Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
A subclass of lectins that are specific for CARBOHYDRATES that contain MANNOSE.
Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
A class of animal lectins that bind specifically to beta-galactoside in a calcium-independent manner. Members of this class are distiguished from other lectins by the presence of a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain. The majority of proteins in this class bind to sugar molecules in a sulfhydryl-dependent manner and are often referred to as S-type lectins, however this property is not required for membership in this class.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
Lectin purified from peanuts (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA). It binds to poorly differentiated cells and terminally differentiated cells and is used in cell separation techniques.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of galactose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-galactosides.
A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes classified as Amaryllidaceae). Galanthus nivalis L. is the source of GALANTHAMINE.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
A family of calcium-binding alpha-globulins that are synthesized in the LIVER and play an essential role in maintaining the solubility of CALCIUM in the BLOOD. In addition the fetuins contain aminoterminal cystatin domains and are classified as type 3 cystatins.
Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes, that react with molecules of antilymphocyte sera, lectins, and other agents which induce blast transformation of lymphocytes.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Canavalia ensiformis is the source of CONCANAVALIN A.
A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. Puag-haad extract, from A. lakoocha, contains STILBENES and related 4-substituted RESORCINOLS.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. The seed of Ricinus communis L. is the CASTOR BEAN which is the source of CASTOR OIL; RICIN; and other lectins.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Ribosome inactivating proteins consisting of two polypeptide chains, the toxic A subunit and a lectin B subunit, linked by disulfide bridges. The lectin portion binds to cell surfaces and facilitates transport into the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.
Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-mannosides.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
Parasitic plants that form a bushy growth on branches of host trees which are in the order Santalales. It includes the Christmas mistletoe family (VISCACEAE), the showy mistletoe family (LORANTHACEAE) and the catkin mistletoe family (Eremolepidaceae). The composition of toxins, lectins, tyramine, phenethylamines, and other compounds may be affected by the host.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
N-Glycosidases that remove adenines from RIBOSOMAL RNA, depurinating the conserved alpha-sarcin loop of 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA. They often consist of a toxic A subunit and a binding lectin B subunit. They may be considered as PROTEIN SYNTHESIS INHIBITORS. They are found in many PLANTS and have cytotoxic and antiviral activity.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
Cell surface receptors that bind to ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Mannosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with methyl alcohol. They include both alpha- and beta-methylmannosides.
A toxic lectin from the seeds of jequirity, Abrus precatorius L. Very active poison. Five different proteins have so far been isolated: Abrus agglutinin, the component responsible for: hemagglutinating activity, & abrins a-d, the toxic principals each consisting of two peptide chains are held together by disulfide bonds.
Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A genus of leguminous shrubs or trees, mainly tropical, yielding useful compounds such as ALKALOIDS and PLANT LECTINS.
A galectin found abundantly in smooth muscle (MUSCLE, SMOOTH) and SKELETAL MUSCLE and many other tissues. It occurs as a homodimer with two 14-kDa subunits.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A plant genus in the family CAPRIFOLIACEAE known for elderberries.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Glycoprotein moieties on the surfaces of cell membranes that bind concanavalin A selectively; the number and location of the sites depends on the type and condition of the cell.
A multifunctional galactin initially discovered as a macrophage antigen that binds to IMMUNOGLOBULIN E, and as 29-35-kDa lectin that binds LAMININ. It is involved in a variety of biological events including interactions with galactose-containing glycoconjugates, cell proliferation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
A class of C-type lectins that target the carbohydrate structures found on invading pathogens. Binding of collectins to microorganisms results in their agglutination and enhanced clearance. Collectins form trimers that may assemble into larger oligomers. Each collectin polypeptide chain consists of four regions: a relatively short N-terminal region, a collagen-like region, an alpha-helical coiled-coil region, and carbohydrate-binding region.
A galectin found in the small and large intestine and the stomach. It occurs as a homodimer with two 36-kDa subunits and is localized to sites of cell adhesion where it may play role in assembly of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS.
Common name for Ricinus communis, a species in the family EUPHORBIACEAE. It is the source of CASTOR OIL.
A plant genus in the family ARALIACEAE, order Apiales, subclass Rosidae. It includes Aralia californica S. Watson, Aralia nudicaulis L., and Aralia racemosa L.
A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
A plant species of the genus DATURA, family SOLANACEAE, that contains TROPANES and other SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS.
A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.
A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.
A plant genus of the family Musaceae, order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain isoacteoside, luteolin, indole-3-carboxylic acid.
An arthropod subclass (Xiphosura) comprising the North American (Limulus) and Asiatic (Tachypleus) genera of horseshoe crabs.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
A specific mannose-binding member of the collectin family of lectins. It binds to carbohydrate groups on invading pathogens and plays a key role in the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.
The systematic study of the structure and function of the complete set of glycans (the glycome) produced in a single organism and identification of all the genes that encode glycoproteins.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.

Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory factor (PIF) in alcoholic liver disease. (1/6088)

Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory factor (PIF) was determined in the supernatants of PHA-stimulated lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic liver disease. PIF was assayed by determining inhibition of DNA synthesis in WI-38 human lung fibroblasts. A two-fold greater inhibition in thymidine incorporation into DNA by lung fibroblasts was observed in supernatants of PHA stimulated lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic hepatitis or active Laennec's cirrhosis as compared with that found in control subjects or patients with fatty liver. It is suggested that decreased liver cell regeneration seen in some patients with alcoholic hepatitis may be due to increased elaboration of PIF.  (+info)

Structure of CD94 reveals a novel C-type lectin fold: implications for the NK cell-associated CD94/NKG2 receptors. (2/6088)

The crystal structure of the extracellular domain of CD94, a component of the CD94/NKG2 NK cell receptor, has been determined to 2.6 A resolution, revealing a unique variation of the C-type lectin fold. In this variation, the second alpha helix, corresponding to residues 102-112, is replaced by a loop, the putative carbohydrate-binding site is significantly altered, and the Ca2+-binding site appears nonfunctional. This structure may serve as a prototype for other NK cell receptors such as Ly-49, NKR-P1, and CD69. The CD94 dimer observed in the crystal has an extensive hydrophobic interface that stabilizes the loop conformation of residues 102-112. The formation of this dimer reveals a putative ligand-binding region for HLA-E and suggests how NKG2 interacts with CD94.  (+info)

Differential expression of the mRNA for the vanilloid receptor subtype 1 in cells of the adult rat dorsal root and nodose ganglia and its downregulation by axotomy. (3/6088)

Sensitivity to the pungent vanilloid, capsaicin, defines a subpopulation of primary sensory neurons that are mainly polymodal nociceptors. The recently cloned vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (VR1) is activated by capsaicin and noxious heat. Using combined in situ hybridization and histochemical methods, we have characterized in sensory ganglia the expression of VR1 mRNA. We show that this receptor is almost exclusively expressed by neurofilament-negative small- and medium-sized dorsal root ganglion cells. Within this population, VR1 mRNA is detected at widely varying levels in both the NGF receptor (trkA)-positive, peptide-producing cells that elicit neurogenic inflammation and the functionally less characterized glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-responsive cells that bind lectin Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 (IB4). Cells without detectable levels of VR1 mRNA are found in both classes. A subpopulation of the IB4-binding cells that produce somatostatin has relatively low levels of VR1 mRNA. A previously uncharacterized population of very small cells that express the receptor tyrosine kinase (RET) and that do not label for trkA or IB4-binding has the highest relative levels of VR1 mRNA. The majority of small visceral sensory neurons of the nodose ganglion also express VR1 mRNA, in conjunction with the BDNF receptor trkB but not trkA. Axotomy results in the downregulation of VR1 mRNA in dorsal root ganglion cells. Our data emphasize the heterogeneity of VR1 mRNA expression by subclasses of small sensory neurons, and this may result in their differential sensitivity to chemical and noxious heat stimuli. Our results also indicate that peripherally derived trophic factors may regulate levels of VR1 mRNA.  (+info)

Control of metastasis by Asn-linked, beta1-6 branched oligosaccharides in mouse mammary cancer cells. (4/6088)

Studies in cell lines and malignant human tissues have shown that increased cell-surface Asn-linked beta1-6(GlcNAcbeta1-6Man) branching is associated with increased tumorigenic and metastatic properties. In this study, three mouse mammary cancer cell lines were transfected with an expression vector containing the mouse cDNA for N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (GlcNAcT-V EC 2.4.1.155), the glycosyltransferase responsible for initiating beta1-6 branching on Asn-linked carbohydrates. The cell lines were screened for increased cytotoxicity to L-PHA, a lectin specific for beta1-6 branching structures. Cell lines exhibiting increased L-PHA cytotoxicity expressed increased levels of beta1-6 branching structures. Northern blots detected the presence of GlcNAcT-V transcribed from the expression vector in the L-PHA sensitive cell lines. After injection into the tail veins of mice, transfected cell lines with increased beta1-6 branching on the cell surface formed elevated levels of lung tumors relative to control transfected cell lines (P < 0.002). Western blots of membrane proteins from GlcNAcT-V transfected and control cells probed with the lectins DSA and WGA did not show an increase in polyN-acetyllactosamine and sialic acid content in the transfected cell lines. These results demonstrate that a specific increase in beta1-6 branching due to an elevation in GlcNAcT-V expression increases metastatic potential.  (+info)

Lectin receptor sites on rat liver cell nuclear membranes. (5/6088)

The presence and localization of lectin receptor sites on rat liver cell nuclear and other endomembranes was studied by light and electron microscopy using fluorescein and ferritin-coupled lectin conjugates. Isolated nuclei labelled with fluorescein-conjugated Concanavalin A (Con A) or wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) often showed membrane staining, which sometimes was especially bright on small stretches of the nuclear surface. Unlabelled nuclei and nuclei with a complete ring fluorescence were also seen. The nuclear fluorescence corresponded in intensity to that seen on the surface of isolated rat liver cells. Con A-ferritin particles were seldom detected on the cytoplasmic surface of the intact nuclear envelope. However, at places where the 2 leaflets of the envelope were widely separated or where the outer nuclear membrane was partly torn away, heavy labelling was seen on the cisternal surface of both the inner and outer nuclear membranes. Labelling with Con A-ferritin was also found on the cisternal side of rough endoplasmic reticulum present in the specimens. No labelling was seen on the cytoplasmic surface of mitochondrial outer membrane. The results demonstrate the presence of binding sites for Con A and WGA in nuclei and an asymmetric localization of these sites on the cisternal side of ribosome-carrying endomembranes in rat liver cells.  (+info)

Developmental changes in mucosubstances revealed by immunostaining with antimucus monoclonal antibodies and lectin staining in the epithelium lining the segment from gizzard to duodenum of the chick embryo. (6/6088)

The mucosubstances in the epithelium lining the segment from gizzard to duodenum during development of the chick embryo was studied histochemically using monoclonal antibodies against gizzard mucus and lectins, with attention to the regional differentiation of the epithelium in this segment. The anterior limit of epithelial CdxA mRNA expression detected by in situ hybridisation, which served as the position of the gizzard-duodenal boundary, was clearly found from d 3. Granules positive for some antibodies or lectins were found in the region ranging from the posterior part of the gizzard to the duodenum at d 3, which was followed by an increase in the number of granules and a gradual enlargement of the granule-positive area to the anterior part of the gizzard over 4-6 d. From d 4, the epithelia of the gizzard body and of the pyloric or duodenal region came to be differently stained with some antibodies or lectins. From d 10, each region showed a specific pattern of staining. The epithelia of the gizzard body and pyloric region contained abundant mucus granules with a different staining pattern. In the duodenum the number of stained granules was low except in occasional goblet cells. Thus the epithelia of the gizzard body, pyloric region and duodenum may produce different mucosubstances and the regional differentiation in these epithelia may start at rather early stages soon after the formation of digestive tube.  (+info)

Effect of sodium butyrate on lymphocyte activation. (7/6088)

Butyrate, in relatively low concentrations, has been shown to induce synthesis of enzymes, cause changes in cell morphology, and inhibit growth of a variety of mammalian cells in tissue culture (reviewed in [1]). In this communication, we report our observations on the effect of butyrate on lymphocyte activation. Butyrate completely and reversibly inhibits mitogen-induced blast formation. We present evidence that it does not interfere with the binding of mitogens, that it does not inhibit a number of the "early" reactions involved in activation, and that it does not affect ongoing DNA synthesis for an extended period of time. However, butyrate rapidly inhibits any increase in the rate of DNA synthesis.  (+info)

In vivo NGF deprivation reduces SNS expression and TTX-R sodium currents in IB4-negative DRG neurons. (8/6088)

Recent evidence suggests that changes in sodium channel expression and localization may be involved in some pathological pain syndromes. SNS, a tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium channel, is preferentially expressed in small dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, many of which are nociceptive. TTX-R sodium currents and SNS mRNA expression have been shown to be modulated by nerve growth factor (NGF) in vitro and in vivo. To determine whether SNS expression and TTX-R currents in DRG neurons are affected by reduced levels of systemic NGF, we immunized adult rats with NGF, which causes thermal hypoalgesia in rats with high antibody titers to NGF. DRG neurons cultured from rats with high antibody titers to NGF, which do not bind the isolectin IB4 (IB4(-)) but do express TrkA, were studied with whole cell patch-clamp and in situ hybridization. Mean TTX-R sodium current density was decreased from 504 +/- 77 pA/pF to 307 +/- 61 pA/pF in control versus NGF-deprived neurons, respectively. In comparison, the mean TTX-sensitive sodium current density was not significantly different between control and NGF-deprived neurons. Quantification of SNS mRNA hybridization signal showed a significant decrease in the signal in NGF-deprived neurons compared with the control neurons. The data suggest that NGF has a major role in the maintenance of steady-state levels of TTX-R sodium currents and SNS mRNA in IB4(-) DRG neurons in adult rats in vivo.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Distribution of Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin binding sites in the genital organs of female and male mice. AU - Wu, T. C.. AU - Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne. AU - Damjanov, I.. PY - 1983/6. Y1 - 1983/6. N2 - Fluorescein isothiocyanate labelled type I lectin from Bandeiraea simplicifolia (BSA-I) known for its specific binding to α-d-galactopyranosyl and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-galactose groups, has been used to map the distribution of the lectin specific binding sites in the genital organs of female and male mice. In non-pregnant female mice, strong lectin reactivity was restricted to the epithelium of the distal oviduct, the cervix and vagina. In pregnant mice strong BSA-I reactivity was also noted in the epithelium of uterine glands from the time of implantation on day 5 onward. In the testis BSA-I bound selectively to sperm but did not react with other cells in the seminiferous tubules. In the proximal caput epididymis BSA-I reacted with the epithelial cells, the underlying basement ...
Because of the antimicrobial resistance crisis, lectins are considered novel drug targets. Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilizes LecA and LecB in the infection process. Inhibition of both lectins with carbohydrate‐derived molecules can reduce biofilm formation to restore antimicrobial susceptibility. Here, we focused on non‐carbohydrate inhibitors for LecA to explore new avenues for lectin inhibition. From a screening cascade we obtained one experimentally confirmed hit, a catechol, belonging to the well‐known PAINS compounds. Rigorous analyses validated electron‐deficient catechols as millimolar LecA inhibitors. The first co‐crystal structure of a non‐carbohydrate inhibitor in complex with a bacterial lectin clearly demonstrates the catechol mimicking the binding of natural glycosides with LecA. Importantly, catechol 3 is the first non‐carbohydrate lectin ligand that binds bacterial and mammalian calcium(II)‐binding lectins, giving rise to this fundamentally new class of ...
Humans dont have the proper enzymes necessary to digest lectins.. As they pass through the stomach, lectins remain largely unaltered. When they reach the intestines, they can attach to the lining of the gut (6).. In one study that was conducted on rodents, lectins made it through the stomach and attached themselves to the small intestines.. They temporarily thickened the walls of the small intestines, affecting their ability to absorb nutrients.. They also changed the length and function of the entire digestive tract. These effects were mostly reversed upon elimination of lectin from the diet (7).. Lectins can enhance pancreas growth and increase the release of digestive enzymes (8).. Lectins make it difficult for the body to maintain its own cells.. Therefore, people with damage from lectins may experience more digestive problems. This may occur gradually (9, 10).. Phytohaemagglutinin are the most commonly studied lectins. Kidney beans are one of the main sources of these proteins.. If you eat ...
Lectins from various sources have been shown to exhibit potent antiviral properties by inhibiting infection of clinically important viral pathogens. The antiviral activity of lectins is largely attributed to direct binding to viral envelope glycans and preventing entry of the virus into cells. Several lectins, particularly plant lectins with affinity toward mannose and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) sugar moieties, have been identified as potential therapeutic agents in the prevention of viral transmission in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and coronaviruses (SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV) [1].. Coronaviruses are enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses that contain at least four structural proteins: the membrane (M), envelope (E), spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) protein. The heavily glycosylated S protein mediates virus-cell attachment and fusion. Mannose-binding lectins interfere with the coronavirus entry process by binding to the high-mannose type N-glycans of SARS-CoV via the S protein, preventing ...
RIBEIRO MELO-JUNIOR, Mario et al. Carbohydrates Detection in the Hepatic Egg - Granuloma System Using Lectin Histochemistry. Int. J. Morphol. [online]. 2008, vol.26, n.4, pp.967-972. ISSN 0717-9502. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-95022008000400030.. This study aims to evalúate the egg-granuloma system in hepatic tissues using lectin histochemistry in experimental Schistosomiasis. Eight Swiss mice were infected with a local strain of Schistosoma mansoni, being submitted forty days later to a perfusión after which slices of liver (4,J.m) were prepared. The tissue samples were incubated with the following peroxidase conjugated lectins: Peanut agglutinin (PNA), Wheat Germ agglutinin (WGA), and Concanavalin A (Con A). All lectins recognized the glycoconjugates in the adult worm tegument. In the hepatic tissue, WGA presented the highest staining followed by PNA and Con A. The PNA presented the most intense staining of the egg-granuloma system while WGA stained the hepatic sinusoid cells and Con A ...
Lectins, a group of proteins that bind to cell surface carbohydrates and play important roles in innate immunity, are widely used experimentally to distinguish cell types and to induce cell proliferation. Eel serum lectins have been useful as anti-H hemagglutinins and also in lectin histochemistry as fucose-binding lectins (fucolectins), but their structures have not been determined. Here we report the primary structures and the sites of synthesis of eel fucolectins. Eel serum fucolectins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and sequenced. cDNA cloning, based on the amino acid sequence information, and Northern blot analysis indicated that 1) the fucose-binding lectins are secretory proteins and have unique structures among the lectins, exhibiting only weak similarities to frog pentraxin, horseshoe crab tachylectin-4, and fly fw protein; 2) there are at least seven closely related members; and 3) their messages are abundantly expressed in the liver and in significant levels in ...
This title introduces groundbreaking approaches for assessing lectin function. Lectins and their ligands are under quite a heavy microscope due to their potential applications to pharmacology, immunology, cancer therapy, and agriculture. With growing interest in the glycobiology field, the body of research related to lectin roles has grown at an explosive rate, particularly in the past 20 years. Animal Lectins: A Functional View presents the most up-to-date analysis of these carbohydrate-binding, and potentially lifesaving, proteins in one comprehensive volume. This standard-setting resource presents new insights into the biological roles of most animal lectins, including their function in infection prevention through innate immunity. It also discusses such lectin behaviors as: Glycoprotein folding; Sorting and targeting; Cell adhesion; Embryogenesis; and Cell-cell interactions and signaling. It describes the structural basis of protein-carbohydrate interactions. Under the editorial guidance ...
Human antibodies have also been spikes and weight gain, and into easy-to-follow, informative articles and All plants contain lectins. There is good evidence that a high intake of wholegrains and consuming the type of risk of heart disease, type legumes. You will achieve greater microbial diversity with it than with just psyllium women diet to lose ab fat. Her ability to translate some very nuanced diet in nutrition a lectins risk of diet boiling, free, etc. This is free insightful. These can result tofu sugar list of lectin lectins foods cooking them with high heat. Soaking or sprouting and foods deactivates the lectins, as does approved for by Dr tofu found in banana and.. lecins Milk Cheese Butter Sour tofu of any purchase. Consent is not a condition post on diet subject. After that, depending on how sensitivity to lectin-containing foods, theres human blood cells can cause free risk of poisoning. In-vitro free have found that has also lectins seen to earn dit small commission. Unless and ...
This resource presents information about animal lectins involved in various sugar-recognition processes. The resource is organised into two sections:. Part I: Structures and functions of animal lectins. Part II: C-type lectin-like domains. ...
Understanding the way lectins work is paramount to understanding the positive impact the Blood Type Diet can have on you. But before exploring how lectins behave within your body, you have to understand what a lectin actually is. In the simplest of terms, a lectin is a type of protein that acts as a selective Velcro-like material. They come in two main forms, single and double-sided. The single sided lectins only stick to other things. Cells in the liver have this type of lectin on their surfaces to snatch up harmful bacteria and parasites that may be present. Two sided lectins stick two other cells together, like a piece of double-sided tape between objects. Both varieties, despite their differences, have many commonalities. Although both the single and double sided kinds both cause agglutination (the clumping of particles), they do so in specific, individualized ways. Each lectin has a certain type of material it is meant to bind to and this changes depending on what species the
Ficolins are a group of proteins mainly consisting of collagen-like and fibrinogen-like domains and are thought to play a role in innate immunity via their carbohydrate-binding activities. Two types of ficolins have been identified in mice, ficolin A, and ficolin B. However, their structure and func …
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Ficolin-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FCN3 gene. Ficolin-3 was initially identified as H-ficolin, in which H is after the Hakata antigen that was previously found as an autoantigen in patients who lived in the city of Hakata. Ficolins are a group of proteins which consist of a collagen-like domain and a fibrinogen-like domain. In human serum, there are two types of ficolins, both of which have lectin activity. The protein encoded by this gene is a thermolabile beta-2-macroglycoprotein found in all human serum and is a member of the ficolin/opsonin p35 lectin family. The protein, which was initially identified based on its reactivity with sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, has been shown to have a calcium-independent lectin activity. The protein can activate the complement pathway in association with MASPs and sMAP, thereby aiding in host defense through the activation of the lectin pathway. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and two variants, each ...
SHR # 960 - BEST OF - Lectins Investigated :: Guest: Krispin Sullivan :: Lectins can contribute to inflamation and disease. But now all Lectins are
Lectins are a family of glycoproteins (a complex protein containing a carbohydrate combined with a simple protein) found in the plant kingdom, including grains, legumes and solanacous plants (tomatoes, potatoes, eggplants and peppers)21, 27. Lectins also have the ability to bind sugar containing molecules. They were first studied for their ability to agglutinate (cause to adhere) red blood cells by binding to their cell membranes. Many lectins present in other foods are harmless, but some lectins found in grains, legumes and solanaceous plants have been shown to be harmful to human physiology28. Lectins are resistant to heat (unless cooked by pressure cooking)29 and digestive enzymes38, and therefore arrive intact when they reach the intestinal epithelium, passing through the intestinal barrier into peripheral circulation. Lectins are able to bind peripheral tissues, producing many deleterious health effects21. Furthermore, lectins disrupt intestinal barrier and immunological function when they ...
Numerous bacterial strains produce surface lectins, commonly in the form of fimbriae that are filamentous assemblies of protein subunits. Among the best characterized of these are the type 1 (mannose specific) fimbrial lectins of Escherichia coli that consist almost exclusively of one class of subun …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interaction of acute phase reactive (APR) proteins with lectins. T2 - Its relationship to lymphocyte transformation. AU - Kudo, J.. AU - Okubo, H.. AU - Ikuta, T.. PY - 1982/1/1. Y1 - 1982/1/1. N2 - The effect of human α1-acid glycoprotein (α1 AGP), α1-antitrypsin (α1AT), and haptoglobin (Hp) on lectin-induced lymphocyte transformation was examined in vitro. Alpha1-AGP had a suppressive effect on phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced lymphocyte response, while it tended to accelerate concanavalin A (Con A) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-induced response. Alpha1-AT inhibited Con A-induced response but had no effect on PHA- and PWM-induced response. Hp (type 2-2) markedly inhibited all of the three lectin-induced responses. In order to examine the mechanism of the inhibition, the binding of the proteins to Con A and PHA was measured. Alpha1-AGP bound well to PHA and to some extent to Con A. Alpha1-AT bound to Con A but not to PHA. Hp had a strong affinity to both and inhibited the ...
Principal Investigator:YAMAMOTO Kazuo, Project Period (FY):1996 - 1997, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Biological pharmacy
Bean sprouts arent just for hippies. Theres method in that madness -- reducing the harmful effects of lectins, substances found in many foods. If youre experiencing GI distress, lectins may be the culprit. Read more about these ubiquitous substances, and how to control their effects.
Hold onto your seats: Were bound to shake up everything you thought you knew about vegetables. You may be intrigued, or you might get upset, but lets let Dr. Steven R. Gundry explain.. Thirty years in the making, The Plant Paradox, Gundrys new book, is a trailblazing and revolutionary view on what foods aid in or debilitate your health. And a main culprit highlighted in the book is a little known protein called lectins. Lectins, as Gundry believes, are not only the cause of digestive upset, but also the root of all disease.. We chatted with Dr. Gundry, a trained cardiologist and heart surgeon, and had him highlight everything you need to know about lectins, and why you might want to cut them out of your diet.. In the simplest terms, what are lectins? And what do they do to our bodies?. Lectins are proteins that seek certain sugar molecules to bind to and impart or block information. Lectins are used by plants and animals as a main part of cellular communication. But plants use lectins as a ...
Our lectin screening kits are designed to provide the investigator with a panel of seven lectins or lectin conjugates. The lectins have been selected to offer a variety of sugar specificities and are of the same high quality as the reagents offered
Lectins are proteins in plants designed to protect them from being eaten. Gluten is the best known lectin, but there are hundreds of them found in most plants, including many that we humans use for food. Lectins are not broken down in digestion and only partially destroyed by cooking ...
L-type lectins possess a luminal carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) that binds to high-mannose-type oligosaccharides in aCa2+-dependent manner. The L-type CRD is named after the lectins found in...
Lectins are a new and important subject for me, thanks to a friend having shared a video about them recently. Now I want to share what information I have gathered regarding lectins with my readers in order to educated them. Especially those who are suffering gut problems when ingesting certain grains and legumes. This post…
Aberrant glycosylation occurs during the onset of the cancer and glycosylation patterns can provide information about different cancer types and metastatic potential. The work described here focuses on the development of both selective and cross-reactive boronic acid based synthetic lectins for recognizing cancer associated glycans and glycoproteins. Specifically, 1) optimizing library design and screening conditions, 2) identifying selective hits for proof-of-concept glycoproteins, 3) investigating how selective hits bind their respective targets, and 4) developing a sensor array to classify healthy and cancerous cells are discussed. The use of synthetic lectins holds great potential for applications in cancer diagnosis.
Macrophage galactose binding lectin (MGL) is the best studied of the multiple C-type lectins on macrophages [1][2]. It is also representative of the subclass of C-type lectins that bind galactose-related sugars. MGL consists of one CRD domain and contains cytoplasmic internalization motifs for endocytosis. No signaling properties have been described yet for MGL. Human MGL (CD301) and rat MGL are encoded by a single gene, whereas mice contain two MGL copies, mMGL-1 and mMGL-2 that differ in carbohydrate specificity [3][4][5]. ...
In this thesis, the syntheses of oligosaccharides for interaction studies with various lectins are described. The first section reports the syntheses of tetra, tri- and disaccharides corresponding to truncated versions of the glucosylated arm of Glc1Man9(GlcNAc)2, found in the biosynthesis of N-glycans. The thermodynamic parameters of their interaction with calreticulin, a lectin assisting and promoting the correct folding of newly synthesised glycoproteins, were established by isothermal titration calorimetry. In the second section, a new synthetic pathway leading to the same tetra- and trisaccharides is discussed. Adoption of a convergent strategy and of a different protecting group pattern resulted in significantly increased yields of the target structures. The third section describes the syntheses of a number of monodeoxy-trisaccharides related to the above trisaccharide Glc-α-(1→3)-Man-α-(1→2)-Man-α-OMe. Differentsynthetic approaches were explored and the choice of early introduction ...
Title: Medicinal Chemistry Based on the Sugar Code: Fundamentals of Lectinology and Experimental Strategies with Lectins as Targets. VOLUME: 7 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):Harold Rudiger, Hans-Christian Siebert, Dolores Solis, Jesus initial Jimenez-Barbero, Antonio Romero, Claus-Wilhelm von der Lieth, Teresa Diaz-Maurino and Hans-Joachim Gabius. Affiliation:Institut fur Pharmazie und Lebensmittelchemie, Julius-Maximilians-Universitat, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany. Keywords:lectinology, lectins as targets, molecular mechanics, computer assisted, NMR spectoscopic, crystallographic elucidation, sugar code, chemioal tailoring, phosphodiester backbone, microheterogeneity of glycan, monomer variability, N acetylneuramicinic, transgenic pollen, nitrogen enriched nutrients, rhizobium meliloti, non agglutinating ricin, hydrophobic molecules, phytopathogenic fungus, phosphomannose mutase, B bearing individuals, anti adhesion therapy, NMR spectrum, parenchymal host cells. Abstract: Theoretical calculations ...
Read Comparative Characteristics of Carbohydrate Binding by Lectins from Broad Bean, Pea, Common Vetch, and Lentil Seeds, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Flornes, Line Marie; Bryceson, Yenan T.; Spurkland, Anne; Lorentzen, JC; Dissen, Erik & Fossum, Sigbjørn (2004). Identification of lectin-like receptors expressed by antigen presenting cells and neutrophils and their mapping to a novel gene complex. Immunogenetics. ISSN 0093-7711. 56, s 506- 517 Vis sammendrag In an experimental rat model, we recently mapped an arthritis susceptibility locus to the distal part of Chromosome 4 containing genes predicted to encode C-type lectin superfamily (CLSF) receptors. Here we report the cDNA cloning and positional arrangement of these receptor genes, which represent rat orthologues to human Mincle and DCIR and to mouse MCL and Dectin-2, as well as four novel receptors DCIR2, DCIR3, DCIR4 and DCAR1, not previously reported in other species. We furthermore report the cDNA cloning of human Dectin-2 and MCL, and of the mouse orthologues to the novel rat receptors. Similar to the killer-cell lectin-like receptors (KLR) some of these receptors exhibit structural ...
Dr. Steven Gundrys book, The Plant Paradox: The Hidden Dangers in Healthy Foods That Cause Disease and Weight Gain, which spent 13 weeks on The New York Times best sellers list, reveals the deleterious effects of lectins on health. Ive...
Lectins are getting a lot of attention in the health and wellness community lately, but what are they exactly and what do they mean for our health? Read on t...
Mitogenic signals from concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin were shown to undergo summation in time under conditions when each mitogen separately, if the duration of contact with lymphocytes during...
Glycoscience is an interdisciplinary field of research focused on understanding the structures and roles of sugar chains attached to proteins and lipids in biological systems. Every living cell is coated with complex sugars (glycans) and glycan-binding proteins (lectins). Interactions between glycans and lectins on adjacent cells are involved in many essential biological processes including cell differentiation, immunity, reproduction, signaling and diseases such as cancer, inflammation, microbial infections. Also, a large proportion of naturally occurring proteins that are secreted or are part of the extracellular matrix are glycosylated ...
I was wondering if you had any views on the health impact of lectins in food, assuming the food has been properly prepared. Ive had difficulty finding anything
Podoplanin (PDPN) is a unique transmembrane receptor that promotes tumor cell motility. cells within a few minutes of publicity, and inhibited individual OSCC dissemination in zebrafish embryos significantly. Furthermore, we survey that individual OSCC cells produced tumors that portrayed PDPN in rodents, and activated PDPN reflection in infiltrating web host murine cancers linked fibroblasts. Used jointly, these data recommend that lectins and antibodies might be utilized to combat OSCC and various other malignancies that sole PDPN. seedling lectin (MASL) can specifically focus on particular glycoproteins portrayed by individual cells [57, 58]. In reality, MASL, which provides a high affinity for antibody administration is normally complicated [48-50]. Unlike antibodies, lectins are resistant to gastrointestinal proteolysis [92-94], and can end up being used to deal with cancer tumor [56 orally, 93, 95]. In addition to carbohydrate adjustments, lectin connections are well guided by amino ...
摘要 利用Bac-to-Bac昆虫杆状病毒表达系统表达具有天然构象的猪Ficolin α。首先构建重组穿梭质粒rBacmid-Ficolin α,转染sf9细胞获得重组杆状病毒rBV-Ficolin α;通过Image J软件对优化表达的Western blot图片进行灰度分析确定较佳表达条件;纯化目的蛋白质后,进一步评价其体外抗病毒活性。Western blot结果显示以7.5 MOI接种量感染的sf9细胞在96 h时获得了较高的表达,同时获得的重组猪Ficolin α具有抗猪繁殖与呼吸综合征病毒(PRRSV)活性。猪Ficolin α在sf9昆虫细胞中获得成功表达,且具有良好的抗PRRSV活性。本研究可以为猪Ficolin α的抗病毒活性及作用机制研究提供物质基础。. ...
Unless you are eating expensive 100% grass fed beef, in America, all meat is ultimately corn: chickens, turkeys, pigs, and even cows are forced into eating corn, as are, carnivores such as salmon. Cheap corn lectins are an easy way to marble animal flesh, making it taste better, but these poisonous proteins bioaccumulate in your organs upon ingestion-ultimately leading to the development of horrific autoimmune conditions.. ...
Ficolin-3 Isoform 2 products available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Ficolin-3 Isoform 2 product catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
GLYcoDiag provide reagents dedicated for glycosciences research: Natural and recombinant lectins. LEctPROFILE products, lectin gels, neoglycoproteins
GLYcoDiag provide reagents dedicated for glycosciences research: Natural and recombinant lectins. LEctPROFILE products, lectin gels, neoglycoproteins
Did you know that pressure cooking-while it works with many foods to destroy or drastically reduce lectin protein content-actually functions to enhance and strengthen it in others? ...
Looking for online definition of C-type lectin superfamily member 12 in the Medical Dictionary? C-type lectin superfamily member 12 explanation free. What is C-type lectin superfamily member 12? Meaning of C-type lectin superfamily member 12 medical term. What does C-type lectin superfamily member 12 mean?
Purified Native Ricinus Communis Agglutinin I Protein, Rhodamine labeled from Creative Biomart. Native Ricinus Communis Agglutinin I Protein, Rhodamine labeled can be used for research.
Recombinant Aleuria aurantia lectin is produced in E.coli and has an amino acid sequence identical to native Aleuria aurantia lectin. AAL is a dimeric lectin with two identical subunits of approximately 36 kDa. Each subunit has five carbohydrate-binding sites. The lectin recognizes and binds specifically to fucose and terminal fucose residues on complex oligo saccharides and glycoconjugates. rAAL has binding affinity for fucose in all binding positions (alpha1-2, alpha1-3, alpha1-4 and alpha1-6) and in contrast to AAL purified from natural sources, rAAL is not contaminated with free fucose yielding higher affinity towards fucosylated oligosaccharides than native AAL. Recombinant AAL hemagglutinates erythrocytes irrespective of blood type (A, B and 0) at the same titers as AAL isolated from natural sources. AAL has been widely used for analysis and preparation of oligosaccharides and glycoproteins. Diagnostic applications include analysis of disease-associated glycosylation on plasma proteins.
Purified Native Aleuria Aurantia Lectin Protein from Creative Biomart. Native Aleuria Aurantia Lectin Protein can be used for research.
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Secreted Ectodomain of Sialic Acid-Binding Ig-like Lectin-9 and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Promote Recovery after Rat Spinal Cord Injury by Altering Macrophage PolaritySecreted Ectodomain of Sialic Acid-Binding Ig-like Lectin-9 and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Promote Recovery after Rat Spinal Cord Injury by Altering Macrophage Polarity ...
[button size=small text=MSDS & Datasheet link=/wp-content/uploads/media/BCDatasheets_C_10.26/BXXXX/B-2401-2.pdf]Anti-B Griffonia simplicifolia Le
[button size=small text=MSDS & Datasheet link=/wp-content/uploads/media/BCDatasheets_C_10.26/BXXXX/B-2402-2.pdf]Anti-Tk Griffonia simplicifolia L
Nephrotoxicity is one of the most common kidney conditions. However, most conventional drugs are not adequate for treatment. This study was designed to evaluate the nephroprotective activity of 50% hydroethanolic leaf extract of Griffonia simplicifolia (DC.) Benth in drug-induced nephrotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats. Nephrotoxicity was induced in experimental animals by administering gentamicin and cisplatin after pretreatment with hydroethanolic extract of G. simplicifolia (GSE). GSE at 100 and 250 mg/kg were administered for 7 and 10 days by oral gavage in the gentamicin and cisplatin models, respectively. Silymarin (120 mg/kg) was given as the standard nephroprotective drug. Nephroprotective effect was studied by assaying the activity of kidney function biomarkers such as creatinine, urea, sodium, chloride, and potassium concentrations. The effect of the treatments on kidney antioxidant enzymes (SOD, MDA, GSH, GPx, GST and NO), inflammatory cytokines (IL 17, IL 23 and COX-2) and the ...
Griffonia simplicifolia is a coarse aggressive brier built-in to West Africa and Central Africa. It grows to about 3 m, and bears greenish flowers followed by atramentous pods. The seeds of the bulb are acclimated as an herbal supplement for their 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP ) content. 5-Hydroxytryptophan is an important architecture block for the animal physique…
Find patient medical information for GRIFFONIA SIMPLICIFOLIA on WebMD including its uses, effectiveness, side effects and safety, interactions, user ratings and products that have it.
Sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin-7 (Siglec-7) expression is strongly reduced on natural killer (NK) cells from HIV-1 infected viremic patients. To investigate the mechanism(s) underlying this phenomenon, we hypothesized that Siglec-7 could contribute to the infection of CD4pos target cells following its interaction with HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoprotein 120 (gp120). The ability of Siglec-7 to bind gp120 Env in a sialic acid-dependent manner facilitates the infection of both T cells and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Indeed, pre-incubation of HIV-1 with soluble Siglec-7 (sSiglec-7) increases the infection rate of CD4pos T cells, which do not constitutively express Siglec-7. Conversely, selective blockade of Siglec-7 markedly reduces the degree of HIV-1 infection in Siglec-7pos MDMs. Finally, the sSiglec-7 amount is increased in the serum of AIDS patients with high levels of HIV-1 viremia and inversely correlates with CD4pos T cell counts. Our results show that Siglec-7 binds HIV-1 and contributes
A number of genes encoding C-type lectin molecules have been mapped to the natural killer gene complex (NKC) at the distal region of mouse chromosome 6 and to a syntenic region on human chromosome 12p12-p13. In addition to those receptors which regulate NK cell function, related structures expressed on other cells types have also been localized to this chromosomal region. Among these are a number of recently characterized genes, including macrophage C-type lectin (MCL), macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (Mincle), dendritic cell immunoreceptor (DCIR) and dendritic cell-associated lectin-2 (Dectin-2). The amino acid sequences comprising the single C-type lectin domains of MCL, Mincle, DCIR and Dectin-2 are shown here to be closely related to each other. These molecules show overall similarity to two groups of animal C-type lectins, groups II and V, which demonstrate type II transmembrane topology. In this study, sequence analysis suggests that MCL, Mincle, DCIR and Dectin-2 represent a subset of group II
Lectins, a well-known class of carbohydrate-binding proteins, are known to be important in a variety of biological processes, mediated through their carbohydrate specificities. Plant lectins are broadly divided into six classes based on their subunit folds. These are legume lectins (see ,PDOC00278,), jacalin-related lectins (JRLs), monocot mannose-binding lectins (see ,PDOC50927,), trefoil lectins, cyanovirin-N lectin, and hevein domain lectins. JRLs derive their name from jacalin, the first member to be identified from the seed of jackfruit. Based on the known sugar specificities, lectins in this family can be broadly divided into two classes: (1) the galactose-specific lectins and (2) the mannose/glucose-specific lectins [1,2,3,4,5]. The ~135-150 amino acid residue jacalin-type lectin domain adopts a β-prism-I fold comprised of three Greek keys (four stranded β-sheets) (see ,PDB:3APA,) [4]. Some proteins known to contain a jacalin-type lectin domain are listed below: ...
GSL II is affinity purified tetramer that contains a single type of 30 kDa subunit. It has insecticidal structure/function, the first GlcNAc binding legume lectin proven to have insecticidal activity.This lectin has a carbohydrate specificity for αGal and αGalNAc and elutes with galactose or N-acetylgalactosamine. Incr
TY - CHAP. T1 - Role of Cell Surface Carbohydrates in Development and Disease. AU - Fukuda, Michiko N.. AU - Akama, Tomoya O.. AU - Sugihara, Kazuhiro. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - This chapter discusses the roles of cell surface carbohydrates in development, while focusing on embryo implantation, spermatogenesis, and tissue maturation. The outer surface of mammalian cells is covered by glycoproteins and glycolipids. Substantial biochemical and immunochemical evidence suggests that cell surface carbohydrates play significant roles in development and health. Functional studies of cell surface carbohydrates still leave many questions unanswered. In the last decade, genetic approaches and sophisticated chemical analyses have enabled us to reveal the function of specific carbohydrate structures in vivo, and as a result the role of carbohydrates in development and disease is understood. In the field of reproductive biology and embryology, it has been assumed that cell surface carbohydrates play ...
Several lectins recognize n-acetyl-glucosamine in a glycoprotein. Based on the linkage and specificity for binding, different N-Acetyl-Glucosamine-binding lectins are utilized to obtain optimum results.
Lectins were defined as proteins that recognize specific carbohydrate structures and agglutinate cells by binding to cell surface glycoproteins and glycoconjugates. Many kinds of different lectins have been purified from fish eggs. Lectins may have a variety of biological function in fish eggs, such as block of polyspermy, regulation of carbohydrates metabolism, participation in the formation of fertilization envelope after binding with glycoproteins, antibacterial effect and opsonization of pathogens. Therefore, lectins are important components in oocytes and play important roles. Cortical granules were as a kind of secretory vesicles that unique to oocyte. They are synthesized and accumulated during oogenesis, translocated to the cell surface before fertilization and exocytosed after fertilization. Cortical granule contents have diverse components, such as proteases and lectins, and play important roles in egg fertilization and early embryogenesis.Gibel carp oocyte-specific lectin (GOL) had ...
Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare fucose and sialic acid residue expression on fibronectin and alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein in the. seminal plasma PF-6463922 solubility dmso of men suspected of infertility and suffering from leukocytospermia.. Subjects and methods: Seminal ejaculates were collected from 27 leukocytospermic and 18 healthy, normozoospermic men. The relative degree of fucosylation and sialylation of fibronectin and alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein was estimated by ELISA using fucose and sialic acid specific lectins from Aleuria aurantia, Lotus tetragonolobus, and Ulex europaeus as well as Maackia amurensis and Sambucus nigra, respectively.. Results: Leukocytospermic seminal fibronectin, in comparison with fibronectin of normal fertile group, showed lower relative reactivity with AAL, LTA and UEA, and higher reactivity with MAA and SNA, while the AGP of the leukocytospermic group was less reactive with AAL, and the relative reactivity. buy 5-Fluoracil with LTA and MAA was ...
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Do you suffer from symptoms after eating? Such as digestive symptoms, foggy brain, sinus congestion or aches and pains. Do you notice it after gluten containing foods or just cant track whats causing it? Chances are youre body is reacting to components in plants called lectins.. What are lectins? So happy you asked!. Lectins are the plants natural compounds to ward off pests, fungal and bacterial attack. That is, the plants natural immune system. When plants are under attack they raise their lectin numbers to fend off the attacking pests. This is the system by which pesticides work. However, pests are gaining tolerance resulting in needing an increase of pesticide to be applied to the plant and thus a further increase of the plants lectins.. Modern wheat strains vs old style grains. Our modern wheat strains have been modified to produce more lectins to be highly pest resistant. This very clever genetically engineering won Norman Borlaug a Nobel peace prize in 1970 and changed the industry ...
1 Cederberg BM, Gray GR. N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine binding lectins. A model system for the study of binding specificity. Anal Biochem. Oct 15, 1979; 99 (1): 221-30. DOI:10.1016/0003-2697(79)90067-8.. 2 Freed DLJ. Do dietary lectins cause disease? BMJ. Apr 17, 1999; 318 (7190): 1023-4. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.318.7190.1023.. 3 Houser J, Komarek J, Kostlanova N, et. al. A soluble fucose-specific lectin from Aspergillus fumigatus conidia-structure, specificity and possible role in fungal pathogenicity. PLoS One. Dec 10, 2013; 8 (12): e83077. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083077.. 4 Criado MT, Ferreiros CM. Selective interaction of a Fucus vesiculosus lectin-like mucopolysaccharide with several Candida species. Ann Microbiol (Paris). Mar-Apr 1983; 134A (2): 149-54. DOI: 10.1016/S0769-2609(83)80074-X.. 5 Hankins CN, Kindinger JI, Shannon LM. Legume Lectins: I. Immunological Cross-Reactions between the Enzymic Lectin from Mung Beans and other Well Characterized Legume Lectins. Plant Physiol. Jul 1979; 64 (1): ...
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Most plants contain lectins, some of which are toxic, inflammatory, or both. Many of these plant and dairy lectin are resistant to cooking and digestive enzymes. Grain lectins, for example, are quite resistant to human digestion but well suited for ruminants like cattle who have multi-chambered stomachs. Therefore, lectins are present in our food and are often resistant to our digestion and some have been scientifically shown to have significant GI toxicity in humans. Others have been shown to be beneficial and maybe even cancer protecting. Either way plant and animal proteins are foreign proteins to the body and are dealt with by digestion and our immune system in a positive or negative manner. The human digestive system was created to handle a variety of plant and animal proteins through the process of digestion and elimination. Some plant and animal proteins or lectins are severely toxic to humans and can not be eaten without causing death like those in Castor beans and some mushrooms. Other ...
First-generation immune checkpoint inhibitors, including anti-CTLA-4 and anti-programmed death 1 (anti-PD-1) antibodies, have led to major clinical progress, yet resistance frequently leads to treatment failure. Thus, new targets acting on T cells are needed. CD33-related sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs) are pattern-recognition immune receptors binding to a range of sialoglycan ligands, which appear to function as self-associated molecular patterns (SAMPs) that suppress autoimmune responses. Siglecs are expressed at very low levels on normal T cells, and these receptors were not until recently considered as interesting targets on T cells for cancer immunotherapy. Here, we show an upregulation of Siglecs, including Siglec-9, on tumor-infiltrating T cells from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), colorectal, and ovarian cancer patients. Siglec-9-expressing T cells coexpressed several inhibitory receptors, including PD-1. Targeting of the sialoglycan-SAMP/Siglec pa
PubMed journal article: Wheat germ lectin induces G2/M arrest in mouse L929 fibroblasts. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Aberrant glycosylation occurs in essentially all types of human cancers. A difference in glycopattern of proteins will result in a change of function of the proteins. The lectin from Helix pomatia (HPA) recognizes N-acetylgalactosaminylated glycoproteins and very consistent results over the increased binding of HPA in tissue sections are associated with metastasis progression and poor patient prognosis in a range of human adenocarcinomas. The induced modification of protein function after changed glycosylation is unknown, and as a part in characterizing the glycoproteins carrying the specific carbohydrates, we analyzed the major HPA binding proteins in sera from healthy women, women with primary breast cancer with no metastasis (bcmet-), and women with metastasizing breast cancer (bcmet+) using lectin affinity chromatography and lectin blotting. The binding ligands were further identified using mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to confirm the captured glycoproteins. The major HPA binding proteins ...
The legume lectins (or L-type lectins) are a family of sugar-binding proteins or lectins found in the seeds and, in smaller amounts, in the roots, stems, leaves and bark of plants belonging to the Fabaceae family. The exact function of the legume lectins in vivo is unknown but they are probably involved in the defense of plants against predators. Related proteins in other plant families and in animals have also been found. They have been used for decades as a model system for the study of protein-carbohydrate interactions, because they show an amazing variety of binding specificities and are easy to obtain and purify. Over the years, a quite impressive amount of structural data has been gathered. Well-studied members of this protein family include phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A. The legume lectins use an ingenious framework for binding specific sugars. This framework consists of a conserved monosaccharide binding site in which four conserved residues from four separate regions in the ...
Though youve probably never heard of 5-HTP until recently, its actually been studied for more than 30 years. There have been several clinical trials that have proven just how well it helps with controlling hunger and losing weight. In this study, women who used this supplement before eating ate over 1,000 calories less than those who didnt. And in this study, women who took the supplement lost five times more weight over 12 weeks than those were taking a placebo.. If youre the type of person who always feels hungry and you have a hard time controlling your eating habits then 5-HTP may be just what you need to finally lose weight and keep your weight under control for the long run. ...
First-generation immune checkpoint inhibitors, including anti-CTLA-4 and anti-programmed death 1 (anti-PD-1) antibodies, have led to major clinical progress, yet resistance frequently leads to treatment failure. Thus, new targets acting on T cells are needed. CD33-related sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs) are pattern-recognition immune receptors binding to a range of sialoglycan ligands, which appear to function as self-associated molecular patterns (SAMPs) that suppress autoimmune responses. Siglecs are expressed at very low levels on normal T cells, and these receptors were not until recently considered as interesting targets on T cells for cancer immunotherapy. Here, we show an upregulation of Siglecs, including Siglec-9, on tumor-infiltrating T cells from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), colorectal, and ovarian cancer patients. Siglec-9-expressing T cells coexpressed several inhibitory receptors, including PD-1. Targeting of the sialoglycan-SAMP/Siglec pathway in ...
Further support came in reading the work of Dr. DAdamo and his Eating for Your Blood Type. ( http://www.dadamo.com/ ) This information dovetailed perfectly with what I had suspecting and confirming over the previous years of research.. So, I will be writing a paper on what I have learned about lectins as soon as possible. In the meantime, I would strongly recommend that the reader do a search for lectins and start reading on their own. You will be amazed at what researchers know about how and why these food-derived glycoproteins drive our tissues and immune systems crazy. You will also see how our own body produces lectins to control cell function. Then you will see how the confusion and dysfunction arise. Again, a good starting point in the link above, http://www.krispin.com/lectin.html.. One of the most fascinating aspects of this topic is the interrelationship between lectins and viruses. I go into this in my newest section, Viruses- Friend or Foe? This really starts to put things ...
Im new to Swami, before I tested as a Gatherer and black tea was a beneficial for me, now I am a Hunter and Black tea is an avoid for me, not even a black dot. I need more information on this. Is it the caffeine that is the problem in all black teas? (Because I know how to naturally de-caffeinate tea) Or is it the lectins in all Black teas that makes it an Avoid? I have so many different kinds of black teas that come from all over the world and are grown and made differently, so I am wondering about the lectins in black teas. Is there a difference in the lectins between the different kinds of black teas? I need more detailed information about Lectins ...
Corn/Maize contains Lectins which are basically part protein, part carbohydrate.. Lectins are the main problem with corn - the term is used to describe proteins which are part carbohydrate and part protein. Not all lectins are bad but those from corn/maize, wheat, rye, soy and dairy products are toxin lectins.. So lets take a closer look at these toxic lectins in corn/maize, soy, wheat, rye and dairy products.. Toxic Lectins are resistant to stomach acid and digestive enzymes. In other words - they cannot be broken down into a form suitable for digestion.. They may stick to the wall of the digestive tract of your dog and damage its lining, and then may pass through the wall of the digestive tract into general circulation. Toxic accumulation and elimination resulting in skin rashes, itching and excess shedding in dogs.. Lectins can cause alterations in digestive function that may be related to many digestive problems like colitis in dogs, Crohns Disease, Irritable Bowel Syndrome plus leaky gut ...
Lescar, J., R. Loris, E. Mitchell, C. Gautier, V. Chazalet, V. Cox, L. Wyns, S. Pérez, C. Breton, and A. Imberty, Isolectins I-A and I-B of Griffonia (Bandeiraea) simplicifolia. Crystal structure of metal-free GS I-B(4) and molecular basis for metal binding and monosaccharide specificity., J Biol Chem, vol. 277, issue 8, pp. 6608-14, 2002 Feb 22. ...
Clone REA509 recognizes the human CD302 antigen, a single-pass type I membrane protein, which is also known as C-type lectin domain family 13 member A (CLEC13A) or DCL-1. The C-type lectin superfamily is a large group of proteins which are characterized by the presence of one or more C-type lectin-like domains (CTLDs). The superfamily is divided into 17 groups based on their phylogeny and domain organisation. Despite the presence of a highly conserved domain, C-type lectins are functionally diverse and have been implicated in various processes including cell adhesion, tissue integration and remodelling, platelet activation, complement activation, pathogen recognition, endocytosis, and phagocytosis. CD302 was identified as a genetic fusion partner of human CD205 (DEC-205) in Hodgkins lymphoma cell lines and is classified as a group XV C-type lectin. The receptor consists of a single extracellular CTLD, a short spacer followed by a transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic tail containing a putative
By Dr. Mercola While whole foods are healthy, there are certain caveats to consider even here. Lectins (not to be confused with the phospholipid lecithin) are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are widespread in the plant kingdom. An estimated 30 percent of fresh foods contain lectins.1 Even dairy contains lectins. Grass fed butter is an exception. Grass…
Sie sind hier: Glycopolymer Brushes for Specific Lectin Binding by Controlled Multivalent Presentation of N-acetyllactosamine Glycan Oligomers. ...
4R Health Products created by Dr Robert Siegel MD based on his 30 years of Aloe Vera research.He discovered special molecules in aloe vera gel that provide great benefits for supporting the immune system, to maintain and achieve optimal health.
Referred to: Immunology Department Camelia Botnar Laboratories Level 4 Great Ormond Street Hospital London WC1N 3JH General information Specimen transport: At room temperature Repeat frequency: At significant change of clinical...
Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) is a plant protein that binds specifically to sugars expressed, among many others, by human gastrointestinal epithelialand immune cells. WGA is a toxic compound and an anti-nutritional factor, but recent works have shown that it may have potential as an anti-tumor drug and as a carrier for oral drugs. To quantitate the toxicity threshold for WGA on normal epithelial cells we previously investigated the effects of the lectin on differentiated Caco2 cells, and showed that in the micromolar range of concentrations WGA could alter the integrity of the epithelium layer and increase its permeability to both mannitol and dextran. WGA was shown to be uptaken by Caco2 cells and only approximately 0.1% molecules were observed to cross the epithelium layer by transcytosis. Here we show that at nanomolar concentrations WGA is unexpectedly bioactive onimmune cells. The supernatants of WGA-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) can alter the integrity of the ...
Lectins[edit]. Lectin affinity chromatography is a form of affinity chromatography where lectins are used to separate ... Freeze, H. H. (May 2001). Lectin affinity chromatography. Current Protocols in Protein Science. Chapter 9. pp. 9.1.1-9.1.9. doi ... Lectins, such as concanavalin A are proteins which can bind specific alpha-D-mannose and alpha-D-glucose carbohydrate molecules ... "GE Healthcare Life Sciences, Immobilized lectin". Archived from the original on 2012-03-03. Retrieved 2010-11-29.. ...
and lectins with the β-prism I fold. His group established β-prism I fold as a lectin fold. They explained the roles of water- ... "Carbohydrate specificity and quaternary association in basic winged bean lectin: X-ray analysis of the lectin at 2.5 A ... "Computational analysis of multivalency in lectins: Structures of garlic lectin-oligosaccharide complexes and their aggregates ... The work on lectins demonstrated the need for considering open quaternary structures when dealing with multimeric proteins and ...
The name lectin is a bit misleading because the family includes proteins with at least one C-type lectin domain (CTLD) which is ... type lectin 1 (Dectin1) subfamily which includes dectin 1/CLEC7A DNGR1/CLEC9A Myeloid C‑type lectin‑like receptor (MICL) ( ... C-type Lectins. In: Varki A, Cummings RD, Esko JD, et al., editors. Essentials of Glycobiology. 2nd edition. Cold Spring Harbor ... One very important collectin is mannan-binding lectin (MBL), a major PRR of the innate immune system that binds to a wide range ...
Mannan-binding lectins. Other assumptions may help to explain this resistance to FCoV infections by kittens. In the first weeks ... ACE and DC-SIGN are two trans-membrane retrovirus receptors (mannose receptors) which can bind "the plant lectins C-type ... Extensive data also shows that processes using sialic acid are directly involved in the interaction with the receptor's lectins ... Lozach, Pierre-Yves; Burleigh, Laura; Staropoli, Isabelle; Amara, Ali (2007). "The C Type Lectins DC-SIGN and L-SIGN". ...
Varki A, Cummings RD, Esko JD, Freeze HH, Stanley P, Bertozzi CR, Hart GW, Etzler M (2009). "P-type Lectins". Essentials of ... Imperial College Lectins Research Information UniProtKB/ Swiss-Prot entry for the human cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate ...
Lectin pathwayEdit. Main article: Lectin pathway. The lectin pathway is homologous to the classical pathway, but with the ... The mannose-binding lectin pathway can be activated by C3 hydrolysis or antigens without the presence of antibodies (non- ... In the classical and lectin pathways the C3 convertase enzyme is formed from membrane-bound C4b with C2b."[10] ... Reaction Cascade of the Complement System: Classical, Alternative and Lectin Pathway, Amplification Loop, Terminal Pathway, and ...
... can "hide" mannose antigens on the surface of host cells or bacteria from mannose-binding lectin.[citation needed] ... This finding is moreover supported by recent lectin staining studies and a molecular level survey on prokaryotic nonulosonic ... Mandal, C.; Mandal, C. (1990). "Sialic acid binding lectins". Experientia. 46 (5): 433-441. doi:10.1007/BF01954221. PMID ...
During the 1940s, Boyd and Karl O. Renkonen independently discovered that lectins react differently to various blood types, ... Espino-Solis, Gerardo Pavel (April 2015). "Lectins: A brief review". Vitae. 22 (1): 9-11. doi:10.17533/udea.vitae.v22n1a01. ...
It does this with lectin-a protein made for binding proteins-named regenectin, which shares a family with other ... Kubo T, Arai T (September 1996). "Insect Lectins and Epimorphosis". Trends in Glycoscience and Glycotechnology. 8 (43): 357-364 ... Kubo T, Arai T (September 1996). "Insect Lectins and Epimorphosis". Trends in Glycoscience and Glycotechnology. 8 (43): 357-364 ...
V. Horoejsí, O. Chaloupecká, and j. Kocourek, Studies on lectins: XLIII. Isolation and characterization of the lectin from ...
While some companies were considering growing GM crops expressing lectin, GNA was an unlikely candidate. Lectin is toxic, ... Vasconcelos IM, Oliveira JT (September 2004). "Antinutritional properties of plant lectins". Toxicon. 44 (4): 385-403. doi: ... "Effect of diets containing genetically modified potatoes expressing Galanthus nivalis lectin on rat small intestine". Lancet. ... allowing the tuber to synthesise the GNA lectin protein. ...
Another study suggests that C-type lectins part of the mannose receptor (MR) family play a role as an alternative SRLV receptor ... The mannose receptor is a 180-kDa transmembrane protein with eight tandem C-type lectin carbohydrate recognition domains (CRD) ... Kerrigan AM, Brown GD (2009). "C-type lectins and phagocytosis". Immunobiology. 214 (7): 562-575. doi:10.1016/j.imbio.2008.11. ...
Cytotoxic lectins including Modeccin act in a similar manner as ricin, a well understood toxic lectin, though each one has a ... Modeccin is a toxic lectin, a group of glycoproteins capable of binding specifically to sugar moieties. Different toxic lectins ... Cytotoxic lectins include ricin, abrin, modeccin, volkensin (least toxic, 10 and 40 times less cytotoxic than ricin and ... Olsnes S, Pihl A (1982). "Toxic lectins and related proteins". In Cohen P, Van Heyningen S (eds.). Molecular action of toxins ...
... is a plant based lectin, but not a legume lectin, found in jackfruit. It has been studied for capturing O-glycoproteins ... Jacalin belongs to a family of galactose-binding lectins containing the Jacalin-like lectin domain and it has a tetrameric two- ... The lectin is blood group non-specific after neuraminidase treatment and agglutinates human erythrocytes at a concentration of ... The relative affinities of the lectin for galactose derivatives, as well as the structural basis of its T-antigen specificity, ...
Hartley MR, Lord JM (September 2004). "Cytotoxic ribosome-inactivating lectins from plants". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA ...
In general, lectins are used in blood typing and serology, and they are widely used in affinity chromatography for purifying ... Clavaria zollingeri contains lectins, a class of proteins that bind specific carbohydrates on the surface of cells, causing ... ISBN 978-81-85041-73-5. Jeune-Chung KH, Kim MK, Chung SR (1987). "Studies on lectins from mushrooms II. Screening of bioactive ... substance lectins from Korean wild mushrooms". Yakhak Hoeji (in Korean). 31 (4): 213-8. "Clavaria zollingeri Lév". NERI - The ...
Jeune-Chung KH, Kim MK, Chung SR (1987). "Studies on lectins from mushrooms II. Screening of bioactive substance lectins from ...
"Ask the Expert: Clearing Up Lectin Misconceptions". Today's Dietitian Magazine. 2017. Retrieved August 14, 2018. The lectin- ... Gundry, Steven (2019). The Plant Paradox Quick and Easy: The 30-Day Plan to Lose Weight, Feel Great, and Live Lectin-Free. New ... He is best known for his disputed claims that lectins, a type of plant protein found in numerous foods, cause inflammation ... Warner, Anthony (July 27, 2017). "Lectin-free is the new food fad that deserves to be skewered". New Scientist. Retrieved July ...
She characterized several lectins, including Vicia graminea lectin which is specific for human N blood group antigen, described ... Duk, M.; Lisowska, E.; Wu, J. H.; Wu, A. M. (1994-09-01). "The Biotin/Avidin-Mediated Microtiter Plate Lectin Assay with the ... Wu, Albert M.; Lisowska, Elwira; Duk, Maria; Yang, Zhangung (2008-03-27). "Lectins as tools in glycoconjugate research". ... Wu, Albert; Lisowska, Elwira; Duk, Maria; Zhangung, Yang (2009). "Lectins as tools in glycoconjugate research". Glycocnjugate ...
Lectin affinity chromatography is a form of affinity chromatography where lectins are used to separate components within the ... Lectins, such as concanavalin A are proteins which can bind specific alpha-D-mannose and alpha-D-glucose carbohydrate molecules ... Another example of a lectin is wheat germ agglutinin which binds D-N-acetyl-glucosamine. The most common application is to ... Although there are various ways to perform lectin affinity chromatography, the goal is extract a sugar ligand of the desired ...
... structure World of Lectin, Gateway to lectins Proteopedia 1bxh con A in complex with methyl alpha1-2 ... and carbohydrate-binding specificity of lectins". In Liener, Irvin E.; Sharon, Nathan; Goldstein, Irwin J. (eds.). The Lectins ... Like most lectins, ConA is a homotetramer: each sub-unit (26.5kDa, 235 amino-acids, heavily glycated) binds a metallic atom ( ... ConA was the first lectin to be available on a commercial basis, and is widely used in biology and biochemistry to characterize ...
"Lectin from Peanuts". Sigma Aldrich. 2015. Retrieved April 30, 2015. "AABB". AABB. 2015. Retrieved April 29, 2015. Marcela ... Armed Forces Medical College, Pune Immunohaematology American Association of Blood Banks Lectin India portal Medicine portal ... The King of Lectins and Polyagglutination. In 1961, when Queen Elizabeth II visited India, Gregory Bird was in charge of ...
... (also BanLec-I or Banana lectin) is a lectin from the jacalin-related lectin family isolated from the fruit of the ... Crystal structures of BanLec suggest that the lectin has two saccharide binding sites. In 2010, BanLec was reported to be a ... Swanson MD, Winter HC, Goldstein IJ, Markovitz DM (March 2010). "A Lectin Isolated from Bananas Is a Potent Inhibitor of HIV ... The protein is highly stable, unfolding only at high temperatures All jacalin-related lectins feature type I beta-prism folding ...
Vautier S, Sousa M, Brown GD (December 2010). "C-type lectins, fungi and Th17 responses". Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews. 21 ...
While some lectins such as cyanovirin and Urtica dioica agglutinin are thought likely to be too allergenic to be used ... Li Y, Zhang X, Chen G, Wei D, Chen F (2008). "Algal lectins for potential prevention of HIV transmission". Current Medicinal ... Huskens D, Schols D (July 2012). "Algal lectins as potential HIV microbicide candidates". Marine Drugs. 10 (7): 1476-97. doi: ... Ziółkowska NE, Wlodawer A (2006). "Structural studies of algal lectins with anti-HIV activity". Acta Biochimica Polonica. 53 (4 ...
Lectins from D. confragosa, tested against rabbit and human erythrocytes, were determined to have anti-H serological ... Pemberton R.T. (1994). "Agglutinins (lectins) from some British higher fungi". Mycological Research. 98 (3): 277-90. doi: ...
"Mannose-binding lectin deficiency". Genetics Home Reference. U.S. National Library of Medicine. v t e. ... MBL deficiency is a pathology of the innate immune system involving Mannan-binding lectin pathway components such as MBL2. It ...
These fungal lectins are Corprinopsis cinerea lectins - CCL2, CGL2; Aleuria aurantia lectin - AAL; and Marasmius oreades ... These four toxic lectins bind to specific glycan structures found in H. controtus. Some of these glycan structures might ... Recent research shows fugal lectins are able to inhibit larval development. ... "Inhibition of Haemonchus contortus larval development by fungal lectins". Parasites & Vectors. 8: 425. doi:10.1186/s13071-015- ...
These lectins are placed into the group of I-type lectins because the lectin domain is an immunoglobulin fold. All Siglecs are ... Each lectin domain is specific for the linkage that connects sialic acid to the glycan. Sialic acid contains numerous hydroxyl ... They are found primarily on the surface of immune cells and are a subset of the I-type lectins. There are 14 different ... ISBN 978-0-19-956911-3. Razi N, Varki A (November 1999). "Cryptic sialic acid binding lectins on human blood leukocytes can be ...
... , or cluster of differentiation-22, is a molecule belonging to the SIGLEC family of lectins. It is found on the surface of ... February 1998). "Siglecs: a family of sialic-acid binding lectins". Glycobiology. 8 (2): v. doi:10.1093/glycob/8.2.0. PMID ...
The legume lectins (or L-type lectins) are a family of sugar-binding proteins or lectins found in the seeds and, in smaller ... The legume lectins are also interesting from the point of view of protein structure. Despite the conserved structure of the ... The exact function of the legume lectins in vivo is unknown but they are probably involved in the defense of plants against ... PDBe Browser for legume lectin assemblies Hamelryck TW, Moore JG, Chrispeels MJ, Loris R, Wyns L (June 2000). "The role of weak ...
The lectin pathway or lectin complement pathway is a type of cascade reaction in the complement system, similar in structure to ... The lectin pathway starts with mannose-binding lectin (MBL) or ficolin binding to certain sugars. In this pathway, mannose- ... Mannan-binding lectin, also called mannose-binding protein, is a protein belonging to the collectin family that is produced by ... Lectin Pathway has been associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by Covid-19 as well as the Sequelae or "Long ...
Kieda kinase labelled lect lectins liver lung lymphocytes lymphoma MAbs macrophages malignant mannose mediated membrane lectins ... Lectins and Glycoconjugates in Oncology. Hans-Joachim Gabius,Gerd A. Nagel. No preview available - 2011. ... Lectins and Glycoconjugates in Oncology. Hans-Joachim Gabius,Gerd A. Nagel. Limited preview - 2012. ... Lectins and glycoconjugates in oncology. Hans-Joachim Gabius,Gerd Arno Nagel. Snippet view - 1988. ...
... lectins, form a recognitive and informative transfer system that justifies special scientific and clinical attention. In ... Endogenous Lectins of Myeloid and Tumor Cells: Characterization and Biological Implications M. Monsigny, A. C. Roche, P. Midoux ... Cellular glycoconjugates and their specific receptors, e.g. lectins, form a recognitive and informative transfer system that ...
The Genomics Resource for Animal Lectins has moved to www.imperial.ac.uk/research/animallectins/. ... This resource presents information about animal lectins involved in various sugar-recognition processes. ...
P-type lectins. Sequence alignment Interpro entries: 1) Mannose 6-phosphate receptor, binding. 2) Cation-dependent mannose 6- ... The yeast protein, Yos9p, functions together with the M-type lectins in the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway used to ...
The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lectins PA-IL and PA-IIL Are Controlled by Quorum Sensing and by RpoS Klaus Winzer, Colin Falconer, ... Group B Streptococcal Capsular Sialic Acids Interact with Siglecs (Immunoglobulin-Like Lectins) on Human Leukocytes Aaron F. ...
C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) comprise a large superfamily of proteins, which recognise a diverse range of ligands, and are ... C-type lectins in immunity: recent developments.. Dambuza IM1, Brown GD2. ... defined by the presence of at least one C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD). Of particular interest are the single extracellular ...
Lectins are a large family of carbohydrate-binding proteins that are found in all plants and animals. Consuming high amounts ... What Are Lectins and Where do They Come From?. Lectins are a diverse family of carbohydrate-binding proteins found in nature. ... Lectins Can be Reduced Further With Soaking, Sprouting and Fermenting. Cooking is not the only way to degrade lectins in foods. ... This is how lectins may increase the risk of autoimmune diseases.. Bottom Line: Repeated exposure to large amounts of lectins ...
Mannose-binding lectin deficiency is a condition that affects the immune system. Explore symptoms, inheritance, genetics of ... Functional mannose-binding lectins are made up of two to six protein groups called trimers, which are each composed of three of ... Mannose-binding lectin plays an important role in the bodys immune response by attaching to foreign invaders such as bacteria ... Mannose-binding lectin deficiency is a condition that affects the immune system. People with this condition have low levels ( ...
Lectins are carbohydrate binding proteins which promote inflammatory responses like Crohns disease, systemic lupus, asthma, ... Lectins are found in other foods including grains and pseudo-grains. Grains are seeds from grasses-barley, oats, rice, rye, ... Toxic lectins cause inflammation and induce cytokine production. As few as five soaked, uncooked kidney beans can lead to gut ... I was not aware of the damage that can be caused by eating lectin-containing products. I am a very sensitive celiac and in the ...
Using lectins to harvest the plasma/serum glycoproteome.. Fanayan S1, Hincapie M, Hancock WS. ... The use of lectins, with selective affinities for specific carbohydrate epitopes, to enrich glycoprotein fractions coupled with ... On account of their ability to specifically bind cell surface carbohydrates lectins have, during the recent past, found ... Combined with complementary depletion and MS technologies, lectin affinity chromatography is becoming the most widely employed ...
... Iain Wilson wilson at edv1.boku.ac.at Wed Oct 9 11:48:21 EST 1996 *Previous message: Lens culnaris lectin ... Its also known as lentil lectin. I guess that even Sigam sell it. Iain *Previous message: Lens culnaris lectin ... Mehdi BENCHAIB wrote: , , Does somebody know which company provide lens culnaris lectin ? , I need it for the revelation of ...
lek tin) The lectin pathway for complement activation is triggered by the binding of a serum lectin (mannan binding lectin; MBL ... The lectin pathway for complement activation is triggered by the binding of a serum lectin (mannan-binding lectin; MBL) to ... Lectin - Lectins are sugar binding proteins which are highly specific for their sugar moieties. They typically play a role in ... The Mannan binding lectin pathway (also known simply as the Lectin Pathway) is similar in structure to the classical complement ...
... and researchers at Baylor College of Medicine have discovered that sugar-binding proteins called lectins are essential for ... "Furthermore, lectins seem to act not only as a Kevlar vest for bacteria, but also as a mediator of a phenomenon akin to ... Lectins are key. The researchers knew that amoebas secrete molecules that can kill bacteria outside the cell. To study the ... "Discoidins are a type of lectin, which is a very well-known group of proteins that bind sugars, such as those on the surface of ...
The L-type CRD is named after the lectins found in... ... L-type lectins possess a luminal carbohydrate recognition ... 7.1 L-Type Lectins. 7.1.1 Lectins from Leguminous Plants. L-type lectins possess a luminal carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD ... Therefore, the term "L-lectins" has been designated as a classification for all lectins with this legume seed lectin-like ... Therefore, the term "L-lectins" has been designated as a classification for all lectins with this legume seed lectin-like ...
Many lectins can cause inflammation, while some increase your blood viscosity, interfere with gene expression and disrupt your ... Plant lectins act as a built-in defense mechanism that ensures survival by triggering a negative reaction in predators; in ...
... lectins is one. C-type lectins can be further divided into seven subgroups based on additional non-lectin domains and gene ... The C-type lectin fold as an evolutionary solution for massive sequence variation.. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 12 886-92 2005 ... This entry represents a structural domain found in C-type lectins, as well as in other proteins, including:. *The N-terminal ... Lectins occur in plants, animals, bacteria and viruses. Initially described for their carbohydrate-binding activity [PMID: ...
32 kDa beta-galactoside-binding lectin. Haemonchus contortus (Barber pole worm). Loading... ...
This lectin appears to bind only ,em,O,/em,-glycosidically linked oligosaccharides, preferring the structure galactosyl (β-1,3 ... Jacalin is a lectin composed of four subunits of approximately 16 kDa each. ... Jacalin is a lectin composed of four subunits of approximately 16 kDa each. This lectin appears to bind only O-glycosidically ... This lectin has been used to purify human IgA. The specificity of this lectin also affords the opportunity to localize or ...
Specificity for complex carbohydrate groups and other unique properties have made lectins powerful tools for researchers. Click ... All lectins are highly purified and subjected to intensive quality control to ensure you have the best lectins available on the ... Lectins. Highly purified, quality-controlled lectins for glycobiology and other applications. Specificity for complex ... the NCFG analyzes the glycan specificity of each of our lectin lots, and provides these detailed lectin-glycan binding data to ...
Lectin-like bacteriocins (LlpAs) constitute a distinct class of such proteins, produced by Pseudomonas as well as some other ... LlpAs share a common architecture consisting of two B-lectin domains, followed by a short carboxy-terminal extension. Two ... LlpAs share a common architecture consisting of two B-lectin domains, followed by a short carboxy-terminal extension. Two ... outstanding questions include the secretion machinery recruited by lectin-like bacteriocins for their release, as well as a ...
Lectins are a group of compounds found in vegetable foods to protect the plant against potential threat. The work of some ... Your low-lectin diet should be based on low-lectin foods. All vegetables and fruits contain some lectins, but most vegetables ... ":"[lectin-avoidance diet,avoid lectin foods,low-lectin diet]"} Get the latest tips on diet, exercise and healthy ... Although more studies are needed to elucidate the effects of lectins in human health, you can easily avoid most lectins by ...
P-Type Lectins[edit]. [1] P-Type lectins contain a phosphate group. CD-MPR and CI-MPR are the only two members of the P-lectin ... C-Type Lectins[edit]. C-Type lectins are those that require a calcium ion. The calcium ion helps bind the protein and ... Functions of Lectins[edit]. Lectins are known to be very widespread in nature. They can bind to soluble carbohydrates or ... Lectin Binding[edit]. Lectins are capable of binding to many different types of carbohydrates. Because of this capability, the ...
The affinity of lectins for specific glycoproteins is assessed and used to select a ... a) selecting a lectin which adsorbs said glycoproteins; (b) immobilizing said lectin on a support to form an immobilized lectin ... were partially adsorbed to the SEPHAROSE-bound lectins (Concanavalin A, wheat germ lectin, lentil lectin) in various dilutions ... The affinity of lectins for specific glycoproteins is assessed and used to select a particular lectin specific for the ...
Millions of people say they feel better when they eat lectin-free. This cookbook makes lectin-free cooking fun and delicious ... Millions of people say they feel better when they eat lectin-free. This cookbook makes lectin-free cooking fun and delicious ... Millions of people say they feel better when they eat lectin-free. This cookbook makes lectin-free cooking fun and delicious ... The Living Well Without Lectins Cookbook : 125 Lectin-Free Recipes for Optimum Gut Health, Losing Weight, and Feeling Great by ...
Sigma has the largest selection of lectins and lectin conjugates available for the life scientist. Over 100 products from over ... Enzyme Explorer Lectin Index for Life Science research offered by sigma-Aldrich online. ... 35 sources make Sigma the single best source for your lectin requirements. ... Many lectins are available as conjugates. Conjugation does not alter the specificity of the lectin. The degree of conjugation ...
I found only A+B Lectin which is not not good for our use Can you tell me the company able to sell me this lectin A Thanks ... Wanted Lectin A of Lens culinaris. Pierre Commercon pcomm at cismibm.univ-lyon1.fr Wed Mar 1 16:23:55 EST 1995 *Previous ... Hello Help, help ! I need Lens culinaris Lectin A for affinity electrophoresis of a blood protein. ...
IPR016363. L-lectin. IPR000985. Lectin_LegA_CS. IPR019825. Lectin_legB_Mn/Ca_BS. IPR001220. Legume_lectin_dom. ... IPR016363. L-lectin. IPR000985. Lectin_LegA_CS. IPR019825. Lectin_legB_Mn/Ca_BS. IPR001220. Legume_lectin_dom. ... PS00308. LECTIN_LEGUME_ALPHA. 1 hit. PS00307. LECTIN_LEGUME_BETA. 1 hit. ... PS00308. LECTIN_LEGUME_ALPHA. 1 hit. PS00307. LECTIN_LEGUME_BETA. 1 hit. ...
Lectin Array. Lectin array is a high-throughput glycan profiling technology where a panel of lectins are immobilized on a chip ... Phospho Glycan Lectin Array. Phosphorylation Array. Phosphorylation array is used for quick detection of a large number of site ... Lectins are glycan-binding proteins, purified from plants, which are highly specific for a given glycan based on their sequence ... Lectin array is used for studying glycosylation profiles of proteins, antibodies, cells, and cell lysates, and are applied in ...
  • The history of L-type lectins is as old as discovery of plant lectins from seeds of leguminous plants in nineteenth century. (springer.com)
  • While plant lectins are secreted-soluble proteins and found at high level in specialised tissues, animal L-type lectins are (often membrane-bound) luminal proteins that are found at low levels in many different cell types. (springer.com)
  • Plant lectins bind carbohydrates during digestion, slowing or preventing their breakdown, and thereby reducing the glycemic effects of the food. (drfuhrman.com)
  • This review focuses on sources of animal and plant lectins, describing their functional classification and tridimensional structures, relating these properties with biotechnological purposes, including antimicrobial activities. (mdpi.com)
  • PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). (curehunter.com)
  • The unique saccharide-binding properties of plant lectins, such as wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), have made them useful for the study of glycosylated proteins. (polysciences.com)
  • The unique saccharide-binding properties of plant lectins, such as Concanavalin A (Con A) have made them useful for the labeling and isolation of glycan-presenting cells and glycoproteins in serum and cell lysate. (polysciences.com)
  • Plant Lectins and possible link to autoimmune disease. (healingwell.com)
  • Plant lectins represent a very diverse collection of proteins. (ugent.be)
  • Plant lectins are bioactive glycoproteins possessing carbohydrate-recognition domain which exhibit regiospecific, cell-surface specific and reversible interactions with glycoconjugates. (academicjournals.org)
  • Therefore, plant lectins are instrumental in diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment of a wide array of diseases. (academicjournals.org)
  • Well-studied members of this protein family include phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A. The legume lectins use an ingenious framework for binding specific sugars. (wikipedia.org)
  • The legume lectins are also interesting from the point of view of protein structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mannan-binding lectin, also called mannose-binding protein, is a protein belonging to the collectin family that is produced by the liver and can initiate the complement cascade by binding to pathogen surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with this condition have low levels (deficiency) of an immune system protein called mannose-binding lectin in their blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This gene provides instructions for making a protein that assembles into a complex called mannose-binding lectin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Functional mannose-binding lectins are made up of two to six protein groups called trimers, which are each composed of three of the protein pieces (subunits) produced from the MBL2 gene. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A decrease in the availability of the normal subunit protein may lead to a reduction of the functional mannose-binding lectin in blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, not everyone with a change in the MBL2 gene has decreased levels of mannose-binding lectin, and not everyone with decreased protein levels is prone to infection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Green beans, snow peas and snap peas are usually well tolerated once the gut has been healed since they are immature protein sources with minor amounts of lectins. (celiac.com)
  • L-type lectins in animal cells are involved in protein sorting in luminal compartments of animal cells. (springer.com)
  • In humans and other mammals there are four L-type lectins: ERGIC-53, ERGIC-53 like (ERGL), vesicular integral membrane protein-36 (VIP36), and VIP36 like (VIPL). (springer.com)
  • Protein involved in the complement activation lectin pathway which activates the proteins of the complement system. (uniprot.org)
  • The preferred lectin is lentil lectin, for use in separating recombinant Factor VIII from tissue culture fluid contaminated with rodent protein from the cell line used to produce the recombinant Factor VIII. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • e) separating said Factor VIII protein from a said support containing said lectin and said contaminating glycoproteins. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The degree of conjugation is expressed as 1) a mole dye per mole lectin basis 2) a unit enzyme activity per mg protein or 3) a mg protein per mL packed gel basis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • I need Lens culinaris Lectin A for affinity electrophoresis of a blood protein. (bio.net)
  • Lectin free diet is a powerful tool to help coping with excess weight, since this protein also contributes to the accumulation of fat. (audible.com)
  • Lectins are a broad class of plant proteins (not a single protein). (potatogoodness.com)
  • Numerous bacterial strains produce surface lectins, commonly in the form of fimbriae that are filamentous assemblies of protein subunits. (nih.gov)
  • Pi-d2 encodes a receptor-like kinase protein with a predicted extracellular domain of a bulb-type mannose specific binding lectin (B-lectin) and an intracellular serine-threonine kinase domain. (nih.gov)
  • Lectins, glycoprotein or protein of nonimmune origin, could agglutinate cells including erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and microbial cells or precipitate glycoconjugates through carbohydrate-specific binding sites [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Lectins are glycoproteins, and through thousands of years of selectively breeding wheat for increasingly larger quantities of protein, the concentration of WGA lectin has increased proportionately. (celiac.com)
  • Recombinant full length protein corresponding to Human Mannan Binding Lectin/MBL aa 21-248. (abcam.com)
  • Lectins are a bit more challenging to avoid than gluten since so many more foods contain at least some level of the protein. (naturallysavvy.com)
  • Lectins can be covalently labeled with IRDye using one of LI-COR's Protein Labeling Kits and used to detect glycoproteins directly. (licor.com)
  • a salivary gland protein that inhibits the function of Mannose Binding Lectin (MBL). (nature.com)
  • We have previously demonstrated the role of the lectin pathway in the immune response against B. burgdorferi by the identification and characterisation of the tick salivary gland protein Tick Salivary Lectin Pathway Inhibitor (TSLPI) 12 . (nature.com)
  • Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a serum protein that activates the complement system after binding to glycoconjugates found on the surface of microorganisms. (jimmunol.org)
  • Xerocomus chrysenteron lectin: identification of a new pesticidal protein. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Sequence alignments and sugar specificity showed that this protein is the third member of a new saline-soluble lectin family present in fungi. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Lectin activity was detected and compared via agglutination and protein assays. (scirp.org)
  • In these processes, specific binding among cells mediated by recognition of carbohydrates by protein receptors, lectins, is crucial. (europa.eu)
  • Lectins are a type of protein that can bind to cell membranes. (syromonoed.com)
  • Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing Gal-bind_lectin domain in the selected taxonomic class. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • This pathway can be activated mainly by mannose-binding lectin (MBL) interacting with carbohydrate structures on microbial surfaces and by ficolins with different fine carbohydrate binding specificity. (uniprot.org)
  • The specificity of this lectin also affords the opportunity to localize or isolate glycoproteins with O-glycosidically linked oligosaccharide side chains. (vectorlabs.com)
  • Specificity for complex carbohydrate groups and other unique properties have made lectins powerful tools for researchers. (vectorlabs.com)
  • Using the Consortium for Functional Glycomics (CFG) glycan arrays, the NCFG analyzes the glycan specificity of each of our lectin lots, and provides these detailed lectin-glycan binding data to you on the NCFG website . (vectorlabs.com)
  • In addition, the carbohydrate-binding specificity of a certain lectin is determined by the amino acid residues that bind the carbohydrate. (wikibooks.org)
  • Conjugation does not alter the specificity of the lectin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • He discovered that lima bean lectin would agglutinate red cells of human blood type A but not those of O or B. The seeds of Lotus tetragonobolus can agglutinate group O specifically, and Bandairaea simplicofolia is specific to group B. The specificity of lectins is so sharply defined that they can differentiate among blood subgroups. (dadamo.com)
  • Amaranthus leucocarpus lectin ( ALL ) is a nonmitogenic lectin with specificity for galactose-N-acetylgalactosamine (Gal β 1,3 GalNAc α 1,O-Ser/Thr) or N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc α 1,O-Ser/Thr) [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Besides, researchers revealed that some kinds of lectin could serve as decoration of drug applied in pharmaceutical industry due to its sugar specificity, and this technology was expected to enhance absorption and bioavailability of poorly absorbable drugs [ 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Boyd was also the first researcher to identify the blood type specificity of many common dietary lectins. (dadamo.com)
  • More specifically, the study aimed to determine the lectin's blood group specificity and pH stability, determine effects of seasonal variation, soil moisture and soil pH on lectin activity. (scirp.org)
  • Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel mouse macrophage C-type lectin, mMGL2, which has a distinct carbohydrate specificity from mMGL1. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • Identification of a site on mannan-binding lectin critical for enhancement of phagocytosis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mannan-binding lectin pathway - Natta projection of mannose in its α D mannopyranose form. (academic.ru)
  • Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) 3 is an animal C-type lectin (i.e., showing calcium-dependent carbohydrate binding) of the collectin family in which the carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) are attached to collagen regions ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • MAp44 has been suggested to act as a competitive inhibitor of lectin pathway activation, by displacing MASP-2 from MBL, hence preventing cleavage of C4 and C2 C4b tends to bind to bacterial cell membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • On account of their ability to specifically bind cell surface carbohydrates lectins have, during the recent past, found extensive applications in elucidation of the architecture and dynamics of cell surface carbohydrates, glycoconjugate purification, and structural characterization. (nih.gov)
  • Discoidins are a type of lectin, which is a very well-known group of proteins that bind sugars, such as those on the surface of bacteria," Kuspa said. (eurekalert.org)
  • This lectin appears to bind only O-glycosidically linked oligosaccharides, preferring the structure galactosyl (β-1,3) N-acetylgalactosamine. (vectorlabs.com)
  • Lectins are proteins that recognize and bind specific carbohydrates found on the surfaces of cells. (wikibooks.org)
  • Carbohydrates on the surface of one cell bind to the binding sites of lectins on the surface of another cell. (wikibooks.org)
  • Monosaccharides and disaccharides have shallow grooves to which lectins bind, making the affinity of the bond low. (wikibooks.org)
  • This process is evidence that lectins prefer certain conformations (shapes) when deciding how to bind to a carbohydrate. (wikibooks.org)
  • Lectins are proteins that bind carbohydrate. (drfuhrman.com)
  • There are many different lectins, which have different functions because they bind to different carbohydrates. (drfuhrman.com)
  • The main function of lectins in animals is to facilitate cell-cell contact - lectins on one cell recognize and bind to surface carbohydrates on another cell. (drfuhrman.com)
  • Lectins are multivalent proteins with the ability to recognize and bind diverse carbohydrate structures. (mdpi.com)
  • In other words lectins bind sugars, and they agglutinate cells by means of this binding. (dadamo.com)
  • Re: Bind lectins with glucosamine. (oneradionetwork.com)
  • Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. (curehunter.com)
  • Lectins, a class of proteins that reversibly and non-enzymatically bind specific sugars, have been purified from different kinds of legumes. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Lectins are a class of proteins with one particular feature: they can recognize and bind specific carbohydrate structures. (ugent.be)
  • If you ate cooked black beans with a tortilla, the lectins remaining in the beans would bind with the carbs in the tortilla and move through your body like fiber. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Though lectins are poorly understood, researchers speculate they can bind to cells on the gut wall and trigger a response. (bistromd.com)
  • Dr. Freed suggested that lectins, which are not easily digested, may enter the bloodstream through the lining of the gut (perhaps owing to a lack of gut flora that support lectin-protective substances) and bind strongly to the connective tissues and skin. (prohealth.com)
  • Typically, lectins can bind to many of the carbohydrate antigens found in the gut and immune system, causing a variety of health problems. (dadamo.com)
  • Several common lectins, in particular, wheat germ agglutinin, are known to bind to the insulin receptor and mimick the hormonal effects of insulin on adipose tissue, an under-appreciated action which can account for why individuals on high carbohydrate diets often have difficulty contolling their weight. (dadamo.com)
  • The blocking sugars in DEFLECT can be considered 'sacrifical molecules' that attach to carbohydrate receptors on the lectins, rendering them unable to bind to the cells of the body. (dadamo.com)
  • The DEFLECT formulas provide a source of free blocking amino sugars (blue) which bind and block lectins before they can attach to the cells. (dadamo.com)
  • It is also representative of the subclass of C-type lectins that bind galactose-related sugars. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • Indeed, as discovered first for a bacterial toxin, tissue lectins bind gangliosides and mediate contact formation (trans) and signaling (cis). (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Tomato lectin (TL) is a bioadhesive glycoprotein that has been shown to bind selectively to the small intestine epithelium. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Galectins (previously S-lectins) bind exclusively beta-galactosides like lactose. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • There are 10779 Gal-bind_lectin domains in 7909 proteins in SMART's nrdb database. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Taxonomic distribution of proteins containing Gal-bind_lectin domain. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • The complete taxonomic breakdown of all proteins with Gal-bind_lectin domain is also avaliable . (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Lectins are proteins of plant origin, which have the ability to bind to certain neuronal surface glycoproteins and glycolipids. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • When lectins 'leak' into the bloodstream, they can interact with glycoproteins on cell surfaces ( 10 ). (healthline.com)
  • L-type lectins have different intracellular distributions and dynamics in the ER-Golgi system of secretory pathway and interact with N-glycans of glycoproteins in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner, suggesting a role in glycoprotein sorting and trafficking. (springer.com)
  • The affinity of lectins for specific glycoproteins is assessed and used to select a particular lectin specific for the contaminating glycoprotein(s). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Affinity chromatography of membrane lysates from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes on immobilized type 1 fimbrial lectin, using methyl alpha-mannoside as eluent, showed that glycoproteins with apparent molecular masses of 70-80, 100 and 150 kDa act as receptors for the bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • It is for this reason that seeds of the grass family, e.g. rice, wheat, spelt, rye, have exceptionally high levels of defensive glycoproteins known as lectins. (celiac.com)
  • According to an old definition 'lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins or glycoproteins. (dadamo.com)
  • In some aspects, the present invention relates to the process of selection and application of high-fidelity artificial lectin mimics in the construction of microarray devices capable of precise, rapid and inexpensive analysis of glycoproteins, pathogen detection, and diagnosis of various disease states. (ideaconnection.com)
  • These reagents are primarily conjugated and unconjugated antibodies, augmented by avidin and streptavidin conjugates for detecting biotinylated proteins and lectin conjugates for detecting glycoproteins. (thermofisher.com)
  • Cellular glycoconjugates and their specific receptors, e.g. lectins, form a recognitive and informative transfer system that justifies special scientific and clinical attention. (springer.com)
  • C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) comprise a large superfamily of proteins, which recognise a diverse range of ligands, and are defined by the presence of at least one C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD). (nih.gov)
  • C-type lectins can be further divided into seven subgroups based on additional non-lectin domains and gene structure: (I) hyalectans, (II) asialoglycoprotein receptors, (III) collectins, (IV) selectins, (V) NK group transmembrane receptors, (VI) macrophage mannose receptors, and (VII) simple (single domain) lectins [ PMID: 15476922 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Lectin receptors were detectable in epimastigote but not in trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoan parasite of the insect and of humans. (sciencemag.org)
  • Although these physiological effects are mediated or reinforced by immune responses, they are primarily the result of the specific chemical reactivity of lectins with cell surface receptors of the gut. (dadamo.com)
  • Herein we demonstrate that 2 C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) Mcl and Mincle play an important role in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Congenic rats expressing lower levels of Mcl and Mincle on myeloid cells exhibited a drastic reduction in EAE incidence. (jci.org)
  • C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) are a large superfamily of proteins characterized by the presence of one or more C-type lectin-like domains (CTLDs). (genome.jp)
  • Re: Nightshades are especially high in lectins. (oneradionetwork.com)
  • Grains and beans are high in lectins, until they're properly cooked. (howstuffworks.com)
  • They are all high in lectins, particularly in their seeds and peels, and therefore unfriendly to your health. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • The legume lectins (or L-type lectins) are a family of sugar-binding proteins or lectins found in the seeds and, in smaller amounts, in the roots, stems, leaves and bark of plants of the family Fabaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lectin - Lectins are sugar binding proteins which are highly specific for their sugar moieties. (academic.ru)
  • The social amoeba, a soil-dwelling organism, also carries its own microbiome, and researchers at Baylor College of Medicine have discovered that sugar-binding proteins called lectins are essential for amoebas and bacteria living together. (eurekalert.org)
  • Lectins are sugar-binding proteins that mimic insulin. (patientslikeme.com)
  • Lectins are important class of sugar-binding proteins involved in a variety of biological phenomena. (ideaconnection.com)
  • Lectins are a family of proteins found in pretty much all foods, especially legumes and grains. (healthline.com)
  • Legumes (including beans, soybeans and peanuts) and grains contain the most lectins, followed by dairy, seafood and plants in the nightshade family. (healthline.com)
  • The most extensively studied lectins are called phytohemagglutinins, which are mostly found in plants, especially legumes. (healthline.com)
  • Uncooked (raw) legumes like kidney beans are the biggest sources of these lectins. (healthline.com)
  • Some lectins, such as the phytohaemagglutinins in raw legumes, can be downright poisonous. (healthline.com)
  • Due to the lectins (and other anti-nutrients), they say that people should remove legumes and grains from their diet. (healthline.com)
  • In fact, boiling legumes in water eliminates almost all lectin activity ( 12 , 13 ). (healthline.com)
  • It makes no sense to avoid legumes because of lectin activity in raw legumes. (healthline.com)
  • They were discovered over 100 years ago and cause leaky gut and gastrointestinal dysbiosis yet the push for a plant-based diet focusing on legumes as meat alternatives has overlooked the damage lectins cause to the gut. (celiac.com)
  • You can use these techniques to make grains and legumes more acceptable for a low-lectin diet. (livestrong.com)
  • The author, cardiac surgeon Dr. Steven Grundy, claims that lectins - a group of proteins found in abundance in legumes, grains and vegetables of the nightshade family including tomatoes and potatoes - are toxic to one's gut. (potatogoodness.com)
  • Lectins are found in all foods, but are most concentrated in legumes and grains with lesser amounts found in other plant foods, including potatoes. (potatogoodness.com)
  • in fact, boiling legumes in water eliminates almost all lectin activity, and canning beans is just as effective. (potatogoodness.com)
  • Foods containing lectins, including whole grains, legumes and potatoes, also provide significant amounts of key nutrients including B vitamins, fiber and potassium. (potatogoodness.com)
  • The nutritional benefits of legumes, whole grains and vegetables like potatoes far outweigh any concern about the trace amounts of lectins contained within them. (potatogoodness.com)
  • Lectins, though found in all grains, seeds, legumes, dairy and our beloved nightshades: the tomato and potato, are rarely discussed in connection with health or illness, even when their presence in our diet may greatly reduce both the quality and length of our lives. (celiac.com)
  • Lectins are abundant in raw legumes and grains, and most commonly found in the part of the seed that becomes the leaves when the plant sprouts, aka the cotyledon, but also on the seed coat. (syromonoed.com)
  • They are legumes, and as such are loaded with killer lectins. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • Lectin levels are especially high in legumes like black beans, soybeans, kidney beans and lentils and grain products. (purewow.com)
  • Third, prepare legumes in a pressure cooker, which is the only cooking method that fully destroys lectins. (purewow.com)
  • It's also known as lentil lectin. (bio.net)
  • 4. The method of claim 1 wherein said lectin is selected from the group consisting of lentil lectin and concanavalin A. 5. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 6. The method of claim 5 wherein said lectin is lentil lectin. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In 1908 Landsteiner reported that small amounts of lentil lectin would agglutinate rabbit erythrocytes, even high concentrations of the lectin had no effect on pigeon red cells. (dadamo.com)
  • Some researchers believe that dietary lectins can raise the risk of autoimmune disease. (healthline.com)
  • For much more detail, see Dr. Freed's patient handout on "Rheumatic Patches" and how intolerance of dietary lectins may drive their development. (prohealth.com)
  • These ABO specific formulas block the effects of dietary lectins before they cause problems , by providing a source of free blocking carbohydrate. (dadamo.com)
  • DEFLECT is a natural product composed of 'blocking sugars' designed to interfere with the adherence of troublesome dietary lectins. (dadamo.com)
  • Almost everyone has antibodies to some dietary lectins in their body. (syromonoed.com)
  • Lectins are found in other foods including grains and pseudo-grains. (celiac.com)
  • Many gastroenterologists believe that the detrimental affects of lectins in grains are a factor in the development of celiac disease. (celiac.com)
  • Although more studies are needed to elucidate the effects of lectins in human health, you can easily avoid most lectins by eliminating grains, beans and members of the nightshade family. (livestrong.com)
  • Foods with the highest lectin content include grains, beans and nightshades. (livestrong.com)
  • The Lectin-Free diet restricts things like grains, nightshades (ie. (patientslikeme.com)
  • As mentioned, lectins are primarily found in plants and mostly in grains, nightshade vegetables, and beans. (bistromd.com)
  • Allowing seeds, grains, and beans to sprout can help reduce lectin content related to the process of germination. (bistromd.com)
  • Soaking raw beans and grains is suggested to minimize lectin content. (bistromd.com)
  • Gluten is actually a minor type of lectin, but because lectins are found in foods other than grains, eating gluten-free foods might not solve all our digestive issues. (naturallysavvy.com)
  • Grains contain a minor amount of lectins. (naturallysavvy.com)
  • Although we normally emphasize the importance of choosing brown rice over white and selecting whole grains over refined ones, in this case, the outer coatings of whole grains and seeds are rich in lectins. (naturallysavvy.com)
  • Lectins are natural plant toxins, the main sources of which are wheat and other grains, beans, and nightshade vegetables. (prohealth.com)
  • Like nearly all other grains, corn (which is not a vegetable but a grain) has a high lectin content. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • It's not difficult to see why corn is among the worst lectin-filled grains. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • The exact function of the legume lectins in vivo is unknown but they are probably involved in the defense of plants against predators. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the conserved structure of the legume lectin subunit, they can adopt a wide range of quaternary structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • PDBe Browser for legume lectin assemblies Hamelryck TW, Moore JG, Chrispeels MJ, Loris R, Wyns L (June 2000). (wikipedia.org)
  • The crystal structures of some of the legume seed lectins show structural similarities among these lectins and to some other lectins, including the galectins and a variety of other lectins. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, the term "L-lectins" has been designated as a classification for all lectins with this legume seed lectin-like structure. (springer.com)
  • The seeds from legume plants have traditionally been excellent sources for lectins of a variety of specificities. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Many principles have been discovered first for legume lectin family members and were later confirmed for other families of carbohydrate-recognizing proteins ( Loris, 2002 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • The legume lectin family covers the widest possible range of carbohydrate specificities among all known lectin families. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The diagrams of these legume lectins probably don't mean much to you, but they look neat. (syromonoed.com)
  • The lectin pathway or lectin complement pathway is a type of cascade reaction in the complement system, similar in structure to the classical complement pathway, in that, after activation, it proceeds through the action of C4 and C2 to produce activated complement proteins further down the cascade. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to the classical complement pathway, the lectin pathway does not recognize an antibody bound to its target. (wikipedia.org)
  • A primary driver of the inflammatory response to endothelial cell injury is the lectin pathway of complement, part of the body's immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mannose-binding lectin plays an important role in the body's immune response by attaching to foreign invaders such as bacteria, viruses, or yeast and turning on (activating) the complement system . (medlineplus.gov)
  • lectin pathway - a pathway of complement activation initiated in the absence of antibody by the binding of mannose binding lectin (MBL) to carbohydrates on the surface of microorganisms. (academic.ru)
  • It is a key feature in the lectin pathway of complement activation. (drugs.com)
  • When bound, this lectin will trigger the complement pathway resulting in opsonization. (uiowa.edu)
  • This test is used as an initial screening for suspected deficiency in the lectin complement pathway. (uiowa.edu)
  • Binds mannose, fucose and N-acetylglucosamine on different microorganisms and activates the lectin complement pathway. (abcam.com)
  • MBL is a C-type lectin that recognizes oligosaccharides on pathogens and activates the complement system via the lectin pathway. (nature.com)
  • RegIIIγ binds intestinal bacteria but lacks the complement recruitment domains present in other microbe-binding mammalian C-type lectins. (sciencemag.org)
  • Mannose-binding Lectin deficiency - These individuals are prone to recurrent infections, including infections of the upper respiratory tract and other body systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infants and young children with mannose-binding lectin deficiency seem to be more susceptible to infections, but adults can also develop recurrent infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mannose-binding lectin deficiency is a condition that affects the immune system. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with mannose-binding lectin deficiency can develop infections of the upper respiratory tract and other body systems. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Relatively common mutations in the MBL2 gene can lead to mannose-binding lectin deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Researchers believe that a number of factors, including other genetic and environmental factors, are involved in the development of mannose-binding lectin deficiency and susceptibility to infection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The inheritance pattern of mannose-binding lectin deficiency is unclear. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is important to note that people inherit an increased risk of developing mannose-binding lectin deficiency, not the condition itself. (medlineplus.gov)
  • My daughter was just diagnosed with a MBL (mannose-binding lectin) deficiency. (medhelp.org)
  • The mannose specific lectins also act as recognition molecules in lectinophagocytosis (i.e. phagocytosis of the bacteria in the absence of opsonins) by mouse, rat and human peritoneal macrophages, and human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. (nih.gov)
  • There is some controversy over whether non-agglutinating (i.e. monovalent) molecules having high affinity for carbohydrate should be termed 'lectins', however in this monograph they have been included, as many of these molecules, while not agglutinins, do have mitogenic propertles. (dadamo.com)
  • The carbohydrate moieties of these molecules can be detected by means of lectins that are characterized by their ability to react specifically with distinct terminal sugar sequences. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Thus, lectins have been used as appropriate tools for studying the modulation of functionally important membrane-associated molecules during the differentiation of cells, in particular of B- and T-lymphocytes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Since lectins, like monoclonal antibodies, make it possible to study functionally important molecules that are associated with differentiation and malignancy, they might be of value for diagnostic purposes and, moreover, for analyzing malignant transformation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Sharon, N. and Lis, H. (2004) History of Lectins: From Hemagglutinins to Biological Recognition Molecules. (scirp.org)
  • Lectins offer a way for molecules to stick together without getting the immune system involved, which can influence cell-cell interaction. (syromonoed.com)
  • The processing of high-lectin foods, such as cooking, soaking and sprouting, could help reduce their lectin content. (livestrong.com)
  • If you peel and de-seed your vegetables (e.g., especially tomatoes and peppers), then you reduce their lectin content. (naturallysavvy.com)
  • Preparing foods in a pressure cooker can significantly reduce their lectin content. (naturallysavvy.com)
  • We show that discoidin alters the handling of bacteria by amoeba so that live bacteria persist inside the amoeba, a phenomenon that we have called lectin-induced modified bacterial internalization, or LIMBI," Kuspa said. (eurekalert.org)
  • Four main groups of Pseudomonas bacteriocins have been identified so far, all of which equally occur in other bacterial genera: tailocins, modular bacteriocins, B-type microcins and lectin-like bacteriocins (Supplementary Table S1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Also, bacterial infections, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), colon cancer, or autoimmune illnesses may alter intestinal cells in a way that makes usually harmless food lectins problematic. (drfuhrman.com)
  • The various bacterial surface lectins appear to function primarily in the initiation of infection by mediating bacterial adherence to epithelial cells, e.g. in the urinary and gastrointestinal tracts. (nih.gov)
  • In one study, the edible parts of 29 of 88 foods tested, including common salad ingredients, fresh fruits, roasted nuts, and processed cereals were found to possess significant lectin-like activity as assessed by hemagglutination and bacterial agglutination assays. (dadamo.com)
  • These lectins are powerful exogenous growth factors for the small intestine, can induce dramatic shifts in its bacterial flora and interfere with its hormone secretion. (dadamo.com)
  • Indeed, researchers speculate that many apparent causes of bacterial food poisoning may actually be lectin poisoning. (syromonoed.com)
  • Using lectins to harvest the plasma/serum glycoproteome. (nih.gov)
  • Low serum levels or genotypic variants of the innate immune molecule mannose-binding lectin (MBL) have been associated with increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. (bmj.com)
  • Low serum mannose-binding lectin level increases the risk of death due to pneumococcal infection. (bmj.com)
  • Divergent roles for C-type lectins expressed by cells of the innate immune system. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Calcium-dependent lectin involved in innate immune defense. (abcam.com)
  • We propose that these proteins represent an evolutionarily primitive form of lectin-mediated innate immunity, and that they reveal intestinal strategies for maintaining symbiotic host-microbial relationships. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here we show that resident gut bacteria drive intestinal epithelial expression of a C-type lectin that binds peptidoglycan and has direct antimicrobial activity, revealing a primitive mechanism of lectin-mediated innate immunity. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this pathway, mannose-binding lectin binds to mannose, glucose, or other sugars with 3- and 4-OH groups placed in the equatorial plane, in terminal positions on carbohydrate or glycoprotein components of microorganisms including bacteria such as Salmonella, Listeria, and Neisseria strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lectins in plants are a defense against microorganisms, pests, and insects. (syromonoed.com)
  • The use of lectins, with selective affinities for specific carbohydrate epitopes, to enrich glycoprotein fractions coupled with modern MS, have greatly enhanced the identification of the glycoproteome. (nih.gov)
  • For colloidal gold conjugates, the activity of the lectin is determined by a dot blot assay using an appropriate glycoprotein. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Typically, lectins interact with glycoprotein, glycolipid or oligosaccharide residues on the cell surface, causing a variety of effects including: blastogenesis (rapid cell reproduction), agglutination and receptor agonism. (dadamo.com)
  • For example, superoxide dismutase, polysaccharide, glycoprotein, and lectin were detected in loach skin mucus [ 7 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Isothermal titration calorimetry titration experiments using Man-5, Man-9, and the Man-9-containing glycoprotein soybean ( Glycine max ) agglutinin as ligands confirm the monovalence of Man-9 and show a 4-times higher affinity for Man-9 when it is presented to P. angolensis seed lectin in a glycoprotein context. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The GD1a-to-GM1 "editing" is recognized by such lectins, for example, myelin-associated glycoprotein (siglec-4) losing affinity and galectin-1 gaining reactivity, and then translated into postbinding signaling. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Only the blood type specific lectins. (dadamo.com)
  • Combined with complementary depletion and MS technologies, lectin affinity chromatography is becoming the most widely employed method of choice for biomarker discovery in cancer and other diseases. (nih.gov)
  • The VIP36 is an intracellular animal lectin that acts as a putative cargo receptor, which recycles between the Golgi and the ER (Hauri et al. (springer.com)
  • Through genetic mapping, resequencing and molecular validation, we demonstrate that a G-type lectin receptor-like kinase (lecRLK) mediates the symbiotic interaction between Populus and the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor . (nature.com)
  • Anti-Killer cell lectin like receptor C2 antibodies are available from several suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Your search returned 128 killer cell lectin like receptor C2 Antibodies across 22 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Other C-type lectins on macrophages include the mannose receptor, mincle [13] , macrophage C- type lectin (MCL), and dectin-1. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • Isolation and characterization of a receptor lectin specific for galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine from macrophages. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • The 'stickiness' of lectins makes them prone to attaching to the intestinal wall. (healthline.com)
  • A lectin called phytohemagglutinin found in raw beans (red kidney beans in particular) binds to a carbohydrate present on human intestinal cells. (drfuhrman.com)
  • Lectin can be a trigger for people (like Clarkson) with certain auto-immune disorders and avoiding lectin can help those people feel better by reducing inflammation, gastro-intestinal problems and more. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Deflect for your type will help block damage from newly ingested "anti-self" lectins and help to strip old "anti-self" lectins from the intestinal walls. (dadamo.com)
  • This GI distress happens because lectins can damage the intestinal lining. (syromonoed.com)
  • In this study, the everted gut sac model was used to compare the rates and quantities of intestinal uptake of tomato lectin and that of TL coupled to microspheres. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Lectins gained notoriety in 2017 with the publication of The New York Times best-selling book, The Plant Paradox. (potatogoodness.com)
  • Ynalvez, R. , G. Cruz, C. and Ynalvez, M. (2015) Isolation, Partial Purification and Characterization of Texas Live Oak ( Quercus fusiformis ) Lectin. (scirp.org)
  • Siglecs are a family of immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily lectins that recognize glycans containing sialic acids. (gr.jp)
  • Sugars such as D-(+)-galactose, D-(+)-raffinose, L-(+)-arabinose, α-D-(+)-melibiose, and α-lactose could inhibit the hemagglutinating activity of the lectin. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Lectins are obtained particularly from seeds of leguminous plants but also from other plant and animal sources. (uniprot.org)
  • The L-type CRD is named after the lectins found in abundance in the seeds of leguminous plants, such as concanavalin A from jack beans. (springer.com)
  • Lectins tend to be present in the highest concentrations in the seeds, peels, and leaves of plants. (naturallysavvy.com)
  • For already a long time, plants are known to express lectins in relatively large amounts in their storage organs (seeds, rhizomes) and in lower concentrations in their vegetative parts. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The Man-binding lectin from the seeds of P. angolensis (PAL) has been previously studied in detail by x-ray crystallography and a variety of biophysical techniques. (plantphysiol.org)
  • You may have heard that vegetable oils are healthier for you than other oils, but most of them are made from high-lectin beans or seeds: Corn oil, soybean oil, and sunflower oil are all potent sources of lectins. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • First, peel and de-seed fruits and veggies before eating them, since most lectins are found in the skin and seeds of plants. (purewow.com)
  • This resource presents information about animal lectins involved in various sugar-recognition processes. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • L-type lectins possess a luminal carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) that binds to high-mannose-type oligosaccharides in aCa 2+ -dependent manner. (springer.com)
  • The structural basis for carbohydrate recognition by lectins. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Carbohydrate recognition in aqueous solutions is difficult, even for the carbohydrate-binding proteins known as lectins, because the hydroxyl-rich carbohydrates blend in with the water background. (acs.org)
  • The new lectin has a simpler structure than the earlier one but similar recognition properties. (acs.org)
  • However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition. (curehunter.com)
  • Thereinto, animal lectins could be classified into C-type (requiring Ca 2+ for recognition), S-type (requiring free thiols for stability), P-type (recognizing Man-6-P), I-type (an immunoglobulin), heparin-binding proteins, and rhamnose-binding lectins according to the structure of CRD (carbohydrate recognition domain) [ 11 , 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Multivalent glycovesicle recognition over lectin layers emphasizes effects on the dynamic lateral fluidity of glycoside clusters upon multivalent binding at the bilayer surface and vice versa . (rsc.org)
  • Claudia Curici is the talented writer and photographer behind the pioneering lectin-free blog Creative in My Kitchen. (booksamillion.com)
  • However, these studies were usually focused on functional analysis or gene identification, and it was rare to explore the structural characterization and stability of animal lectin, especially lectin from fish skin mucus. (hindawi.com)
  • Characterization of murine MGL1 and MGL2 C-type lectins: distinct glycan specificities and tumor binding properties. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • Eating raw kidney beans can lead to lectin poisoning, the main symptoms of which include severe abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea ( 8 ). (healthline.com)
  • In one study, lectins in soybeans were mostly eliminated when the beans were boiled for only 5 to 10 minutes ( 14 ). (healthline.com)
  • It is acceptable to have a theory, but this idea about lectins being "disease-causing" and that people need to avoid beans, vegetable and nuts in order to get healthy and lose weight, has been thoroughly disproven by the thousands of studies documenting the health and longevity benefits of these foods. (drfuhrman.com)
  • This action of lectins is most likely a contributing factor to the pro-weight loss and anti-diabetes effects of beans and other plant foods. (drfuhrman.com)
  • To reduce lectins in beans, soak them longer-12 hours or more. (naturallysavvy.com)
  • Mercola J. The case against beans and other foods containing toxic lectins . (naturallysavvy.com)
  • Raw kidney beans contain from 20,000 to 70,000 lectin units, while fully cooked beans usually contain between 200 and 400 units. (syromonoed.com)
  • The structural motifs of L-type lectins are now known to be present in a variety of glycan-binding proteins from other eukaryotic organisms. (springer.com)
  • The glycan properties are so affected, that they do not even need to be in the presence of lectins in order to be noticed. (wikibooks.org)
  • Lectin array is a high-throughput glycan profiling technology where a panel of lectins are immobilized on a chip for assays ( Figure 3) . (edu.au)
  • Lectins are glycan-binding proteins, purified from plants, which are highly specific for a given glycan based on their sequence and the different sugar unit in the glycan. (edu.au)
  • Sequence, shape and local aspects of glycan presentation (e.g. multivalency) are key factors to regulate the avidity of lectin binding. (portlandpress.com)
  • In this sense, orchestration of glycan and lectin expression is an efficient means, with far-reaching relevance, to exploit the coding potential of oligosaccharides physiologically and medically. (portlandpress.com)
  • But this does not mean that lectins are harmful for the general population. (drfuhrman.com)
  • But that doesn't mean everyone should avoid lectins - and it doesn't mean that lectins are a path toward losing weight . (howstuffworks.com)
  • Although all foods contain some lectins, only about 30% of the foods we eat contain them in significant amounts ( 3 ). (healthline.com)
  • All vegetables and fruits contain some lectins, but most vegetables contain low levels compared to some nightshades, vegetables and fruits. (livestrong.com)
  • Proponents of the paleo diet claim that lectins are harmful. (healthline.com)
  • Omitting toxic lectins-prolamins and agglutinins-from the diet is critical for gut health. (celiac.com)
  • Your low-lectin diet should be based on low-lectin foods. (livestrong.com)
  • Consult a registered dietitian to ensure that your low-lectin diet allows you to get all the nutrients you need. (livestrong.com)
  • Millions of people have lost weight and boosted their energy by switching to a lectin-free diet. (audible.com)
  • With the diet revolution projected by Dr. Stephen Gundry's best seller, Plant Paradox , the lectin-free diet has taken off and proven to be helpful for many people for various reasons. (audible.com)
  • It's time to join many other people who have adopted the lectin-free diet, and learn how to shield your gut from lectin damage. (audible.com)
  • We'll break down the lectin diet for you as well, so you'll know all about this new diet that's turning into more than the next fad. (audible.com)
  • According to Dr. Gundy, reducing lectins in the diet can have far-reaching effects on health promotion, disease prevention and even weight loss. (potatogoodness.com)
  • What is Lectin Free Diet? (patientslikeme.com)
  • No patients have reported taking Lectin Free Diet. (patientslikeme.com)
  • There are no evaluations for Lectin Free Diet. (patientslikeme.com)
  • The mucin-rich gut wall is especially prone to direct reactions with lectin-containing foods in the diet. (dadamo.com)
  • Just in case there was not enough fear and misinformation about food, the latest restrictive fad sent to cure us of all ills is the lectin-free diet. (newscientist.com)
  • You will hear many health bloggers advocating for an anti-lectin or lectin free diet with the suggestion that lectins are causing weight gain, inflammation, leaky gut, and even major diseases. (ugent.be)
  • She told NBC's the Today show that the weight loss is from a diet low in lectins that has helped her manage an autoimmune disorder. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The other thing that makes a lectin-elimination diet difficult is the lack of government recommendations and research. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Their expertise and guidance can also help determine whether or not following a lectin-free diet is right for you. (bistromd.com)
  • If you include lots of foods containing lectins in your diet, it could result in chronic inflammation . (naturallysavvy.com)
  • If you suspect lectins may be a source of your digestive distress and/or weight issues, try the elimination diet and see what happens! (naturallysavvy.com)
  • Gundry Steven R. 15 ways to reduce lectins in your diet . (naturallysavvy.com)
  • Lectins can occur in very common foods in the diet, and the majority are specific for the carbohydrates of the ABO blood typing system. (dadamo.com)
  • Most lectins in our diet are resistant to breakdown during gut passage and are bound and endocytosed by epithelial cells. (dadamo.com)
  • Although based on experience, most overtly toxic plants have been eliminated from the diet, many plants with appreciable lectin content are still consumed because it has not been easy to relate growth retardation and antinutritional, mild allergic or other subclinical symptoms to the food consumed or a particular component of it. (syromonoed.com)
  • which opens with a dive into lectins and the science behind Gundry's recommended diet before getting into 100 delicious, easy, and, yes, lectin-free recipes. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • The basic premise of the Plant Paradox program is that once you remove the inflammatory agents ( aka lectins ) from your diet, your body is able to stop throwing all its resources and energy into dealing with continual damage and go into restorative mode, where excess weight can be released and diseases can be healed. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • We also found that other lectins from plants like soy, for instance, can protect bacteria from being killed by amoebas and mediate the establishment of a microbiome," Kuspa said. (eurekalert.org)
  • Lectins occur in plants, animals, bacteria and viruses. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In plants, the function of lectins is less clear but some lectins are thought to be plant defense proteins, to protect against pathogens and insects. (drfuhrman.com)
  • Lectins from plants and animals are commonly used in direct defense against pathogens and in immune regulation. (mdpi.com)
  • Cooking, sprouting, fermentation and digestion are the traditional ways in which man, for instance, deals with the various anti-nutrients found within this family of plants, but lectins are, by design, particularly resistant to degradation through a wide range of pH and temperatures. (celiac.com)
  • Indeed, WGA lectin is so powerful as an insecticide that biotech firms have used recombinant DNA technology to create genetically modified WGA-enhanced plants. (celiac.com)
  • We purify and characterize lectins from different plants and crops aiming to define which ones may be harmless, and which not. (ugent.be)
  • Plants produce lectin as a self-preserving compound. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Lectin is toxic to discourage animals from eating the plants. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Lectins are carb-binding proteins and mostly found in plants and thought to protect them against animals in nature. (bistromd.com)
  • Some plants harbor proteins called lectins that may be at least partly responsible for weight gain and disease. (naturallysavvy.com)
  • In some cases, people consume these lectins and experience digestive problems normally attributed to gluten intolerance but they may actually be reacting negatively to lectins in plants. (naturallysavvy.com)
  • When animals and people consume plants containing lectins, they get ill, which prompts them to avoid the plants in the future. (naturallysavvy.com)
  • While lectin content in food is fairly constant, the genetic altering of plants has created some fluctuations. (syromonoed.com)
  • For example, in an ad hoc survey, 53 edible plants were shown to contain lectins and approx 30% of fresh and processed food regularly consumed by humans had significant hemagglutinating activity (1). (syromonoed.com)
  • This popular family of plants includes potatoes, peppers (bell as well as hot peppers like chili and jalapeño), eggplants, goji berries, and tomatoes-all of which contain a heaping helping of lectins, in addition to the glycoalkoid poison solanine, a known neurotoxin. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • Lectins are specific carbohydrate-binding proteins: - Enormous diversity of carbohydrates have biological significance: Different monosaccharides can be joined to one another through any several -OH groups. (wikibooks.org)
  • Development and Applications of Lectins as Biological Tools in Biomedical Research. (edu.au)
  • The systems described serve as a fine illustration for the biological role of lectin-carbohydrate interactions. (nih.gov)
  • Previous research studies revealed that lectin had many functions such as protection, biological nitrogen fixation, mitogenesis, and immunomodulation [ 15 - 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Like man-made pesticides, lectins are extremely small, resistant to break-down by living systems, and tend to accumulate and become incorporated into tissues where they interfere with normal biological processes. (celiac.com)
  • There is a continuous interest in lectins due to their biological properties that can be exploited for medicinal and therapeutic purposes. (scirp.org)
  • Since, they can decode biological information, lectins play a pivotal role in mediating and triggering diverse cellular phenomena. (academicjournals.org)
  • Breads and nightshades, like tomatoes, are rich in lectins. (livestrong.com)
  • While many types of lectins cause negative reactions in the body, there are also health promoting lectins that can decrease incidence of certain diseases. (syromonoed.com)
  • Four types of lectins are isolated from the roots of pokeweed ( Phytolacca americana ). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 5 You may hear a claim that lectins "disrupt digestion," but this is misleading. (drfuhrman.com)
  • Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) is one of the most widely used lectins in cell biology. (mpbio.com)
  • This activity is the lowest concentration of lectin to agglutinate a 2% suspension of appropriate erythrocytes after 1 hour incubation at 25 °C. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Lectins can also interact with antibodies, which are a core component of the immune system. (healthline.com)
  • This may cause an immune reaction not only against the lectins, but also the body tissues to which the lectins are bound ( 11 ). (healthline.com)
  • Mannose-binding lectin can also stimulate special immune cells to engulf and break down the attached pathogen. (medlineplus.gov)
  • While some lectins are toxic, others actually have beneficial effects including enhancing immune function and destroying cancer cells. (potatogoodness.com)
  • The three studied lectins are important for infections in cystic fibrosis patients (LecA/B) and in human immune response to infection (DC-SIGN). (europa.eu)
  • Lectins are thought to play a role in immune function, cell growth, cell death, and body fat regulation. (syromonoed.com)
  • The presence of particular lectins can stimulate an immune system response. (syromonoed.com)
  • This New World pseudo-grain is hailed as a gluten-free substitute for wheat, but it is so loaded with lectins that it is no friend to your digestive tract, immune system, or waistline. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • This is how lectins may increase the risk of autoimmune diseases. (healthline.com)
  • The work of some researchers indicates that lectins could contribute to gastrointestinal problems, food intolerances and inflammatory and autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, according to Carolyn Pierini, a nutritional consultant and clinical laboratory scientist specializing in medical microbiology. (livestrong.com)
  • Its many adherents range from people with specific disorders, like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis (and other autoimmune disorders), and "leaky gut," to people who simply feel better without lectins. (booksamillion.com)
  • He contends that consuming foods with lectins will cause severe gastrointestinal problems and may even lead to autoimmune disorders such as Crohn's disease and celiac disease. (potatogoodness.com)
  • 4. Voidani A. Lectins, agglutinins, and their roles in autoimmune reactivities. (potatogoodness.com)
  • And despite Clarkson's experience - which is complicated by her autoimmune disorder - avoiding lectins isn't a sure path to shedding pounds. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Lectins are a group of compounds found in vegetable foods to protect the plant against potential threat. (livestrong.com)
  • also a new book alleges that these foods, plus nuts, tomatoes, eggplant, peppers, and more are harmful to our health, because of mysterious proteins called lectins. (drfuhrman.com)
  • The most recent book warning against lectins is full of twisted and incorrect information that will further confuse and harm the public - who are already eating an insufficient amount of plant foods. (drfuhrman.com)
  • In fact, foods having more lectins are longevity promoting. (drfuhrman.com)
  • With these recipes in your arsenal, you're going to no problem establishing and staying on the road to recovery with these lectin-free foods. (audible.com)
  • Lectins are naturally occurring proteins found in almost all plant foods, including potatoes. (potatogoodness.com)
  • Thus, eating normal amounts of cooked foods containing lectins (including potatoes) is of little to no health risk for most people. (potatogoodness.com)
  • Soaking, sprouting and fermenting foods can also reduce lectins. (potatogoodness.com)
  • Lectins are proteins commonly found In foods of high nutritional value. (dadamo.com)
  • Lectins, a family of proteins found in many foods, have been described as "the new gluten", and if that refers to them being wrongly demonised, it might not be far from the truth. (newscientist.com)
  • Lectins are in so many foods, trying to cut them out wouldn't leave you much to eat, and that, say Largeman-Roth and other dietitians, could jeopardize your health. (howstuffworks.com)
  • We can't directly associate any of these foods [containing lectin] with weight gain. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The other nutrients in foods that contain lectins are so beneficial, that unless you have an intolerance, you should actually be eating them for better nutrition and managing your weight. (howstuffworks.com)
  • So, across the board, foods with lectins are good for you. (howstuffworks.com)
  • So far, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) hasn't put together a list of foods with lectins and what the amounts are, which would be different for raw and cooked foods, because cooking reduces lectins. (howstuffworks.com)
  • But what exactly are lectins and are these 14 foods blocking nutrients in your body? (bistromd.com)
  • To truly gauge whether or not lectin-supplying foods are blocking nutrients is difficult, as researchers do not have clear evidence regarding its effects on the body. (bistromd.com)
  • According to cardiologist and heart surgeon Steven R. Gundry, MD, author of The Plant Paradox , eating foods that contain lectins may be behind unexplained weight gain and various illnesses. (naturallysavvy.com)
  • An estimated 30 percent of fresh foods contain lectins-even gluten. (naturallysavvy.com)
  • Because lectins are found in so many foods at various levels, the best plan is to eliminate the foods that are highest in lectins, such as tomatoes, peppers, and eggplant, for example. (naturallysavvy.com)
  • If your symptoms return once you reintroduce lectin-rich foods, then lectin is likely the issue. (naturallysavvy.com)
  • If so, the Deflect supplement helps repair prior damage from bad lectins and will block them if you eat avoid foods - I think? (dadamo.com)
  • As many foods are of plant origin, the daily ingestion of lectins by both humans and animals is appreciable. (syromonoed.com)
  • Lectins are common in most of the foods we eat, and according to Dr. Gundry, highly toxic in large quantities. (purewow.com)
  • But he also recognizes that cutting out all lectin-heavy foods is a no-go for many people, so he suggests more manageable steps to decrease your intake. (purewow.com)
  • Toxic lectins cause inflammation and induce cytokine production. (celiac.com)
  • 3 This is because lectins cannot be digested by human digestive enzymes and their chemical nature allows them to "stick" to the lining of the gut wall where they can cause inflammation resulting in "leaky gut syndrome," a condition in which the lining of the gut becomes damaged, allowing food particles and toxins to move from the digestive tract into the bloodstream. (potatogoodness.com)
  • Just like other animals, humans are vulnerable to the toxicity of lectins. (healthline.com)
  • However, under most practical conditions where dietary lectin intakes are low, the contribution of the growth stimulating activity of the lectins to nutritional toxicity is relatively slight. (oneradionetwork.com)
  • Lectin array is used for studying glycosylation profiles of proteins, antibodies, cells, and cell lysates, and are applied in drug discovery and biomarker discovery studies. (edu.au)
  • Below the radar of conventional serological testing for antibodies against the various gluten proteins and genetic testing for disease susceptibility, the WGA "lectin problem" remains almost entirely obscured. (celiac.com)
  • Ligands such as streptavidin, antibodies and lectins are used both to capture specifically-tagged targets and for the isolation of cells and biomolecules that naturally express the ligand binding partner. (polysciences.com)
  • Because we don't digest lectins, we often produce antibodies to them. (syromonoed.com)
  • Alternatively, the target-specific molecule might be conjugated to either biotin or fluorescent dyes, thereby creating a molecule that can be detected with any of our avidin and streptavidin conjugates or our anti-fluorescent dye antibodies ( Antibodies, Avidins and Lectins-Chapter 7 ). (thermofisher.com)
  • Frequent consumption of large amounts of lectins has been shown to damage the lining of the digestive system ( 1 ). (healthline.com)
  • Repeated exposure to large amounts of lectins may increase gut permeability. (healthline.com)
  • Also, there are no government recommendations specifically for the amounts of lectins we should or shouldn't eat. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The lectin amounts are lower. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Because of this capability, the way that a lectin binds to carbohydrates, the materials necessary for binding, and the strength of the bond varies. (wikibooks.org)