Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
A subclass of lectins that are specific for CARBOHYDRATES that contain MANNOSE.
Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
A class of animal lectins that bind specifically to beta-galactoside in a calcium-independent manner. Members of this class are distiguished from other lectins by the presence of a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain. The majority of proteins in this class bind to sugar molecules in a sulfhydryl-dependent manner and are often referred to as S-type lectins, however this property is not required for membership in this class.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
Lectin purified from peanuts (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA). It binds to poorly differentiated cells and terminally differentiated cells and is used in cell separation techniques.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of galactose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-galactosides.
A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes classified as Amaryllidaceae). Galanthus nivalis L. is the source of GALANTHAMINE.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
A family of calcium-binding alpha-globulins that are synthesized in the LIVER and play an essential role in maintaining the solubility of CALCIUM in the BLOOD. In addition the fetuins contain aminoterminal cystatin domains and are classified as type 3 cystatins.
Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes, that react with molecules of antilymphocyte sera, lectins, and other agents which induce blast transformation of lymphocytes.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Canavalia ensiformis is the source of CONCANAVALIN A.
A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. Puag-haad extract, from A. lakoocha, contains STILBENES and related 4-substituted RESORCINOLS.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. The seed of Ricinus communis L. is the CASTOR BEAN which is the source of CASTOR OIL; RICIN; and other lectins.
Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates consisting of long, often branched chains of repeating monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic bonds, which serve as energy storage molecules (e.g., glycogen), structural components (e.g., cellulose), and molecular recognition sites in various biological systems.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Ribosome inactivating proteins consisting of two polypeptide chains, the toxic A subunit and a lectin B subunit, linked by disulfide bridges. The lectin portion binds to cell surfaces and facilitates transport into the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Fucose is a deoxyhexose sugar, specifically a L-configuration 6-deoxygalactose, often found as a component of complex carbohydrates called glycans in various glycoproteins and glycolipids within the human body.
Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.
Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-mannosides.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
Parasitic plants that form a bushy growth on branches of host trees which are in the order Santalales. It includes the Christmas mistletoe family (VISCACEAE), the showy mistletoe family (LORANTHACEAE) and the catkin mistletoe family (Eremolepidaceae). The composition of toxins, lectins, tyramine, phenethylamines, and other compounds may be affected by the host.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
N-Glycosidases that remove adenines from RIBOSOMAL RNA, depurinating the conserved alpha-sarcin loop of 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA. They often consist of a toxic A subunit and a binding lectin B subunit. They may be considered as PROTEIN SYNTHESIS INHIBITORS. They are found in many PLANTS and have cytotoxic and antiviral activity.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
Cell surface receptors that bind to ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Mannosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with methyl alcohol. They include both alpha- and beta-methylmannosides.
A toxic lectin from the seeds of jequirity, Abrus precatorius L. Very active poison. Five different proteins have so far been isolated: Abrus agglutinin, the component responsible for: hemagglutinating activity, & abrins a-d, the toxic principals each consisting of two peptide chains are held together by disulfide bonds.
Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A genus of leguminous shrubs or trees, mainly tropical, yielding useful compounds such as ALKALOIDS and PLANT LECTINS.
A galectin found abundantly in smooth muscle (MUSCLE, SMOOTH) and SKELETAL MUSCLE and many other tissues. It occurs as a homodimer with two 14-kDa subunits.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A plant genus in the family CAPRIFOLIACEAE known for elderberries.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Glycoprotein moieties on the surfaces of cell membranes that bind concanavalin A selectively; the number and location of the sites depends on the type and condition of the cell.
A multifunctional galactin initially discovered as a macrophage antigen that binds to IMMUNOGLOBULIN E, and as 29-35-kDa lectin that binds LAMININ. It is involved in a variety of biological events including interactions with galactose-containing glycoconjugates, cell proliferation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
A class of C-type lectins that target the carbohydrate structures found on invading pathogens. Binding of collectins to microorganisms results in their agglutination and enhanced clearance. Collectins form trimers that may assemble into larger oligomers. Each collectin polypeptide chain consists of four regions: a relatively short N-terminal region, a collagen-like region, an alpha-helical coiled-coil region, and carbohydrate-binding region.
A galectin found in the small and large intestine and the stomach. It occurs as a homodimer with two 36-kDa subunits and is localized to sites of cell adhesion where it may play role in assembly of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS.
Common name for Ricinus communis, a species in the family EUPHORBIACEAE. It is the source of CASTOR OIL.
A plant genus in the family ARALIACEAE, order Apiales, subclass Rosidae. It includes Aralia californica S. Watson, Aralia nudicaulis L., and Aralia racemosa L.
A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
A plant species of the genus DATURA, family SOLANACEAE, that contains TROPANES and other SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS.
A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.
A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.
A plant genus of the family Musaceae, order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain isoacteoside, luteolin, indole-3-carboxylic acid.
An arthropod subclass (Xiphosura) comprising the North American (Limulus) and Asiatic (Tachypleus) genera of horseshoe crabs.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
A specific mannose-binding member of the collectin family of lectins. It binds to carbohydrate groups on invading pathogens and plays a key role in the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.
The systematic study of the structure and function of the complete set of glycans (the glycome) produced in a single organism and identification of all the genes that encode glycoproteins.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.

Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory factor (PIF) in alcoholic liver disease. (1/6088)

Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory factor (PIF) was determined in the supernatants of PHA-stimulated lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic liver disease. PIF was assayed by determining inhibition of DNA synthesis in WI-38 human lung fibroblasts. A two-fold greater inhibition in thymidine incorporation into DNA by lung fibroblasts was observed in supernatants of PHA stimulated lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic hepatitis or active Laennec's cirrhosis as compared with that found in control subjects or patients with fatty liver. It is suggested that decreased liver cell regeneration seen in some patients with alcoholic hepatitis may be due to increased elaboration of PIF.  (+info)

Structure of CD94 reveals a novel C-type lectin fold: implications for the NK cell-associated CD94/NKG2 receptors. (2/6088)

The crystal structure of the extracellular domain of CD94, a component of the CD94/NKG2 NK cell receptor, has been determined to 2.6 A resolution, revealing a unique variation of the C-type lectin fold. In this variation, the second alpha helix, corresponding to residues 102-112, is replaced by a loop, the putative carbohydrate-binding site is significantly altered, and the Ca2+-binding site appears nonfunctional. This structure may serve as a prototype for other NK cell receptors such as Ly-49, NKR-P1, and CD69. The CD94 dimer observed in the crystal has an extensive hydrophobic interface that stabilizes the loop conformation of residues 102-112. The formation of this dimer reveals a putative ligand-binding region for HLA-E and suggests how NKG2 interacts with CD94.  (+info)

Differential expression of the mRNA for the vanilloid receptor subtype 1 in cells of the adult rat dorsal root and nodose ganglia and its downregulation by axotomy. (3/6088)

Sensitivity to the pungent vanilloid, capsaicin, defines a subpopulation of primary sensory neurons that are mainly polymodal nociceptors. The recently cloned vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (VR1) is activated by capsaicin and noxious heat. Using combined in situ hybridization and histochemical methods, we have characterized in sensory ganglia the expression of VR1 mRNA. We show that this receptor is almost exclusively expressed by neurofilament-negative small- and medium-sized dorsal root ganglion cells. Within this population, VR1 mRNA is detected at widely varying levels in both the NGF receptor (trkA)-positive, peptide-producing cells that elicit neurogenic inflammation and the functionally less characterized glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-responsive cells that bind lectin Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 (IB4). Cells without detectable levels of VR1 mRNA are found in both classes. A subpopulation of the IB4-binding cells that produce somatostatin has relatively low levels of VR1 mRNA. A previously uncharacterized population of very small cells that express the receptor tyrosine kinase (RET) and that do not label for trkA or IB4-binding has the highest relative levels of VR1 mRNA. The majority of small visceral sensory neurons of the nodose ganglion also express VR1 mRNA, in conjunction with the BDNF receptor trkB but not trkA. Axotomy results in the downregulation of VR1 mRNA in dorsal root ganglion cells. Our data emphasize the heterogeneity of VR1 mRNA expression by subclasses of small sensory neurons, and this may result in their differential sensitivity to chemical and noxious heat stimuli. Our results also indicate that peripherally derived trophic factors may regulate levels of VR1 mRNA.  (+info)

Control of metastasis by Asn-linked, beta1-6 branched oligosaccharides in mouse mammary cancer cells. (4/6088)

Studies in cell lines and malignant human tissues have shown that increased cell-surface Asn-linked beta1-6(GlcNAcbeta1-6Man) branching is associated with increased tumorigenic and metastatic properties. In this study, three mouse mammary cancer cell lines were transfected with an expression vector containing the mouse cDNA for N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (GlcNAcT-V EC 2.4.1.155), the glycosyltransferase responsible for initiating beta1-6 branching on Asn-linked carbohydrates. The cell lines were screened for increased cytotoxicity to L-PHA, a lectin specific for beta1-6 branching structures. Cell lines exhibiting increased L-PHA cytotoxicity expressed increased levels of beta1-6 branching structures. Northern blots detected the presence of GlcNAcT-V transcribed from the expression vector in the L-PHA sensitive cell lines. After injection into the tail veins of mice, transfected cell lines with increased beta1-6 branching on the cell surface formed elevated levels of lung tumors relative to control transfected cell lines (P < 0.002). Western blots of membrane proteins from GlcNAcT-V transfected and control cells probed with the lectins DSA and WGA did not show an increase in polyN-acetyllactosamine and sialic acid content in the transfected cell lines. These results demonstrate that a specific increase in beta1-6 branching due to an elevation in GlcNAcT-V expression increases metastatic potential.  (+info)

Lectin receptor sites on rat liver cell nuclear membranes. (5/6088)

The presence and localization of lectin receptor sites on rat liver cell nuclear and other endomembranes was studied by light and electron microscopy using fluorescein and ferritin-coupled lectin conjugates. Isolated nuclei labelled with fluorescein-conjugated Concanavalin A (Con A) or wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) often showed membrane staining, which sometimes was especially bright on small stretches of the nuclear surface. Unlabelled nuclei and nuclei with a complete ring fluorescence were also seen. The nuclear fluorescence corresponded in intensity to that seen on the surface of isolated rat liver cells. Con A-ferritin particles were seldom detected on the cytoplasmic surface of the intact nuclear envelope. However, at places where the 2 leaflets of the envelope were widely separated or where the outer nuclear membrane was partly torn away, heavy labelling was seen on the cisternal surface of both the inner and outer nuclear membranes. Labelling with Con A-ferritin was also found on the cisternal side of rough endoplasmic reticulum present in the specimens. No labelling was seen on the cytoplasmic surface of mitochondrial outer membrane. The results demonstrate the presence of binding sites for Con A and WGA in nuclei and an asymmetric localization of these sites on the cisternal side of ribosome-carrying endomembranes in rat liver cells.  (+info)

Developmental changes in mucosubstances revealed by immunostaining with antimucus monoclonal antibodies and lectin staining in the epithelium lining the segment from gizzard to duodenum of the chick embryo. (6/6088)

The mucosubstances in the epithelium lining the segment from gizzard to duodenum during development of the chick embryo was studied histochemically using monoclonal antibodies against gizzard mucus and lectins, with attention to the regional differentiation of the epithelium in this segment. The anterior limit of epithelial CdxA mRNA expression detected by in situ hybridisation, which served as the position of the gizzard-duodenal boundary, was clearly found from d 3. Granules positive for some antibodies or lectins were found in the region ranging from the posterior part of the gizzard to the duodenum at d 3, which was followed by an increase in the number of granules and a gradual enlargement of the granule-positive area to the anterior part of the gizzard over 4-6 d. From d 4, the epithelia of the gizzard body and of the pyloric or duodenal region came to be differently stained with some antibodies or lectins. From d 10, each region showed a specific pattern of staining. The epithelia of the gizzard body and pyloric region contained abundant mucus granules with a different staining pattern. In the duodenum the number of stained granules was low except in occasional goblet cells. Thus the epithelia of the gizzard body, pyloric region and duodenum may produce different mucosubstances and the regional differentiation in these epithelia may start at rather early stages soon after the formation of digestive tube.  (+info)

Effect of sodium butyrate on lymphocyte activation. (7/6088)

Butyrate, in relatively low concentrations, has been shown to induce synthesis of enzymes, cause changes in cell morphology, and inhibit growth of a variety of mammalian cells in tissue culture (reviewed in [1]). In this communication, we report our observations on the effect of butyrate on lymphocyte activation. Butyrate completely and reversibly inhibits mitogen-induced blast formation. We present evidence that it does not interfere with the binding of mitogens, that it does not inhibit a number of the "early" reactions involved in activation, and that it does not affect ongoing DNA synthesis for an extended period of time. However, butyrate rapidly inhibits any increase in the rate of DNA synthesis.  (+info)

In vivo NGF deprivation reduces SNS expression and TTX-R sodium currents in IB4-negative DRG neurons. (8/6088)

Recent evidence suggests that changes in sodium channel expression and localization may be involved in some pathological pain syndromes. SNS, a tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium channel, is preferentially expressed in small dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, many of which are nociceptive. TTX-R sodium currents and SNS mRNA expression have been shown to be modulated by nerve growth factor (NGF) in vitro and in vivo. To determine whether SNS expression and TTX-R currents in DRG neurons are affected by reduced levels of systemic NGF, we immunized adult rats with NGF, which causes thermal hypoalgesia in rats with high antibody titers to NGF. DRG neurons cultured from rats with high antibody titers to NGF, which do not bind the isolectin IB4 (IB4(-)) but do express TrkA, were studied with whole cell patch-clamp and in situ hybridization. Mean TTX-R sodium current density was decreased from 504 +/- 77 pA/pF to 307 +/- 61 pA/pF in control versus NGF-deprived neurons, respectively. In comparison, the mean TTX-sensitive sodium current density was not significantly different between control and NGF-deprived neurons. Quantification of SNS mRNA hybridization signal showed a significant decrease in the signal in NGF-deprived neurons compared with the control neurons. The data suggest that NGF has a major role in the maintenance of steady-state levels of TTX-R sodium currents and SNS mRNA in IB4(-) DRG neurons in adult rats in vivo.  (+info)

Lectins are a type of proteins that bind specifically to carbohydrates and have been found in various plant and animal sources. They play important roles in biological recognition events, such as cell-cell adhesion, and can also be involved in the immune response. Some lectins can agglutinate certain types of cells or precipitate glycoproteins, while others may have a more direct effect on cellular processes. In some cases, lectins from plants can cause adverse effects in humans if ingested, such as digestive discomfort or allergic reactions.

Plant lectins are proteins or glycoproteins that are abundantly found in various plant parts such as seeds, leaves, stems, and roots. They have the ability to bind specifically to carbohydrate structures present on cell membranes, known as glycoconjugates. This binding property of lectins is reversible and non-catalytic, meaning it does not involve any enzymatic activity.

Lectins play several roles in plants, including defense against predators, pathogens, and herbivores. They can agglutinate red blood cells, stimulate the immune system, and have been implicated in various biological processes such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Some lectins also exhibit mitogenic activity, which means they can stimulate the proliferation of certain types of cells.

In the medical field, plant lectins have gained attention due to their potential therapeutic applications. For instance, some lectins have been shown to possess anti-cancer properties and are being investigated as potential cancer treatments. However, it is important to note that some lectins can be toxic or allergenic to humans and animals, so they must be used with caution.

Mannose-binding lectins (MBLs) are a group of proteins that belong to the collectin family and play a crucial role in the innate immune system. They are primarily produced by the liver and secreted into the bloodstream. MBLs have a specific affinity for mannose sugar residues found on the surface of various microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.

The primary function of MBLs is to recognize and bind to these mannose-rich structures, which triggers the complement system's activation through the lectin pathway. This process leads to the destruction of the microorganism by opsonization (coating the microbe to enhance phagocytosis) or direct lysis. MBLs also have the ability to neutralize certain viruses and inhibit the replication of others, further contributing to their antimicrobial activity.

Deficiencies in MBL levels or function have been associated with an increased susceptibility to infections, particularly in children and older adults. However, the clinical significance of MBL deficiency remains a subject of ongoing research.

Wheat germ agglutinins (WGA) are proteins found in wheat germ that have the ability to bind to specific carbohydrate structures, such as N-acetylglucosamine and sialic acid, which are present on the surface of many cells in the human body. WGA is a type of lectin, a group of proteins that can agglutinate, or clump together, red blood cells and bind to specific sugars on cell membranes.

WGA has been studied for its potential effects on various biological processes, including inflammation, immune response, and gut barrier function. Some research suggests that WGA may interact with the gut epithelium and affect intestinal permeability, potentially contributing to the development of gastrointestinal symptoms in some individuals. However, more research is needed to fully understand the clinical significance of these findings.

It's worth noting that while WGA has been studied for its potential biological effects, it is not currently recognized as a major allergen or toxic component of wheat. However, some people may still choose to avoid foods containing WGA due to personal dietary preferences or sensitivities.

C-type lectins are a family of proteins that contain one or more carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) with a characteristic pattern of conserved sequence motifs. These proteins are capable of binding to specific carbohydrate structures in a calcium-dependent manner, making them important in various biological processes such as cell adhesion, immune recognition, and initiation of inflammatory responses.

C-type lectins can be further classified into several subfamilies based on their structure and function, including selectins, collectins, and immunoglobulin-like receptors. They play a crucial role in the immune system by recognizing and binding to carbohydrate structures on the surface of pathogens, facilitating their clearance by phagocytic cells. Additionally, C-type lectins are involved in various physiological processes such as cell development, tissue repair, and cancer progression.

It is important to note that some C-type lectins can also bind to self-antigens and contribute to autoimmune diseases. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of these proteins has important implications for developing new therapeutic strategies for various diseases.

Galectins are a family of animal lectins (carbohydrate-binding proteins) that bind specifically to beta-galactosides. They play important roles in various biological processes, including inflammation, immune response, cancer progression, and development. Galectins are widely distributed in various tissues and organ systems, and they can be found both intracellularly and extracellularly.

There are 15 known mammalian galectins, which are classified into three groups based on their structure: prototype (Gal-1, -2, -5, -7, -10, -13, -14, and -16), chimera-type (Gal-3), and tandem-repeat type (Gal-4, -6, -8, -9, and -12). Each galectin has a unique set of functions, but they often work together to regulate cellular processes.

Abnormal expression or function of galectins has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, fibrosis, and autoimmune disorders. Therefore, galectins are considered potential targets for the development of new therapeutic strategies.

Glycoconjugates are a type of complex molecule that form when a carbohydrate (sugar) becomes chemically linked to a protein or lipid (fat) molecule. This linkage, known as a glycosidic bond, results in the formation of a new molecule that combines the properties and functions of both the carbohydrate and the protein or lipid component.

Glycoconjugates can be classified into several categories based on the type of linkage and the nature of the components involved. For example, glycoproteins are glycoconjugates that consist of a protein backbone with one or more carbohydrate chains attached to it. Similarly, glycolipids are molecules that contain a lipid anchor linked to one or more carbohydrate residues.

Glycoconjugates play important roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and communication. They are also involved in the immune response, inflammation, and the development of certain diseases such as cancer and infectious disorders. As a result, understanding the structure and function of glycoconjugates is an active area of research in biochemistry, cell biology, and medical science.

Peanut agglutinin (PNA) is a lectin, a type of carbohydrate-binding protein, found in peanuts. It is known to bind specifically to Galβ1-3GalNAc, a disaccharide present on glycoproteins and glycolipids of various cells. PNA has been used in research as a tool for identifying and isolating specific cell types, such as immature red blood cells (reticulocytes) and certain types of cancer cells, due to its affinity for these structures. However, it's important to note that peanut agglutinin may also have potential implications in the development of allergies to peanuts.

Carbohydrates are a major nutrient class consisting of organic compounds that primarily contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. They are classified as saccharides, which include monosaccharides (simple sugars), disaccharides (double sugars), oligosaccharides (short-chain sugars), and polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates).

Monosaccharides, such as glucose, fructose, and galactose, are the simplest form of carbohydrates. They consist of a single sugar molecule that cannot be broken down further by hydrolysis. Disaccharides, like sucrose (table sugar), lactose (milk sugar), and maltose (malt sugar), are formed from two monosaccharide units joined together.

Oligosaccharides contain a small number of monosaccharide units, typically less than 20, while polysaccharides consist of long chains of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharide units. Polysaccharides can be further classified into starch (found in plants), glycogen (found in animals), and non-starchy polysaccharides like cellulose, chitin, and pectin.

Carbohydrates play a crucial role in providing energy to the body, with glucose being the primary source of energy for most cells. They also serve as structural components in plants (cellulose) and animals (chitin), participate in various metabolic processes, and contribute to the taste, texture, and preservation of foods.

Concanavalin A (Con A) is a type of protein known as a lectin, which is found in the seeds of the plant Canavalia ensiformis, also known as jack bean. It is often used in laboratory settings as a tool to study various biological processes, such as cell division and the immune response, due to its ability to bind specifically to certain sugars on the surface of cells. Con A has been extensively studied for its potential applications in medicine, including as a possible treatment for cancer and viral infections. However, more research is needed before these potential uses can be realized.

Galactosides are compounds that contain a galactose molecule. Galactose is a monosaccharide, or simple sugar, that is similar in structure to glucose but has a different chemical formula (C~6~H~10~O~5~). It is found in nature and is a component of lactose, the primary sugar in milk.

Galactosides are formed when a galactose molecule is linked to another molecule through a glycosidic bond. This type of bond is formed between a hydroxyl group (-OH) on the galactose molecule and a functional group on the other molecule. Galactosides can be found in various substances, including some plants and microorganisms, as well as in certain medications and medical supplements.

One common example of a galactoside is lactose, which is a disaccharide consisting of a glucose molecule linked to a galactose molecule through a glycosidic bond. Lactose is the primary sugar found in milk and dairy products, and it is broken down into its component monosaccharides (glucose and galactose) by an enzyme called lactase during digestion.

Other examples of galactosides include various glycoproteins, which are proteins that have one or more galactose molecules attached to them. These types of compounds play important roles in the body, including in cell-cell recognition and communication, as well as in the immune response.

"Galanthus" is not a medical term. It is the genus name for snowdrops, a type of small, white flowering plant that typically blooms in early spring. The name "Galanthus" comes from the Greek words "gala," meaning milk, and "anthos," meaning flower, referring to the plant's white, milk-like flowers.

Snowdrops have been used in traditional medicine in some cultures, but there is limited scientific evidence to support their effectiveness for any specific medical purpose. Some studies suggest that certain compounds found in snowdrops may have potential therapeutic benefits, such as anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects, but more research is needed before any definitive conclusions can be drawn.

Acetylgalactosamine (also known as N-acetyl-D-galactosamine or GalNAc) is a type of sugar molecule called a hexosamine that is commonly found in glycoproteins and proteoglycans, which are complex carbohydrates that are attached to proteins and lipids. It plays an important role in various biological processes, including cell-cell recognition, signal transduction, and protein folding.

In the context of medical research and biochemistry, Acetylgalactosamine is often used as a building block for synthesizing glycoconjugates, which are molecules that consist of a carbohydrate attached to a protein or lipid. These molecules play important roles in many biological processes, including cell-cell recognition, signaling, and immune response.

Acetylgalactosamine is also used as a target for enzymes called glycosyltransferases, which add sugar molecules to proteins and lipids. In particular, Acetylgalactosamine is the acceptor substrate for a class of glycosyltransferases known as galactosyltransferases, which add galactose molecules to Acetylgalactosamine-containing structures.

Defects in the metabolism of Acetylgalactosamine have been linked to various genetic disorders, including Schindler disease and Kanzaki disease, which are characterized by neurological symptoms and abnormal accumulation of glycoproteins in various tissues.

Fetuins are a group of proteins that are produced by the liver and found in circulation in the blood. The most well-known fetuin, fetuin-A, is a 64 kDa glycoprotein that is synthesized in the liver and secreted into the bloodstream. Fetuin-A plays a role in several physiological processes, including inhibition of tissue calcification, regulation of insulin sensitivity, and modulation of immune responses.

Fetuin-B is another member of the fetuin family that shares some structural similarities with fetuin-A but has distinct functions. Fetuin-B is also produced by the liver and secreted into the bloodstream, where it plays a role in regulating lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity.

It's worth noting that while both fetuins have been studied for their roles in various physiological processes, there is still much to be learned about their functions and regulation.

Mitogen receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that become activated in response to the binding of mitogens, which are substances that stimulate mitosis (cell division) and therefore promote growth and proliferation of cells. The activation of mitogen receptors triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to the transcription of genes involved in cell cycle progression and cell division.

Mitogen receptors include receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and cytokine receptors, among others. RTKs are transmembrane proteins that have an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain, which becomes activated upon ligand binding and phosphorylates downstream signaling molecules. GPCRs are seven-transmembrane domain proteins that activate heterotrimeric G proteins upon ligand binding, leading to the activation of various intracellular signaling pathways. Cytokine receptors are typically composed of multiple subunits and activate Janus kinases (JAKs) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins upon ligand binding.

Abnormal activation of mitogen receptors has been implicated in the development and progression of various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and inflammatory conditions. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying mitogen receptor signaling is crucial for the development of targeted therapies for these diseases.

Hemagglutination is a medical term that refers to the agglutination or clumping together of red blood cells (RBCs) in the presence of an agglutinin, which is typically a protein or a polysaccharide found on the surface of certain viruses, bacteria, or incompatible blood types.

In simpler terms, hemagglutination occurs when the agglutinin binds to specific antigens on the surface of RBCs, causing them to clump together and form visible clumps or aggregates. This reaction is often used in diagnostic tests to identify the presence of certain viruses or bacteria, such as influenza or HIV, by mixing a sample of blood or other bodily fluid with a known agglutinin and observing whether hemagglutination occurs.

Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays are also commonly used to measure the titer or concentration of antibodies in a serum sample, by adding serial dilutions of the serum to a fixed amount of agglutinin and observing the highest dilution that still prevents hemagglutination. This can help determine whether a person has been previously exposed to a particular pathogen and has developed immunity to it.

Carbohydrate metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, which is then used for energy or stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. This process involves several enzymes and chemical reactions that convert carbohydrates from food into glucose, fructose, or galactose, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to cells throughout the body.

The hormones insulin and glucagon regulate carbohydrate metabolism by controlling the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. Insulin is released from the pancreas when blood sugar levels are high, such as after a meal, and promotes the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. Glucagon, on the other hand, is released when blood sugar levels are low and signals the liver to convert stored glycogen back into glucose and release it into the bloodstream.

Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism can result from genetic defects or acquired conditions that affect the enzymes or hormones involved in this process. Examples include diabetes, hypoglycemia, and galactosemia. Proper management of these disorders typically involves dietary modifications, medication, and regular monitoring of blood sugar levels.

Agglutination is a medical term that refers to the clumping together of particles, such as cells, bacteria, or precipitates, in a liquid medium. It most commonly occurs due to the presence of antibodies in the fluid that bind to specific antigens on the surface of the particles, causing them to adhere to one another and form visible clumps.

In clinical laboratory testing, agglutination is often used as a diagnostic tool to identify the presence of certain antibodies or antigens in a patient's sample. For example, a common application of agglutination is in blood typing, where the presence of specific antigens on the surface of red blood cells causes them to clump together when mixed with corresponding antibodies.

Agglutination can also occur in response to certain infectious agents, such as bacteria or viruses, that display antigens on their surface. In these cases, the agglutination reaction can help diagnose an infection and guide appropriate treatment.

Mannose is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) that is similar in structure to glucose. It is a hexose, meaning it contains six carbon atoms. Mannose is a stereoisomer of glucose, meaning it has the same chemical formula but a different structural arrangement of its atoms.

Mannose is not as commonly found in foods as other simple sugars, but it can be found in some fruits, such as cranberries, blueberries, and peaches, as well as in certain vegetables, like sweet potatoes and turnips. It is also found in some dietary fibers, such as those found in beans and whole grains.

In the body, mannose can be metabolized and used for energy, but it is also an important component of various glycoproteins and glycolipids, which are molecules that play critical roles in many biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and adhesion.

Mannose has been studied as a potential therapeutic agent for various medical conditions, including urinary tract infections (UTIs), because it can inhibit the attachment of certain bacteria to the cells lining the urinary tract. Additionally, mannose-binding lectins have been investigated for their potential role in the immune response to viral and bacterial infections.

A "carbohydrate sequence" refers to the specific arrangement or order of monosaccharides (simple sugars) that make up a carbohydrate molecule, such as a polysaccharide or an oligosaccharide. Carbohydrates are often composed of repeating units of monosaccharides, and the sequence in which these units are arranged can have important implications for the function and properties of the carbohydrate.

For example, in glycoproteins (proteins that contain carbohydrate chains), the specific carbohydrate sequence can affect how the protein is processed and targeted within the cell, as well as its stability and activity. Similarly, in complex carbohydrates like starch or cellulose, the sequence of glucose units can determine whether the molecule is branched or unbranched, which can have implications for its digestibility and other properties.

Therefore, understanding the carbohydrate sequence is an important aspect of studying carbohydrate structure and function in biology and medicine.

'Canavalia' is a genus of herbaceous plants in the legume family, also known as jackbeans or horse eye beans. While the plant itself has some medicinal uses, such as being used as a traditional remedy for skin conditions and inflammation, it is not typically the subject of medical definition.

However, a compound called canavalia ensiformis agglutinin (Con A) can be extracted from the seeds of Canavalia ensiformis (also known as jackbean). Con A is a type of lectin, which is a protein that binds to carbohydrates and has various biological effects.

Con A has been studied for its potential medical applications, such as in cancer research. It can bind to specific structures on the surface of cancer cells and induce cell death, making it a subject of interest in immunotherapy and other cancer treatments. However, more research is needed before Con A can be used as a standard treatment for cancer or any other medical condition.

'Artocarpus' is a genus of trees in the mulberry family (Moraceae). It includes several tropical species that are native to Southeast Asia, such as the jackfruit (*Artocarpus heterophyllus*) and the breadfruit (*Artocarpus altilis*). These trees are known for their large, edible fruits and hard, woody trunks.

The wood of Artocarpus trees is often used for timber, and some species have medicinal properties. For example, the bark of *Artocarpus incisa* has been used in traditional medicine to treat skin diseases and diarrhea. The leaves and fruits of *Artocarpus communis* are also used in traditional medicine in some parts of Asia.

It is important to note that while Artocarpus species have various uses, they should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as improper use can lead to adverse effects.

"Ricinus" is the botanical name for the castor oil plant. Its scientific name is "Ricinus communis." It is a species of flowering plant in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae. The castor oil that comes from this plant is used in various industries and as a traditional medicine, although the raw seed is toxic due to its ricin content.

Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates consisting of long chains of monosaccharide units (simple sugars) bonded together by glycosidic linkages. They can be classified based on the type of monosaccharides and the nature of the bonds that connect them.

Polysaccharides have various functions in living organisms. For example, starch and glycogen serve as energy storage molecules in plants and animals, respectively. Cellulose provides structural support in plants, while chitin is a key component of fungal cell walls and arthropod exoskeletons.

Some polysaccharides also have important roles in the human body, such as being part of the extracellular matrix (e.g., hyaluronic acid) or acting as blood group antigens (e.g., ABO blood group substances).

Galactose is a simple sugar or monosaccharide that is a constituent of lactose, the disaccharide found in milk and dairy products. It's structurally similar to glucose but with a different chemical structure, and it plays a crucial role in various biological processes.

Galactose can be metabolized in the body through the action of enzymes such as galactokinase, galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, and UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase. Inherited deficiencies in these enzymes can lead to metabolic disorders like galactosemia, which can cause serious health issues if not diagnosed and treated promptly.

In summary, Galactose is a simple sugar that plays an essential role in lactose metabolism and other biological processes.

Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are a class of toxic proteins that inhibit protein synthesis in cells by modifying ribosomal RNA. They can be found in various plants, animals, and bacteria. Type 2 RIPs are characterized by their structure, which consists of two separate polypeptide chains: an A chain with N-glycosidase activity that removes an adenine residue from a specific site on the 28S rRNA, and a B chain that facilitates the binding of the A chain to the ribosome. The B chain is a lectin domain that allows for specific recognition and binding to glycoconjugates on the cell surface, leading to internalization of the RIP into the cell. Type 2 RIPs are known for their ability to inhibit protein synthesis in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, making them potential candidates for use in cancer therapy and other medical applications.

Hemagglutinins are proteins found on the surface of some viruses, including influenza viruses. They have the ability to bind to specific receptors on the surface of red blood cells, causing them to clump together (a process known as hemagglutination). This property is what allows certain viruses to infect host cells and cause disease. Hemagglutinins play a crucial role in the infection process of influenza viruses, as they facilitate the virus's entry into host cells by binding to sialic acid receptors on the surface of respiratory epithelial cells. There are 18 different subtypes of hemagglutinin (H1-H18) found in various influenza A viruses, and they are a major target of the immune response to influenza infection. Vaccines against influenza contain hemagglutinins from the specific strains of virus that are predicted to be most prevalent in a given season, and induce immunity by stimulating the production of antibodies that can neutralize the virus.

Agglutinins are antibodies that cause the particles (such as red blood cells, bacteria, or viruses) to clump together. They recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of these particles, forming a bridge between them and causing them to agglutinate or clump. Agglutinins are an important part of the immune system's response to infection and help to eliminate pathogens from the body.

There are two main types of agglutinins:

1. Naturally occurring agglutinins: These are present in the blood serum of most individuals, even before exposure to an antigen. They can agglutinate some bacteria and red blood cells without prior sensitization. For example, anti-A and anti-B agglutinins are naturally occurring antibodies found in people with different blood groups (A, B, AB, or O).
2. Immune agglutinins: These are produced by the immune system after exposure to an antigen. They develop as part of the adaptive immune response and target specific antigens that the body has encountered before. Immunization with vaccines often leads to the production of immune agglutinins, which can provide protection against future infections.

Agglutination reactions are widely used in laboratory tests for various diagnostic purposes, such as blood typing, detecting bacterial or viral infections, and monitoring immune responses.

Hemagglutination tests are laboratory procedures used to detect the presence of antibodies or antigens in a sample, typically in blood serum. These tests rely on the ability of certain substances, such as viruses or bacteria, to agglutinate (clump together) red blood cells.

In a hemagglutination test, a small amount of the patient's serum is mixed with a known quantity of red blood cells that have been treated with a specific antigen. If the patient has antibodies against that antigen in their serum, they will bind to the antigens on the red blood cells and cause them to agglutinate. This clumping can be observed visually, indicating a positive test result.

Hemagglutination tests are commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases caused by viruses or bacteria that have hemagglutinating properties, such as influenza, parainfluenza, and HIV. They can also be used in blood typing and cross-matching before transfusions.

Fucose is a type of sugar molecule that is often found in complex carbohydrates known as glycans, which are attached to many proteins and lipids in the body. It is a hexose sugar, meaning it contains six carbon atoms, and is a type of L-sugar, which means that it rotates plane-polarized light in a counterclockwise direction.

Fucose is often found at the ends of glycan chains and plays important roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and interaction. It is also a component of some blood group antigens and is involved in the development and function of the immune system. Abnormalities in fucosylation (the addition of fucose to glycans) have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and neurological disorders.

Asialoglycoproteins are glycoproteins that have lost their terminal sialic acid residues. In the body, these molecules are typically recognized and removed from circulation by hepatic lectins, such as the Ashwell-Morrell receptor, found on liver cells. This process is a part of the normal turnover and clearance of glycoproteins in the body.

Mannosides are glycosylated compounds that consist of a mannose sugar molecule (a type of monosaccharide) linked to another compound, often a protein or lipid. They are formed when an enzyme called a glycosyltransferase transfers a mannose molecule from a donor substrate, such as a nucleotide sugar (like GDP-mannose), to an acceptor molecule.

Mannosides can be found on the surface of many types of cells and play important roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and protein folding. They are also involved in the immune response and have been studied as potential therapeutic targets for a variety of diseases, including infectious diseases and cancer.

It's worth noting that mannosides can be further classified based on the specific linkage between the mannose molecule and the acceptor compound. For example, an N-linked mannoside is one in which the mannose is linked to a nitrogen atom on the acceptor protein, while an O-linked mannoside is one in which the mannose is linked to an oxygen atom on the acceptor protein.

Glycoproteins are complex proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. These glycans are linked to the protein through asparagine residues (N-linked) or serine/threonine residues (O-linked). Glycoproteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion, and signal transduction. They are widely distributed in nature and can be found on the outer surface of cell membranes, in extracellular fluids, and as components of the extracellular matrix. The structure and composition of glycoproteins can vary significantly depending on their function and location within an organism.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Acetylglucosamine is a type of sugar that is commonly found in the body and plays a crucial role in various biological processes. It is a key component of glycoproteins and proteoglycans, which are complex molecules made up of protein and carbohydrate components.

More specifically, acetylglucosamine is an amino sugar that is formed by the addition of an acetyl group to glucosamine. It can be further modified in the body through a process called acetylation, which involves the addition of additional acetyl groups.

Acetylglucosamine is important for maintaining the structure and function of various tissues in the body, including cartilage, tendons, and ligaments. It also plays a role in the immune system and has been studied as a potential therapeutic target for various diseases, including cancer and inflammatory conditions.

In summary, acetylglucosamine is a type of sugar that is involved in many important biological processes in the body, and has potential therapeutic applications in various diseases.

Mistletoe, in a medical context, does not have a specific definition. However, it is worth noting that mistletoe is a parasitic plant that grows on the branches of trees and shrubs. In alternative medicine, extracts from mistletoe (Viscum album) are used in Europe to treat various conditions, including cancer. The extracts are thought to stimulate the immune system and have anti-tumor properties. However, it's important to note that the use of mistletoe as a medical treatment is considered complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and its effectiveness and safety are still being studied. It should not be used as a substitute for conventional cancer treatments.

Affinity chromatography is a type of chromatography technique used in biochemistry and molecular biology to separate and purify proteins based on their biological characteristics, such as their ability to bind specifically to certain ligands or molecules. This method utilizes a stationary phase that is coated with a specific ligand (e.g., an antibody, antigen, receptor, or enzyme) that selectively interacts with the target protein in a sample.

The process typically involves the following steps:

1. Preparation of the affinity chromatography column: The stationary phase, usually a solid matrix such as agarose beads or magnetic beads, is modified by covalently attaching the ligand to its surface.
2. Application of the sample: The protein mixture is applied to the top of the affinity chromatography column, allowing it to flow through the stationary phase under gravity or pressure.
3. Binding and washing: As the sample flows through the column, the target protein selectively binds to the ligand on the stationary phase, while other proteins and impurities pass through. The column is then washed with a suitable buffer to remove any unbound proteins and contaminants.
4. Elution of the bound protein: The target protein can be eluted from the column using various methods, such as changing the pH, ionic strength, or polarity of the buffer, or by introducing a competitive ligand that displaces the bound protein.
5. Collection and analysis: The eluted protein fraction is collected and analyzed for purity and identity, often through techniques like SDS-PAGE or mass spectrometry.

Affinity chromatography is a powerful tool in biochemistry and molecular biology due to its high selectivity and specificity, enabling the efficient isolation of target proteins from complex mixtures. However, it requires careful consideration of the binding affinity between the ligand and the protein, as well as optimization of the elution conditions to minimize potential damage or denaturation of the purified protein.

Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are a type of protein that can inhibit the function of ribosomes, which are the cellular structures responsible for protein synthesis. Ribosomes are made up of two subunits, and RIPs work by depurinating a specific adenine residue in the sarcin-ricin loop of the large rRNA subunit, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis and ultimately, cell death.

RIPs can be found in various organisms, including plants, bacteria, and fungi. Some RIPs have N-glycosidase activity, while others have both N-glycosidase and RNA N-hydroxylase activities. Based on their structure and mechanism of action, RIPs are classified into two types: type 1 and type 2.

Type 1 RIPs consist of a single polypeptide chain with N-glycosidase activity, while type 2 RIPs consist of two chains - an A chain with N-glycosidase activity and a B chain that acts as a lectin, facilitating the entry of the A chain into the cell.

RIPs have been studied for their potential use in cancer therapy due to their ability to inhibit protein synthesis in cancer cells. However, their toxicity to normal cells limits their therapeutic use. Therefore, researchers are exploring ways to modify RIPs to increase their specificity towards cancer cells while minimizing their toxicity to normal cells.

Medicinal plants are defined as those plants that contain naturally occurring chemical compounds which can be used for therapeutic purposes, either directly or indirectly. These plants have been used for centuries in various traditional systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Chinese medicine, and Native American medicine, to prevent or treat various health conditions.

Medicinal plants contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, including alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, and saponins, among others. These compounds have been found to possess various pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities.

Medicinal plants can be used in various forms, including whole plant material, extracts, essential oils, and isolated compounds. They can be administered through different routes, such as oral, topical, or respiratory, depending on the desired therapeutic effect.

It is important to note that while medicinal plants have been used safely and effectively for centuries, they should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Some medicinal plants can interact with prescription medications or have adverse effects if used inappropriately.

Oligosaccharides are complex carbohydrates composed of relatively small numbers (3-10) of monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic linkages. They occur naturally in foods such as milk, fruits, vegetables, and legumes. In the body, oligosaccharides play important roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and protection against pathogens.

There are several types of oligosaccharides, classified based on their structures and functions. Some common examples include:

1. Disaccharides: These consist of two monosaccharide units, such as sucrose (glucose + fructose), lactose (glucose + galactose), and maltose (glucose + glucose).
2. Trisaccharides: These contain three monosaccharide units, like maltotriose (glucose + glucose + glucose) and raffinose (galactose + glucose + fructose).
3. Oligosaccharides found in human milk: Human milk contains unique oligosaccharides that serve as prebiotics, promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut. These oligosaccharides also help protect infants from pathogens by acting as decoy receptors and inhibiting bacterial adhesion to intestinal cells.
4. N-linked and O-linked glycans: These are oligosaccharides attached to proteins in the body, playing crucial roles in protein folding, stability, and function.
5. Plant-derived oligosaccharides: Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are examples of plant-derived oligosaccharides that serve as prebiotics, promoting the growth of beneficial gut bacteria.

Overall, oligosaccharides have significant impacts on human health and disease, particularly in relation to gastrointestinal function, immunity, and inflammation.

Fabaceae is the scientific name for a family of flowering plants commonly known as the legume, pea, or bean family. This family includes a wide variety of plants that are important economically, agriculturally, and ecologically. Many members of Fabaceae have compound leaves and produce fruits that are legumes, which are long, thin pods that contain seeds. Some well-known examples of plants in this family include beans, peas, lentils, peanuts, clover, and alfalfa.

In addition to their importance as food crops, many Fabaceae species have the ability to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere into the soil through a symbiotic relationship with bacteria that live in nodules on their roots. This makes them valuable for improving soil fertility and is one reason why they are often used in crop rotation and as cover crops.

It's worth noting that Fabaceae is sometimes still referred to by its older scientific name, Leguminosae.

N-Acetylneuraminic Acid (Neu5Ac) is an organic compound that belongs to the family of sialic acids. It is a common terminal sugar found on many glycoproteins and glycolipids on the surface of animal cells. Neu5Ac plays crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and intercellular interactions. It is also involved in the protection against pathogens by serving as a barrier to prevent their attachment to host cells. Additionally, Neu5Ac has been implicated in several disease conditions, such as cancer and inflammation, due to its altered expression and metabolism.

N-Acetylglucosamine receptors are not a well-defined concept in medicine or biology. N-Acetylglucosamine is a type of sugar that can be found on the surface of many cells in the body, where it can serve as a recognition site for various proteins and antibodies. However, there is no widely accepted definition of "N-Acetylglucosamine receptors" as a distinct class of cellular components with specific functions.

In general, receptors are molecules that bind to specific ligands (such as hormones, neurotransmitters, or drugs) and trigger a response in the cell. N-Acetylglucosamine can be a component of glycoproteins and glycolipids on the cell surface, which can interact with other molecules and play a role in various biological processes, such as cell recognition, adhesion, and signaling. However, these interactions are typically not referred to as "receptor" functions.

Therefore, it is important to note that the term "N-Acetylglucosamine receptors" may not be medically or scientifically accurate, and further clarification may be needed to understand the specific context in which it is being used.

Glycosylation is the enzymatic process of adding a sugar group, or glycan, to a protein, lipid, or other organic molecule. This post-translational modification plays a crucial role in modulating various biological functions, such as protein stability, trafficking, and ligand binding. The structure and composition of the attached glycans can significantly influence the functional properties of the modified molecule, contributing to cell-cell recognition, signal transduction, and immune response regulation. Abnormal glycosylation patterns have been implicated in several disease states, including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Methylmannosides are not a recognized medical term or a specific medical condition. However, in biochemistry, methylmannosides refer to a type of glycosylation pattern where a methyl group (-CH3) is attached to a mannose sugar molecule. Mannose is a type of monosaccharide or simple sugar that is commonly found in various glycoproteins and glycolipids in the human body.

Methylmannosides can be formed through the enzymatic transfer of a methyl group from a donor molecule, such as S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), to the mannose sugar by methyltransferase enzymes. These modifications can play important roles in various biological processes, including protein folding, trafficking, and quality control, as well as cell-cell recognition and signaling.

It's worth noting that while methylmannosides have significant biochemical importance, they are not typically referred to in medical contexts unless discussing specific biochemical or molecular research studies.

Abrin is a protein toxin found in the seeds of the rosary pea plant (Abrus precatorius), also known as jequirity bean. It is a highly potent toxin, similar in structure and function to ricin, which is found in castor beans. Abrin inhibits protein synthesis in cells by removing a critical adenine residue from the 28S rRNA of the 60S ribosomal subunit, thereby preventing peptide bond formation and ultimately leading to cell death.

Ingesting or inhaling abrin can cause severe illness or death in both humans and animals. Symptoms of abrin poisoning may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever, followed by respiratory distress, multi-organ failure, and potentially fatal shock. There is no antidote for abrin poisoning, and treatment is primarily supportive, focusing on managing symptoms and maintaining vital organ function.

It's important to note that abrin is classified as a potential bioterrorism agent due to its high toxicity and potential use in malicious attacks. As such, handling or coming into contact with abrin should be avoided, and any suspected exposure should be reported to medical professionals immediately.

Phytohemagglutinins (PHA) are a type of lectin, specifically a mitogen, found in certain plants such as red kidney beans, white kidney beans, and butter beans. They have the ability to agglutinate erythrocytes (red blood cells) and stimulate the proliferation of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell). PHA is often used in medical research and diagnostics as a means to study immune system function, particularly the activation and proliferation of T-cells. It's also used in some immunological assays. However, it should be noted that ingesting large amounts of raw or undercooked beans containing high levels of PHA can cause adverse gastrointestinal symptoms due to their ability to interact with the cells lining the digestive tract.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Monosaccharides are simple sugars that cannot be broken down into simpler units by hydrolysis. They are the most basic unit of carbohydrates and are often referred to as "simple sugars." Monosaccharides typically contain three to seven atoms of carbon, but the most common monosaccharides contain five or six carbon atoms.

The general formula for a monosaccharide is (CH2O)n, where n is the number of carbon atoms in the molecule. The majority of monosaccharides have a carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone) and multiple hydroxyl groups. These functional groups give monosaccharides their characteristic sweet taste and chemical properties.

The most common monosaccharides include glucose, fructose, and galactose, all of which contain six carbon atoms and are known as hexoses. Other important monosaccharides include pentoses (five-carbon sugars) such as ribose and deoxyribose, which play crucial roles in the structure and function of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).

Monosaccharides can exist in various forms, including linear and cyclic structures. In aqueous solutions, monosaccharides often form cyclic structures through a reaction between the carbonyl group and a hydroxyl group, creating a hemiacetal or hemiketal linkage. These cyclic structures can adopt different conformations, known as anomers, depending on the orientation of the hydroxyl group attached to the anomeric carbon atom.

Monosaccharides serve as essential building blocks for complex carbohydrates, such as disaccharides (e.g., sucrose, lactose, and maltose) and polysaccharides (e.g., starch, cellulose, and glycogen). They also participate in various biological processes, including energy metabolism, cell recognition, and protein glycosylation.

'Erythrina' is a botanical term, not a medical one. It refers to a genus of plants in the family Fabaceae, also known as the pea or legume family. These plants are commonly called coral trees due to their bright red flowers. While some parts of certain species can have medicinal uses, such as anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, 'Erythrina' itself is not a medical term or condition.

Galectin-1 is a protein that belongs to the galectin family, which are carbohydrate-binding proteins with diverse functions in various biological processes. Galectin-1 is found in both intracellular and extracellular environments and has been implicated in several physiological and pathological conditions.

Galectin-1 is a homodimeric protein composed of two identical subunits, each containing a carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) that binds to beta-galactoside sugars found on glycoproteins and glycolipids. The CRDs are connected by a linker peptide, which allows the protein to adopt different conformations and interact with various ligands.

Galectin-1 has been shown to regulate cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, apoptosis, and immune responses. In the immune system, Galectin-1 can modulate T-cell activation and differentiation, promote regulatory T-cell function, and induce apoptosis of activated T cells. These properties make Galectin-1 a potential target for immunotherapy in cancer and autoimmune diseases.

In summary, Galectin-1 is a multifunctional protein involved in various biological processes, including immune regulation, cell adhesion, and migration. Its role in disease pathogenesis and potential therapeutic applications are currently under investigation.

Histochemistry is the branch of pathology that deals with the microscopic localization of cellular or tissue components using specific chemical reactions. It involves the application of chemical techniques to identify and locate specific biomolecules within tissues, cells, and subcellular structures. This is achieved through the use of various staining methods that react with specific antigens or enzymes in the sample, allowing for their visualization under a microscope. Histochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to identify different types of tissues, cells, and structures, as well as in research to study cellular and molecular processes in health and disease.

"Sambucus" is a genus of flowering plants in the family Adoxaceae, commonly known as elder or elderberry. While "Sambucus" itself is not a medical term, certain species of this plant, particularly "Sambucus nigra," have been used in traditional medicine for their potential health benefits. The berries and flowers of elderberry are rich in vitamins and antioxidants, and they have been traditionally used to treat colds, flu, and other respiratory infections. However, it is important to note that the raw berries and leaves of elderberry contain a substance called sambunigrin, which can be toxic if consumed in large quantities or improperly prepared. Therefore, it is recommended to consume only properly cooked or processed elderberry products under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Sialic acids are a family of nine-carbon sugars that are commonly found on the outermost surface of many cell types, particularly on the glycoconjugates of mucins in various secretions and on the glycoproteins and glycolipids of cell membranes. They play important roles in a variety of biological processes, including cell recognition, immune response, and viral and bacterial infectivity. Sialic acids can exist in different forms, with N-acetylneuraminic acid being the most common one in humans.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Concanavalin A (Con A) receptors are not a medical term per se, but rather a term used in the field of immunology and cell biology. Concanavalin A is a type of lectin, a protein that can bind to specific sugars found on the surface of cells. Con A receptors refer to the specific binding sites or proteins on the surface of certain types of cells, such as immune cells, that can recognize and bind to Concanavalin A.

When Con A binds to its receptors, it can activate various cellular responses, including changes in cell shape, movement, and metabolism. In research settings, Con A is often used as a tool to study the behavior of immune cells and other cell types that express Con A receptors. However, it's worth noting that Concanavalin A is not typically used in medical treatments or diagnoses.

Galectin-3 is a type of protein belonging to the galectin family, which binds to carbohydrates (sugars) and plays a role in various biological processes such as inflammation, immune response, and cancer. It is also known as Mac-2 binding protein or LGALS3.

Galectin-3 is unique among galectins because it can form oligomers (complexes of multiple subunits) and has a wide range of functions in the body. It is involved in cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis (programmed cell death), and angiogenesis (formation of new blood vessels).

In the context of disease, Galectin-3 has been implicated in several pathological conditions such as fibrosis, heart failure, and cancer. High levels of Galectin-3 have been associated with poor prognosis in patients with heart failure, and it is considered a potential biomarker for this condition. In addition, Galectin-3 has been shown to promote tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis, making it a target for cancer therapy.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

Carbohydrate conformation refers to the three-dimensional shape and structure of a carbohydrate molecule. Carbohydrates, also known as sugars, can exist in various conformational states, which are determined by the rotation of their component bonds and the spatial arrangement of their functional groups.

The conformation of a carbohydrate molecule can have significant implications for its biological activity and recognition by other molecules, such as enzymes or antibodies. Factors that can influence carbohydrate conformation include the presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonds, steric effects, and intermolecular interactions with solvent molecules or other solutes.

In some cases, the conformation of a carbohydrate may be stabilized by the formation of cyclic structures, in which the hydroxyl group at one end of the molecule forms a covalent bond with the carbonyl carbon at the other end, creating a ring structure. The most common cyclic carbohydrates are monosaccharides, such as glucose and fructose, which can exist in various conformational isomers known as anomers.

Understanding the conformation of carbohydrate molecules is important for elucidating their biological functions and developing strategies for targeting them with drugs or other therapeutic agents.

Agglutination tests are laboratory diagnostic procedures used to detect the presence of antibodies or antigens in a sample, such as blood or serum. These tests work by observing the clumping (agglutination) of particles, like red blood cells or bacteriophages, coated with specific antigens or antibodies when mixed with a patient's sample.

In an agglutination test, the sample is typically combined with a reagent containing known antigens or antibodies on the surface of particles, such as latex beads, red blood cells, or bacteriophages. If the sample contains the corresponding antibodies or antigens, they will bind to the particles, forming visible clumps or agglutinates. The presence and strength of agglutination are then assessed visually or with automated equipment to determine the presence and quantity of the target antigen or antibody in the sample.

Agglutination tests are widely used in medical diagnostics for various applications, including:

1. Bacterial and viral infections: To identify specific bacterial or viral antigens in a patient's sample, such as group A Streptococcus, Legionella pneumophila, or HIV.
2. Blood typing: To determine the ABO blood group and Rh type of a donor or recipient before a blood transfusion or organ transplantation.
3. Autoimmune diseases: To detect autoantibodies in patients with suspected autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
4. Allergies: To identify specific IgE antibodies in a patient's sample to determine allergic reactions to various substances, such as pollen, food, or venom.
5. Drug monitoring: To detect and quantify the presence of drug-induced antibodies, such as those developed in response to penicillin or hydralazine therapy.

Agglutination tests are simple, rapid, and cost-effective diagnostic tools that provide valuable information for clinical decision-making and patient management. However, they may have limitations, including potential cross-reactivity with other antigens, false-positive results due to rheumatoid factors or heterophile antibodies, and false-negative results due to the prozone effect or insufficient sensitivity. Therefore, it is essential to interpret agglutination test results in conjunction with clinical findings and other laboratory data.

Glycosides are organic compounds that consist of a glycone (a sugar component) linked to a non-sugar component, known as an aglycone, via a glycosidic bond. They can be found in various plants, microorganisms, and some animals. Depending on the nature of the aglycone, glycosides can be classified into different types, such as anthraquinone glycosides, cardiac glycosides, and saponin glycosides.

These compounds have diverse biological activities and pharmacological effects. For instance:

* Cardiac glycosides, like digoxin and digitoxin, are used in the treatment of heart failure and certain cardiac arrhythmias due to their positive inotropic (contractility-enhancing) and negative chronotropic (heart rate-slowing) effects on the heart.
* Saponin glycosides have potent detergent properties and can cause hemolysis (rupture of red blood cells). They are used in various industries, including cosmetics and food processing, and have potential applications in drug delivery systems.
* Some glycosides, like amygdalin found in apricot kernels and bitter almonds, can release cyanide upon hydrolysis, making them potentially toxic.

It is important to note that while some glycosides have therapeutic uses, others can be harmful or even lethal if ingested or otherwise introduced into the body in large quantities.

Collectins are a group of proteins that belong to the collectin family, which are involved in the innate immune system. They are composed of a collagen-like region and a carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD), which allows them to bind to specific sugars on the surface of microorganisms, cells, and particles. Collectins play a crucial role in the defense against pathogens by promoting the clearance of microbes, modulating inflammation, and regulating immune responses.

Some examples of collectins include:

* Surfactant protein A (SP-A) and surfactant protein D (SP-D), which are found in the lungs and help to maintain the stability of the lung lining and protect against respiratory infections.
* Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), which is a serum protein that binds to mannose sugars on the surface of microorganisms, activating the complement system and promoting phagocytosis.
* Collectin liver 1 (CL-L1) and collectin kidney 1 (CL-K1), which are found in the liver and kidneys, respectively, and play a role in the clearance of apoptotic cells and immune complexes.

Deficiencies or mutations in collectins can lead to increased susceptibility to infections, autoimmune diseases, and other disorders.

Galectin-4 is a type of galectin, which is a group of proteins that bind to carbohydrates (sugars) and play roles in various biological processes. Galectin-4 is primarily found in the gastrointestinal tract, where it is involved in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal barrier and modulating inflammation. It has been implicated in several physiological and pathological conditions, including gut homeostasis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer.

Galectin-4 binds to specific carbohydrate structures, such as those found on the surface of intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells. This binding can influence cellular behavior, including cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). In the context of gut homeostasis, galectin-4 helps maintain a healthy balance between the intestinal epithelium and the gut microbiota.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Galectin-4 has been shown to have both protective and pathogenic roles in IBD, depending on the context. On one hand, it can help maintain intestinal barrier function and reduce inflammation. On the other hand, overexpression of galectin-4 may contribute to the development of IBD by promoting immune cell activation and tissue damage.

In cancer, galectin-4 has been implicated in tumor progression and metastasis. It can promote cancer cell survival, proliferation, and migration, as well as modulate the interactions between cancer cells and their microenvironment. However, its precise role in cancer is complex and may depend on the specific type of cancer and the context in which it is expressed.

In summary, Galectin-4 is a protein involved in various biological processes, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract. Its roles include maintaining intestinal barrier function, modulating inflammation, and influencing cellular behavior. However, its precise functions can vary depending on the context, and it has been implicated in both protective and pathogenic processes in conditions such as IBD and cancer.

A castor bean, also known as Ricinus communis, is a plant that produces seeds called castor beans. The seed of the castor bean contains ricin, a highly toxic protein that can cause serious illness or death if ingested, inhaled, or injected. Despite its toxicity, the oil from the castor bean, known as castor oil, is used in a variety of industrial and medicinal applications due to its unique chemical properties.

It's important to note that all parts of the castor bean plant are considered poisonous, but the seed is the most toxic. Handling or coming into contact with the plant or seeds can cause skin irritation and other adverse reactions in some people. It is recommended to handle the plant with care and keep it out of reach of children and pets.

Aralia is a genus of plants in the family Araliaceae, which includes shrubs and trees that are native to Asia and North America. Some common names for these plants include spikenard, Hercules' club, and Asian ivy. These plants have compound leaves and produce clusters of small flowers followed by berries or drupes. Some species of Aralia have medicinal uses, such as the use of the root of A. racemosa (American spikenard) in traditional medicine for its anti-inflammatory and expectorant properties. However, it is important to note that some parts of certain species of Aralia can be toxic if ingested, so they should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Sea Cucumbers" is not typically used in medical definitions. It is a common name given to marine animals belonging to the class Holothuroidea in the phylum Echinodermata. These are sausage-shaped, bottom-dwelling creatures found on the sea floor worldwide. They have a leathery skin and a set of tube feet used for locomotion. While they have some cultural and commercial importance in parts of the world, they do not have direct relevance to medical definitions.

Neuraminidase is an enzyme that occurs on the surface of influenza viruses. It plays a crucial role in the life cycle of the virus by helping it to infect host cells and to spread from cell to cell within the body. Neuraminidase works by cleaving sialic acid residues from glycoproteins, allowing the virus to detach from infected cells and to move through mucus and other bodily fluids. This enzyme is a major target of antiviral drugs used to treat influenza, such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza). Inhibiting the activity of neuraminidase can help to prevent the spread of the virus within the body and reduce the severity of symptoms.

Lactose is a disaccharide, a type of sugar, that is naturally found in milk and dairy products. It is made up of two simple sugars, glucose and galactose, linked together. In order for the body to absorb and use lactose, it must be broken down into these simpler sugars by an enzyme called lactase, which is produced in the lining of the small intestine.

People who have a deficiency of lactase are unable to fully digest lactose, leading to symptoms such as bloating, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps, a condition known as lactose intolerance.

'Datura stramonium' is a plant species also known as Jimson weed or thorn apple. It belongs to the Solanaceae family, which includes other plants like nightshade and belladonna. All parts of this plant contain dangerous levels of toxic tropane alkaloids, such as scopolamine and atropine.

Here's a brief medical definition of 'Datura stramonium':

A plant species (Solanaceae family) containing toxic tropane alkaloids, including scopolamine and atropine, in all its parts. Common names include Jimson weed or thorn apple. Ingestion can lead to severe anticholinergic symptoms like delirium, tachycardia, dry mouth, blurred vision, and potentially life-threatening complications.

Ricin is defined as a highly toxic protein that is derived from the seeds of the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis). It can be produced as a white, powdery substance or a mistable aerosol. Ricin works by getting inside cells and preventing them from making the proteins they need. Without protein, cells die. Eventually, this can cause organ failure and death.

It is not easily inhaled or absorbed through the skin, but if ingested or injected, it can be lethal in very small amounts. There is no antidote for ricin poisoning - treatment consists of supportive care. Ricin has been used as a bioterrorism agent in the past and continues to be a concern due to its relative ease of production and potential high toxicity.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Liliaceae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in botany, specifically it is the family name for plants that include lilies, tulips, and related species. In a medical context, you might be referring to the specific plant species themselves, or possibly the allergic reactions some people can have to the pollen of these plants. If you have any more specific questions about botanical terms in a medical context, I'd be happy to try and help further.

"Musa" is the genus name for bananas and plantains in the botanical classification system. It belongs to the family Musaceae and includes over 70 species of tropical herbaceous plants that are native to Southeast Asia. The fruit produced by these plants is also commonly referred to as "bananas" or "plantains," depending on the specific variety and its culinary use.

However, I believe you may have been looking for a medical term, and I apologize for any confusion. In that case, I should note that "Musa" is not a recognized medical term in English. If you have any further questions or need clarification on a different medical term, please let me know!

In medical terms, "seeds" are often referred to as a small amount of a substance, such as a radioactive material or drug, that is inserted into a tissue or placed inside a capsule for the purpose of treating a medical condition. This can include procedures like brachytherapy, where seeds containing radioactive materials are used in the treatment of cancer to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Similarly, in some forms of drug delivery, seeds containing medication can be used to gradually release the drug into the body over an extended period of time.

It's important to note that "seeds" have different meanings and applications depending on the medical context. In other cases, "seeds" may simply refer to small particles or structures found in the body, such as those present in the eye's retina.

Soybean proteins are the proteins derived from soybeans, a legume native to East Asia. Soybeans contain approximately 40% protein by weight, making them a significant source of plant-based protein. The two major types of soy protein are:

1. Soy protein isolate (SPI): This is a highly refined protein that contains at least 90% protein by weight. It is made by removing carbohydrates and fiber from defatted soy flour, leaving behind a protein-rich powder. SPI is often used as an ingredient in various food products, including meat alternatives, energy bars, and beverages.
2. Soy protein concentrate (SPC): This type of soy protein contains approximately 70% protein by weight. It is made by removing some of the carbohydrates from defatted soy flour, leaving behind a higher concentration of proteins. SPC has applications in food and industrial uses, such as in textured vegetable protein (TVP) for meat alternatives, baked goods, and functional foods.

Soy proteins are considered high-quality proteins due to their complete amino acid profile, containing all nine essential amino acids necessary for human nutrition. They also have various health benefits, such as lowering cholesterol levels, improving bone health, and promoting muscle growth and maintenance. However, it is important to note that soy protein consumption should be balanced with other protein sources to ensure a diverse intake of nutrients.

Glycopeptides are a class of antibiotics that are characterized by their complex chemical structure, which includes both peptide and carbohydrate components. These antibiotics are produced naturally by certain types of bacteria and are effective against a range of Gram-positive bacterial infections, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE).

The glycopeptide antibiotics work by binding to the bacterial cell wall precursor, preventing the cross-linking of peptidoglycan chains that is necessary for the formation of a strong and rigid cell wall. This leads to the death of the bacteria.

Examples of glycopeptides include vancomycin, teicoplanin, and dalbavancin. While these antibiotics have been used successfully for many years, their use is often limited due to concerns about the emergence of resistance and potential toxicity.

'Arachis hypogaea' is the scientific name for the peanut plant. It is a legume crop that grows underground, which is why it is also known as a groundnut. The peanut plant produces flowers above ground, and when the flowers are pollinated, the ovary of the flower elongates and grows downwards into the soil where the peanut eventually forms and matures.

The peanut is not only an important food crop worldwide but also has various industrial uses, including the production of biodiesel, plastics, and animal feed. The plant is native to South America and was domesticated by indigenous peoples in what is now Brazil and Peru thousands of years ago. Today, peanuts are grown in many countries around the world, with China, India, and the United States being the largest producers.

The ABO blood-group system is a classification system used in blood transfusion medicine to determine the compatibility of donated blood with a recipient's blood. It is based on the presence or absence of two antigens, A and B, on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs), as well as the corresponding antibodies present in the plasma.

There are four main blood types in the ABO system:

1. Type A: These individuals have A antigens on their RBCs and anti-B antibodies in their plasma.
2. Type B: They have B antigens on their RBCs and anti-A antibodies in their plasma.
3. Type AB: They have both A and B antigens on their RBCs but no natural antibodies against either A or B antigens.
4. Type O: They do not have any A or B antigens on their RBCs, but they have both anti-A and anti-B antibodies in their plasma.

Transfusing blood from a donor with incompatible ABO antigens can lead to an immune response, causing the destruction of donated RBCs and potentially life-threatening complications such as acute hemolytic transfusion reaction. Therefore, it is crucial to match the ABO blood type between donors and recipients before performing a blood transfusion.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

"Bauhinia" is a genus of flowering plants in the family Fabaceae, also known as the pea or legume family. The genus includes around 300 species of trees, shrubs, and vines that are native to tropical and subtropical regions of the world, particularly in Africa, Asia, and South America.

Many Bauhinia species have distinctive bilobed or butterfly-shaped leaves, which is why they are sometimes called "orchid trees" or "butterfly trees." The flowers of Bauhinia plants are also showy and often fragrant, with five petals arranged in a variety of colors and patterns.

While "Bauhinia" is not a medical term per se, some species of the plant have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, such as treating skin conditions, inflammation, and fever. However, it's important to note that the safety and efficacy of using Bauhinia for medicinal purposes have not been thoroughly studied or proven through scientific research. Therefore, it's always recommended to consult with a healthcare professional before using any plant or herbal remedy for medical purposes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Horseshoe Crabs" are not a medical term or a medical condition. They are actually marine arthropods that have survived for over 450 million years, and are found primarily in the Atlantic Ocean, especially around the Gulf of Mexico and the eastern seaboard of the United States.

However, Horseshoe Crabs do have a significant role in the medical field, particularly in the production of Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL), which is used to test for bacterial endotoxins in medical equipment and injectable drugs. The blood of Horseshoe Crabs contains amebocytes, which can clot in response to endotoxins found in gram-negative bacteria. This reaction forms a gel-like clot that can be detected and measured, providing a crucial tool for ensuring the sterility of medical products.

So while "Horseshoe Crabs" are not a medical term per se, they do have an important place in medical research and production.

I apologize for any confusion, but "plants" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "plants" refers to a large and diverse group of organisms that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, which is the process of converting sunlight into chemical energy. Plants are typically characterized by having cells with cell walls containing cellulose, chloroplasts containing the pigment chlorophyll, and the ability to synthesize their own food through photosynthesis.

In a medical or biological context, you might be thinking of "plant-based" or "phytomedicine," which refer to the use of plants or plant extracts as a form of medicine or treatment. Phytomedicines have been used for thousands of years in many traditional systems of medicine, and some plant-derived compounds have been found to have therapeutic benefits in modern medicine as well. However, "plants" itself does not have a medical definition.

Biological toxins are poisonous substances that are produced by living organisms such as bacteria, plants, and animals. They can cause harm to humans, animals, or the environment. Biological toxins can be classified into different categories based on their mode of action, such as neurotoxins (affecting the nervous system), cytotoxins (damaging cells), and enterotoxins (causing intestinal damage).

Examples of biological toxins include botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum bacteria, tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani bacteria, ricin toxin from the castor bean plant, and saxitoxin produced by certain types of marine algae.

Biological toxins can cause a range of symptoms depending on the type and amount of toxin ingested or exposed to, as well as the route of exposure (e.g., inhalation, ingestion, skin contact). They can cause illnesses ranging from mild to severe, and some can be fatal if not treated promptly and effectively.

Prevention and control measures for biological toxins include good hygiene practices, vaccination against certain toxin-producing bacteria, avoidance of contaminated food or water sources, and personal protective equipment (PPE) when handling or working with potential sources of toxins.

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during fetal development. In adults, AFP is normally present in very low levels in the blood. However, abnormal production of AFP can occur in certain medical conditions, such as:

* Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
* Germ cell tumors, including non-seminomatous testicular cancer and ovarian cancer
* Hepatitis or liver inflammation
* Certain types of benign liver disease, such as cirrhosis or hepatic adenomas

Elevated levels of AFP in the blood can be detected through a simple blood test. This test is often used as a tumor marker to help diagnose and monitor certain types of cancer, particularly HCC. However, it's important to note that an elevated AFP level alone is not enough to diagnose cancer, and further testing is usually needed to confirm the diagnosis. Additionally, some non-cancerous conditions can also cause elevated AFP levels, so it's important to interpret the test results in the context of the individual's medical history and other diagnostic tests.

Mannose-Binding Lectin (MBL) is a protein that belongs to the collectin family and plays a crucial role in the innate immune system. It's primarily produced by the liver and secreted into the bloodstream. MBL binds to carbohydrate structures, such as mannose, found on the surface of various microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.

Once MBL binds to these microorganisms, it activates the complement system through the lectin pathway, which leads to the destruction of the pathogens by opsonization (marking for phagocytosis) or direct lysis. Additionally, MBL can also initiate other immune responses, such as inflammation and immune cell activation, helping to protect the host from infections.

Deficiencies in MBL have been associated with increased susceptibility to certain infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and allergies. However, more research is needed to fully understand the complex role of MBL in human health and disease.

Glycomics is the study of the glycome, which refers to the complete set of carbohydrates or sugars (glycans) found on the surface of cells and in various biological fluids. Glycomics encompasses the identification, characterization, and functional analysis of these complex carbohydrate structures and their interactions with other molecules, such as proteins and lipids.

Glycans play crucial roles in many biological processes, including cell-cell recognition, signaling, immune response, development, and disease progression. The study of glycomics has implications for understanding the molecular basis of diseases like cancer, diabetes, and infectious disorders, as well as for developing novel diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

Amino sugars, also known as glycosamine or hexosamines, are sugar molecules that contain a nitrogen atom as part of their structure. The most common amino sugars found in nature are glucosamine and galactosamine, which are derived from the hexose sugars glucose and galactose, respectively.

Glucosamine is an essential component of the structural polysaccharide chitin, which is found in the exoskeletons of arthropods such as crustaceans and insects, as well as in the cell walls of fungi. It is also a precursor to the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which are long, unbranched polysaccharides that are important components of the extracellular matrix in animals.

Galactosamine, on the other hand, is a component of some GAGs and is also found in bacterial cell walls. It is used in the synthesis of heparin and heparan sulfate, which are important anticoagulant molecules.

Amino sugars play a critical role in many biological processes, including cell signaling, inflammation, and immune response. They have also been studied for their potential therapeutic uses in the treatment of various diseases, such as osteoarthritis and cancer.

... and Lectin Conjugates manufacturer Con A Proteopedia 1bxh, pokeweed lectin Proteopedia 1uha, Artocarpus lectin ... Lectins are known to play important roles in the innate immune system. Lectins such as the mannose-binding lectin, help mediate ... The legume lectins are probably the most well-studied lectins. Glycan-protein interactions Bacillus thuringiensis Lectin ... fragments of lectins and complexes with carbohydrates EY Laboratories, Inc., Lectin and Lectin Conjugates manufacturer ...
The legume lectins (or L-type lectins) are a family of sugar-binding proteins or lectins found in the seeds and, in smaller ... The legume lectins are also interesting from the point of view of protein structure. Despite the conserved structure of the ... The exact function of the legume lectins in vivo is unknown but they are probably involved in the defense of plants against ... PDBe Browser for legume lectin assemblies Hamelryck TW, Moore JG, Chrispeels MJ, Loris R, Wyns L (June 2000). "The role of weak ...
The lectin pathway or lectin complement pathway is a type of cascade reaction in the complement system, similar in structure to ... The lectin pathway starts with mannose-binding lectin (MBL) or ficolin binding to certain sugars. In this pathway, mannose- ... Mannan-binding lectin, also called mannose-binding protein, is a protein belonging to the collectin family that is produced by ... Mannose-binding Lectin deficiency - These individuals are prone to recurrent infections, including infections of the upper ...
Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), also called mannan-binding lectin or mannan-binding protein (MBP), is a lectin that is ... One way the most-recently discovered lectin pathway is activated is through mannose-binding lectin protein. MBL binds to ... "Identification of the posttranslational modifications of the core-specific lectin. The core-specific lectin contains ... Mannan-Binding+Lectin at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
A C-type lectin (CLEC) is a type of carbohydrate-binding protein known as a lectin. The C-type designation is from their ... classified C-type lectins into 7 subgroups (I to VII) based on the order of the various protein domains in each protein. This ... C-Type+Lectin at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Drickamer K (October 1999). "C-type ... NK+Cell+Lectin-Like+Receptors at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Functional Glycomics ...
Foods high in lectins such as beans and grains are soaked and boiled to significantly reduce their lectin content. Megan Rossi ... The lectin-free diet forbids all foods that are high in lectins including legumes (beans, chickpeas, lentils, peas), grains, ... "lectin shield" that is "designed to neutralize the effects of lectins" for $79.99. For Science-Based Medicine, Harriet Hall ... Steven Gundry's War on Lectins". Science-Based Medicine. Rosenbloom, Cara (2017-07-06). "Going 'lectin-free' is the latest ...
... the leguminous lectin family is a family of lectin proteins. It is one of the largest lectin families with more than 70 lectins ... These lectins bind either glucose, mannose or galactose. The exact function of legume lectins is not known but they may be ... Some legume lectins are proteolytically processed to produce two chains, beta (which corresponds to the N-terminal) and alpha ( ... Leguminous lectins consist of two or four subunits, each containing one carbohydrate-binding site. The interaction with sugars ...
The sea urchin egg lectin (SUEL) forms a new class of lectins. Although SUEL was first isolated as a D-galactoside binding ... It is found in many proteins including the lectin purified from sea urchin (Anthocidaris crassispina) eggs, SUEL. This lectin ... This protein is composed of three tandem repeat domains homologous to the SUEL lectin domain. All cysteine positions of each ... A cysteine-rich domain (the galactose binding lectin domain) homologous to the SUEL protein has been identified in the ...
In molecular biology, the fungal fucose-specific lectin family is a family of lectins. Lectins are proteins which are involved ... These fungal lectins, such as Aleuria aurantia lectin AAL, specifically recognise fucosylated glycans. AAL is a dimeric protein ... Wimmerova M, Mitchell E, Sanchez JF, Gautier C, Imberty A (July 2003). "Crystal structure of fungal lectin: six-bladed beta- ... propeller fold and novel fucose recognition mode for Aleuria aurantia lectin". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (29): 27059-67. doi:10.1074/ ...
In molecular biology the L-like lectin domain is a protein domain found in lectins which are similar to the leguminous plant ... "A putative novel class of animal lectins in the secretory pathway homologous to leguminous lectins". Cell. 77 (5): 625-6. doi: ... The L-like lectin domain has an overall globular shape composed of a beta-sandwich of two major twisted antiparallel beta- ... Lectins are structurally diverse proteins that bind to specific carbohydrates. This family includes the VIP36 and ERGIC-53 ...
Lectin MPA, a tetrameric plant seed lectin and agglutinin from Maclura pomifera (Osage orange). Heltuba lectin, a plant seed ... In molecular biology, the jacalin-like lectin domain is a mannose-binding lectin domain with a beta-prism fold consisting of ... an anti-viral lectin from red algae (Griffithsia species). Raval et al, "A database analysis of jacalin-like lectins: sequence- ... "Helianthus tuberosus lectin reveals a widespread scaffold for mannose-binding lectins". Structure. 7 (12): 1473-82. doi:10.1016 ...
... the fungal fruit body lectin family consists of several fungal fruit body lectin proteins. Fruit body lectins are thought to ... The fold of lectin XCL is not related to any of several other lectin folds, but shows significant structural similarity to ... Iijima N, Yoshino H, Ten LC, Ando A, Watanabe K, Nagata Y (October 2002). "Two genes encoding fruit body lectins of Pleurotus ... One member of this family, the lectin XCL from Boletus chrysenteron (formerly Xerocomus chrysenteron), induces drastic changes ...
... mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2, p100, mannan-binding lectin-associated serine peptidase 2) is an enzyme. ... Mannan-binding+lectin-associated+serine+protease-2 at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2 (EC 3.4.21.104, MASP-2, MASP2, MBP-associated serine protease-2, ... This mannan-binding lectin (MBL) recognizes patterns of neutral carbohydrates, such as mannose and N-acetylglucosamine. ...
... , or Siglec-XII, is a protein that in humans, is encoded by the SIGLEC12 gene. Sialic acid ... "Entrez Gene: SIGLEC12 sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 12". S.S. Siddiqui et al., Human-specific polymorphic pseudogenization ... immunoglobulin-like lectins (SIGLECs) are a family of cell surface proteins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily. They ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SIGLEC15 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: Sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 15". Takamiya R, Ohtsubo K, Takamatsu S, Taniguchi N, Angata T (February 2013 ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLEC4F gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: C-type lectin domain family 4 member F". Retrieved 2017-07-31. v t e (Articles with short description, Short ...
Nine types of collectins have been defined: MBL = mannan-binding lectin (mannose-binding lectin) SP-A = surfactant protein A SP ... which participate in activation of the lectin pathway. MASP-2 has a cleavage activity and it is essential for forming lectin C3 ... Collectins (collagen-containing C-type lectins) are a part of the innate immune system. They form a family of collagenous Ca2+- ... Collectin MBL is involved in activation of the lectin complement pathway. There are three serine proteases, MASP-1, 2 and 3 ( ...
... is a plant-based lectin, but not a legume lectin, found in jackfruit. It has been studied for capturing O-glycoproteins ... Jacalin belongs to a family of galactose-binding lectins containing the Jacalin-like lectin domain and it has a tetrameric two- ... The lectin is blood group non-specific after neuraminidase treatment and agglutinates human erythrocytes at a concentration of ... The relative affinities of the lectin for galactose derivatives, as well as the structural basis of its T-antigen specificity, ...
The name lectin is a bit misleading because the family includes proteins with at least one C-type lectin domain (CTLD) which is ... DC‑associated C‑type lectin 1 (Dectin1) subfamily includes dectin 1/CLEC7A, DNGR1/CLEC9A, Myeloid C‑type lectin‑like receptor ( ... associating lectin (MDL)‑1 (CLEC5A), DC‑associated C‑type lectin 1 (Dectin1) subfamily, and DC immunoreceptor (DCIR) subfamily ... One very important collectin is mannan-binding lectin (MBL), a major PRR of the innate immune system that binds to a wide range ...
Mannan-binding lectins. Other assumptions may help to explain this resistance to FCoV infections by kittens. In the first weeks ... ACE and DC-SIGN are two trans-membrane retrovirus receptors (mannose receptors) which can bind "the plant lectins C-type ... Extensive data also shows that processes using sialic acid are directly involved in the interaction with the receptor's lectins ... Lozach, Pierre-Yves; Burleigh, Laura; Staropoli, Isabelle; Amara, Ali (2007). "The C Type Lectins DC-SIGN and L-SIGN". ...
Varki A, Cummings RD, Esko JD, Freeze HH, Stanley P, Bertozzi CR, Hart GW, Etzler M (2009). "P-type Lectins". Essentials of ... Imperial College Lectins Research Information UniProtKB/ Swiss-Prot entry for the human cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate ...
... can "hide" mannose antigens on the surface of host cells or bacteria from mannose-binding lectin.[citation needed] ... This finding is moreover supported by recent lectin staining studies and a molecular level survey on prokaryotic nonulosonic ... Mandal, C. (1990). "Sialic acid binding lectins". Experientia. 46 (5): 433-441. doi:10.1007/BF01954221. PMID 2189746. S2CID ...
During the 1940s, Boyd and Karl O. Renkonen independently discovered that lectins react differently to various blood types, ... Espino-Solis, Gerardo Pavel (April 2015). "Lectins: A brief review". Vitae. 22 (1): 9-11. doi:10.17533/udea.vitae.v22n1a01. ...
It does this with lectin-a protein made for binding proteins-named regenectin, which shares a family with other ... Kubo T, Arai T (September 1996). "Insect Lectins and Epimorphosis". Trends in Glycoscience and Glycotechnology. 8 (43): 357-364 ... Kubo T, Arai T (September 1996). "Insect Lectins and Epimorphosis". Trends in Glycoscience and Glycotechnology. 8 (43): 357-364 ...
V. Horoejsí, O. Chaloupecká, and j. Kocourek, Studies on lectins: XLIII. Isolation and characterization of the lectin from ...
While some companies were considering growing GM crops expressing lectin, GNA was an unlikely candidate. Lectin is toxic, ... Vasconcelos IM, Oliveira JT (September 2004). "Antinutritional properties of plant lectins". Toxicon. 44 (4): 385-403. doi: ... "Effect of diets containing genetically modified potatoes expressing Galanthus nivalis lectin on rat small intestine". Lancet. ... allowing the tuber to synthesise the GNA lectin protein. ...
Another study suggests that C-type lectins part of the mannose receptor (MR) family play a role as an alternative SRLV receptor ... The mannose receptor is a 180-kDa transmembrane protein with eight tandem C-type lectin carbohydrate recognition domains (CRD) ... Kerrigan AM, Brown GD (2009). "C-type lectins and phagocytosis". Immunobiology. 214 (7): 562-575. doi:10.1016/j.imbio.2008.11. ...
Cytotoxic lectins including modeccin act in a similar manner as ricin, a well understood toxic lectin, though each one has a ... Modeccin is a toxic lectin, a group of glycoproteins capable of binding specifically to sugar moieties. Different toxic lectins ... Cytotoxic lectins include ricin, abrin, modeccin, volkensin (least toxic, 10 and 40 times less cytotoxic than ricin and ... Olsnes S, Pihl A (1982). "Toxic lectins and related proteins". In Cohen P, Van Heyningen S (eds.). Molecular action of toxins ...
Hartley MR, Lord JM (September 2004). "Cytotoxic ribosome-inactivating lectins from plants". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA ...
ISBN 978-0-12-385968-6. Csaba, György (September 2016). "Lectins and Tetrahymena - A review" (PDF). Acta Microbiologica et ...
Lectin and Lectin Conjugates manufacturer Con A Proteopedia 1bxh, pokeweed lectin Proteopedia 1uha, Artocarpus lectin ... Lectins are known to play important roles in the innate immune system. Lectins such as the mannose-binding lectin, help mediate ... The legume lectins are probably the most well-studied lectins. Glycan-protein interactions Bacillus thuringiensis Lectin ... fragments of lectins and complexes with carbohydrates EY Laboratories, Inc., Lectin and Lectin Conjugates manufacturer ...
lectins. [lectin]. this general term (from Latin legere: to read) pertains to any protein or peptide capable of binding ... Lectins from plants are often called phytohaemagglutinins. Excluded from the definition are antibodies, enzymes using ...
SIGLEC8 sialic acid binding Ig like lectin 8 [Homo sapiens] SIGLEC8 sialic acid binding Ig like lectin 8 [Homo sapiens]. Gene ... sialic acid binding Ig like lectin 8provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:10877 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000105366 MIM: ... sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin 8. Names. CDw329. SAF-2. sialoadhesin family member 2. ... SIGLEC8 sialic acid binding Ig like lectin 8 [ Homo sapiens (human) ] Gene ID: 27181, updated on 5-Mar-2024 ...
This lectin consists of two subunits of 60 kDa which can be dissociated by reducing agents into closely related chains between ... This lectin consists of two subunits of 60 kDa which can be dissociated by reducing agents into closely related chains between ... One of the chains appears to be common to the "B" chain of another castor bean lectin, ricin, while the other chain is unique ... Accompanying each fluorescent lectin is an analysis data sheet summarizing the results of our quality control tests and ...
Lectin from Triticum vulgaris (wheat); Detects glycoproteins containing β(1→4)-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine when used with avidin or ... Lectin Selection Guide: A Useful Guide for Selecting the Right Lectin. Find the right lectin for your research with our lectin ... Lectin from Triticum vulgaris (wheat) has been used:. *in lectin binding assay of samples from intrauterine stages of filarial ... Wheat germ lectin (WGA) from Triticum vulgaris exists as a homodimer and has multiple N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) binding ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V ...
... Sci Rep. 2019 Nov 28;9(1): ... including C-type lectin-like receptors. Among this major group of receptors, two of the largest rodent receptor families are ... of suspension-adapted human embryonic kidney 293 cells to produce soluble native disulphide dimers of NK cell C-type lectin- ...
Triple coiled coil domain of C-type lectins ... Family h.1.1.1: Triple coiled coil domain of C-type lectins ... More info for Family h.1.1.1: Triple coiled coil domain of C-type lectins. Timeline for Family h.1.1.1: Triple coiled coil ... Lineage for Family h.1.1.1: Triple coiled coil domain of C-type lectins. *Root: SCOP 1.55 *Class h: Coiled coil proteins [57942 ... Family h.1.1.1: Triple coiled coil domain of C-type lectins appears in the current release, SCOPe 2.08. ...
... of well-defined cyclic glycopolymers and the relationship between their physical properties and their interaction with lectins ... of well-defined cyclic glycopolymers and the relationship between their physical properties and their interaction with lectins† ...
Sialic acid-binding lectin Antibody, Biotin conjugated from Cusabio. Cat#: CSB-PA321644LD01RJL. US, UK & Europe Distribution. ... Sialic acid-binding lectin Antibody, Biotin conjugated , CSB-PA321644LD01RJL. (No reviews yet) Write a Review Write a Review. ... Aliases: Sialic acid-binding lectin (EC 3.1.27.-). Background: The S-lectins in frog eggs may be involved in the fertilization ... Sialic acid-binding lectin Antibody, Biotin conjugated , CSB-PA321644LD01RJL Cusabio Polyclonal Antibodies ...
Water occupies typically 50% of a protein crystal and thus significantly contributes to the diffraction signal in crystallography experiments. Separating its contribution from that of the protein is, however, challenging because most water molecules are not localized and are thus difficult to assign to specific density peaks. The intricateness of the protein-water interface compounds this difficulty. This information has, therefore, not often been used to study biomolecular solvation. Here, we develop a methodology to surmount in part this difficulty. More specifically, we compare the solvent structure obtained from diffraction data for which experimental phasing is available to that obtained from constrained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The resulting spatial density maps show that commonly used MD water models are only partially successful at reproducing the structural features of biomolecular solvation. The radial distribution of water is captured with only slightly higher accuracy ...
Urtica dioica Lectin (UDA). Affinity purified Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) is isolated from the rhizome of the stinging ... Urtica dioica Lectin (UDA). Affinity purified Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) is isolated from the rhizome of the stinging ... This lectin has also been shown to possess both antifungal and insecticidal activities.. ... It has been proposed that this lectin is a superantigen and could provide a useful probe for the analysis of T cell activation ...
Phaseolus Vulgaris Lectin L - 10mg SIZE :. Each ID : 05-0132-10 AVAILABLITY :. In stock or 2-3 weeks VENDOR :. Medicago $543.00 ...
Here, we compare lectin and genotyping testing. Lectin and genotype subtyping was performed on 554 group A deceased donor ... Here, we compare lectin and genotyping testing. Lectin and genotype subtyping was performed on 554 group A deceased donor ... Here, we compare lectin and genotyping testing. Lectin and genotype subtyping was performed on 554 group A deceased donor ... In deceased donors, genotyping found 65% more A,sub,2,/sub, donors than lectin testing, most with weak lectin reactivity, a ...
Monoclonal anti-Lyt-2.2 antibody blocks lectin-dependent cellular cytotoxicity of H-2-negative target cells. T Hünig T Hünig ... T Hünig; Monoclonal anti-Lyt-2.2 antibody blocks lectin-dependent cellular cytotoxicity of H-2-negative target cells.. J Exp ... In agreement with the findings of others, purified anti-Lyt-2.2 inhibited both antigen-specific lysis and lectin-dependent ...
Cy5.5-lectin labelling patterns and that of ICAM2 and FITC-lectin co-localized, indicating binding to endothelial cells. ... Cy5.5-lectin conjugate was synthesized with a dye/protein ratio of 2.90 ± 1.54 (n=6). Mouse hearts were successfully labelled ... Finally, it was shown that Cy5.5-lectin is capable of visualizing, in real-time, areas of normal and abnormal heart perfusion ... this study was to develop a fluorescent near-infrared endothelial cell binding conjugate using Lycopersicon esculentum lectin ...
And lectin free. And freaking delicious. Lectin Free Blueberry Fools PREP TIME 55 MINUTES TOTAL TIME 1 HOUR SERVES 4 2 cups ... Welcome to Lectin Free Mama!. Hi there! My name is Autumn-Im a wife, mother, and classical singer who has fully recovered from ... Check out my lectin-free meal planner (newsletter), recipes, tips, and research articles. Send me an email with any questions ...
Retrieved from "https://wiki.xenbase.org/xenwiki/index.php?title=Special:WhatLinksHere/Antibodies_and_lectins" ...
... sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 6 (Siglec-6), a potential leptin receptor, and pappalysin-2 (PAPP-A2), a protease that ... sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 6 (Siglec-6), a potential leptin receptor, and pappalysin-2 (PAPP-A2), a protease that ... sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 6 (Siglec-6), a potential leptin receptor, and pappalysin-2 (PAPP-A2), a protease that ... Lectins, Maternal-Fetal Exchange, Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis, Pre-Eclampsia, Pregnancy, Pregnancy-Associated ...
Lectin Protect is packaged in a bottle of 90 veggie caps, each containing approximately 500 mg of Fucus Vesiculosis, Larix, ... Lectin Protect helps bind lectins to heal leaky gut and lessen reactions when one consumes lectins. ... Lectins are a new growing topic in the medical field. They are found in many foods and are thought to be a major cause of leaky ... Lectin Protect is packaged in a bottle of 90 veggie caps, each containing approximately 500 mg of Fucus Vesiculosis, Larix, ...
Lectin Reduction Diet By cleanvalue agosto 25th, 2020. The actual pot gleam SLOT MACHINE GAME has been very fashionable during ...
Home › Lectin Purification (GlycoMatrix™) Lectin Purification (GlycoMatrix™). Sort by. Featured. Best Selling. Alphabetically, ...
Covalent Lectin Inhibition and Application in Bacterial Biofilm Imaging. * Authors: Wagner S, Hauck D, Hoffmann M, Sommer R, ... Targeting extracellular lectins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with glycomimetic liposomes. * Authors: Metelkina O, Huck B, OConnor ... Targeting the Central Pocket of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lectin LecA. * Authors: Siebs E, Shanina E, Kuhaudomlarp S, da Silva ... Inhibition of both lectins with carbohydrate-derived molecules can reduce biofilm formation to restore antimicrobial ...
Cy3 can be used to viualize the binding pattern of Euonymus europaeus Lectin (EEL/EEA) in cellular imaging and flow cytometry. ... Cy3 can be used to viualize the binding pattern of Euonymus europaeus Lectin (EEL/EEA) in cellular imaging and flow cytometry. ... Cy3 can be used to viualize the binding pattern of Euonymus europaeus Lectin (EEL/EEA) in cellular imaging and flow cytometry. ...
Lens culinaris lectin (LCA) is isolated from lentil seeds and purified by affinity chromatography. LCA is composed of four ... Lens culinaris Lectin (LCA/LCH) - Pure. Regular price $296.18 Sale SKU# 21510006-1 ... Lens culinaris lectin (LCA) is isolated from lentil seeds and purified by affinity chromatography. LCA is composed of four ... This lectin is useful in affinity chromatography columns for the separation of glycoconjugates. ...
lectin. The benefits of Soaking and Sprouting (plus a Sprouted chickpea hummus recipe). 26th March 2014 ...
Pure Galanthus nivalis lectin, 5mg. Pure Galanthus nivalis lectin, 5mg To Order Contact us: [email protected]. Galanthus ...
Lectin pathway. The lectin or mannan-binding pathway is activated similar to the classic pathway except that lectin replaces ... Instead, mannan-binding lectin binds to sugar residues on the surface of a pathogen. Mannan-binding lectin is associated with ... Table 3. Proteins of the Human Complement (C) System, Lectin Pathway *Table 4. Proteins of the Human Complement (C) System, C3 ... C-reactive protein (CRP, not shown) leads to classic pathway activation analogous to lectin pathway activation by MBL and ...
2014 Protein Structure and Bioinformatics, last updated 11.11.2010 10:51 ...
  • A lectin from Dolichos biflorus is used to identify cells that belong to the A1 blood group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lectin receptor kinases (LecRKs) are believed to recognize damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which are created or released from herbivore attack. (wikipedia.org)
  • NK cell recognition of a target cell is mediated by a receptor "zipper" consisting of various activating and inhibitory receptors, including C-type lectin-like receptors. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, we developed a non-viral eukaryotic expression system based on transient transfection of suspension-adapted human embryonic kidney 293 cells to produce soluble native disulphide dimers of NK cell C-type lectin-like receptor ectodomains. (nih.gov)
  • Flt-1 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1), leptin, CRH, and inhibin] and novel molecules [e.g. sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 6 (Siglec-6), a potential leptin receptor, and pappalysin-2 (PAPP-A2), a protease that cleaves IGF-binding proteins]. (au.dk)
  • The C-Type Lectin receptor (CRL) is known as the major β-glucan receptor expressed in myeloid cells and is responsible for targeting respiratory fungal pathogens. (lu.se)
  • A lectin from Ulex europaeus is used to identify the H blood group antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are highly specific for sugar groups that are part of other molecules, so cause agglutination of particular cells or precipitation of glycoconjugates and polysaccharides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lectins have a role in recognition at the cellular and molecular level and play numerous roles in biological recognition phenomena involving cells, carbohydrates, and proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this chapter, we describe the technique of lectin affinity chromatography (LAC), a procedure that has the ability to distinguish different glycans , which are attached to proteins or lipids , termed glycoproteins or glycolipids , respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. (bvsalud.org)
  • PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). (bvsalud.org)
  • Lens culinaris lectin (LCA) is isolated from lentil seeds and purified by affinity chromatography. (plantmedia.com)
  • This lectin is useful in affinity chromatography columns for the separation of glycoconjugates. (plantmedia.com)
  • Lectin Affinity Chromatography. (bvsalud.org)
  • In general, the conditions under which lectin affinity chromatography operates are relatively mild resulting in good biological recoveries of the glycoproteins . (bvsalud.org)
  • Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin (Ig)-like lectins, or SIGLECs (e.g. (nih.gov)
  • Sialic acid-binding lectin Antibody, Biotin conjugated is Available at Gentaur Genprice with the fastest delivery. (joplink.net)
  • Sialic acid-binding lectin (EC 3.1.27. (joplink.net)
  • Some lectins are beneficial, such as CLEC11A, which promotes bone growth, while others may be powerful toxins such as ricin. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the chains appears to be common to the "B" chain of another castor bean lectin, ricin, while the other chain is unique to RCA I. The B chain binds to galactose or N -acetylgalactosamine residues of membrane glycoconjugates. (vectorlabs.com)
  • C-reactive protein (CRP, not shown) leads to classic pathway activation analogous to lectin pathway activation by MBL and ficolins. (medscape.com)
  • Wheat germ lectin (WGA) from Triticum vulgaris exists as a homodimer and has multiple N -acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) binding sites. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Monoclonal anti-Lyt-2.2 antibody blocks lectin-dependent cellular cytotoxicity of H-2-negative target cells. (rupress.org)
  • Inhibition of both lectins with carbohydrate-derived molecules can reduce biofilm formation to restore antimicrobial susceptibility. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Importantly, catechol 3 is the first non-carbohydrate lectin ligand that binds bacterial and mammalian calcium(II)-binding lectins, giving rise to this fundamentally new class of glycomimetics. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • it occurs when mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a serum protein, binds to mannose, fucose, or N -acetylglucosamine groups on bacterial cell walls, yeast walls, or viruses. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Lectins such as the mannose-binding lectin, help mediate the first-line defense against invading microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Is Plasma Level of Mannose Binding Lectin Associated With Reproductive Failure? (who.int)
  • Mannose-Binding Lectin 2 Gene Polymorphism in PANDAS Patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Lentil-lectin-purified glycoprotein antigens derived from VZV-infected human fibroblast cells (obtained through CRADA with Merck & Co.) is coated on the wells of a 96-well microtiter plate, which is subsequently incubated with a diluted test specimen. (cdc.gov)
  • This lectin consists of two subunits of 60 kDa which can be dissociated by reducing agents into closely related chains between 27 kDa and 33 kDa. (vectorlabs.com)
  • UDA differs from other known plant lectins with its molecular structure composed of only a single polypeptide chain, in contrast to other lectins composed of two subunits. (clinisciences.com)
  • Lectins may bind to a soluble carbohydrate or to a carbohydrate moiety that is a part of a glycoprotein or glycolipid. (wikipedia.org)
  • To avoid clearance from the body by the innate immune system, pathogens (e.g., virus particles and bacteria that infect human cells) often express surface lectins known as adhesins and hemagglutinins that bind to tissue-specific glycans on host cell-surface glycoproteins and glycolipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intelectins (X-type lectins) bind microbial glycans and may function in the innate immune system as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lectin Protect helps bind lectins to heal leaky gut and lessen reactions when one consumes lectins. (digestivewarrior.com)
  • Some foods, such as beans and grains, need to be cooked, fermented or sprouted to reduce lectin content. (wikipedia.org)
  • After that take 2 with each meal that contains higher lectin foods (beans, grains, nightshades, seeds, and grain fed animal products). (digestivewarrior.com)
  • This method utilizes different immobilized lectins that have affinity for specific sugar substrates , to separate a wide range of glycan -attached complexes (Ambrosi et al. (bvsalud.org)
  • William C. Boyd alone and then together with Elizabeth Shapleigh introduced the term "lectin" in 1954 from the Latin word lectus, "chosen" (from the verb legere, to choose or pick out). (wikipedia.org)
  • The large concentration of lectins in plant seeds decreases with growth, and suggests a role in plant germination and perhaps in the seed's survival itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • In agreement with the findings of others, purified anti-Lyt-2.2 inhibited both antigen-specific lysis and lectin-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (LDCC). (rupress.org)
  • Cy3 can be used to viualize the binding pattern of Euonymus europaeus Lectin (EEL/EEA) in cellular imaging and flow cytometry. (glycomatrix.com)
  • Several plant lectins have been found to recognize noncarbohydrate ligands that are primarily hydrophobic in nature, including adenine, auxins, cytokinin, and indole acetic acid, as well as water-soluble porphyrins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activity of LCA is determined by haemagglutination with human blood and agglutinates a 2% suspension of human erythrocytes at a lectin concentration of ?8µg/ml. (plantmedia.com)
  • Lectins are known to play important roles in the innate immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other immune lectins play a role in self-nonself discrimination and they likely modulate inflammatory and autoreactive processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lectins also mediate attachment and binding of bacteria, viruses, and fungi to their intended targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the antimicrobial resistance crisis, lectins are considered novel drug targets. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition. (bvsalud.org)
  • The findings were supported by 2 additional data sets of 210 group A living kidney donors and 124 samples with unclear lectin testing sent to a reference laboratory. (lu.se)
  • Although lectin testing is the current standard for transplantation subtyping, genotyping is accurate and could increase A 2 kidney transplant opportunities for group B candidates, a difference that should reduce group B wait times and improve transplant equity. (lu.se)
  • In deceased donors, genotyping found 65% more A 2 donors than lectin testing, most with weak lectin reactivity, a finding supported in living donors and samples sent for reference testing. (lu.se)
  • Most lectins do not possess enzymatic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • This lectin has also been shown to possess both antifungal and insecticidal activities. (clinisciences.com)
  • This lectin preferentially agglutinate a large variety of tumor cells, but it does not agglutinate non-transformed cells and erythrocytes. (joplink.net)
  • citation needed] Some hepatitis C viral glycoproteins may attach to C-type lectins on the host cell surface (liver cells) to initiate infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is stable as it retains its activity even when subjected to acid conditions of pH 1.0, or heated to 80°C for up to 15 minutes.UDA is a T cell mitogen distinguishable from classical T cell lectin mitogens by its ability to discriminate a particular population of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, as well as its capacity to induce an original pattern of T cell activation and cytokine production. (clinisciences.com)
  • It has been proposed that this lectin is a superantigen and could provide a useful probe for the analysis of T cell activation by superantigens. (clinisciences.com)
  • The function of lectins in plants (legume lectin) is still uncertain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Covalent Lectin Inhibition and Application in Bacterial Biofilm Imaging. (helmholtz-hzi.de)