Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Area Postrema: A small, rounded eminence on each side of the FOURTH VENTRICLE, which receives nerve fibers from the SOLITARY NUCLEUS; SPINAL CORD; and adjacent areas of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA. The area postrema lies outside the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and its functions include acting as an emetic chemoreceptor.Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus: Dense collection of cells in the caudal pontomesencephalic tegmentum known to play a role in the functional organization of the BASAL GANGLIA and in the modulation of the thalamocortical neuronal system.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Water Deprivation: The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Furosemide: A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Solitary Nucleus: GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Taste Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.Fourth Ventricle: An irregularly shaped cavity in the RHOMBENCEPHALON, located between the MEDULLA OBLONGATA; the PONS; and the isthmus in front, and the CEREBELLUM behind. It is continuous with the central canal of the cord below and with the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT above, and through its lateral and median apertures it communicates with the SUBARACHNOID SPACE.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Emetics: Agents that cause vomiting. They may act directly on the gastrointestinal tract, bringing about emesis through local irritant effects, or indirectly, through their effects on the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the postremal area near the medulla.Visceral Afferents: The sensory fibers innervating the viscera.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Trigeminal Nucleus, Spinal: Nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. It is divided cytoarchitectonically into three parts: oralis, caudalis (TRIGEMINAL CAUDAL NUCLEUS), and interpolaris.Estradiol Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of estradiol.Ibotenic Acid: A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.Pressoreceptors: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.Septal Nuclei: Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Respiratory Center: Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Vomiting: The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.Autonomic Pathways: Nerves and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system structures which regulate the autonomic nervous system are not included.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Muscimol: A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Genes, fos: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (fos) originally isolated from the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses. The proto-oncogene protein c-fos codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. The insertion of c-fos into FBJ-MSV or FBR-MSV induces osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The human c-fos gene is located at 14q21-31 on the long arm of chromosome 14.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Rhombencephalon: The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.GABA-A Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GABA-A RECEPTORS.Serotonergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is SEROTONIN.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)ShrewsBrain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Reticular Formation: A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.Anorexia: The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.Quinine: An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.Subfornical Organ: A structure, situated close to the intraventricular foramen, which induces DRINKING BEHAVIOR after stimulation with ANGIOTENSIN II.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Methiothepin: A serotonin receptor antagonist in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM used as an antipsychotic.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Oncogene Proteins v-fos: Transforming proteins coded by fos oncogenes. These proteins have been found in the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses which induce osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The FBJ-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p55-kDa protein and the FBR-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p75-kDa fusion protein.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Lithium Chloride: A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Neuromyelitis Optica: A syndrome characterized by acute OPTIC NEURITIS; MYELITIS, TRANSVERSE; demyelinating and/or necrotizing lesions in the OPTIC NERVES and SPINAL CORD; and presence of specific autoantibodies to AQUAPORIN 4.Thalamic Nuclei: Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
  • The lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) is located in an anatomical position that enables it to perform a critical role in relaying signals related to the regulation of fluid and electrolyte intake and cardiovascular function from the brainstem to the forebrain. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the second part of the article we discuss the functional neuroanatomy of nuclei in the brainstem reticular formation because they constitute the basic set of somato-sensing structures necessary for core consciousness and its core self to emerge. (scribd.com)
  • Moreover, the neuroanatomical view of the brainstem that informs this traditional account does not include recent advances in the description of different nuclei within the reticular formation and of their distinct connections to other brain regions, nor does it include the consequent revision of the concept of reticular formation. (scribd.com)
  • The solitary tract and nucleus are structures in the brainstem that carry and receive visceral sensation and taste from the facial (VII), glossopharyngeal (IX) and vagus (X) cranial nerves . (thefullwiki.org)
  • The noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC), a monoaminergic nucleus located in the pontine brainstem [ 3 , 8 ], plays a crucial role during the prodromal phase of PD and represents therefore an ideal brain structure for such in-depth characterization in an experimental animal model [ 97 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The intake of the nutrients is under complex control involving signals from both the periphery and central nervous system The purpose of this article is to review research reports related to vestibular stimulation and its role in regulation of food intake and to suggest translational research in this area. (modiushealth.com)
  • In this study, afferent and efferent subcortical connectivity of the medial vestibular nucleus of the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) was evaluated using cholera toxin subunit-B (retrograde), Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (anterograde), and pseudorabies virus (transneuronal retrograde) tract-tracing techniques. (modiushealth.com)
  • Cortical and subcortical contributions to Stop signal response inhibition: role of the subthalamic nucleus. (colorado.edu)
  • The lateral zone (LHA) has an extensive intra- and extra-hypothalamic communication system and could be viewed as the interface between more medial hypothalamic areas with cortical/limbic areas on the one hand and the somatic and autonomic motor systems on the other. (igis.com)
  • Within hypothalamic nuclei, the ARC nucleus has an integrator role including connections to the lateral zone, brain stem, and cortical and limbic systems.2,3 The ARC nucleus is in a position to receive an impressive array of information on energy balance. (igis.com)
  • Neural inputs from the various cortical areas and limbic structures are likely to carry information relating to emotional aspects of particular foods and to other impeding needs and behaviors. (igis.com)
  • In the pons, the pontine respiratory group includes two areas known as the pneumotaxic centre and the apneustic centre. (orange.com)
  • In the pons, the pontine respiratory group is made up of two areas - the pneumotaxic centre and the apneustic centre. (orange.com)
  • The periventricular zone, including the arcuate (ARC) nucleus, is mainly involved in the detection of signals from the circulation and in the organization and control of endocrine responses. (igis.com)