Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Keratins, Type II: A keratin subtype that includes keratins that are generally larger and less acidic that TYPE I KERATINS. Type II keratins combine with type I keratins to form keratin filaments.Keratins, Hair-Specific: Keratins that are specific for hard tissues such as HAIR; NAILS; and the filiform papillae of the TONGUE.Keratins, Type I: A keratin subtype that includes keratins that are generally smaller and more acidic that TYPE II KERATINS. Type I keratins combine with type II keratins to form keratin filaments.Keratin-8: A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-18 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.Intermediate Filaments: Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.Keratin-14: A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-5 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-14 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.Keratin-10: A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-1 in terminally differentiated epidermal cells such as those that form the stratum corneum. Mutations in the genes that encode keratin-10 have been associated with HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC.Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex: A form of epidermolysis bullosa characterized by serous bullae that heal without scarring. Mutations in the genes that encode KERATIN-5 and KERATIN-14 have been associated with several subtypes of epidermolysis bullosa simplex.Hyperkeratosis, Epidermolytic: A form of congenital ichthyosis inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by ERYTHRODERMA and severe hyperkeratosis. It is manifested at birth by blisters followed by the appearance of thickened, horny, verruciform scales over the entire body, but accentuated in flexural areas. Mutations in the genes that encode KERATIN-1 and KERATIN-10 have been associated with this disorder.Keratin-1: A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-10 in terminally differentiated epidermal cells such as those that form the stratum corneum. Mutations in the genes that encode keratin-1 have been associated with HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Keratin-5: A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-14 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-5 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.Keratin-18: A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-8 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Keratin-16: A type I keratin expressed in a variety of EPITHELIUM, including the ESOPHAGUS, the TONGUE, the HAIR FOLLICLE and NAILS. Keratin-16 is normally found associated with KERATIN-6. Mutations in the gene for keratin-6 have been associated with PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 1.Intermediate Filament Proteins: Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Keratoderma, Palmoplantar: Group of mostly hereditary disorders characterized by thickening of the palms and soles as a result of excessive keratin formation leading to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum (hyperkeratosis).Keratin-17: A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-6 in rapidly proliferating squamous epithelial tissue. Mutations in the gene for keratin-17 have been associated with PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 2.Keratin-2: A type II keratin found expressed in the upper spinous layer of epidermal KERATINOCYTES. Mutations in genes that encode keratin-2A have been associated with ICHTHYOSIS BULLOSA OF SIEMENS.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Hair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.Keratin-13: A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-4 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Defects in gene for keratin 13 cause HEREDITARY MUCOSAL LEUKOKERATOSIS.Hoof and Claw: Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.Keratin-15: A type I keratin found in the basal layer of the adult epidermis and in other stratified epithelia.Desmosomes: A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Hair Diseases: Diseases affecting the orderly growth and persistence of hair.Feathers: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.Keratin-6: A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-16 or KERATIN-17 in rapidly proliferating squamous epithelial tissue. Mutations in gene for keratin-6A and keratin-6B have been associated with PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 1 and PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 2 respectively.Vimentin: An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Pachyonychia Congenita: A group of inherited ectodermal dysplasias whose most prominent clinical feature is hypertrophic nail dystrophy resulting in PACHYONYCHIA. Several specific subtypes of pachyonychia congenita have been associated with mutations in genes that encode KERATINS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Keratin-12: A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-3 in the CORNEA and is regarded as a marker for corneal-type epithelial differentiation. Mutations in the gene for keratin-12 have been associated with MEESMANN CORNEAL EPITHELIAL DYSTROPHY.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Keratin-9: A type II keratin found predominantly expressed in the terminally differentiated EPIDERMIS of palms and soles. Mutations in the gene for keratin 9 are associated with KERATODERMA, PALMOPLANTAR, EPIDERMOLYTIC.Desmoplakins: Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.Dipodomys: A genus of the family Heteromyidae which contains 22 species. Their physiology is adapted for the conservation of water, and they seldom drink water. They are found in arid or desert habitats and travel by hopping on their hind limbs.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Keratoderma, Palmoplantar, Epidermolytic: An autosomal dominant hereditary skin disease characterized by epidermolytic hyperkeratosis that is strictly confined to the palms and soles. It has been associated with mutations in the gene that codes for KERATIN-9.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Germ Layers: The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Keratin-19: A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-7 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.Nail Diseases: Diseases of the nail plate and tissues surrounding it. The concept is limited to primates.Mallory Bodies: Cytoplasmic hyaline inclusions in HEPATOCYTES. They are associated with ALCOHOLIC STEATOHEPATITIS and non-alcoholic STEATOHEPATITIS, but are also present in benign and malignant hepatocellular neoplasms, and metabolic, toxic, and chronic cholestatic LIVER DISEASES.Smear Layer: Adherent debris produced when cutting the enamel or dentin in cavity preparation. It is about 1 micron thick and its composition reflects the underlying dentin, although different quantities and qualities of smear layer can be produced by the various instrumentation techniques. Its function is presumed to be protective, as it lowers dentin permeability. However, it masks the underlying dentin and interferes with attempts to bond dental material to the dentin.Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Nails, Malformed: Deformities in nail structure or appearance, including hypertrophy, splitting, clubbing, furrowing, etc. Genetic diseases such as PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA can result in malformed nails.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Corneal Dystrophy, Juvenile Epithelial of Meesmann: An autosomal dominant form of hereditary corneal dystrophy due to a defect in cornea-specific KERATIN formation. Mutations in the genes that encode KERATIN-3 and KERATIN-12 have been linked to this disorder.Skin DiseasesMolecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.beta-Keratins: Keratins that form into a beta-pleated sheet structure. They are principle constituents of the corneous material of the carapace and plastron of turtles, the epidermis of snakes and the feathers of birds.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Wool: The hair of SHEEP or other animals that is used for weaving.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Griseofulvin: An antifungal agent used in the treatment of TINEA infections.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The eyes complete their development during metamorphosis, and are covered by a thin and transparent layer of skin that becomes ... opaque in preservatives.[14] Their teeth consist of a meshwork of keratin filaments and other proteins.[15] ...
This is conferred by the presence of beta-keratin, which provides a much more rigid skin layer. ... The stratum corneum (Latin for 'horny layer') is the outermost layer of the epidermis, consisting of dead cells (corneocytes). ... In the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet (sometimes knees, elbows,[5] knuckles,) this layer is stabilized and built ... Cells of the stratum corneum contain a dense network of keratin, a protein that helps keep the skin hydrated by preventing ...
They are grown on a feeder layer of cells, which is believed to be supportive in maintaining the pluripotent characteristics of ... Fate mapping or cell lineage tracing has shown that Keratin 15 positive stem cells' progeny participate in all epithelial ... 139 (15): 2663-9. doi:10.1242/dev.075242. PMID 22745310. Oatley, J. M.; Brinster, R. L. (2012). "The Germline Stem Cell Niche ... to the hair follicle sheath has been shown to host the skin stem cells which can contribute to all epithelial skin layers. ...
... is a type II cytokeratin. It is specifically found in differentiated layers of the mucosal and esophageal epithelia ... Keratin, type I cytoskeletal 4 also known as cytokeratin-4 (CK-4) or keratin-4 (K4) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... "Allelic variations of human keratins K4 and K5 provide polymorphic markers within the type II keratin gene cluster on ... Chao SC, Tsai YM, Yang MH, Lee JY (June 2003). "A novel mutation in the keratin 4 gene causing white sponge naevus". Br. J. ...
The superficial layers of the skin are naturally acidic (pH 4-4.5) due to lactic acid in sweat and produced by skin bacteria.[ ... Hand washing can damage skin because the stratum corneum top layer of skin consists of 15 to 20 layers of keratin disks, ... Washing skin repeatedly can damage the protective external layer and cause transepidermal loss of water. This can be seen in ... Most are found in the superficial layers of the epidermis and the upper parts of hair follicles. ...
It is covered in multiple layers of modified hair called quills, with longer, thinner quills covering a layer of shorter, ... They are made of keratin and are relatively flexible. Each quill is connected to a muscle at its base, allowing the porcupine ... These quills can grow up to 51 cm (20 in) long, with most measuring between 15-30 cm. Smaller (20 cm) and more rigid quills are ... 15 (1): 9-12. doi:10.1080/09397140.1997.10637731. ISSN 0939-7140. Hanley, Thomas A. (1982-03-01). "The Nutritional Basis for ...
Regardless of the group, keratins are either acidic or basic. Acidic and basic keratins bind each other to form acidic-basic ... These proteins localize to two regions of the nuclear compartment, the nuclear lamina-a proteinaceous structure layer subjacent ... Analysis of a second keratin sequence revealed that the two types of keratins share only about 30% amino acid sequence homology ... trichocytic keratins (about 13) (hair keratins), which make up hair, nails, horns and reptilian scales. ...
... is a type I cytokeratin, it is paired with keratin 4 and found in the suprabasal layers of non-cornified stratified ... Keratin 13 (or cytokeratin 13) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KRT13 gene. ... 1999). "Identification of two novel mutations in keratin 13 as the cause of white sponge naevus". Oral Dis. 5 (4): 321-4. doi: ... 2001). "A novel mutation in the keratin 13 gene causing oral white sponge nevus". J. Dent. Res. 80 (3): 919-23. doi:10.1177/ ...
It is specifically found in the periderm, the transiently superficial layer that envelops the developing epidermis. The type I ... Keratin 19 is a type I keratin. Keratin 19 is a member of the keratin family. The keratins are intermediate filament proteins ... Keratin 19 is often used together with keratin 8 and keratin 18 to differentiate cells of epithelial origin from hematopoietic ... Keratin, type I cytoskeletal 19 also known as cytokeratin-19 (CK-19) or keratin-19 (K19) is a 40 kDa protein that in humans is ...
It is the key structural material making up hair, horns, claws, hooves, and the outer layer of human skin. Keratin is also the ... For example, mouse thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are known to react with antibodies for keratin 5, keratin 8, and keratin 14. ... Cells in the epidermis contain a structural matrix of keratin, which makes this outermost layer of the skin almost waterproof, ... These keratins are formed primarily in beta sheets. However, beta sheets are also found in α-keratins.) Additionally, the ...
... actin and alpha keratins. He elucidated the first structures of cytoskeletal keratin families, and predicted the long helical ... In a comprehensive study examining all the layers of skin and epidermal appendages, they found a widespread distribution of ... "The cDNA sequence of a Type II cytoskeletal keratin reveals constant and variable structural domains among keratins". Cell. 33 ... Hanukoglu I, Fuchs E (Nov 1982). "The cDNA sequence of a human epidermal keratin: divergence of sequence but conservation of ...
... a type I alpha-keratin, to form the alpha-keratin complex of the epidermis layer of cells in the skin. Hard alpha-keratins, ... Alpha-keratin, or α-keratin, is a type of keratin found in mammals. This protein is the primary component in hairs, horns, ... Under high tension, alpha-keratin can even change into beta-keratin, a stronger keratin formation that has a secondary ... Alpha-keratins proteins can be one of two types: type I or type II. There are 54 keratin genes in humans, 28 of which code for ...
The epidermis of a higher vertebrate has many layers, and the outer layers are reinforced with keratin and then die. Ruppert, E ... The epidermis of a more complex invertebrate is just one layer deep, and may be protected by a non-cellular cuticle. ...
Elafin on the contrary has never been found in the basal layer in any type of epithelial tissue. Indeed, elafin is virtually ... "Diffuse and focal palmoplantar keratoderma can be caused by a keratin 6c mutation". Br. J. Dermatol. 165 (6): 1290-2. doi: ... In fact, pancreatic elastase is expressed in basal layers of epidermis (at protein level). Hence pancreatic elastase 1 has been ... 15 (11): 2491-500. doi:10.1021/bi00656a036. PMID 819031. Akasaka E, Nakano H, Nakano A, Toyomaki Y, Takiyoshi N, Rokunohe D, ...
The fluoride creates a metal fluoride layer that protects the metal. White fuming nitric acid, pure nitric acid or WFNA, is ... Concentrated nitric acid stains human skin yellow due to its reaction with the keratin. These yellow stains turn orange when ... The formation of this protective layer is called passivation. Typical passivation concentrations range from 20% to 50% by ... the concentrated acid forms a metal-oxide layer that protects the bulk of the metal from further oxidation. ...
... which are responsible for aggregating keratin filaments to form keratin bundles that maintain the rigid structure of the cells ... The corneocyte cell layer (stratum corneum) can absorb three times its weight in water but if its water content drops below 10 ... Layers of corneocytes produce high mechanical strength which allow epidermis of the skin to perform its function as a physical ... The intercellular lipid layer helps prevent the loss of natural moisturizing factor by sealing the outside of each corneocyte. ...
The dermis has two layers. One is the papillary layer which is the superficial layer and consists of the areolar connective ... Keratin is a fibrous protein that aids in protection. An overwhelming amount of keratin can cause disease and infection as well ... The dermal layer provides a site for the endings of blood vessels and nerves. Many chromatophores are also stored in this layer ... The other is the reticular layer which is the deep layer of the dermis and consists of the dense irregular connective tissue. ...
The epidermis of birds and reptiles is closer to that of mammals, with a layer of dead keratin-filled cells at the surface, to ... During embryogenesis, the epidermis splits into two layers: the periderm (which is lost) and the basal layer. The basal layer ... The epidermis can be further subdivided into the following strata or layers (beginning with the outermost layer):[10] ... The gland alveolus is a sac that is divided into three specific regions/layers. The outer layer or tunica fibrosa is composed ...
The keratin accumulates within each spinous cell as it moves upward through the epidermis layers, until the cell is almost ... They are found in the stratum spinosum (prickly layer, spinosum layer), which lies above the stratum basale (basal layer) and ... They make up the stratum spinosum (prickly layer) of the epidermis and provide a continuous net-like layer of protection for ... Spinous cells originate through mitosis in the basal layer (also known as the germinative layer). They are pushed upward into ...
... specific binding to keratin 8 and vimentin". Exp. Dermatol. 11 (5): 428-38. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0625.2002.110506.x. PMID ... incorporated into the cornified cell envelope during the terminal differentiation of keratinocyte at the outer layers of ... 15 (6): 853-65. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2004.09.016. PMID 15383276. Kurita M, Suzuki H, Masai H, et al. (2004). "Overexpression of ...
The scales of birds are composed of keratin, like beaks, claws, and spurs. They are found mainly on the toes and tarsi (lower ... On the feet, the corneum, or outermost layer, of this skin may keratinize, thicken and form scales. These scales can be ... Two bony projections-the upper and lower mandibles-covered with a thin keratinized layer of epidermis known as the rhamphotheca ... However, histological and evolutionary developmental work in this area revealed that these structures lack beta-keratin (a ...
There may be abnormal keratinization, where keratin is formed below the normal keratin layer. This can occur in individual ... The mechanism of the white appearance is thickening of the keratin layer, called hyperkeratosis. The abnormal keratin appears ... "an increase in the thickness of the keratin layer of the epithelium, or the presence of such a layer in a site where none would ... the thickened keratin layer absorbs water from saliva in the mouth and appears white in comparison with normal mucosa. Normal ...
The typical habitat for blow-flies are temperate to tropical areas that provide a layer of loose, damp soil and litter where ... Hide beetles are the only beetle with the enzymes necessary for breaking down keratin, a protein component of hair. ... By counting numbers of live and dead mites that developed every 15 days and comparing this with his initial count on the infant ... The post-decay time interval, beginning at day six after death and ending around day 15 after death, is greatly reduced from ...
The scales of birds are composed of the same keratin as beaks, claws, and spurs. They are found mainly on the toes and ... The avian heart also consists of muscular arches that are made up of thick bundles of muscular layers. Much like a mammalian ... Brood parasitism, in which an egg-layer leaves her eggs with another individual's brood, is more common among birds than any ... ISBN 84-87334-15-6. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) Juniper, Tony; Mike Parr (1998). Parrots: A Guide to the Parrots ...
The human skin consists of two layers: an outermost layer called the epidermis and a layer underneath called the dermis. In ... Recent research has focused on changing the mixture of keratins produced in the skin. There are 54 known keratin genes-of which ... If the balance of production could be shifted away from the mutated, dysfunctional keratin gene toward an intact keratin gene, ... It typically affects the hands and feet, and is typically inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, affecting the keratin ...
These peels only affect the epidermal layer of the skin and can be useful in the treatment of superficial acne scars as well as ... or excess keratin) fully accounted for the disease in its entirety.[179] This led to the current understanding that acne could ... However, untreated PIH can last for months, years, or even be permanent if deeper layers of skin are affected.[37] Even minimal ... Hydroquinone is ineffective for hyperpigmentation affecting deeper layers of skin such as the dermis.[35] The use of a ...
Keratin is also found in the skin and the hair. Keratin, like all proteins, is made up of a chain of amino acids. The amino ... When present in correct amounts in an unbroken layer, these seal moisture into the deeper hoof structures and seal water out. ... Methionine, an essential amino acid, is also present in keratin but only in small amounts. The role of methionine in hoof ... The amino acids methionine and cysteine both contain sulphur, which is an essential element in the formation of keratin. The ...
The eyes complete their development during metamorphosis, and are covered by a thin and transparent layer of skin that becomes ... opaque in preservatives.[14] Their teeth consist of a meshwork of keratin filaments and other proteins.[15] ...
Hard Keratin. Soft=in the medulla, is thinner and more flexible. Hard=thick layers in the cuticle, give hair its stiffness. ... Organized in papillary layer and reticular layer.. Papillary Layer. Rich in areolar tissue. Contains the capillaries, ... Grainy layer. The layer superficial to the stratum spinosum. 3-5 layers of keratinocytes, organelles deteriorating, cytoplasm ... keratin glue). Stratum Spinosum. 8-10 layers of keratinocytes bound together by desmosomes. Look spiny b/c keratinocyte ...
The basal layer marker keratin 14 was also still confined to the basal layer in all mice examined (Supplementary Figure 2). ... with keratin 10 marking the suprabasal layers and loricrin marking granular layer. However, due to the reduction in spinous and ... Whereas control mice have formed a 4-6 layer epidermis at this stage, dkoepi epidermis remained a 3-4 layered epidermis more ... Keratin 14 Cre transgenic mice authenticate keratin 14 as an oocyte‐expressed protein. Genesis 38: 176-181. ...
The Keratin-14 (Krt14) promotor directs gene expression in the basal layer of epidermal and follicular keratinocytes, including ... which allows easy analysis of epidermal layers. Keratin-15+ (KRT15+) cells, the most primitive in IFE, normally form a single ... cells were present in 1 or 2 IFE layers (as expected), but appeared in multiple layers in kDKO(P1) mice (Figure 3D). Moreover, ... D) Left: H&E-stained epidermal basal layer of control and kDKO(P1) mice at P19. Scale bar: 20 μm. Right: quantitation (cell ...
In these experiments, presumptive HFSCs were first detected in the suprabasal layer overlying the basal layer of hair germs. As ... Liu Y, Lyle S, Yang Z, Cotsarelis G. Keratin 15 promoter targets putative epithelial stem cells in the hair follicle bulge. J ... Specifically, in vivo genetic lineage tracing experiments have shown that all layers of the lower portion of the anagen hair ... However, this K6+ layer also appears to provide paracrine signals that promote HFSC quiescence during telogen (38). ...
To characterize the niche of limbal epithelial stem cells, we observed the limbal basal epithelial layer by histological ... We stained the sections with N-cadherin and keratin 15 (Limbal basal epithelial layer), aquaporin 1 (AQP1; subepithelial cells ...
Therefore, the current study has studied these characteristics of keratin 15+ (K15), CD200+ or CD34+ cells within anagen VI ... Keratin 19 as a biochemical marker of skin stem cells in vivo and in vitro: keratin 19 expressing cells are differentially ... This cell pool can be recognised histologically by a band of nuclei within the basal layer with clearly limited Ki-67 ... Two mechanisms regulate keratin K15 expression in keratinocytes: role of PKC/AP-1 and FOXM1 mediated signalling. PLoS One 7, ...
This is conferred by the presence of beta-keratin, which provides a much more rigid skin layer. ... The stratum corneum (Latin for horny layer) is the outermost layer of the epidermis, consisting of dead cells (corneocytes). ... In the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet (sometimes knees, elbows,[5] knuckles,) this layer is stabilized and built ... Cells of the stratum corneum contain a dense network of keratin, a protein that helps keep the skin hydrated by preventing ...
Results of the immunohistochemical staining showed that nestin, GFP, keratin 5/8, and keratin 15 colocalize in the hair ... are located in the outer-root sheath and basal layer of the epidermis. By P10, the ND-GFP have formed the K15-positive outer- ... Multipotent Nestin-positive, Keratin-negative Hair-follicle Bulge Stem Cells Can Form Neurons Proceedings of the National ... These pluripotent ND-GFP stem cells are positive for the stem cell marker CD34, as well as keratin 15-negative, suggesting ...
2003). Epidermis, the outer skin layer, has a surface called stratum corneum, which is a less hydrated surface layer presented ... Stratum corneum is composed of dead cells formed from keratin and with thickness that varies from 10 to 15 μm for humans ( ... In the unrestrained condition, samples were prone to migrate across the surface of the hot plate, a thin layer of water vapour ... Furthermore, anisotropic layering can be observed in the Profile View images, particularly in Fig. 5c, d. ...
The cuticle is the outer layer. It is a protective layer of scales arranged like shingles or fish scales. When two fibers come ... In scientific terms, wool is considered to be a protein called keratin. Its length usually ranges from 1.5 to 15 inches (3.8 to ... A wool fiber is made up of three layers: the cuticle, cortex, and medulla. The cuticle is the outer layer of over-lapping ... As wool absorbs the bodys water vapor, a dry layer of air is left next to the skin to hold in body heat, thereby keeping the ...
The epidermis consists of three important layers: the outer keratin or stratum corneum composed of fibrous nonviable cells; a ... The reproductive or basal layer gives rise to living epidermal cells by division of the cells within the basal layer. Located ... layer of living epidermal cells or stratum spinosum; and the basal or germinative layer. ... Slide 15 - Routes of entry. External substances can interact with the skin in three ways:. (1) They can interact with the cells ...
... keratin layers- general Tinea flashcards from Elizabeth DeGroot ... skin 9: keratin layers- general Tinea Flashcards Preview Micro ... Keratin is required for growth*. *do not usually invade living tissue*. Infections can occur at multiple sites.. Different ... Although the cornified layers of the skin lack a specific immune response, *both humoral and CMI* immune systems and innate ... Geophilic: Normally inhabit the soil where they live on keratin that is shed by animals. Zoophilic: Infect or are carried by ...
... showed that the gene 19-expressing apical layer is separated from the adult keratin-expressing basal layer by a single layer of ... larval keratin (D and D′), and adult keratin (E and E′). Eosin stains the epithelial layers bright pink; black arrowheads (B) ... This larval keratin promoter drives GFP or the TRDN expression in the two outer cell layers of the tadpole epidermis, mirroring ... B) The larval keratin promoter drives GFP expression (green) specifically in the epithelial layers of skin from the body. (C) ...
Highpot Pink Armor Nail Growth Nail Nutrition Gel Polish Remedy Fix Protective Layer Keratin Gel. ... Keratin-rich formula boosts strength and shine ??Can also be used as a base or top coat ??Package Included:1X Bottle Nail Gel ... The keratin-rich formula penetrates deep into the nail to improve thickness, strength, color, brightness and encourages rapid ... The keratin-rich formula penetrates deep into the nail to improve thickness, strength, color, brightness and encourages rapid ...
... keratin 1 expression was not yet fully established in all suprabasal cell layers, expression of keratin 19 was increased and ... keratin 1 expression was not yet fully established in all suprabasal cell layers, expression of keratin 19 was increased and ... Expression patterns for keratin 15, keratin 16, and Ki67 were similar to grafts with fibroblasts; ... Expression patterns for keratin 15, keratin 16, and Ki67 were similar to grafts with fibroblasts; ...
Another very interesting structure is that of the keratin of feather rachis. This consists of sequences of three layers, a ... pleated-sheet layer of nearly extended polypeptide chains, a layer of our 3.7-residue helix molecules, and another layer of ... 1951-03-15 (March 15, 1951) Creator: Pauling, Linus Recipient: Wilson, E. Bright Source:. Original Repository: Oregon State ... 2008-09-15 Linked Data:. RDF/XML JSON JSON-LD N3/Turtle N-Triples ...
Our results show that Rac1 activity in the keratin-14-expressing layers is not only required but also sufficient for the ... the hair coat appeared normal and histological examination and immunostaining against keratin 14, keratin 10 and keratin 15 ... 2004). Keratin 14 Cre transgenic mice authenticate keratin 14 as an oocyte-expressed protein. Genesis 38, 176-181. ... Immunostainings of keratin 14 and keratin 10 were performed as described previously (Stratis et al., 2006). Antibodies were ...
Column 1 (a,e,i,m,q,u) shows keratin 10 (red)/15 (green) double immunostaining. Column 2 (b,f,j,n,r,v) shows collagen IV, ... A considerable number of proliferating cells within the basal layer of the ftSEs and a few apoptotic cells are found after (a) ... d) Keratin 10 (red)/15 double stain, (e) collagen IV (red), (f) filaggrin (red), and (g) vimentin (green) staining indicate ... c) TUNEL-Ki67 (green and red) staining of the ftSE revealed a considerable number of proliferating cells within the basal layer ...
Expression in all three layers of the urothelium starts at day 15 in the embryo and is not visible after day 18. By day 11 and ... "Interleukin-6 induces keratin expression in intestinal epithelial cells: potential role of keratin-8 in interleukin-6-induced ... "Interleukin-6 induces keratin expression in intestinal epithelial cells: potential role of keratin-8 in interleukin-6-induced ... "Interleukin-6 induces keratin expression in intestinal epithelial cells: potential role of keratin-8 in interleukin-6-induced ...
For keratins, transglutaminase, loricrin and filaggrin colocalization was found in more than 60% of the samples. Colocalization ... was confined to a narrow subcorneal layer with varying patterns of expression. Electron microscopy revealed that loricrin and ... Subcorneal colocalization of the small heat shock protein, hsp27, with keratins and proteins of the cornified cell envelope ... Objectives To investigate whether epidermal hsp27 through its chaperone function plays a role in the assembly of keratin ...
... superficial layers of cells filled with keratin. c. The dead cells in each layer of the stratum corneum remain tightly ... a. 3 to 5 layers of keratinocytes. Most have stopped dividing and have started making large amounts of keratin. The cells grow ... List the two layers of the dermis. What tissue type is present in each layer, and what functional attributes do these tissues ... a. Cutaneous plexus - the deeper layer of blood vessels a. Supply both the adipose tissues of the subcutaneous layer and the ...
Read on for 15 solutions recommended by top dermatologists and say bye-bye to your troublesome zits! ... They also help to remove the top layers of the skin that cause dry skin and acne flareups. Its important to note that the use ... meaning it dissolves keratin). It unclogs pores by penetrating into the pore to dissolve dead skin cell accumulation and aids ... in shedding of the top layer of skin. East Indian sandalwood oil is a naturally occurring anti-inflammatory agent, which is new ...
ΔNp63α maintains the keratin 15-positive stem cell population. "A clue to its cancer-causing potential was that when ΔNp63α was ... In the skin, for example, TAp63 isoforms are predominantly found within the inner layers known as the dermis, where they guard ... stimulates the population of skin stem cells that produce keratin 15one of many keratin proteins found in the skinpromoting ... The cells within these lesions were arranged into two zones: a layer of proliferating, healthy cells; and a region of senescent ...
  • August 15, 2017: Coral continues to float and is unable to dive, even when the water level in her tank is increased. (scaquarium.org)
  • September 15, 2017: Coral is very particular about her fish choice and will only eat skinless salmon. (scaquarium.org)
  • November 15, 2017: Coral continues to improve and has been eating more than just salmon! (scaquarium.org)
  • The X. laevis larval keratin promoter (Ker) was synthesized by amplifying 922 bp of upstream sequences from the X. laevis genomic DNA (GenBank accession no. (pnas.org)
  • To determine if COX-2 overexpression could be causally related to cancer development in these tissues, we utilized a transgenic mouse line (K5.COX-2 mice) that expresses a COX-2 transgene under control of a keratin 5 promoter (22) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Transgenic mice expressing IL1A from the keratin 14 (K14) promoter develop focal inflammatory skin lesions, hair loss, and scaling. (rupress.org)
  • however, the detection of basic alpha-keratin (AE3 positive) was much more limited. (springer.com)
  • In the cutaneous SCCs of both sea turtles, acidic alpha-keratin was detected in the basal and suprabasal layers, and in all of the invasive neoplastic cords, while basic alpha-keratin was mainly detected in the invasive neoplastic cords. (springer.com)
  • The pattern observed in the metastases in both turtles consisted of immunohistological detection of acidic alpha-keratin in all metastatic foci, and limited or lack of detection of basic alpha-keratin. (springer.com)
  • and hierarchical layers of ordered fibrous constituents ( Rawlings, 1999 ), suggestive of a structure analogous to an intermediate filament (IF)-based material such as that of hard alpha-keratin ( Whitely and Kaplin, 1977 ). (biologists.org)
  • Despite apparent structural similarities at the IF level, there are important structural and biogenic differences between WECB and hard alpha-keratin. (biologists.org)
  • In contrast, hard alpha-keratin is a complex cylindrically arranged composite with concentric hierarchical outer layers around a major axis of fibrillar orientation ( Hearle, 2000 ). (biologists.org)
  • Following the Hookean region is the plateau-like, or `yield' region, so called due to the zone of apparent yield that precedes it, a convention used previously ( Feughelman, 1964 ) to describe the similar response to strain found in hard alpha-keratin ( Fig. 2 ). (biologists.org)
  • Although similar responses to strain are generated in both materials, significant differences in mechanical parameters exist between WECB and hard alpha-keratin. (biologists.org)
  • Most superficial layer. (studystack.com)
  • Intraoperative unroofing of a superficial layer of conjunctiva over the mass revealed a chocolate-colored cyst filled with sero-sanguninous fluid, with strands of flaccid extraocular muscle or pseudo-tendon straddling its surface (Figure 3). (harvard.edu)
  • Since then, the growing number of identified stem cell markers has contributed to a more detailed recognition of the heterogeneity of the bulge population ( 15 - 20 ), and it is now evident that the HFSC niche is heterogeneous and dynamic throughout the hair cycle. (jci.org)
  • A comprehensive guide for the accurate classification of murine hair follicles in distinct hair cycle stages," Journal of Investigative Dermatology , vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 3-15, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • N. Torkamani, N. Rufaut, L. Jones, and R. Sinclair, "Structural comparison of the human and mouse arrector pili muscle and its loss in human androgenic alopecia," in Proceedings of the 23rd World Congress of Dermatology (WCD '15) , Vancouver, Canada, June 2015. (hindawi.com)
  • The premetamorphic dermis consists of the collagen lamella, an adjacent single layer of subepithelial fibroblasts, and melanophores ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, there are no reports of immunohistochemical staining patterns of alpha-keratins in other tissues from reptiles. (springer.com)
  • This study provides, for the first time, information about the immunohistochemical staining patterns of alpha-keratins in normal tissues from bearded dragons and loggerhead sea turtles, and confirms the usefulness of AE1 and AE3 monoclonal antibodies in these reptile species. (springer.com)
  • A traditional keratin treatment like a Brazilian blowout will completely eliminate frizz for up to three months! (salon833.com)
  • You should consider a Keratin service as a Hair Smoothing Treatment and not a straightening - they are a non-permanent hair treatment that can be equally effective at reducing frizz and reducing styling times. (lilyjackson.com.au)
  • It contains keratin, responsible for a large part of hair composition, and also contains the powerful Oil of Ojon, which nourishes and gives life to the hair, making your hair frizz, aligned and with a smooth effect and extremely Hydrated. (thekeratinstore.com)