Laxatives: Agents that produce a soft formed stool, and relax and loosen the bowels, typically used over a protracted period, to relieve CONSTIPATION.Cathartics: Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.Senna Extract: Preparations of Cassia senna and C. angustifolia (see SENNA PLANT). They contain sennosides, which are anthraquinone type CATHARTICS and are used in many different preparations as laxatives.Constipation: Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.Bisacodyl: A diphenylmethane stimulant laxative used for the treatment of CONSTIPATION and for bowel evacuation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p871)Defecation: The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.Phenolphthalein: An acid-base indicator which is colorless in acid solution, but turns pink to red as the solution becomes alkaline. It is used medicinally as a cathartic.Thymelaeaceae: A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mainly trees and shrubs. Many members contain mucilage and COUMARINS.Phenolphthaleins: A family of 3,3-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)phthalides. They are used as CATHARTICS, indicators, and COLORING AGENTS.Gastrointestinal Transit: Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.Melanosis: Disorders of increased melanin pigmentation that develop without preceding inflammatory disease.Loperamide: One of the long-acting synthetic ANTIDIARRHEALS; it is not significantly absorbed from the gut, and has no effect on the adrenergic system or central nervous system, but may antagonize histamine and interfere with acetylcholine release locally.Castor Oil: Oil obtained from seeds of Ricinus communis that is used as a cathartic and as a plasticizer.Cassia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Many species of this genus, including the medicinal C. senna and C. angustifolia, have been reclassified into the Senna genus (SENNA PLANT) and some to CHAMAECRISTA.Encopresis: Incontinence of feces not due to organic defect or illness.Senna Plant: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. SENNA EXTRACT is obtained from members of this genus. Members contain ANTHRAQUINONES and have been an ingredient in laxatives (CATHARTICS). Many species of the CASSIA genus have been reclassified into this genus. This bush should not be confused with the Cassia tree (CINNAMOMUM).Anthraquinones: Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.Rhamnus: A plant genus of the family RHAMNACEAE. Several species have been reclassified to the FRANGULA genus. It is often called buckthorn but should not be confused with other plants called that.Oxyphenisatin Acetate: A laxative that undergoes enterohepatic circulation. It may cause jaundice.Fecal Impaction: Formation of a firm impassable mass of stool in the RECTUM or distal COLON.Factitious Disorders: Disorders characterized by physical or psychological symptoms that are not real, genuine, or natural.Psyllium: Dried, ripe seeds of PLANTAGO PSYLLIUM; PLANTAGO INDICA; and PLANTAGO OVATA. Plantain seeds swell in water and are used as demulcents and bulk laxatives.Lactulose: A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)Carmine: Coloring matter from the insect Coccus cacti L. It is used in foods, pharmaceuticals, toiletries, etc., as a dye, and also has use as a microscopic stain and biological marker.Dioctyl Sulfosuccinic Acid: All-purpose surfactant, wetting agent, and solubilizer used in the drug, cosmetics, and food industries. It has also been used in laxatives and as cerumenolytics. It is usually administered as either the calcium, potassium, or sodium salt.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Enema: A solution or compound that is introduced into the RECTUM with the purpose of cleansing the COLON or for diagnostic procedures.Liriope Plant: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain ruscogenin. Do not confuse with the Liriope jellyfish (CNIDARIA).Viola: A plant genus of the family VIOLACEAE. Some species in this genus are called bouncing bet which is a common name more often used with SAPONARIA OFFICINALIS. Members contain macrocyclic peptides.Toilet Training: Conditioning to defecate and urinate in culturally acceptable places.Ricinoleic Acids: Eighteen carbon fatty acids that comprise the great majority of CASTOR OIL, which is from the seed of RICINUS.Megacolon: Dilatation of the COLON, often to alarming dimensions. There are various types of megacolon including congenital megacolon in HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE, idiopathic megacolon in CONSTIPATION, and TOXIC MEGACOLON.Plantago: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.Biofeedback, Psychology: The therapy technique of providing the status of one's own AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM function (e.g., skin temperature, heartbeats, brain waves) as visual or auditory feedback in order to self-control related conditions (e.g., hypertension, migraine headaches).Magnesium Sulfate: A small colorless crystal used as an anticonvulsant, a cathartic, and an electrolyte replenisher in the treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. It causes direct inhibition of action potentials in myometrial muscle cells. Excitation and contraction are uncoupled, which decreases the frequency and force of contractions. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1083)Magnesium Oxide: Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.Colonic Diseases: Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Proctoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the rectum.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Mineral Oil: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.Sugar Alcohols: Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Euphorbiaceae: The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.Tetany: A disorder characterized by muscle twitches, cramps, and carpopedal spasm, and when severe, laryngospasm and seizures. This condition is associated with unstable depolarization of axonal membranes, primarily in the peripheral nervous system. Tetany usually results from HYPOCALCEMIA or reduced serum levels of MAGNESIUM that may be associated with HYPERVENTILATION; HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; RICKETS; UREMIA; or other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1490)Gastrointestinal Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.Therapeutic Irrigation: The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Thapsigargin: A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.

Treatment of fissure in ano- revisited. (1/107)

INTRODUCTION: Fissure in ano is a troubling and painful condition that affects a great majority of the population world over. The nature and anatomy of fissure in ano is quite clear, and much is known about the various predisposing and contributing factors that lead to initiation and progression of the disease. The preferred method of treating them, one that results in optimal clinical results and the least pain and inconvenience to the patient, however, has been open to debate. METHODS: This paper outlines a brief account of the present scenario of different techniques available for the treatment of chronic anal fissure. CONCLUSION: Medical manipulation of the internal sphincter should be a first-line treatment in anal fissure. When this fails or fissures recur, lateral subcutaneous internal sphincterotomy should be the preferred options for the treatment of chronic fissure in ano. Nevertheless, all the option should be presented to the patient with complete information about the method, cure rates, complications, and recurrence of the disease.  (+info)

CT colonography: optimisation, diagnostic performance and patient acceptability of reduced-laxative regimens using barium-based faecal tagging. (2/107)

To establish the optimum barium-based reduced-laxative tagging regimen prior to CT colonography (CTC). Ninety-five subjects underwent reduced-laxative (13 g senna/18 g magnesium citrate) CTC prior to same-day colonoscopy and were randomised to one of four tagging regimens using 20 ml 40%w/v barium sulphate: regimen A: four doses, B: three doses, C: three doses plus 220 ml 2.1% barium sulphate, or D: three doses plus 15 ml diatriazoate megluamine. Patient experience was assessed immediately after CTC and 1 week later. Two radiologists graded residual stool (1: none/scattered to 4: >50% circumference) and tagging efficacy for stool (1: untagged to 5: 100% tagged) and fluid (1: untagged, 2: layered, 3: tagged), noting the HU of tagged fluid. Preparation was good (76-94% segments graded 1), although best for regimen D (P = 0.02). Across all regimens, stool tagging quality was high (mean 3.7-4.5) and not significantly different among regimens. The HU of layered tagged fluid was higher for regimens C/D than A/B (P = 0.002). Detection of cancer (n = 2), polyps > or =6 mm (n = 21), and < or =5 mm (n = 72) was 100, 81 and 32% respectively, with only four false positives > or =6 mm. Reduced preparation was tolerated better than full endoscopic preparation by 61%. Reduced-laxative CTC with three doses of 20 ml 40% barium sulphate is as effective as more complex regimens, retaining adequate diagnostic accuracy.  (+info)

Chemical constituents of Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae) roots. (3/107)

Column chromatography of the alcoholic extract of Piper betle roots furnished aristololactam A-II and a new phenyl propene, characterized as 4-allyl resorcinol, while the petroleum-ether extract yielded a diketosteroid, viz. stigmast-4-en-3,6-dione. All these compounds were characterized by spectroscopic means. Isolation of these compounds from this source is being reported here for the first time.  (+info)

Choice of laxatives and colonoscopic preparation in pregnant patients from the viewpoint of obstetricians and gastroenterologists. (4/107)

AIM: To elucidate the preferences of gastroenterologists at our institution and compare them to those of obstetricians when making decisions in the pregnant patient, including which type of bowel preparations to use for flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy, as well as which laxatives can be used safely. METHODS: Surveys were mailed to all attending gastroenterologists (n = 53) and obstetricians (n = 99) at our institution. Each survey consisted of the 14 most common laxative or motility agents used in pregnancy and inquired about the physician's prescribing habits in the past as well as their willingness to prescribe each medication in the future. The survey also listed four common bowel preparations used prior to colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy and asked the physician to rank the order of the preferred agent in each case. RESULTS: With regard to common laxatives, both gastroenterologists and obstetricians favor the use of Metamucil, Colace, and Citrucel. Both groups appear to refrain from using Fleets Phosphosoda and Castor oil. Of note, obstetricians are less inclined to use PEG solution and Miralax, which is not the case with gastroenterologists. In terms of comparing bowel preparations for colonoscopy, 50% of gastroenterologists prefer to use PEG solution and 50% avoid the use of Fleets Phosphosoda. Obstetricians seem to prefer Fleets Phosphosoda (20%) and tend to avoid the use of PEG solution (26%). With regard to bowel preparation for sigmoidoscopy, both groups prefer Fleets enema the most (51%), while magnesium citrate is used least often (38%). CONCLUSION: It is clear that preferences in the use of bowel cleansing preparations between the two groups exist, but there have not been many case controlled human studies in the pregnant patient that give clear cut indications for using one versus another drug. In light of the challenge of performing controlled trials in pregnant women, more extensive surveys should be undertaken to gather a larger amount of data on physician's experiences and individual preferences.  (+info)

Assessment of palliative care team activities--survey of medications prescribed immediately before and at the beginning of opioid usage. (5/107)

We established the Terminal Care Study Group, consisting of physicians, pharmacists, and nurses, in September 2001, and developed the group into the Palliative Care Team. We have surveyed the state of concomitant medications immediately before and at the beginning of opioid usage (except injections) to assess the role of the Palliative Care Team. The survey period was 3 years from October 1, 2002 to September 30, 2005. While the frequency of the prescription of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), laxatives, or antiemetics before the beginning of opioid administration did not differ significantly among the 3 periods, that at the beginning of opioid administration increased significantly in 2003 compared with 2002, and increased further in 2004. Many of the drugs used were those that were recommended in our cancer pain management program. Thus, the activities of the Palliative Care Team are considered to have led to proper measures for the control of the major adverse effects of opioids such as constipation and nausea/vomiting in addition to pain control in accordance with the WHO's pain ladder, and also contributed to improvements of the patients' QOL.  (+info)

Laxative effect of agarwood leaves and its mechanism. (6/107)

We investigated the laxative activity of an extract of agarwood leaves from Aquilaria sinensis. The laxative activity was measured in mice by counting the stool frequency and stool weight, and the drugs were orally administered. An acetone extract of agarwood leaves and senna (a representative laxative drug) both increased the stool frequency and weight, but a methanol extract did not. The laxative effect of the acetone extract was milder than that of the anthraquinoid laxative, senna, and the former did not induce diarrhea as a severe side effect. We identified the main constituent contributing to the laxative effect of the acetone extract as genkwanin 5-O-beta-primeveroside (compound 4). Compound 4 strengthened the spontaneous motility and induced contraction in the ileum. This ileal contraction induced by compound 4 was inhibited by atropine, but not by azasetron, suggesting that the effect of compound 4 was mediated by acetylcholine receptors, and not by serotonin. The laxative mechanism for compound 4 may in part involve stimulation of intestinal motility via acetylcholine receptors.  (+info)

Treatment of the neurogenic bladder in spina bifida. (7/107)

 (+info)

Putting evidence into practice: evidence-based interventions for the prevention and management of constipation in patients with cancer. (8/107)

 (+info)

  • Polyethylene glycol produces less intestinal gas and causes less abdominal bloating and flatulence than other osmotic laxatives. (aboutibs.org)
  • All the laxative does is draw water into the bowel to add bulk and lubrication to the stool, and some laxatives also stimulate intestinal contractions to help move things along. (livestrong.com)
  • You should not take lactulose if you are on a low lactose (milk sugar) diet, are diabetic, are taking any other laxatives or antacids, or if you have upcoming surgeries, especially an intestinal procedure like a colonoscopy. (verywell.com)
  • Laxatives can be of multiple types - from simple dietary roughage to some OTC mineral oils to prescription intestinal stimulants, there are simply a wide range of substances that can loosen stools and increase bowel movements. (stackexchange.com)
  • The reason why it is not recommended to take a laxative for a long duration of time without a good reason is that some laxatives reduce cause colonic tissues to wear out over time and make the patient permanently consipated( laxative gut ) There is also the risk of reduced nutrient absorption, fluid and electrolyte imbalance, intestinal paralysis, irritable bowel syndrome, factitious diarrhea, etc . (stackexchange.com)
  • Patients should consume six to eight glasses of liquid each day while taking laxatives to help soften the stool, and they should seek a doctor's advice before taking any type of laxative after surgery. (reference.com)
  • Laxatives are available over the counter and by prescription and may take the form of capsules, liquids, chewable tablets, syrups, oils and several other options. (reference.com)
  • By the time the food you eat reaches the part of your intestines where the laxatives work, it has already been digested and the nutrients have been absorbed. (livestrong.com)
  • The "tone" of the intestines become lax because the laxatives have done all of the pushing so far, and they may become dry as they forget how to draw adequate water for lubrication. (livestrong.com)
  • Laxatives work by helping your intestines digest undigested food, and do not make you lose weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gel from inside aloe vera leaves has a natural laxative effect from anthraquinone glycosides, which naturally draw water into your intestines and help get your digestive tract moving. (newideafood.com.au)
  • The market for laxatives is a bloated market with the growing demand due to rise in risk factors associated with constipation. (medgadget.com)
  • They must also avoid laxatives if they develop a skin rash or notice signs of inflamed bowl or appendicitis, such as bloating, cramping, nausea or vomiting. (reference.com)
  • Patients who are elderly and bedridden, pregnant or breastfeeding and those who are taking other medications or have a history of allergies to medications should consult a doctor before choosing a laxative. (reference.com)
  • Nevertheless, such OTC laxatives are meant for very short-term use, and people who are taking these medications still need to see a physician for evaluation as soon as possible. (verywell.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Laxatives are among the most widely used over-the-counter medications in the United States but studies examining their potential hazardous side effects are sparse. (umassmed.edu)
  • One, by facilitating the easy passage of stools by placing a glycerin suppository in the rectum which would work as a laxative. (buzzle.com)
  • People who use laxatives in larger doses or for a longer time than recommended are at risk of developing a dependency. (livestrong.com)
  • These aglycones exert their laxative effect by damaging epithelial cells, which leads directly and indirectly to changes in absorption, secretion and motility. (nih.gov)
Laxatives | Walgreens
Laxatives | Walgreens (walgreens.com)
Laxative | GreenMedInfo | Pharmacological Action | Natural Medicine
Laxative | GreenMedInfo | Pharmacological Action | Natural Medicine (greenmedinfo.com)
How to Use Epsom Salt as a Laxative: 12 Steps (with Pictures)
How to Use Epsom Salt as a Laxative: 12 Steps (with Pictures) (wikihow.com)
Student charged over laxative brownies
Student charged over laxative brownies (jacksonsun.com)
Easy workouts lose weight fast laxatives, natural testosterone ftm australia, lean muscle mass and metabolism, protein shakes...
Easy workouts lose weight fast laxatives, natural testosterone ftm australia, lean muscle mass and metabolism, protein shakes... (s3.amazonaws.com)
Reviews: Herbal Laxative Tea Colon Cleanse Herbs Constipation Colon Cleansing Tea - $10.95 (page 5)
Reviews: Herbal Laxative Tea Colon Cleanse Herbs Constipation Colon Cleansing Tea - $10.95 (page 5) (dherbs.com)
Weight loss smoothies without milk cleansing and detoxification
 | weight loss tea without laxatives juice diet cleanse
Weight loss smoothies without milk cleansing and detoxification | weight loss tea without laxatives juice diet cleanse (detox-cleansing-diet.com)
The secrets in the telling meaning, social change uk last fifty years, magnesium bicarbonate laxative
The secrets in the telling meaning, social change uk last fifty years, magnesium bicarbonate laxative (s3-us-west-1.amazonaws.com)
Low fat low sodium diet plans, diet plan and exercise to lose weight fast laxatives, rapid weight loss workout plan unedited
Low fat low sodium diet plans, diet plan and exercise to lose weight fast laxatives, rapid weight loss workout plan unedited (s3-us-west-1.amazonaws.com)
WHO Model List of Essential Medicines - Wikipedia
WHO Model List of Essential Medicines - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
Https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/322150.php
Https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/322150.php (medicalnewstoday.com)
Laxatives - NHS
Laxatives - NHS (nhs.uk)
Senna Oral : Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing - WebMD
Senna Oral : Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing - WebMD (webmd.com)
Lactulose Oral : Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing - WebMD
Lactulose Oral : Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing - WebMD (webmd.com)
Prenatal Medication and OTC Drug Safety  - FamilyEducation
Prenatal Medication and OTC Drug Safety - FamilyEducation (familyeducation.com)
Relief for IBS Constipation
Relief for IBS Constipation (healthline.com)
Senna (plant) - Wikipedia
Senna (plant) - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
GoLytely (Polyethylene Glycol 3350 and Electrolytes Oral Solution): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses
GoLytely (Polyethylene Glycol 3350 and Electrolytes Oral Solution): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses (rxlist.com)
NuLYTELY - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses
NuLYTELY - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses (drugs.com)
Calcium Channel Blocker Toxicity Medication: Antidotes, Other, Calcium Salts, Alpha/Beta Adrenergic Agonists, Alpha Adrenergic...
Calcium Channel Blocker Toxicity Medication: Antidotes, Other, Calcium Salts, Alpha/Beta Adrenergic Agonists, Alpha Adrenergic... (emedicine.medscape.com)
Xanthan gum: Uses, health information, and substitutes
Xanthan gum: Uses, health information, and substitutes (medicalnewstoday.com)
Bulimia Nervosa</span>
Bulimia Nervosa</span> (webmd.com)
What is a lazy bowel? Symptoms and treatment
What is a lazy bowel? Symptoms and treatment (medicalnewstoday.com)
Gastroenterologic Archives - familydoctor.org
Gastroenterologic Archives - familydoctor.org (familydoctor.org)
12 Secret Signs of Anorexia
12 Secret Signs of Anorexia (cbsnews.com)
Https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/313416.php
Https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/313416.php (medicalnewstoday.com)
Constipation in the Elderly - American Family Physician
Constipation in the Elderly - American Family Physician (aafp.org)
LAXATIVES | DailyStrength
LAXATIVES | DailyStrength (dailystrength.org)
Constipation in children - myDr.com.au
Constipation in children - myDr.com.au (mydr.com.au)
The Side Effects of Slim-Xtreme Herbal Supplement | Livestrong.com
The Side Effects of Slim-Xtreme Herbal Supplement | Livestrong.com (livestrong.com)
Constipation - self-care: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Constipation - self-care: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia (medlineplus.gov)
Laxatives for weight loss: Why they are not safe or effective
Laxatives for weight loss: Why they are not safe or effective (medicalnewstoday.com)
4 Clinical Guidelines Every Hospitalist Needs to Know
4 Clinical Guidelines Every Hospitalist Needs to Know (medscape.com)
Senna (Sennakot, ExLax): Side Effects, Dosages, Treatment, Interactions, Warnings
Senna (Sennakot, ExLax): Side Effects, Dosages, Treatment, Interactions, Warnings (rxlist.com)
Magnesium Citrate: Side Effects, Dosages, Treatment, Interactions, Warnings
Magnesium Citrate: Side Effects, Dosages, Treatment, Interactions, Warnings (rxlist.com)