Humeral FracturesMandibular Condyle: The posterior process on the ramus of the mandible composed of two parts: a superior part, the articular portion, and an inferior part, the condylar neck.Bone Wires: Steel wires, often threaded through the skin, soft tissues, and bone, used to fix broken bones. Kirschner wires or apparatus also includes the application of traction to the healing bones through the wires.Elbow Joint: A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Temporomandibular Joint: An articulation between the condyle of the mandible and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.Occipital Bone: Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.Mandibular Fractures: Fractures of the lower jaw.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Jaw Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the jaw.Facial Asymmetry: Congenital or acquired asymmetry of the face.Atlanto-Occipital Joint: The point of articulation between the OCCIPITAL BONE and the CERVICAL ATLAS.Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A degenerative disorder affecting upper MOTOR NEURONS in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and SPINAL CORD. Disease onset is usually after the age of 50 and the process is usually fatal within 3 to 6 years. Clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, atrophy, FASCICULATION, hyperreflexia, DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, and eventual paralysis of respiratory function. Pathologic features include the replacement of motor neurons with fibrous ASTROCYTES and atrophy of anterior SPINAL NERVE ROOTS and corticospinal tracts. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1089-94)Osteochondritis: Inflammation of a bone and its overlaying CARTILAGE.Osteochondritis Dissecans: A type of osteochondritis in which articular cartilage and associated bone becomes partially or totally detached to form joint loose bodies. Affects mainly the knee, ankle, and elbow joints.Radiography, Panoramic: Extraoral body-section radiography depicting an entire maxilla, or both maxilla and mandible, on a single film.Temporomandibular Joint Disc: A plate of fibrous tissue that divides the temporomandibular joint into an upper and lower cavity. The disc is attached to the articular capsule and moves forward with the condyle in free opening and protrusion. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p92)Lateral Line System: Aquatic vertebrate sensory system in fish and amphibians. It is composed of sense organs (canal organs and pit organs) containing neuromasts (MECHANORECEPTORS) that detect water displacement caused by moving objects.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Knee Injuries: Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.Skull Fractures: Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).Foramen Magnum: The large hole at the base of the skull through which the SPINAL CORD passes.Fractures, Cartilage: Breaks in CARTILAGE.Jaw Fixation Techniques: The stable placement of surgically induced fractures of the mandible or maxilla through the use of elastics, wire ligatures, arch bars, or other splints. It is used often in the cosmetic surgery of retrognathism and prognathism. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p636)DislocationsWeight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Orthodontic Appliances, Functional: Loose, usually removable intra-oral devices which alter the muscle forces against the teeth and craniofacial skeleton. These are dynamic appliances which depend on altered neuromuscular action to effect bony growth and occlusal development. They are usually used in mixed dentition to treat pediatric malocclusions. (ADA, 1992)Ankylosis: Fixation and immobility of a joint.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.Cartilage Diseases: Pathological processes involving the chondral tissue (CARTILAGE).Temporal Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Hypothalamic Area, Lateral: Area in the hypothalamus bounded medially by the mammillothalamic tract and the anterior column of the FORNIX (BRAIN). The medial edge of the INTERNAL CAPSULE and the subthalamic region form its lateral boundary. It contains the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, tuberomammillary nucleus, lateral tuberal nuclei, and fibers of the MEDIAL FOREBRAIN BUNDLE.Occlusal Splints: Rigid or flexible appliances that overlay the occlusal surfaces of the teeth. They are used to treat clenching and bruxism and their sequelae, and to provide temporary relief from muscle or temporomandibular joint pain.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Lateral Ventricles: Cavity in each of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES derived from the cavity of the embryonic NEURAL TUBE. They are separated from each other by the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM, and each communicates with the THIRD VENTRICLE by the foramen of Monro, through which also the choroid plexuses (CHOROID PLEXUS) of the lateral ventricles become continuous with that of the third ventricle.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Anterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Mandibular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MANDIBLE.Mandibular DiseasesHumerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Patella: The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.Mastication: The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.Arthroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bite Force: The force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Fracture Fixation, Internal: The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.Stifle: In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.Mandibular Advancement: Moving a retruded mandible forward to a normal position. It is commonly performed for malocclusion and retrognathia. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Ligaments, Articular: Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.Osteochondroma: A cartilage-capped benign tumor that often appears as a stalk on the surface of bone. It is probably a developmental malformation rather than a true neoplasm and is usually found in the metaphysis of the distal femur, proximal tibia, or proximal humerus. Osteochondroma is the most common of benign bone tumors.Metacarpus: The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.Femoral Fractures: Fractures of the femur.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Chin: The anatomical frontal portion of the mandible, also known as the mentum, that contains the line of fusion of the two separate halves of the mandible (symphysis menti). This line of fusion divides inferiorly to enclose a triangular area called the mental protuberance. On each side, inferior to the second premolar tooth, is the mental foramen for the passage of blood vessels and a nerve.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Fractures, Comminuted: A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed. (Dorland, 27th ed)Malocclusion: Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Dental Occlusion: The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)Geniculate Bodies: Part of the DIENCEPHALON inferior to the caudal end of the dorsal THALAMUS. Includes the lateral geniculate body which relays visual impulses from the OPTIC TRACT to the calcarine cortex, and the medial geniculate body which relays auditory impulses from the lateral lemniscus to the AUDITORY CORTEX.Radiography, Dental, Digital: A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)Prognathism: A condition marked by abnormal protrusion of the mandible. (Dorland, 27th ed)Knee Prosthesis: Replacement for a knee joint.Cephalometry: The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.Osteochondrosis: Any of a group of bone disorders involving one or more ossification centers (EPIPHYSES). It is characterized by degeneration or NECROSIS followed by revascularization and reossification. Osteochondrosis often occurs in children causing varying degrees of discomfort or pain. There are many eponymic types for specific affected areas, such as tarsal navicular (Kohler disease) and tibial tuberosity (Osgood-Schlatter disease).Osteonecrosis: Death of a bone or part of a bone, either atraumatic or posttraumatic.Oral Fistula: An abnormal passage within the mouth communicating between two or more anatomical structures.Joint Instability: Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.Dissection: The separation and isolation of tissues for surgical purposes, or for the analysis or study of their structures.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee: Replacement of the knee joint.Menisci, Tibial: The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Vertical Dimension: The length of the face determined by the distance of separation of jaws. Occlusal vertical dimension (OVD or VDO) or contact vertical dimension is the lower face height with the teeth in centric occlusion. Rest vertical dimension (VDR) is the lower face height measured from a chin point to a point just below the nose, with the mandible in rest position. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p250)Dental Occlusion, Centric: Contact between opposing teeth during a person's habitual bite.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Osteosclerosis: An abnormal hardening or increased density of bone tissue.Osteophyte: Bony outgrowth usually found around joints and often seen in conditions such as ARTHRITIS.Collagen Type II: A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.Osteoma: A benign tumor composed of bone tissue or a hard tumor of bonelike structure developing on a bone (homoplastic osteoma) or on other structures (heteroplastic osteoma). (From Dorland, 27th ed)Facial Bones: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)Hyaline Cartilage: A type of CARTILAGE characterized by a homogenous amorphous matrix containing predominately TYPE II COLLAGEN and ground substance. Hyaline cartilage is found in ARTICULAR CARTILAGE; COSTAL CARTILAGE; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; and the NASAL SEPTUM.Bone Plates: Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)Lateral Ligament, Ankle: LATERAL LIGAMENTS of the ANKLE JOINT. It includes inferior tibiofibular ligaments.Fracture Fixation: The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Skull Fracture, Basilar: Fractures which extend through the base of the SKULL, usually involving the PETROUS BONE. Battle's sign (characterized by skin discoloration due to extravasation of blood into the subcutaneous tissue behind the ear and over the mastoid process), CRANIAL NEUROPATHIES, TRAUMATIC; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID OTORRHEA are relatively frequent sequelae of this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p876)Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Tomography, X-Ray: Tomography using x-ray transmission.Femur Head: The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Arthralgia: Pain in the joint.Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Lameness, Animal: A departure from the normal gait in animals.Arthroplasty, Subchondral: Surgical techniques used to correct or augment healing of chondral defects in the joints (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). These include abrasion, drilling, and microfracture of the subchondral bone to enhance chondral resurfacing via autografts, allografts, or cell transplantation.Bone Nails: Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Joint Deformities, Acquired: Deformities acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease. The joint deformity is often associated with rheumatoid arthritis and leprosy.Retrognathia: A physical misalignment of the upper (maxilla) and lower (mandibular) jaw bones in which either or both recede relative to the frontal plane of the forehead.Fractures, Stress: Fractures due to the strain caused by repetitive exercise. They are thought to arise from a combination of MUSCLE FATIGUE and bone failure, and occur in situations where BONE REMODELING predominates over repair. The most common sites of stress fractures are the METATARSUS; FIBULA; TIBIA; and FEMORAL NECK.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Malocclusion, Angle Class II: Malocclusion in which the mandible is posterior to the maxilla as reflected by the relationship of the first permanent molar (distoclusion).Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cranial Fossa, Posterior: The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Splints: Rigid or flexible appliances used to maintain in position a displaced or movable part or to keep in place and protect an injured part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Craniofacial Abnormalities: Congenital structural deformities, malformations, or other abnormalities of the cranium and facial bones.Atlanto-Axial Joint: The joint involving the CERVICAL ATLAS and axis bones.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Collagen Type X: A non-fibrillar collagen found primarily in terminally differentiated hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES. It is a homotrimer of three identical alpha1(X) subunits.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Cranial Nerve Diseases: Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Maxillofacial Development: The process of growth and differentiation of the jaws and face.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Tennis Elbow: A condition characterized by pain in or near the lateral humeral epicondyle or in the forearm extensor muscle mass as a result of unusual strain. It occurs in tennis players as well as housewives, artisans, and violinists.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome: A symptom complex consisting of pain, muscle tenderness, clicking in the joint, and limitation or alteration of mandibular movement. The symptoms are subjective and manifested primarily in the masticatory muscles rather than the temporomandibular joint itself. Etiologic factors are uncertain but include occlusal dysharmony and psychophysiologic factors.Bone Malalignment: Displacement of bones out of line in relation to joints. It may be congenital or traumatic in origin.Centric Relation: The location of the maxillary and the mandibular condyles when they are in their most posterior and superior positions in their fossae of the temporomandibular joint.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Posterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the anterolateral surface of the medial condyle of the femur, passes posteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia.Lateral Medullary Syndrome: INFARCTION of the dorsolateral aspect of MEDULLA OBLONGATA in the BRAIN STEM. It is caused by occlusion of the VERTEBRAL ARTERY and/or the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Clinical manifestations vary with the size of infarction, but may include loss of pain and temperature sensation in the ipsilateral face and contralateral body below the chin; ipsilateral HORNER SYNDROME; ipsilateral ATAXIA; DYSARTHRIA; VERTIGO; nausea, hiccup; dysphagia; and VOCAL CORD PARALYSIS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p801)Tomography, Spiral Computed: Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Polyglycolic Acid: A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
The lateral condyle is the more prominent and is the broader both in its antero-posterior and transverse diameters. The medial ... The condyles are not quite parallel with one another; the long axis of the lateral is almost directly antero-posterior, but ... the linea aspera which diverges proximally and distal as the medial and lateral ridge. Proximally the lateral ridge of the ... Front and lateral surface of femur Vastus medialis muscle. Origin. Distal part of intertrochanteric line and medial ridge of ...
It arises from the lateral condyle of the tibia; from the upper three-quarters of the anterior surface of the body of the ... Lateral view. This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918) Anatomy photo: ... The extensor digitorum longus is a pennate muscle, situated at the lateral part of the front of the leg. ... on the lateral side by a tendon of the extensor digitorum brevis. The tendons are inserted in the following manner: each ...
... intercondylar fossa of femur and lateral condyle of femur; and the ligament of the popliteal region (at the back of the knee). ... passes upward and laterally to be inserted into the posterior lateral condyle of the femur, forming part of the oblique ... Lateral view. Muscles of thigh. Cross section. Muscles of thigh. Anterior views. Semitendinosus Biceps femoris This article ... Its origin is the superolateral aspect of the ischial tuberosity and it inserts on the medial condyle and nearby margin of ...
Because of its insertion point on the lateral condyle of the tibia, it also aids in the lateral rotation of the tibia. This ... The terminal insertion point lies on the lateral condyle of the tibia. Tensor fasciae latae is innervated by the superior ... which extends from the iliac crest to the lateral condyle of the tibia. In the erect posture, acting from below, it will serve ... On the lateral surface, it combines with the tendons of the gluteus maximus and tensor fasciae latae to form the iliotibial ...
Tibial Plateau Fractures at eMedicine APLEY AG (August 1956). "Fractures of the lateral tibial condyle treated by skeletal ... This causes the lateral part of the distal femur and the lateral tibial plateau to come into contact, compressing the tibial ... The name of the injury is because it was described as being caused by the impact of a car bumper on the lateral side of the ... A bumper fracture is a fracture of the lateral tibial plateau caused by a forced valgus applied to the knee. ...
Its proximal fibers fan out along the medial wall of the lateral femoral condyle. There are two bundles of the ACL: the ... Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction Anterior drawer test Anterolateral ligament Lateral collateral ligament Medial ... "Medial and lateral views of the knee joint and cruciate ligaments." lljoints at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown ... where it blends with the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus. These attachments allow the ACL to resist anterior translation ...
Medial rotation of femur occurs as the space available at the lateral condyle of tibia is being used up by the lateral condyle ... Therefore, lateral femoral condyle acted as an axis for medial femoral condyle to rotate backwards. This movement is aided by ... A person may felt the presence of loose body in the suprapatellar region, or lateral and medial gutter. Once the loose bodies ... When the knee is flexed, it is unlocked by the popliteus muscle through the lateral rotation of femur. The locking mechanisms ...
Its proximal fibers fan out along the medial wall of the lateral femoral condyle. There are two bundles of the ACL: the ... Anatomy figure: 17:08-03 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Medial and lateral views of the knee joint ... where it blends with the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus. ... lateral condyle of the femur. To. intercondyloid eminence of ...
... from the lateral prolongation of the linea aspera to within 5 cm. of the lateral condyle; and from the lateral intermuscular ... which is inserted into the lateral side of the head of the fibula, and by a small slip into the lateral condyle of the tibia. ... The tendon of insertion may be attached to the Iliotibial band and to retinacular fibers of the lateral joint capsule. A slip ... The tendon of insertion of this muscle forms the lateral hamstring; the common fibular (peroneal) nerve descends along its ...
... with the lateral condyle being wider in front than at the back while the medial condyle is of more constant width. The radius ... The pair of tibial condyles are separated by the intercondylar eminence composed of a lateral and a medial tubercle. The ... The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) stretches from the lateral condyle of femur to the anterior intercondylar area. The ACL is ... The main articular bodies of the femur are its lateral and medial condyles. These diverge slightly distally and posteriorly, ...
... the meniscofemoral ligament helps stabilize the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus to the femoral condyle. The coronary ... Although the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) passes in close proximity, the lateral meniscus has no attachment to this ... The other meniscus rests on the lateral tibial plateau; this is the lateral meniscus.[citation needed] These menisci act to ... A valgus force applied to a flexed knee with the foot planted and the femur rotated externally can result in a lateral meniscus ...
The lateral condyles superior surface is more circular in form and its medial edge extends onto the side of the lateral ... whereas the lateral condyle has a circular facet for articulation with the head of the fibula. Beneath the condyles is the ... The medial and lateral condyle are separated by the intercondylar area, where the cruciate ligaments and the menisci attach. ... The proximal or upper extremity of the tibia is expanded in the transverse plane with a medial and lateral condyle, which are ...
... the meniscofemoral ligament helps stabilize the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus to the femoral condyle. The coronary ... The other meniscus rests on the lateral tibial plateau; this is the lateral meniscus.[citation needed] ... Although the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) passes in close proximity, the lateral meniscus has no attachment to this ... The medial meniscus may shift a few millimeters, while the less stable lateral meniscus may move at least 1 cm.[citation needed ...
Of these two ridges, the lateral is the more prominent, and descends to the summit of the lateral condyle. The medial is less ... The lateral surface includes the portion between the lateral border and the linea aspera; it is continuous above with the ... below with that of the lateral condyle: from its upper three-fourths the Vastus intermedius takes origin. The medial surface ... the lateral border extends from the antero-inferior angle of the greater trochanter to the anterior extremity of the lateral ...
Its characteristics include an elliptical Lateral condyle and an oblique femoral shaft like that found in humans, indicating ... This was split between the condyles, or lumps making the knee joint. The other condyle lay next to it, and when he fitted them ...
Of these two ridges, the lateral is the more prominent, and descends to the summit of the lateral condyle. The medial is less ... The lateral ridge is very rough, and runs almost vertically upward to the base of the greater trochanter. It is termed the ... From the lateral lip and its upward prolongation, the vastus lateralis takes origin. The adductor magnus is inserted into the ... It ends below at the summit of the medial condyle, in a small tubercle, the adductor tubercle, which affords insertion to the ...
The femur had a spherical head, a medial condyle considerably larger than the lateral, and a shallow patellar groove. Taken ...
During knee extension the ITB moves anterior to the lateral condyle of the femur, while ~30 degrees knee flexion, the ITB moves ... ITB Syndrome is an overuse condition of the distal ITB near the lateral femoral condyle and at Gerdy's tubercle. The most ... posterior to the lateral condyle. However, it has been suggested that this is only an illusion due to the changing tension in ... at the anterolateral iliac tubercle portion of the external lip of the iliac crest and inserts at the lateral condyle of the ...
The lateral condyle is the more prominent and is the broader both in its antero-posterior and transverse diameters. The medial ... The condyles are not quite parallel with one another; the long axis of the lateral is almost directly antero-posterior, but ... the lateral of which is broader, more prominent, and extends farther upward than the medial. Each condyle is surmounted by an ... the linea aspera which diverges proximal and distal as the medial and lateral ridge. Proximal the lateral ridge of the linea ...
The lateral intercondylar tubercle is a protrusion on the lateral condyle. It can be involved in fractures. Posteriorly, the ... The intercondylar area is the separation between the medial and lateral condyle on the upper extremity of the tibia. The ... The intercondylar area is the separation between the medial and lateral condyle on the upper extremity of the tibia. The ... medial condyle and lateral condyle are separated from each other by a shallow depression, the posterior intercondyloid fossa ( ...
Romer (1976) homologizes the capitellum in Archosauromorphs with the groove separating the medial and lateral condyles. In ... and the distal humerus consists two gently expanded condyles, one lateral and one medial, separated by a shallow groove and a ... In human anatomy of the arm, the lateral portion of the distal articular surface of the humerus consists of a smooth, rounded ... ontogenetic equivalent is the dorsal condyle of the humerus. Elbow joint. Deep dissection. Anterior view. Elbow joint. Deep ...
Sagittal MRI: Linear low T1 signal at the articular surfaces of the lateral aspects of the medial condyle of the femur confirms ... Sagittal MRI: High T2 signal at the articular surfaces of the lateral aspect of the medial femoral condyle confirms the ... March-April 1977). "Diagnosis of osteochondritis dissecans of the femoral condyles: the value of the lateral x-ray view". ... Harding described the lateral X-ray as a method to identify the site of an OCD lesion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...
The fracture is usually transverse or oblique and above the medial and lateral condyles and epicondyles. This fracture pattern ... is measured on an AP radiograph of the elbow between the long axis of the humerus and the growth plate of the lateral condyle. ... Malunion: The condyles of the distal humerus do not correctly join together. Supracondylar humerus fractures account for 55%-75 ... As the hand hits the ground, the elbow is hyperextended, resulting in a fracture of the distal humerus above the condyles. With ...
Laterally: The biceps femoris and the lateral condyle of femur in upper part, and plantaris, lateral gastrocnemius in lower ... The genicular arteries are the superior lateral, superior medial, middle, inferior lateral, and inferior medial genicular ... Lateral view. Popliteal fossa Anastamosis Moore K.L. and Dalley A.F. (2006), Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 5th Edition, ... Medially: The semimembranosus and the medial condyle of femur in upper part, and tibial nerve, popliteal vein, medial head of ...
... a depression on its lateral condyle. Nesbitt assigned Dongusuchus to Archosauriformes on the basis of the following traits: its ... femur has a low fourth trochanter, and the distal condyles do not expand markedly beyond the shaft. These traits suggest that ...
... the presence of a ridge on the lateral surface of the jugal bone, and a deeply incised supratemporal fossa that extends across ... a saddle-shaped ulnar condyle of the humerus, and the articular surface for the ulnare on the ulna is convex; the articular ... the basal tuber and the occipital condyle are subequal in width (noted by Sereno and Novas, 1993)[17] ... the medial postorbital process; the subquadrate ventral squamosal process has a lateral depression, and the quadratojugal bone ...
The most common site is the medial femoral condyle (80%). Other sites are the lateral femoral condyle (15%), and the patella (5 ...
Literature review shows that occipital condyle fractures are rare as isolated injuries and are in many cases accompanied by ... The multitraumatized patient had suffered a dislocated occipital condyle fracture. Months later she was diagnosed with palsy to ... mostly accompanied by a fracture of the occipital condyle. Although these types of fractures have rarely been reported one ... woman admitted to our trauma center after being involved in a car accident and a review of the literature on occipital condyle ...
Thirteen lesions involved the medial femoral condyle, 4 involved the lateral femoral condyle, and 1 involved the patella. Mean ... Thirteen lesions involved the medial femoral condyle, 4 involved the lateral femoral condyle, and 1 involved the patella. Mean ... Thirteen lesions involved the medial femoral condyle, 4 involved the lateral femoral condyle, and 1 involved the patella. Mean ... Thirteen lesions involved the medial femoral condyle, 4 involved the lateral femoral condyle, and 1 involved the patella. Mean ...
Each knee has two femoral condyles, the medial femoral condyle on the inside of the knee and the lateral femoral condyle on the ... Osteochondritis dissecans occurs within the lateral aspect of the medial femoral condyle. The condition can also occur in other ... The femoral condyles of the knee are most commonly affected in Osteochondritis Dissecans. The two femoral condyles make up the ...
The lateral condyle is the lateral portion of the upper extremity of tibia. It serves as the insertion for the Biceps femoris ... lateral condyle of tibia. Go to external page http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/UBERON_0009991 Copy ... c. lateralis tibiae [ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lateral_condyle_of_tibia ] ...
The lateral condyle is the lateral portion of the upper extremity of tibia. It serves as the insertion for the Biceps femoris ... Medial condyle of tibia Gerdys tubercle Bones of the right leg. Anterior surface. Right knee in extension. Deep dissection. ...
The lateral condyle is one of the two projections on the lower extremity of the femur. The other one is the medial condyle. The ... The osteochondral fracture occurs on the weight-bearing portion of the lateral condyle. Typically, the condyle will fracture ( ... For a Type B1 partial articular fracture of the lateral condyle, interfragmentary lag screws are used to secure the bone back ... The most common injury to the lateral femoral condyle is an osteochondral fracture combined with a patellar dislocation. ...
He described the fracture as beginning in the lateral metaphysis proximal to the condyle, coursing distally, and exiting ... Stimson first described the fracture patterns in lateral condyle fractures in his book Treatise on Fractures. ... encoded search term (Lateral%20Humeral%20Condyle%20Fracture) and Lateral Humeral Condyle Fracture What to Read Next on Medscape ... in some lateral humeral condyle fractures, the lateral crista of the trochlea may be part of the fracture fragment, leading to ...
Last September I had a Lateral femoral condyle (LFC) microfracture in my left knee along with a lateral meniscectomy. Surgery ... Author Topic: Lateral femoral condyle (LFC) Microfracture recovery (Read 12006 times) 0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this ... Re: Lateral femoral condyle (LFC) Microfracture recovery « Reply #1 on: May 16, 2012, 12:03:38 PM » ... Re: Lateral femoral condyle (LFC) Microfracture recovery « Reply #2 on: May 16, 2012, 02:31:06 PM » ...
What is lateral condyle path? Meaning of lateral condyle path medical term. What does lateral condyle path mean? ... Looking for online definition of lateral condyle path in the Medical Dictionary? lateral condyle path explanation free. ... v. later·aled, later·aling, later·als also later·alled or later·alling Football ... Related to lateral condyle path: Bennett movement. lateral. [lat´er-al] 1. denoting a position farther from the median plane or ...
AB0863 The popliteus groove in the lateral femoral condyle: a shelter for monosodium urate crystals? ... AB0863 The popliteus groove in the lateral femoral condyle: a shelter for monosodium urate crystals? ... to visualize the popliteus groove in the lateral aspect of the femoral condyle just deep to the proximal part of the lateral ... The popliteus tendon inserts in a depression on the outer side of the lateral femoral condyle. It has a close connection to the ...
It is a small avulsion fracture of the proximal lateral tibial condyle that is induced by a force applied on the lateral ... Figure 1. Initial anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the knee, showing fractures of the lateral tibial condyle (a) and ... from the fragment of the lateral tibial condyle subsequent to the PCL-mediated avulsion fracture of the lateral tibial condyle ... Herein, we report a PCL-mediated avulsion fracture of the lateral tibial condyle along with the tibial insertion of the PCL by ...
Medial femoral condyle fracture associated with lipohaemarthrosis and lateral patellar dislocation Modality: MRI (PD fat sat) ... From the case: Medial femoral condyle fracture associated with lipohaemarthrosis and lateral patellar dislocation ... View full size version of Medial femoral condyle fracture associated with lipohaemarthrosis and lateral patellar dislocation ... From the case: Medial femoral condyle fracture associated with lipohaemarthrosis and lateral patellar dislocation. ...
Lateral condyle fractures of the elbow in children are relatively common. Typically classified as Salter-Harris IV injuries, ... Lateral condyle fractures of the elbow in children are relatively common. Typically classified as Salter-Harris IV injuries, ... Minimally Displaced Lateral Condyle Fractures of the Elbow: Treatment with Arthrography and Percutaneous Cannulated Screw ... The patient healed the lateral condyle fracture well, and the cannulated screw was removed under a second anesthetic as an ...
Cartilage Defect of Lateral Femoral Condyle. Clinical History: 40 yr-old male status-post injury with knee pain and clicking. ... In (8a), the corresponding coronal image, the cartilage defect within the lateral femoral condyle (arrow) is confirmed, though ... Full-thickness cartilage defect at the posterior weight-bearing surface of the lateral femoral condyle. ... extending through the articular cartilage of the lateral femoral condyle.. Answer. ...
... results indicate that the blood supply of the lateral femoral condyle flap is consistent and the lateral femoral condyle flap ... and the iliotibial band of the lateral femoral condyle.. Results:. In each dissected thigh, the superior lateral genicular ... The perforators of the free lateral femoral condyle flap have yet to be adequately described in humans. Therefore, the authors ... Clinical studies to compare the lateral femoral condyle to other well-established microsurgical free flaps are warranted. ...
Lateral condyle of tibia information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health ... Introduction: Lateral condyle of tibia. Description of Lateral condyle of tibia. Lateral condyle of tibia: Related Topics. ... Lateral condyle *Lateral *Condyle *Tibia *Superior *End *Femur *Femur symptoms *SYN Interesting Medical Articles:. *Symptoms of ... These medical condition or symptom topics may be relevant to medical information for Lateral condyle of tibia: * ...
this incision should be directly over lateral condyle (if arm is very swollen confirm with c-arm) ... identify and mark out the lateral condyle. identifies fracture fragment as origin of common extensor tendon. ... keep the dissection anterior because the blood supply of the lateral condyle is posterior ... incise fascia on anterior aspect of lateral condyle at level of fracture. ...
MACI Implantation for Lateral Femoral Condyle Defect. By Vericel FEATURING Kevin Freedman ...
Gene expression and functional comparison between multipotential stromal cells from lateral and medial condyles of knee ... gene expression and immunohistochemistry to compare MSCs from medial and lateral OA femoral condyles. Despite greater cartilage ... Gene expression and functional comparison between multipotential stromal cells from lateral and medial condyles of knee ... In medial condyles, MSCs were additionally found in small cavities within the sclerotic plate. These data indicate subchondral ...
... the lateral condyle was longer than the medial. In the metacarpal bones, the lateral condyle was longer in only 52.4% of the ... the lateral condyle was longer than the medial. In the metacarpal bones, the lateral condyle was longer in only 52.4% of the ... Difference in the length of the medial and lateral metacarpal and metatarsal condyles in calves and cows. A post-mortem study. ... Download PDF Difference in the length of the medial and lateral metacarpal and metatarsal condyles in calves and cows. A post- ...
Lateral condylar bearing spacer expander amount is calculated, thereby forming on the outer lateral femoral condyle of the ... and superimposed on the smaller lateral articular surfaces, before and after allowing lateral femoral condyle track during ... and a lateral condyle (114) defining a center from sagittal plane along a straight member - to - curved support extended ... One kind of knee prosthesis having a femoral component (100), the femoral component comprising: a medial condyle (115) with ...
Displaced fracture of lateral condyle of left tibia, subsequent encounter for closed fracture with delayed healing). ... Code description: Disp fx of lateral condyle of l tibia, 7thG ( ... Disp fx of lateral condyle of l tibia, 7thG (Displaced fracture ... DISP FX OF LATERAL CONDYLE OF L TIBIA, 7THG (DISPLACED FRACTURE OF LATERAL CONDYLE OF LEFT TIBIA, SUBSEQUENT ENCOUNTER FOR ... of lateral condyle of left tibia, subsequent encounter for closed fracture with delayed healing) ...
Lateral condyle of the femur aka Condylus lateralis femoris in the latin terminology and part of main bones of the human body. ... Lateral condyle of the femur This feature is available to Premium subscribers only. ... Lateral condyle of the femur This feature is available to Premium subscribers only. ... AnatomyBasicsFirst look at the systemsSkeletal systemLateral condyle of the femur ...
  • We based this article on a retrospective review of the medical record of a 24-year old woman admitted to our trauma center after being involved in a car accident and a review of the literature on occipital condyle fractures associated with lower cranial nerve palsy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Literature review shows that occipital condyle fractures are rare as isolated injuries and are in many cases accompanied by further injuries to the cervical spine and soft tissue structures, in many cases ending with severe disability. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore lower cranial nerve palsy is attributed with occipital condyle fractures (OCF). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bell was the first to describe fractures of the occipital condyle in 1817 [ 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The lateral condyle is larger and includes the point at which the fibula articulates . (britannica.com)
  • In each dissected thigh, the superior lateral genicular artery was present and the average pedicle length was 38 ± 10 mm. (ovid.com)
  • The first is the pull-off theory, in which avulsion of the lateral condyle occurs at the origin of the extensor/supinator musculature. (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 ] For this reason, the fracture patterns of the lateral condyle bear his name and are typically classified as either Milch I or Milch II fractures (see Presentation). (medscape.com)