 hit. PS50041 C_TYPE_LECTIN_2, 2 hits. PS01180 CUB, 1 hit. ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q95QR9

clec-199 - C-type LECtin - Caenorhabditis elegans - clec-199 gene & proteinclec-199 - C-type LECtin - Caenorhabditis elegans - clec-199 gene & protein

IPR001304 C-type_lectin-like. IPR016186 C-type_lectin-like/link_sf. IPR016187 CTDL_fold. ... IPR001304 C-type_lectin-like. IPR016186 C-type_lectin-like/link_sf. IPR016187 CTDL_fold. ... C-type LECtinImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a href ... C-type lectinInterPro annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic annotation system, without ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/A0A0K3AS12

Natural killer cell receptor-like, C-type lectin-like domain (IPR033992) | InterPro | EMBL-EBINatural killer cell receptor-like, C-type lectin-like domain (IPR033992) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

C-type lectin-like (IPR001304) *Natural killer cell receptor-like, C-type lectin-like domain (IPR033992) ... osteoclast inhibitory lectin (OCIL), dendritic cell-associated C-type lectin-1 (dectin-1), human myeloid inhibitory C-type ... This entry represents a C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD) of the type found in natural killer cell receptors (NKRs), including ... Identification of a human homologue of the dendritic cell-associated C-type lectin-1, dectin-1.. Gene 272 51-60 2001 ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR033992

Monocyte galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine-specific C-type lectin recept | CMARMonocyte galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine-specific C-type lectin recept | CMAR

A peptide mimetic of a ligand for the galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine-specific C-type lectin receptors (GCLR) exhibited ... Monocyte galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine-specific C-type lectin receptor stimulant immunotherapy of an experimental glioma. ... Background: A peptide mimetic of a ligand for the galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine-specific C-type lectin receptors (GCLR) ... Monocyte galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine-specific C-type lectin receptor stimulant immunotherapy of an experimental glioma. ...
more infohttps://www.dovepress.com/1monocyte-galactosen-acetylgalactosamine-specific-c-type-lectin-r-a11012

Cancers | Free Full-Text | C-type Lectin Receptors for Tumor Eradication: Future DirectionsCancers | Free Full-Text | C-type Lectin Receptors for Tumor Eradication: Future Directions

One of the receptor-families is the C-type lectins (CLR), which bind carbohydrate structures and internalize antigens upon ... Streng-Ouwehand, I.; Unger, W.W.J.; Van Kooyk, Y. C-type Lectin Receptors for Tumor Eradication: Future Directions. Cancers ... C-type Lectin Receptors for Tumor Eradication: Future Directions. Ingeborg Streng-Ouwehand. ... Streng-Ouwehand I, Unger WWJ, Van Kooyk Y. C-type Lectin Receptors for Tumor Eradication: Future Directions. Cancers. 2011; 3(3 ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/3/3/3169

CLEC1B (C-Type Lectin Domain Family 1, Member B)CLEC1B (C-Type Lectin Domain Family 1, Member B)

C-Type Lectin Domain Family 1, Member B), Authors: Katsue Suzuki-Inoue. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. ... type II trans-membrane receptor that belongs to C-type lectin superfamily. CLEC-2 has 1 C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD) and ... C-type_lectin-like C-type_lectin-like/link_sf CTDL_fold NKR-like_CTLD ... CLEC1B (C-Type Lectin Domain Family 1, Member B). Written. 2013-11. Katsue Suzuki-Inoue. ...
more infohttp://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/Genes/CLEC1BID49856ch12p13.html

Pathogen or Damage-activated C-Type Lectin Pathways: R&D SystemsPathogen or Damage-activated C-Type Lectin Pathways: R&D Systems

Explore Pathogen or Damage-activated C-Type Lectin Receptor Signaling and biological process with our interactive pathways. ... Pathogen or Damage-activated C-Type Lectin Receptor Signaling Pathways. Click on one of the C-type Lectin receptors shown in ... Overview of Pathogen- or Damage-activated C-type Lectin Receptor Signaling Pathways. C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) are a large ... Pathogen or Damage-activated C-Type Lectin Receptor Signaling Pathways * T Cell Co-Signaling Pathway: Ligand-Receptor ...
more infohttps://www.rndsystems.com/pathways/pathogen-damage-activated-c-type-lectin-receptor-signaling-pathways

WikiGenes - CLEC3B - C-type lectin domain family 3, member BWikiGenes - CLEC3B - C-type lectin domain family 3, member B

Structure of the C-type lectin carbohydrate recognition domain of human tetranectin. Kastrup, J.S., Nielsen, B.B., Rasmussen, H ... Tetranectin (TN) is a C-type lectin involved in fibrinolysis, being the only endogenous ligand known to bind specifically to ... Synonyms: C-type lectin domain family 3 member B, Plasminogen kringle 4-binding protein, TN, TNA, Tetranectin ... Tetranectin binds hepatocyte growth factor and tissue-type plasminogen activator. Westergaard, U.B., Andersen, M.H., Heegaard, ...
more infohttps://www.wikigenes.org/e/gene/e/7123.html

C-type lectin superfamily | definition of C-type lectin superfamily by Medical dictionaryC-type lectin superfamily | definition of C-type lectin superfamily by Medical dictionary

What is C-type lectin superfamily? Meaning of C-type lectin superfamily medical term. What does C-type lectin superfamily mean? ... Looking for online definition of C-type lectin superfamily in the Medical Dictionary? C-type lectin superfamily explanation ... redirected from C-type lectin superfamily) CLEC12A. A gene on chromosome 12p13.2 that encodes a C-type lectin domain receptor ... C-type lectin superfamily , definition of C-type lectin superfamily by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/C-type+lectin+superfamily

C-Type Lectin Domain Family 6, Member A (CLEC6A) AntikörperC-Type Lectin Domain Family 6, Member A (CLEC6A) Antikörper

C-type lectin domain family 6 member A , C-type lectin superfamily member 10 , DC-associated C-type lectin 2 , dectin 2 , ... Am meisten referenzierte anti-C-Type Lectin Domain Family 6, Member A Antikörper. Show all anti-C-Type Lectin Domain Family 6, ... Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen C-Type Lectin Domain Family 6, Member A Proteine (10) und C-Type Lectin Domain Family 6, Member A ... Weitere Antikörper gegen C-Type Lectin Domain Family 6, Member A Interaktionspartner. Human C-Type Lectin Domain Family 6, ...
more infohttps://www.antikoerper-online.de/abstract/C-Type+Lectin+Domain+Family+6%2C+Member+A+
  • However, at the telomeric side of the NKG2 gene cluster a subfamily of genes expressed in different myeloid as well as nonimmune cell types rather than on NK cells has been identified [ 16 , 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • However, the surprisingly discontinuous distribution of FTLDs within each taxonomic category suggests not only an extensive structural/functional diversification of the FTLs along evolutionary lineages but also that this intriguing lectin family has been subject to frequent gene duplication, secondary loss, lateral transfer, and functional co-option. (frontiersin.org)
  • The noncollagenous (NC1) domain of collagen IV, which consists of a duplication of the C-type lectin domain, with segment swapping within and between individual domains [ PMID: 12011424 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Recognition of glycans exposed on the surface of microbial pathogens and parasites by the host's cell-associated and soluble lectins is considered the initial key step in the innate immune response of both invertebrates and vertebrates ( 1 - 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • By binding to these structures, C-type lectins mediate a variety of crucial cellular processes including cell adhesion, serum glycoprotein turnover and quick innate-type immune responses to potential pathogens [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • However, the participation of these and other lectin families in multiple intra- and extracellular functions including folding, sorting, and secretion of glycoproteins, cell-cell interactions, and signaling and transport in early development, tissue repair, and general cell functions, as well as host colonization by microbial pathogens and parasites have also been firmly established ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we report the crystal structures of human DCIR C-type lectin domains in the absence and presence of a branched N-glycan unit. (rcsb.org)
  • Trimeresurus stejnegeri lectin (TSL) was expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris under the control of alcohol oxidase (AOX1) promoter. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Outline of this thesis The studies described in this thesis have been performed to gain more insight in the recognition of Schistosoma mansoni glycans by C-type lectins and the consequences for dendritic cell mediated immune responses. (vu.nl)
  • C-Type Lectin at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Drickamer K (October 1999). (wikipedia.org)