An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
Lasers which use a solid, as opposed to a liquid or gas, as the lasing medium. Common materials used are crystals, such as YAG (YTTRIUM aluminum garnet); alexandrite; and CORUNDUM, doped with a rare earth element such as a NEODYMIUM; ERBIUM; or HOLMIUM. The output is sometimes additionally modified by addition of non-linear optical materials such as potassium titanyl phosphate crystal, which for example is used with neodymium YAG lasers to convert the output light to the visible range.
The use of green light-producing LASERS to stop bleeding. The green light is selectively absorbed by HEMOGLOBIN, thus triggering BLOOD COAGULATION.
Treatment using irradiation with LASER light of low power intensity so that the effects are not due to heat, as they are in LASER THERAPY.
Gas lasers with excited dimers (i.e., excimers) as the active medium. The most commonly used are rare gas monohalides (e.g., argon fluoride, xenon chloride). Their principal emission wavelengths are in the ultraviolet range and depend on the monohalide used (e.g., 193 nm for ArF, 308 nm for Xe Cl). These lasers are operated in pulsed and Q-switched modes and used in photoablative decomposition involving actual removal of tissue. (UMDNS, 2005)
Tunable liquid lasers with organic compounds (i.e., dye) which have a strong absorption band, used as the active medium. During emission, the dye has to be optically excited by another light source (e.g., another laser or flash lamp). The range of the emission wavelength may be anywhere from the ultraviolet to the near infrared (i.e., from 180 to 1100nm). These lasers are operated in continuous wave and pulsed modes. (UMDNS, 2005)
A scanning microscope-based, cytofluorimetry technique for making fluorescence measurements and topographic analysis on individual cells. Lasers are used to excite fluorochromes in labeled cellular specimens. Fluorescence is detected in multiple discrete wavelengths and the locational data is processed to quantitatively assess APOPTOSIS; PLOIDIES; cell proliferation; GENE EXPRESSION; PROTEIN TRANSPORT; and other cellular processes.
A surgical procedure to correct MYOPIA by CORNEAL STROMA subtraction. It involves the use of a microkeratome to make a lamellar dissection of the CORNEA creating a flap with intact CORNEAL EPITHELIUM. After the flap is lifted, the underlying midstroma is reshaped with an EXCIMER LASER and the flap is returned to its original position.
A technique utilizing a laser coupled to a catheter which is used in the dilatation of occluded blood vessels. This includes laser thermal angioplasty where the laser energy heats up a metal tip, and direct laser angioplasty where the laser energy directly ablates the occlusion. One form of the latter approach uses an EXCIMER LASER which creates microscopically precise cuts without thermal injury. When laser angioplasty is performed in combination with balloon angioplasty it is called laser-assisted balloon angioplasty (ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, LASER-ASSISTED).
Techniques using a laser to cut away and harvest a specific cell or cluster of cells from a tissue section while viewing it under the microscope.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The performance of dissections with the aid of a microscope.
A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.
Surgical techniques on the CORNEA employing LASERS, especially for reshaping the CORNEA to correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS.
The coagulation of tissue by an intense beam of light, including laser (LASER COAGULATION). In the eye it is used in the treatment of retinal detachments, retinal holes, aneurysms, hemorrhages, and malignant and benign neoplasms. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.
A type of refractive surgery of the CORNEA to correct MYOPIA and ASTIGMATISM. An EXCIMER LASER is used directly on the surface of the EYE to remove some of the CORNEAL EPITHELIUM thus reshaping the anterior curvature of the cornea.
Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.
Devices for examining the interior of the eye, permitting the clear visualization of the structures of the eye at any depth. (UMDNS, 1999)
Neon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ne, atomic number 10, and atomic weight 20.18. It is found in the earth's crust and atmosphere as an inert, odorless gas and is used in vacuum tubes and incandescent lamps.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.
Erbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Er, atomic number 68, and atomic weight 167.26.
The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.
Thin strands of transparent material, usually glass, that are used for transmitting light waves over long distances.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the fetus and amniotic cavity through abdominal or uterine entry.
The joining of pieces of metal through the use of an alloy which has a lower melting point, usually at least 100 degrees Celsius below the fusion temperature of the parts being soldered. In dentistry, soldering is used for joining components of a dental appliance, as in assembling a bridge, joining metals to orthodontic bands, or adding to the bulk of certain structures, such as the establishment of proper contact areas on inlays and crowns with adjacent teeth. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
Techniques using laser energy in combination with a balloon catheter to perform angioplasty. These procedures can take several forms including: 1, laser fiber delivering the energy while the inflated balloon centers the fiber and occludes the blood flow; 2, balloon angioplasty immediately following laser angioplasty; or 3, laser energy transmitted through angioplasty balloons that contain an internal fiber.
The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.
Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.
The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.
Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Fluid accumulation in the outer layer of the MACULA LUTEA that results from intraocular or systemic insults. It may develop in a diffuse pattern where the macula appears thickened or it may acquire the characteristic petaloid appearance referred to as cystoid macular edema. Although macular edema may be associated with various underlying conditions, it is most commonly seen following intraocular surgery, venous occlusive disease, DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, and posterior segment inflammatory disease. (From Survey of Ophthalmology 2004; 49(5) 470-90)
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.
Operative procedures performed on the SKIN.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.
The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.
Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.
An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Y, atomic number 39, and atomic weight 88.91. In conjunction with other rare earths, yttrium is used as a phosphor in television receivers and is a component of the yttrium-aluminum garnet (YAG) lasers.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Surgical removal of a section of the iris.
Retinal diseases refer to a diverse group of vision-threatening disorders that affect the retina's structure and function, including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, retinitis pigmentosa, and macular edema, among others.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Methods used to remove unwanted facial and body hair.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.
A pathological process consisting of the formation of new blood vessels in the CHOROID.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
The performance of dissections, injections, surgery, etc., by the use of micromanipulators (attachments to a microscope) that manipulate tiny instruments.
Products or parts of products used to detect, manipulate, or analyze light, such as LENSES, refractors, mirrors, filters, prisms, and OPTICAL FIBERS.
The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.
The separation and isolation of tissues for surgical purposes, or for the analysis or study of their structures.
Enlarged and tortuous VEINS.
Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).
Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
The property of nonisotropic media, such as crystals, whereby a single incident beam of light traverses the medium as two beams, each plane-polarized, the planes being at right angles to each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A technique that uses LASERS to trap, image, and manipulate small objects (biomolecules, supramolecular assembles, DENDRIMERS) in three dimensional space. (From Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology Terms, 4th ed.)
The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.
A noble gas that is found in the atmosphere. It has the atomic symbol Kr, atomic number 36, atomic weight 83.80, and has been used in electric bulbs.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.

Fluorimetric multiparameter cell assay at the single cell level fabricated by optical tweezers. (1/3679)

A fluorimetric multi-parameter cell sensor at the single cell level is presented which makes it possible to observe the physiological behavior of different cell lines, different physiological parameters, and statistical data at the same time. Different cell types were immobilized at predefined positions with high accuracy using optical tweezers and adhesion promoting surface layers. The process is applicable to both adherent and non-adherent cells. Coating of the immobilization area with mussel adhesive protein was shown to be essential for the process. Intracellular proton and calcium concentrations in different cell classes were simultaneously imaged and the specific activation of T lymphocytes was demonstrated. This method should be especially useful for drug screening due to the small sample volume and high information density.  (+info)

A repetitive mode of activation of discrete Ca2+ release events (Ca2+ sparks) in frog skeletal muscle fibres. (2/3679)

1. Ca2+ release events (Ca2+ 'sparks'), which are believed to arise from the opening of a sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release channel or a small cluster of such channels that act as a release unit, have been measured in single, frog (Rana pipiens) skeletal muscle fibres. 2. Under conditions of extremely low rates of occurrence of Ca2+ sparks we observed, within individual identified triads, repetitive Ca2+ release events which occurred at a frequency more than 100-fold greater than the prevailing average event rate. Repetitive sparks were recorded during voltage-clamp test depolarizations after a brief (0.3-2 s) repriming interval in fibres held at 0 mV and in chronically depolarized, 'notched' fibres. 3. These repetitive events are likely to arise from the re-opening of the same SR Ca2+ release channel or release unit operating in a repetitive gating mode ('rep-mode'), rather than from the random activation of multiple, independent channels or release units within a triad. A train of rep-mode events thus represents a series of Ca2+ sparks arising from a single location within the fibre. Rep-mode events are activated among different triads in a random manner after brief repriming. The frequency of repetitive events among all identified events during voltage-clamp depolarization to 0 mV after brief repriming was 3.9 +/- 1.3 %. The occurrence of repetitive events was not related to exposure of the fibre to laser illumination. 4. The events observed within a rep-mode train exhibited a relatively uniform amplitude. Analysis of intervals between identified events in triads exhibiting rep-mode trains indicated similar variations of fluorescence as in neighbouring, quiescent triads, suggesting there was not a significant number of small, unidentified events at the triads exhibiting rep-mode activity. 5. The distribution of rep-mode interspark intervals exhibited a paucity of events at short intervals, consistent with the need for recovery from inactivation before activation of the next event in a repetitive train. The mean interspark interval of repetitive sparks during voltage-clamp depolarizations was 88 +/- 5 ms, and was independent of membrane potential. 6. The individual Ca2+ sparks within a rep-mode train were similar in average amplitude and spatiotemporal extent to singly occurring sparks, suggesting a common mechanism for termination of the channel opening(s) underlying both types of events. The average properties of the sparks did not vary during a train. The relative amplitude of a spark within a rep-mode was not correlated with its rise time. 7. Repetitive Ca2+ release events represent a mode of gating of SR Ca2+ release channels which may be significant during long depolarizations and which may be influenced by the biochemical state of the SR ryanodine receptor Ca2+ release channels.  (+info)

Elimination of EVE protein by CALI in the short germ band insect Tribolium suggests a conserved pair-rule function for even skipped. (3/3679)

The question of the degree of evolutionary conservation of the pair-rule patterning mechanism known from Drosophila is still contentious. We have employed chromophore-assisted laser inactivation (CALI) to inactivate the function of the pair-rule gene even skipped (eve) in the short germ embryo of the flour beetle Tribolium. We show that it is possible to generate pair-rule type phenocopies with defects in alternating segments. Interestingly, we find the defects in odd numbered segments and not in even numbered ones as in Drosophila. However, this apparent discrepancy can be explained if one takes into account that the primary action of eve is at the level of parasegments and that different cuticular markers are used for defining the segment borders in the two species. In this light, we find that eve appears to be required for the formation of the anterior borders of the same odd numbered parasegments in both species. We conclude that the primary function of eve as a pair rule gene is conserved between the two species.  (+info)

Enhanced hatching rate of bovine IVM/IVF/IVC blastocysts using a 1.48-micron diode laser beam. (4/3679)

PURPOSE: Our purpose was to test whether zona pellucida (ZP) drilling using a 1.48-micron diode laser beam on bovine IVM/IVF/IVC blastocysts is effective for embryo hatching. METHODS: Blastocysts produced in vitro at day 7 after IVF were divided into control and laser-drilled groups, respectively. RESULTS: When the rates of in vitro development of bovine embryos were examined, the average cleavage rate (> or = two-cell) was 82.3% and the blastocyst rate at day 7 after IVF was 32.5%. Using these blastocysts, when the laser drilling effect was investigated at 48 hr after treatment, the total hatching rate in the laser-drilled group (98.0%) was significantly higher than that in the control group (60.0%) (P < 0.001). Especially, the hatched rate of the laser-drilled group (68.0%) was significantly enhanced compared with that of the control group (30.0%) (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrated that laser ZP drilling on bovine IVM/IVF/IVC blastocysts can significantly increase the hatching rate.  (+info)

Altered ligand rebinding kinetics due to distal-side effects in hemoglobin chico (Lysbeta66(E10) --> thr). (5/3679)

Hb Chico is an unusual human hemoglobin variant that has lowered oxygen affinity, but unaltered cooperativity and anion sensitivity. Previous studies showed these features to be associated with distal-side heme pocket alterations that confer increased structural rigidity on the molecule and that increase water content in the beta-chain heme pocket. We report here that the extent of nanosecond geminate rebinding of oxygen to the variant and its isolated beta-chains is appreciably decreased. Structural alterations in this variant decrease its oxygen recombination rates without significantly altering rates of migration out of the heme pocket. Data analysis indicates that one or more barriers that impede rebinding of oxygen from docking sites in the heme pocket are increased, with less consequence for CO rebinding. Resonance Raman spectra show no significant alterations in spectral regions sensitive to interactions between the heme iron and the proximal histidine residue, confirming that the functional differences in the variant are due to distal-side heme pocket alterations. These effects are discussed in the context of a schematic representation of heme pocket wells and barriers that could aid the design of novel hemoglobins with altered ligand affinity without loss of the normal allosteric responses that facilitate unloading of oxygen to respiring tissues.  (+info)

Laser induced phagocytosis in the pigment epithelium of the Hunter dystrophic rat. (6/3679)

The retinae of 14-day-old Hunter dystrophic rats have been subjected to low-energy irradiation by a pulsed ruby laser. Fifteen days after exposure, pigment epithelial cells had proliferated and repopulated the irradiated areas. In all such areas the subretinal photoreceptor debris had been reduced or lost.  (+info)

Undercarboxylation of recombinant prothrombin revealed by analysis of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid using capillary electrophoresis and laser-induced fluorescence. (7/3679)

The gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) content of several variants of human prothrombin has been measured by using capillary electrophoresis and laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF). Both plasma-derived prothrombin and recombinant prothrombin contain ten residues of Gla per molecule of protein. In contrast, a variant of human prothrombin (containing the second kringle domain of bovine prothrombin) was separated into two populations that differed in their Gla content. Direct measurement of the Gla content showed an association with the presence or absence of the calcium-dependent conformational change that is required for prothombinase function. Thus, the CE-LIF assay is useful in determining the carboxylation status of recombinant proteins.  (+info)

High-speed, random-access fluorescence microscopy: II. Fast quantitative measurements with voltage-sensitive dyes. (8/3679)

An improved method for making fast quantitative determinations of membrane potential with voltage-sensitive dyes is presented. This method incorporates a high-speed, random-access, laser-scanning scheme (Bullen et al., 1997. Biophys. J. 73:477-491) with simultaneous detection at two emission wavelengths. The basis of this ratiometric approach is the voltage-dependent shift in the emission spectrum of the voltage-sensitive dye di-8-butyl-amino-naphthyl-ethylene-pyridinium-propyl-sulfonate (di-8-ANEPPS). Optical measurements are made at two emission wavelengths, using secondary dichroic beamsplitting and dual photodetectors (<570 nm and >570 nm). Calibration of the ratiometric measurements between signals at these wavelengths was achieved using simultaneous optical and patch-clamp measurements from adjacent points. Data demonstrating the linearity, precision, and accuracy of this technique are presented. Records obtained with this method exhibited a voltage resolution of approximately 5 mV, without any need for temporal or spatial averaging. Ratiometric recordings of action potentials from isolated hippocampal neurons are used to illustrate the usefulness of this approach. This method is unique in that it is the first to allow quantitative determination of dynamic membrane potential changes in a manner optimized for both high spatiotemporal resolution (2 micrometers and <0.5 ms) and voltage discrimination.  (+info)

A laser is not a medical term per se, but a physical concept that has important applications in medicine. The term "LASER" stands for "Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation." It refers to a device that produces and amplifies light with specific characteristics, such as monochromaticity (single wavelength), coherence (all waves moving in the same direction), and high intensity.

In medicine, lasers are used for various therapeutic and diagnostic purposes, including surgery, dermatology, ophthalmology, and dentistry. They can be used to cut, coagulate, or vaporize tissues with great precision, minimizing damage to surrounding structures. Additionally, lasers can be used to detect and measure physiological parameters, such as blood flow and oxygen saturation.

It's important to note that while lasers are powerful tools in medicine, they must be used by trained professionals to ensure safe and effective treatment.

Solid-state lasers are a type of laser that uses solid materials as the gain medium – the material that amplifies the light energy to produce laser emissions. In contrast to gas or liquid lasers, solid-state lasers use a crystal, ceramic, or glass as the gain medium. The active laser medium in solid-state lasers is typically doped with rare earth ions, such as neodymium (Nd), yttrium (Y), erbium (Er), or thulium (Tm).

The most common type of solid-state laser is the neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser. In this laser, neodymium ions are doped into a crystal lattice made up of yttrium, aluminum, and garnet (YAG). The Nd:YAG laser emits light at a wavelength of 1064 nanometers (nm), which can be frequency-doubled to produce emissions at 532 nm.

Solid-state lasers have several advantages over other types of lasers, including high efficiency, long lifetimes, and compact size. They are widely used in various applications, such as material processing, medical treatments, scientific research, and military technology.

Laser coagulation, also known as laser photocoagulation, is a medical procedure that uses a laser to seal or destroy abnormal blood vessels or tissue. The laser produces a concentrated beam of light that can be precisely focused on the target area. When the laser energy is absorbed by the tissue, it causes the temperature to rise, which leads to coagulation (the formation of a clot) or destruction of the tissue.

In ophthalmology, laser coagulation is commonly used to treat conditions such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and retinal tears or holes. The procedure can help to seal leaking blood vessels, reduce fluid leakage, and prevent further vision loss. It is usually performed as an outpatient procedure and may be repeated if necessary.

In other medical specialties, laser coagulation may be used to control bleeding, destroy tumors, or remove unwanted tissue. The specific technique and parameters of the laser treatment will depend on the individual patient's needs and the condition being treated.

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT), also known as cold laser or soft laser, is a form of phototherapy which uses low-intensity lasers or light-emitting diodes to treat various medical conditions. The laser beam is usually applied directly to the skin and penetrates up to several centimeters into the tissue without causing heat damage or pain.

The therapeutic effect of LLLT is believed to be due to the bio-stimulation of cellular processes, including increased ATP production, modulation of reactive oxygen species, and activation of signaling pathways that promote tissue repair and reduce inflammation. The wavelength and power density of the laser light are important factors in determining its biological effects.

LLLT has been used to treat a variety of conditions such as musculoskeletal pain, wound healing, skin rejuvenation, hair growth, and neurological disorders. However, its efficacy is still a subject of ongoing research and debate, with some studies reporting positive results while others showing no significant benefits compared to placebo.

It's important to note that LLLT should only be administered by trained healthcare professionals, as improper use can lead to eye damage or other adverse effects.

An excimer laser is a type of laser that is used in various medical procedures, particularly in ophthalmology and dermatology. The term "excimer" is derived from "excited dimer," which refers to a short-lived molecule formed when two atoms combine in an excited state.

Excimer lasers emit light at a specific wavelength that is determined by the type of gas used in the laser. In medical applications, excimer lasers typically use noble gases such as argon, krypton, or xenon, combined with halogens such as fluorine or chlorine. The most commonly used excimer laser in medical procedures is the excimer laser that uses a mixture of argon and fluoride gas to produce light at a wavelength of 193 nanometers (nm).

In ophthalmology, excimer lasers are primarily used for refractive surgery, such as LASIK and PRK, to correct vision problems like myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. The laser works by vaporizing tiny amounts of tissue from the cornea, reshaping its curvature to improve the way light is focused onto the retina.

In dermatology, excimer lasers are used for various skin conditions, including psoriasis, vitiligo, and atopic dermatitis. The laser works by emitting high-energy ultraviolet (UV) light that selectively targets and destroys the abnormal cells responsible for these conditions while leaving surrounding healthy tissue intact.

Excimer lasers are known for their precision, accuracy, and minimal side effects, making them a popular choice in medical procedures where fine detail and tissue preservation are critical.

A "laser dye" system, also known as tunable dye laser or organic dye laser, refers to a type of laser that uses an organic dye as the gain medium. The dye is typically dissolved in a liquid solvent and is pumped optically to produce stimulated emission. The wavelength of the output light can be tuned by changing the type of dye or adjusting the cavity length, making these lasers highly versatile in terms of the range of wavelengths they can emit. They are used in a variety of applications, including spectroscopy, laser medicine, and scientific research.

Laser scanning cytometry (LSC) is a technology that combines flow cytometry and microscope-based imaging to enable the quantitative analysis of cellular components or molecules at a single-cell level. In LSC, a laser beam is used to scan and excite fluorescently labeled cells or tissue sections on a glass slide, and the emitted light is collected and analyzed to determine the amount and distribution of specific markers within each cell. This technique allows for high-resolution spatial analysis of cells, making it useful in various research fields such as cell biology, cancer research, and drug development.

Laser In Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK) is a type of refractive surgery used to correct vision issues such as myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), and astigmatism. The procedure involves reshaping the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye, using an excimer laser.

In LASIK, a thin flap is created on the surface of the cornea using a femtosecond or microkeratome laser. The flap is then lifted, and the excimer laser is used to reshape the underlying tissue. After the reshaping is complete, the flap is replaced, allowing for quicker healing and visual recovery compared to other refractive surgery procedures.

LASIK is an outpatient procedure that typically takes about 30 minutes or less per eye. Most people can expect to see improved vision within a few days of the procedure, although it may take several weeks for vision to fully stabilize. LASIK has a high success rate and is generally considered safe when performed by a qualified surgeon. However, as with any surgical procedure, there are risks involved, including dry eye, infection, and visual complications such as glare or halos around lights.

Angioplasty, laser is a medical procedure that uses laser energy to open up narrowed or blocked blood vessels. The term "angioplasty" refers to the general class of procedures used to restore blood flow through a narrowed or obstructed blood vessel, typically by inflating a small balloon within the vessel to widen it. In laser angioplasty, a thin catheter with a laser fiber at its tip is inserted into the affected blood vessel and guided to the site of the blockage. The laser is then used to vaporize or break up the blockage, allowing blood to flow more freely through the vessel. This procedure may be used to treat conditions such as peripheral artery disease (PAD), coronary artery disease (CAD), and carotid artery stenosis.

Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is a specialized technique used in pathology and molecular biology to isolate specific cells or cell types from heterogeneous tissue sections for further analysis. This method employs a laser beam to precisely cut and capture the cells of interest, which are then collected for downstream applications such as genetic or protein analysis.

The process typically involves the following steps:

1. Tissue preparation: The tissue sample is embedded in a supporting matrix, like a polymer or wax, and cut into thin sections using a microtome. These sections are mounted on special slides designed for LCM.
2. Staining: To visualize the cells of interest, the tissue sections are stained with various dyes or immunohistochemical markers that selectively bind to specific cell types or structures.
3. Laser microdissection: Under a microscope equipped with a laser system, the researcher identifies and outlines the cells or regions of interest. The laser beam is then focused and directed to cut along the outlined borders, separating the desired cells from the surrounding tissue.
4. Cell collection: A specialized cap containing an adhesive surface is positioned over the dissected cells, which are subsequently lifted and captured onto the cap when brought into contact with it.
5. Downstream analysis: The isolated cells can now be extracted for various downstream applications, such as genomic DNA analysis (e.g., PCR, sequencing), transcriptomic analysis (e.g., RNA sequencing, gene expression profiling), or proteomic analysis (e.g., mass spectrometry).

LCM enables the study of specific cell populations within complex tissues, providing valuable insights into their molecular characteristics and functions. This technique has broad applications in research areas such as cancer biology, neuroscience, developmental biology, and toxicology.

Confocal microscopy is a powerful imaging technique used in medical and biological research to obtain high-resolution, contrast-rich images of thick samples. This super-resolution technology provides detailed visualization of cellular structures and processes at various depths within a specimen.

In confocal microscopy, a laser beam focused through a pinhole illuminates a small spot within the sample. The emitted fluorescence or reflected light from this spot is then collected by a detector, passing through a second pinhole that ensures only light from the focal plane reaches the detector. This process eliminates out-of-focus light, resulting in sharp images with improved contrast compared to conventional widefield microscopy.

By scanning the laser beam across the sample in a raster pattern and collecting fluorescence at each point, confocal microscopy generates optical sections of the specimen. These sections can be combined to create three-dimensional reconstructions, allowing researchers to study cellular architecture and interactions within complex tissues.

Confocal microscopy has numerous applications in medical research, including studying protein localization, tracking intracellular dynamics, analyzing cell morphology, and investigating disease mechanisms at the cellular level. Additionally, it is widely used in clinical settings for diagnostic purposes, such as analyzing skin lesions or detecting pathogens in patient samples.

Microdissection is a surgical technique that involves the use of a microscope to allow for precise, minimalistic dissection of tissue. It is often used in research and clinical settings to isolate specific cells, tissues or structures while minimizing damage to surrounding areas. This technique can be performed using various methods such as laser capture microdissection (LCM) or manual microdissection with microsurgical tools. The size and scale of the dissection required will determine the specific method used. In general, microdissection allows for the examination and analysis of very small and delicate structures that would otherwise be difficult to access and study.

Laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is a non-invasive, investigative technique used to measure microcirculatory blood flow in real time. It is based on the principle of the Doppler effect, which describes the change in frequency or wavelength of light or sound waves as they encounter a moving object or reflect off a moving surface.

In LDF, a low-power laser beam is directed at the skin or other transparent tissue. The light penetrates the tissue and scatters off the moving red blood cells within the microvasculature. As the light scatters, it undergoes a slight frequency shift due to the movement of the red blood cells. This frequency shift is then detected by a photodetector, which converts it into an electrical signal. The magnitude of this signal is directly proportional to the speed and concentration of the moving red blood cells, providing a measure of microcirculatory blood flow.

LDF has various clinical applications, including the assessment of skin perfusion in patients with peripheral arterial disease, burn injuries, and flaps used in reconstructive surgery. It can also be used to study the effects of drugs or other interventions on microcirculation in research settings.

Corneal surgery, laser refers to a type of surgical procedure performed on the cornea (the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye) using a laser. The most common type of laser used in corneal surgery is an excimer laser, which can be used to reshape the cornea and correct refractive errors such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism. This procedure is commonly known as LASIK (Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis).

Another type of laser corneal surgery is PRK (Photorefractive Keratectomy) which uses a laser to reshape the surface of the cornea. This procedure is typically used for patients who have thin corneas or other conditions that make them ineligible for LASIK.

Additionally, there are other types of laser corneal surgeries such as LASEK (Laser Epithelial Keratomileusis), Epi-LASIK (Epithelial Laser-Assisted Keratomileusis) and SBK (Sub Bowman's Keratomileusis) which are variations of the above procedures.

It is important to note that, as with any surgical procedure, laser corneal surgery has risks and potential complications, including dry eye, infection, and visual symptoms such as glare or halos around lights. It is essential for patients to have a thorough examination and consultation with an ophthalmologist before deciding if laser corneal surgery is the right choice for them.

"Light coagulation," also known as "laser coagulation," is a medical term that refers to the use of laser technology to cauterize (seal or close) tissue. This procedure uses heat generated by a laser to cut, coagulate, or destroy tissue. In light coagulation, the laser beam is focused on the blood vessels in question, causing the blood within them to clot and the vessels to seal. This can be used for various medical purposes, such as stopping bleeding during surgery, destroying abnormal tissues (like tumors), or treating eye conditions like diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration.

It's important to note that this is a general definition, and the specific use of light coagulation may vary depending on the medical specialty and the individual patient's needs. As always, it's best to consult with a healthcare professional for more detailed information about any medical procedure or treatment.

Ophthalmoscopy is a medical examination technique used by healthcare professionals to observe the interior structures of the eye, including the retina, optic disc, and vitreous humor. This procedure typically involves using an ophthalmoscope, a handheld device that consists of a light and magnifying lenses. The healthcare provider looks through the ophthalmoscope and directly observes the internal structures of the eye by illuminating them.

There are several types of ophthalmoscopy, including direct ophthalmoscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy, and slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Each type has its own advantages and disadvantages, and they may be used in different situations depending on the specific clinical situation and the information needed.

Ophthalmoscopy is an important diagnostic tool for detecting and monitoring a wide range of eye conditions, including diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and other retinal disorders. It can also provide valuable information about the overall health of the individual, as changes in the appearance of the retina or optic nerve may indicate the presence of systemic diseases such as hypertension or diabetes.

Infrared rays are not typically considered in the context of medical definitions. They are a type of electromagnetic radiation with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, ranging from 700 nanometers to 1 millimeter. In the field of medicine, infrared radiation is sometimes used in therapeutic settings for its heat properties, such as in infrared saunas or infrared therapy devices. However, infrared rays themselves are not a medical condition or diagnosis.

Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK) is a type of refractive surgery used to correct vision issues such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism. It works by reshaping the cornea using a laser, which alters how light enters the eye and focuses on the retina.

In PRK, the surgeon removes the thin outer layer of the cornea (epithelium) with an alcohol solution or a blunt surgical instrument before using the laser to reshape the underlying stromal layer. The epithelium then grows back during the healing process, which can take several days.

Compared to LASIK (another type of refractive surgery), PRK has a longer recovery time and may cause more discomfort in the first few days after surgery. However, it is an option for people who are not good candidates for LASIK due to thin corneas or other eye conditions.

It's important to note that while refractive surgeries like PRK can significantly improve vision and reduce dependence on glasses or contact lenses, they may not completely eliminate the need for corrective eyewear in all cases. Additionally, as with any surgical procedure, there are potential risks and complications associated with PRK, including infection, dry eye, and visual disturbances such as glare or halos around lights.

Argon is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, and nonreactive noble gas that occurs in the Earth's atmosphere. It is chemically inert and is extracted from air by fractional distillation. Argon is used in various applications such as illumination, welding, and as a shielding gas in manufacturing processes.

In medical terms, argon is not commonly used as a therapeutic agent or medication. However, it has been used in some medical procedures such as argon laser therapy for the treatment of certain eye conditions like diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. In these procedures, an argon laser is used to seal off leaking blood vessels or destroy abnormal tissue in the eye.

Overall, while argon has important uses in medical procedures, it is not a medication or therapeutic agent that is commonly administered directly to patients.

An ophthalmoscope is a medical device used by healthcare professionals to examine the interior structures of the eye, including the retina, optic disc, and vitreous humor. It consists of a handle with a battery-powered light source and a head that contains lenses for focusing. When placed in contact with the patient's dilated pupil, the ophthalmoscope allows the examiner to visualize the internal structures of the eye and assess their health. Ophthalmoscopes are commonly used in routine eye examinations, as well as in the diagnosis and management of various eye conditions and diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Neon" is not a medical term. Neon is actually a noble gas, the fourth lightest and second most abundant in the Earth's atmosphere. It is used in vacuum tubes and high-voltage indicators, and in advertising signs and neon lamps. If you have any medical terms you would like me to define, please let me know!

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

Fluorescein angiography is a medical diagnostic procedure used in ophthalmology to examine the blood flow in the retina and choroid, which are the inner layers of the eye. This test involves injecting a fluorescent dye, Fluorescein, into a patient's arm vein. As the dye reaches the blood vessels in the eye, a specialized camera takes rapid sequences of photographs to capture the dye's circulation through the retina and choroid.

The images produced by fluorescein angiography can help doctors identify any damage to the blood vessels, leakage, or abnormal growth of new blood vessels. This information is crucial in diagnosing and managing various eye conditions such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusions, and inflammatory eye diseases.

It's important to note that while fluorescein angiography is a valuable diagnostic tool, it does carry some risks, including temporary side effects like nausea, vomiting, or allergic reactions to the dye. In rare cases, severe adverse reactions can occur, so patients should discuss these potential risks with their healthcare provider before undergoing the procedure.

Erbium is a chemical element with the symbol "Er" and atomic number 68. It is a rare earth element that belongs to the lanthanide series in the periodic table. Erbium is not naturally found in its pure form, but it is typically extracted from minerals such as xenotime and bastnasite.

In medical terms, erbium is used in the form of erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) lasers for various surgical procedures. These lasers emit light at a wavelength of 2940 nanometers, which is highly absorbed by water and therefore ideal for cutting and coagulating tissue with minimal thermal damage to surrounding tissues. Erbium lasers are commonly used in dermatology and ophthalmology for procedures such as skin resurfacing, removal of tattoos and birthmarks, and cataract surgery.

Fiber optic technology in the medical context refers to the use of thin, flexible strands of glass or plastic fibers that are designed to transmit light and images along their length. These fibers are used to create bundles, known as fiber optic cables, which can be used for various medical applications such as:

1. Illumination: Fiber optics can be used to deliver light to hard-to-reach areas during surgical procedures or diagnostic examinations.
2. Imaging: Fiber optics can transmit images from inside the body, enabling doctors to visualize internal structures and tissues. This is commonly used in medical imaging techniques such as endoscopy, colonoscopy, and laparoscopy.
3. Sensing: Fiber optic sensors can be used to measure various physiological parameters such as temperature, pressure, and strain within the body. These sensors can provide real-time data during surgical procedures or for monitoring patients' health status.

Fiber optic technology offers several advantages over traditional medical imaging techniques, including high resolution, flexibility, small diameter, and the ability to bend around corners without significant loss of image quality. Additionally, fiber optics are non-magnetic and can be used in MRI environments without causing interference.

Medical Definition of Optical Fibers:

Optical fibers are thin, transparent strands of glass or plastic fiber that are designed to transmit light along their length. In the medical field, optical fibers are used in various applications such as illumination, imaging, and data transmission. For instance, they are used in flexible endoscopes to provide illumination and visualization inside the body during diagnostic or surgical procedures. They are also used in optical communication systems for transmitting information in the form of light signals within medical devices or between medical facilities. The use of optical fibers allows for minimally invasive procedures, improved image quality, and increased data transmission rates.

Visual acuity is a measure of the sharpness or clarity of vision. It is usually tested by reading an eye chart from a specific distance, such as 20 feet (6 meters). The standard eye chart used for this purpose is called the Snellen chart, which contains rows of letters that decrease in size as you read down the chart.

Visual acuity is typically expressed as a fraction, with the numerator representing the testing distance and the denominator indicating the smallest line of type that can be read clearly. For example, if a person can read the line on the eye chart that corresponds to a visual acuity of 20/20, it means they have normal vision at 20 feet. If their visual acuity is 20/40, it means they must be as close as 20 feet to see what someone with normal vision can see at 40 feet.

It's important to note that visual acuity is just one aspect of overall vision and does not necessarily reflect other important factors such as peripheral vision, depth perception, color vision, or contrast sensitivity.

Fetoscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that allows direct visualization of the fetus and the intrauterine environment through the use of a fiber-optic scope. It is typically performed during the second trimester of pregnancy to diagnose or treat various fetal conditions, such as twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, or spina bifida. The procedure involves inserting a thin tube called a fetoscope through the mother's abdomen and uterus to access the fetus. Fetoscopy can also be used for taking fetal tissue samples for genetic testing.

It is important to note that while fetoscopy can provide valuable information and treatment options, it does carry some risks, including preterm labor, premature rupture of membranes, infection, and bleeding. Therefore, the decision to undergo fetoscopy should be made carefully, in consultation with a medical professional, and based on a thorough evaluation of the potential benefits and risks.

Dental soldering is a procedure in which two or more metal components are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint, creating a strong metallic bond. In dentistry, this technique is primarily used to repair or construct dental restorations such as crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances.

The process typically involves:

1. Cleaning and preparing the surfaces to be soldered by removing any oxides, oils, or contaminants that might interfere with the bond.
2. Applying a flux to the prepared surfaces to prevent further oxidation during heating.
3. Positioning the components accurately so they can be joined correctly.
4. Heating the parts using a soldering torch or other heat source, while simultaneously applying the filler metal (solder) to the joint.
5. Allowing the solder to cool and solidify, creating a strong metallic bond between the components.
6. Finishing and polishing the soldered area for smooth integration with the surrounding dental restoration.

Dental soldering requires precision, skill, and knowledge of various metals and alloys used in dentistry. Proper safety measures, including protective eyewear and a well-ventilated workspace, should be taken during the procedure to minimize potential hazards from heat, flames, or fumes.

Laser-assisted angioplasty is a medical procedure used to open narrowed or blocked blood vessels. The term "angioplasty" refers to the use of a balloon to widen the affected blood vessel, while "laser-assisted" describes the use of a laser to help remove any blockages or obstructions in the vessel.

During the procedure, a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel through a small incision in the groin or arm. The catheter is then guided to the narrowed or blocked section of the blood vessel using imaging techniques such as X-ray or ultrasound. Once the catheter is in place, a laser fiber is passed through the catheter and directed at the blockage.

The laser emits high-energy light that vaporizes the blockage, allowing it to be removed from the blood vessel. After the blockage has been removed, a balloon angioplasty may be performed to widen the blood vessel and improve blood flow. The catheter is then removed and the incision is closed.

Laser-assisted angioplasty is typically used in cases where traditional balloon angioplasty is not effective or when the blockage is composed of materials that are difficult to remove with conventional methods, such as calcified plaque. It may also be used in patients who have complex lesions or multiple blockages in their blood vessels.

While laser-assisted angioplasty is generally safe and effective, it does carry some risks, including bleeding, infection, damage to the blood vessel, and recurrence of the blockage. As with any medical procedure, it is important for patients to discuss the potential benefits and risks with their healthcare provider before undergoing treatment.

"Fundus Oculi" is a medical term that refers to the back part of the interior of the eye, including the optic disc, macula, fovea, retinal vasculature, and peripheral retina. It is the area where light is focused and then transmitted to the brain via the optic nerve, forming visual images. Examinations of the fundus oculi are crucial for detecting various eye conditions such as diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, glaucoma, and other retinal diseases. The examination is typically performed using an ophthalmoscope or a specialized camera called a retinal camera.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Optics and Photonics" is a broad field that encompasses various scientific and engineering disciplines. It doesn't have a specific medical definition, as it's not a term typically used in a medical context.

However, I can provide a general definition:

Optics is the study of light and its interactions with matter. This includes how light is produced, controlled, transmitted, and detected. It involves phenomena such as reflection, refraction, diffraction, and interference.

Photonics, on the other hand, is a branch of optics that deals with the generation, detection, and manipulation of individual photons, the basic units of light. Photonics is often applied to technologies such as lasers, fiber optics, and optical communications.

In a medical context, these fields might be used in various diagnostic and therapeutic applications, such as endoscopes, ophthalmic devices, laser surgery, and imaging technologies like MRI and CT scans. But the terms "Optics" and "Photonics" themselves are not medical conditions or treatments.

Interferometry is not specifically a medical term, but it is used in certain medical fields such as ophthalmology and optics research. Here is a general definition:

Interferometry is a physical method that uses the interference of waves to measure the differences in phase between two or more waves. In other words, it's a technique that combines two or more light waves to create an interference pattern, which can then be analyzed to extract information about the properties of the light waves, such as their wavelength, amplitude, and phase.

In ophthalmology, interferometry is used in devices like wavefront sensors to measure the aberrations in the eye's optical system. By analyzing the interference pattern created by the light passing through the eye, these devices can provide detailed information about the shape and curvature of the cornea and lens, helping doctors to diagnose and treat various vision disorders.

In optics research, interferometry is used to study the properties of light waves and materials that interact with them. By analyzing the interference patterns created by light passing through different materials or devices, researchers can gain insights into their optical properties, such as their refractive index, thickness, and surface roughness.

The cornea is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. It plays a crucial role in focusing vision. The cornea protects the eye from harmful particles and microorganisms, and it also serves as a barrier against UV light. Its transparency allows light to pass through and get focused onto the retina. The cornea does not contain blood vessels, so it relies on tears and the fluid inside the eye (aqueous humor) for nutrition and oxygen. Any damage or disease that affects its clarity and shape can significantly impact vision and potentially lead to blindness if left untreated.

The choroid is a layer of the eye that contains blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the outer layers of the retina. It lies between the sclera (the white, protective coat of the eye) and the retina (the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye). The choroid is essential for maintaining the health and function of the retina, particularly the photoreceptor cells that detect light and transmit visual signals to the brain. Damage to the choroid can lead to vision loss or impairment.

Equipment Failure Analysis is a process of identifying the cause of failure in medical equipment or devices. This involves a systematic examination and evaluation of the equipment, its components, and operational history to determine why it failed. The analysis may include physical inspection, chemical testing, and review of maintenance records, as well as assessment of design, manufacturing, and usage factors that may have contributed to the failure.

The goal of Equipment Failure Analysis is to identify the root cause of the failure, so that corrective actions can be taken to prevent similar failures in the future. This is important in medical settings to ensure patient safety and maintain the reliability and effectiveness of medical equipment.

Myopia, also known as nearsightedness, is a common refractive error of the eye. It occurs when the eye is either too long or the cornea (the clear front part of the eye) is too curved. As a result, light rays focus in front of the retina instead of directly on it, causing distant objects to appear blurry while close objects remain clear.

Myopia typically develops during childhood and can progress gradually or rapidly until early adulthood. It can be corrected with glasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery such as LASIK. Regular eye examinations are essential for people with myopia to monitor any changes in their prescription and ensure proper correction.

While myopia is generally not a serious condition, high levels of nearsightedness can increase the risk of certain eye diseases, including cataracts, glaucoma, retinal detachment, and myopic degeneration. Therefore, it's crucial to manage myopia effectively and maintain regular follow-ups with an eye care professional.

Photolysis is a term used in medical and scientific contexts to describe a chemical reaction that is initiated by the absorption of light or photons. In this process, a molecule absorbs a photon, which provides sufficient energy to break a bond within the molecule, leading to the formation of two or more smaller molecules or radicals. This phenomenon is particularly relevant in fields such as pharmacology and toxicology, where photolysis can alter the chemical structure and biological activity of drugs and other substances upon exposure to light.

In medical terms, the iris refers to the colored portion of the eye that surrounds the pupil. It is a circular structure composed of thin, contractile muscle fibers (radial and circumferential) arranged in a regular pattern. These muscles are controlled by the autonomic nervous system and can adjust the size of the pupil in response to changes in light intensity or emotional arousal. By constricting or dilating the iris, the amount of light entering the eye can be regulated, which helps maintain optimal visual acuity under various lighting conditions.

The color of the iris is determined by the concentration and distribution of melanin pigments within the iris stroma. The iris also contains blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissue that support its structure and function. Anatomically, the iris is continuous with the ciliary body and the choroid, forming part of the uveal tract in the eye.

Photochemotherapy is a medical treatment that combines the use of drugs and light to treat various skin conditions. The most common type of photochemotherapy is PUVA (Psoralen + UVA), where the patient takes a photosensitizing medication called psoralen, followed by exposure to ultraviolet A (UVA) light.

The psoralen makes the skin more sensitive to the UVA light, which helps to reduce inflammation and suppress the overactive immune response that contributes to many skin conditions. This therapy is often used to treat severe cases of psoriasis, eczema, and mycosis fungoides (a type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma). It's important to note that photochemotherapy can increase the risk of skin cancer and cataracts, so it should only be administered under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Macular edema is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of fluid in the macula, a small area in the center of the retina responsible for sharp, detailed vision. This buildup of fluid causes the macula to thicken and swell, which can distort central vision and lead to vision loss if not treated promptly. Macular edema is often a complication of other eye conditions such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, retinal vein occlusion, or uveitis. It's important to note that while macular edema can affect anyone, it is more common in people with certain medical conditions like diabetes.

Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the fluid pressure within the eye, specifically within the anterior chamber, which is the space between the cornea and the iris. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). The aqueous humor, a clear fluid that fills the anterior chamber, is constantly produced and drained, maintaining a balance that determines the IOP. Normal IOP ranges from 10-21 mmHg, with average values around 15-16 mmHg. Elevated IOP is a key risk factor for glaucoma, a group of eye conditions that can lead to optic nerve damage and vision loss if not treated promptly and effectively. Regular monitoring of IOP is essential in diagnosing and managing glaucoma and other ocular health issues.

The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive layer of tissue in the eye of many vertebrates and some cephalopods. It receives light that has been focused by the cornea and lens, converts it into neural signals, and sends these to the brain via the optic nerve. The retina contains several types of photoreceptor cells including rods (which handle vision in low light) and cones (which are active in bright light and are capable of color vision).

In medical terms, any pathological changes or diseases affecting the retinal structure and function can lead to visual impairment or blindness. Examples include age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, and retinitis pigmentosa among others.

Diabetic retinopathy is a diabetes complication that affects the eyes. It's caused by damage to the blood vessels of the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (retina).

At first, diabetic retinopathy may cause no symptoms or only mild vision problems. Eventually, it can cause blindness. The condition usually affects both eyes.

There are two main stages of diabetic retinopathy:

1. Early diabetic retinopathy. This is when the blood vessels in the eye start to leak fluid or bleed. You might not notice any changes in your vision at this stage, but it's still important to get treatment because it can prevent the condition from getting worse.
2. Advanced diabetic retinopathy. This is when new, abnormal blood vessels grow on the surface of the retina. These vessels can leak fluid and cause severe vision problems, including blindness.

Diabetic retinopathy can be treated with laser surgery, injections of medication into the eye, or a vitrectomy (a surgical procedure to remove the gel-like substance that fills the center of the eye). It's important to get regular eye exams to detect diabetic retinopathy early and get treatment before it causes serious vision problems.

Dermatologic surgical procedures refer to various types of surgeries performed by dermatologists, which are aimed at treating and managing conditions related to the skin, hair, nails, and mucous membranes. These procedures can be divided into several categories, including:

1. Excisional surgery: This involves removing a lesion or growth by cutting it out with a scalpel. The resulting wound is then closed with stitches, sutures, or left to heal on its own.
2. Incisional biopsy: This is a type of excisional surgery where only a portion of the lesion is removed for diagnostic purposes.
3. Cryosurgery: This involves using extreme cold (usually liquid nitrogen) to destroy abnormal tissue, such as warts or precancerous growths.
4. Electrosurgical procedures: These use heat generated by an electric current to remove or destroy skin lesions. Examples include electrodessication and curettage (ED&C), which involves scraping away the affected tissue with a sharp instrument and then applying heat to seal the wound.
5. Laser surgery: Dermatologic surgeons use various types of lasers to treat a wide range of conditions, such as removing tattoos, reducing wrinkles, or treating vascular lesions.
6. Mohs micrographic surgery: This is a specialized surgical technique used to treat certain types of skin cancer, particularly basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. It involves removing the tumor in thin layers and examining each layer under a microscope until no cancer cells remain.
7. Scar revision surgery: Dermatologic surgeons can perform procedures to improve the appearance of scars, such as excising the scar and reclosing the wound or using laser therapy to minimize redness and thickness.
8. Hair transplantation: This involves removing hair follicles from one area of the body (usually the back of the head) and transplanting them to another area where hair is thinning or absent, such as the scalp or eyebrows.
9. Flap surgery: In this procedure, a piece of tissue with its own blood supply is moved from one part of the body to another and then reattached. This can be used for reconstructive purposes after skin cancer removal or trauma.
10. Liposuction: Dermatologic surgeons may perform liposuction to remove excess fat from various areas of the body, such as the abdomen, thighs, or chin.

Fluorescent dyes are substances that emit light upon excitation by absorbing light of a shorter wavelength. In a medical context, these dyes are often used in various diagnostic tests and procedures to highlight or mark certain structures or substances within the body. For example, fluorescent dyes may be used in imaging techniques such as fluorescence microscopy or fluorescence angiography to help visualize cells, tissues, or blood vessels. These dyes can also be used in flow cytometry to identify and sort specific types of cells. The choice of fluorescent dye depends on the specific application and the desired properties, such as excitation and emission spectra, quantum yield, and photostability.

Glaucoma is a group of eye conditions that damage the optic nerve, often caused by an abnormally high pressure in the eye (intraocular pressure). This damage can lead to permanent vision loss or even blindness if left untreated. The most common type is open-angle glaucoma, which has no warning signs and progresses slowly. Angle-closure glaucoma, on the other hand, can cause sudden eye pain, redness, nausea, and vomiting, as well as rapid vision loss. Other less common types of glaucoma also exist. While there is no cure for glaucoma, early detection and treatment can help slow or prevent further vision loss.

Fluorescence microscopy is a type of optical microscopy that uses fluorescent probes to highlight and visualize specific components or structures within a sample. When these probes are excited by light of a specific wavelength, they emit light at longer wavelengths, creating a bright contrast against the dark background. This allows for high-resolution imaging of cells, tissues, and subcellular structures.

Multiphoton microscopy is a type of fluorescence microscopy that uses multiple photons of lower energy to excite the fluorophores, rather than a single high-energy photon. This technique offers several advantages over traditional fluorescence microscopy, including reduced photodamage and improved depth penetration in thick samples. Additionally, multiphoton microscopy can be used for techniques such as second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG), which provide additional contrast mechanisms for imaging.

In summary, fluorescence multiphoton microscopy is a powerful tool for high-resolution imaging of biological samples, offering improved depth penetration, reduced photodamage, and additional contrast mechanisms compared to traditional fluorescence microscopy.

The corneal stroma, also known as the substantia propria, is the thickest layer of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. The cornea plays a crucial role in focusing vision.

The corneal stroma makes up about 90% of the cornea's thickness and is composed of parallel bundles of collagen fibers that are arranged in regular, repeating patterns. These fibers give the cornea its strength and transparency. The corneal stroma also contains a small number of cells called keratocytes, which produce and maintain the collagen fibers.

Disorders that affect the corneal stroma can cause vision loss or other eye problems. For example, conditions such as keratoconus, in which the cornea becomes thin and bulges outward, can distort vision and make it difficult to see clearly. Other conditions, such as corneal scarring or infection, can also affect the corneal stroma and lead to vision loss or other eye problems.

A photon is not a term that has a specific medical definition, as it is a fundamental concept in physics. Photons are elementary particles that carry electromagnetic energy, such as light. They have no mass or electric charge and exhibit both particle-like and wave-like properties. In the context of medicine, photons are often discussed in relation to various medical imaging techniques (e.g., X-ray imaging, CT scans, and PET scans) and therapeutic interventions like laser therapy and radiation therapy, where photons are used to diagnose or treat medical conditions.

Microsurgery is a surgical technique that requires the use of an operating microscope and fine instruments to perform precise surgical manipulations. It is commonly used in various fields such as ophthalmology, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, and plastic and reconstructive surgery. The magnification provided by the microscope allows surgeons to work on small structures like nerves, blood vessels, and tiny bones. Some of the most common procedures that fall under microsurgery include nerve repair, replantation of amputated parts, and various types of reconstructions such as free tissue transfer for cancer reconstruction or coverage of large wounds.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a type of electron microscopy that uses a focused beam of electrons to scan the surface of a sample and produce a high-resolution image. In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of a specimen, and secondary electrons are emitted from the sample due to interactions between the electrons and the atoms in the sample. These secondary electrons are then detected by a detector and used to create an image of the sample's surface topography. SEM can provide detailed images of the surface of a wide range of materials, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and biological samples. It is commonly used in materials science, biology, and electronics for the examination and analysis of surfaces at the micro- and nanoscale.

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging technique that uses low-coherence light to capture high-resolution cross-sectional images of biological tissues, particularly the retina and other ocular structures. OCT works by measuring the echo time delay of light scattered back from different depths within the tissue, creating a detailed map of the tissue's structure. This technique is widely used in ophthalmology to diagnose and monitor various eye conditions such as macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma.

Photosensitizing agents are substances that, when exposed to light, particularly ultraviolet or visible light, can cause chemical reactions leading to the production of reactive oxygen species. These reactive oxygen species can interact with biological tissues, leading to damage and a variety of phototoxic or photoallergic adverse effects.

Photosensitizing agents are used in various medical fields, including dermatology and oncology. In dermatology, they are often used in the treatment of conditions such as psoriasis and eczema, where a photosensitizer is applied to the skin and then activated with light to reduce inflammation and slow the growth of skin cells.

In oncology, photosensitizing agents are used in photodynamic therapy (PDT), a type of cancer treatment that involves administering a photosensitizer, allowing it to accumulate in cancer cells, and then exposing the area to light. The light activates the photosensitizer, which produces reactive oxygen species that damage the cancer cells, leading to their death.

Examples of photosensitizing agents include porphyrins, chlorophyll derivatives, and certain antibiotics such as tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the potential for photosensitivity when prescribing these medications and to inform patients of the risks associated with exposure to light.

Yttrium is not a medical term itself, but it is a chemical element with the symbol "Y" and atomic number 39. It is a silvery-metallic transition element that is found in rare earth minerals.

In the field of medicine, yttrium is used in the production of some medical devices and treatments. For example, yttrium-90 is a radioactive isotope that is used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as liver cancer and lymphoma. Yttrium-90 is often combined with other substances to form tiny beads or particles that can be injected directly into tumors, where they release radiation that helps to destroy cancer cells.

Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) lasers are also used in medical procedures such as eye surgery and dental work. These lasers emit a highly concentrated beam of light that can be used to cut or coagulate tissue with great precision.

Overall, while yttrium is not a medical term itself, it does have important applications in the field of medicine.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

An iridectomy is a surgical procedure that involves removing a small portion of the iris, which is the colored part of the eye. This procedure is typically performed to treat conditions such as closed-angle glaucoma or to prevent the development of acute angle closure glaucoma. By creating an opening in the iris, the surgery helps to improve the flow of fluid within the eye and reduce pressure inside the eye. It is usually done using a laser (laser iridectomy) or with surgical instruments (surgical iridectomy).

Retinal diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue located at the back of the eye. The retina is responsible for converting light into electrical signals that are sent to the brain and interpreted as visual images. Retinal diseases can cause vision loss or even blindness, depending on their severity and location in the retina.

Some common retinal diseases include:

1. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD): A progressive disease that affects the central part of the retina called the macula, causing blurred or distorted vision.
2. Diabetic retinopathy: A complication of diabetes that can damage the blood vessels in the retina, leading to vision loss.
3. Retinal detachment: A serious condition where the retina becomes separated from its underlying tissue, requiring immediate medical attention.
4. Macular edema: Swelling or thickening of the macula due to fluid accumulation, which can cause blurred vision.
5. Retinitis pigmentosa: A group of inherited eye disorders that affect the retina's ability to respond to light, causing progressive vision loss.
6. Macular hole: A small break in the macula that can cause distorted or blurry vision.
7. Retinal vein occlusion: Blockage of the retinal veins that can lead to bleeding, swelling, and potential vision loss.

Treatment for retinal diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. Some treatments include medication, laser therapy, surgery, or a combination of these options. Regular eye exams are essential for early detection and treatment of retinal diseases.

Radiation scattering is a physical process in which radiation particles or waves deviate from their original direction due to interaction with matter. This phenomenon can occur through various mechanisms such as:

1. Elastic Scattering: Also known as Thomson scattering or Rayleigh scattering, it occurs when the energy of the scattered particle or wave remains unchanged after the collision. In the case of electromagnetic radiation (e.g., light), this results in a change of direction without any loss of energy.
2. Inelastic Scattering: This type of scattering involves an exchange of energy between the scattered particle and the target medium, leading to a change in both direction and energy of the scattered particle or wave. An example is Compton scattering, where high-energy photons (e.g., X-rays or gamma rays) interact with charged particles (usually electrons), resulting in a decrease in photon energy and an increase in electron kinetic energy.
3. Coherent Scattering: In this process, the scattered radiation maintains its phase relationship with the incident radiation, leading to constructive and destructive interference patterns. An example is Bragg scattering, which occurs when X-rays interact with a crystal lattice, resulting in diffraction patterns that reveal information about the crystal structure.

In medical contexts, radiation scattering can have both beneficial and harmful effects. For instance, in diagnostic imaging techniques like computed tomography (CT) scans, radiation scattering contributes to image noise and reduces contrast resolution. However, in radiation therapy for cancer treatment, controlled scattering of therapeutic radiation beams can help ensure that the tumor receives a uniform dose while minimizing exposure to healthy tissues.

Hair removal is the deliberate elimination or reduction of body hair. This can be achieved through various methods, both temporary and permanent. Some common temporary methods include shaving, waxing, tweezing, and depilatory creams. Permanent methods may involve laser hair removal or electrolysis, which target the hair follicle to prevent future growth. It's important to note that some methods can have side effects or risks, so it's recommended to consult with a healthcare professional or dermatologist before starting any new hair removal regimen.

In medical terms, the skin is the largest organ of the human body. It consists of two main layers: the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (inner layer), as well as accessory structures like hair follicles, sweat glands, and oil glands. The skin plays a crucial role in protecting us from external factors such as bacteria, viruses, and environmental hazards, while also regulating body temperature and enabling the sense of touch.

In the context of medical terminology, "light" doesn't have a specific or standardized definition on its own. However, it can be used in various medical terms and phrases. For example, it could refer to:

1. Visible light: The range of electromagnetic radiation that can be detected by the human eye, typically between wavelengths of 400-700 nanometers. This is relevant in fields such as ophthalmology and optometry.
2. Therapeutic use of light: In some therapies, light is used to treat certain conditions. An example is phototherapy, which uses various wavelengths of ultraviolet (UV) or visible light for conditions like newborn jaundice, skin disorders, or seasonal affective disorder.
3. Light anesthesia: A state of reduced consciousness in which the patient remains responsive to verbal commands and physical stimulation. This is different from general anesthesia where the patient is completely unconscious.
4. Pain relief using light: Certain devices like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) units have a 'light' setting, indicating lower intensity or frequency of electrical impulses used for pain management.

Without more context, it's hard to provide a precise medical definition of 'light'.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

A surgical flap is a specialized type of surgical procedure where a section of living tissue (including skin, fat, muscle, and/or blood vessels) is lifted from its original site and moved to another location, while still maintaining a blood supply through its attached pedicle. This technique allows the surgeon to cover and reconstruct defects or wounds that cannot be closed easily with simple suturing or stapling.

Surgical flaps can be classified based on their vascularity, type of tissue involved, or method of transfer. The choice of using a specific type of surgical flap depends on the location and size of the defect, the patient's overall health, and the surgeon's expertise. Some common types of surgical flaps include:

1. Random-pattern flaps: These flaps are based on random blood vessels within the tissue and are typically used for smaller defects in areas with good vascularity, such as the face or scalp.
2. Axial pattern flaps: These flaps are designed based on a known major blood vessel and its branches, allowing them to cover larger defects or reach distant sites. Examples include the radial forearm flap and the anterolateral thigh flap.
3. Local flaps: These flaps involve tissue adjacent to the wound and can be further classified into advancement, rotation, transposition, and interpolation flaps based on their movement and orientation.
4. Distant flaps: These flaps are harvested from a distant site and then transferred to the defect after being tunneled beneath the skin or through a separate incision. Examples include the groin flap and the latissimus dorsi flap.
5. Free flaps: In these flaps, the tissue is completely detached from its original blood supply and then reattached at the new site using microvascular surgical techniques. This allows for greater flexibility in terms of reach and placement but requires specialized expertise and equipment.

Surgical flaps play a crucial role in reconstructive surgery, helping to restore form and function after trauma, tumor removal, or other conditions that result in tissue loss.

Diagnostic techniques in ophthalmology refer to the various methods and tests used by eye specialists (ophthalmologists) to examine, evaluate, and diagnose conditions related to the eyes and visual system. Here are some commonly used diagnostic techniques:

1. Visual Acuity Testing: This is a basic test to measure the sharpness of a person's vision. It typically involves reading letters or numbers from an eye chart at a specific distance.
2. Refraction Test: This test helps determine the correct lens prescription for glasses or contact lenses by measuring how light is bent as it passes through the cornea and lens.
3. Slit Lamp Examination: A slit lamp is a microscope that allows an ophthalmologist to examine the structures of the eye, including the cornea, iris, lens, and retina, in great detail.
4. Tonometry: This test measures the pressure inside the eye (intraocular pressure) to detect conditions like glaucoma. Common methods include applanation tonometry and non-contact tonometry.
5. Retinal Imaging: Several techniques are used to capture images of the retina, including fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). These tests help diagnose conditions like macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and retinal detachments.
6. Color Vision Testing: This test evaluates a person's ability to distinguish between different colors, which can help detect color vision deficiencies or neurological disorders affecting the visual pathway.
7. Visual Field Testing: This test measures a person's peripheral (or side) vision and can help diagnose conditions like glaucoma, optic nerve damage, or brain injuries.
8. Pupillary Reactions Tests: These tests evaluate how the pupils respond to light and near objects, which can provide information about the condition of the eye's internal structures and the nervous system.
9. Ocular Motility Testing: This test assesses eye movements and alignment, helping diagnose conditions like strabismus (crossed eyes) or nystagmus (involuntary eye movement).
10. Corneal Topography: This non-invasive imaging technique maps the curvature of the cornea, which can help detect irregularities, assess the fit of contact lenses, and plan refractive surgery procedures.

Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a medical term that refers to the growth of new, abnormal blood vessels in the choroid layer of the eye, which is located between the retina and the sclera. This condition typically occurs as a complication of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), although it can also be caused by other eye diseases or injuries.

In CNV, the new blood vessels that grow into the choroid layer are fragile and can leak fluid or blood, which can cause distortion or damage to the retina, leading to vision loss. Symptoms of CNV may include blurred or distorted vision, a blind spot in the center of the visual field, or changes in color perception.

Treatment for CNV typically involves medications that are designed to stop the growth of new blood vessels, such as anti-VEGF drugs, which target a protein called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that is involved in the development of new blood vessels. Laser surgery or photodynamic therapy may also be used in some cases to destroy the abnormal blood vessels and prevent further vision loss.

Regional blood flow (RBF) refers to the rate at which blood flows through a specific region or organ in the body, typically expressed in milliliters per minute per 100 grams of tissue (ml/min/100g). It is an essential physiological parameter that reflects the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues while removing waste products. RBF can be affected by various factors such as metabolic demands, neural regulation, hormonal influences, and changes in blood pressure or vascular resistance. Measuring RBF is crucial for understanding organ function, diagnosing diseases, and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments.

Micromanipulation is a term used in the field of medicine, specifically in assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF). It refers to a technique that involves the manipulation of oocytes (human eggs), sperm, and/or embryos under a microscope using micromanipulative tools and equipment.

The most common form of micromanipulation is intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), where a single sperm is selected and injected directly into the cytoplasm of an oocyte to facilitate fertilization. Other forms of micromanipulation include assisted hatching (AH), where a small opening is made in the zona pellucida (the protective layer surrounding the embryo) to help the embryo hatch and implant into the uterus, and embryo biopsy, which involves removing one or more cells from an embryo for genetic testing.

Micromanipulation requires specialized training and equipment and is typically performed in IVF laboratories by experienced embryologists. The goal of micromanipulation is to improve the chances of successful fertilization, implantation, and pregnancy, particularly in cases where conventional methods have been unsuccessful or when there are specific fertility issues, such as male factor infertility or genetic disorders.

An optical device is not a medical term per se, but rather a general term that describes any instrument or tool that uses light or electromagnetic radiation in the visible spectrum to observe, measure, or manipulate objects or phenomena. However, there are several optical devices that are commonly used in medical settings and have specific medical definitions. Here are some examples:

1. Ophthalmoscope: A handheld device used by healthcare professionals to examine the interior of the eye, including the retina, optic nerve, and vitreous humor. It typically consists of a handle, a light source, and a set of lenses that can be adjusted to focus on different parts of the eye.
2. Slit lamp: A specialized microscope used in ophthalmology to examine the structures of the eye at high magnification. It uses a narrow beam of light to illuminate the eye and allows the examiner to visualize details such as corneal abrasions, cataracts, and retinal lesions.
3. Microscope: A device that uses a system of lenses or mirrors to magnify objects or images, making them visible to the human eye. Microscopes are used in various medical fields, including pathology, hematology, and microbiology, to examine specimens such as tissues, cells, and microorganisms.
4. Endoscope: A flexible tube equipped with a light source and a camera that can be inserted into body cavities or passages to visualize internal structures. Endoscopes are used in procedures such as colonoscopy, gastroscopy, and laparoscopy to diagnose and treat conditions such as polyps, ulcers, and tumors.
5. Otoscope: A device used by healthcare professionals to examine the ear canal and eardrum. It typically consists of a handle, a light source, and a speculum that can be inserted into the ear canal to visualize the eardrum and identify any abnormalities such as inflammation, infection, or foreign bodies.
6. Refractor: A device used in optometry to measure the refractive error of the eye, or the amount of lens power needed to correct vision. The patient looks through a series of lenses while reading an eye chart, and the optometrist adjusts the lenses until the clearest vision is achieved.
7. Slit lamp: A microscope used in ophthalmology to examine the structures of the eye, including the cornea, iris, lens, and retina. The slit lamp uses a narrow beam of light to illuminate the eye and allow for detailed examination of any abnormalities or diseases.

Retinal vessels refer to the blood vessels that are located in the retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue that lines the inner surface of the eye. The retina contains two types of blood vessels: arteries and veins.

The central retinal artery supplies oxygenated blood to the inner layers of the retina, while the central retinal vein drains deoxygenated blood from the retina. These vessels can be visualized during a routine eye examination using an ophthalmoscope, which allows healthcare professionals to assess their health and any potential abnormalities.

Retinal vessels are essential for maintaining the health and function of the retina, and any damage or changes to these vessels can affect vision and lead to various eye conditions such as diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion, and hypertensive retinopathy.

In medical terms, dissection refers to the separation of the layers of a biological tissue or structure by cutting or splitting. It is often used to describe the process of surgically cutting through tissues, such as during an operation to separate organs or examine their internal structures.

However, "dissection" can also refer to a pathological condition in which there is a separation of the layers of a blood vessel wall by blood, creating a false lumen or aneurysm. This type of dissection is most commonly seen in the aorta and can be life-threatening if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

In summary, "dissection" has both surgical and pathological meanings related to the separation of tissue layers, and it's essential to consider the context in which the term is used.

Varicose veins are defined as enlarged, swollen, and twisting veins often appearing blue or dark purple, which usually occur in the legs. They are caused by weakened valves and vein walls that can't effectively push blood back toward the heart. This results in a buildup of blood, causing the veins to bulge and become varicose.

The condition is generally harmless but may cause symptoms like aching, burning, muscle cramp, or a feeling of heaviness in the legs. In some cases, varicose veins can lead to more serious problems, such as skin ulcers, blood clots, or chronic venous insufficiency. Treatment options include lifestyle changes, compression stockings, and medical procedures like sclerotherapy, laser surgery, or endovenous ablation.

Refractometry is a medical laboratory technique used to measure the refractive index of a substance, typically a liquid. The refractive index is the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to its speed in the substance being measured. In a clinical setting, refractometry is often used to determine the concentration of total solids in a fluid, such as urine or serum, by measuring the angle at which light passes through the sample. This information can be useful in the diagnosis and monitoring of various medical conditions, including dehydration, kidney disease, and diabetes. Refractometry is also used in the field of optometry to measure the refractive error of the eye, or the amount and type of correction needed to provide clear vision.

Phototherapy is a medical treatment that involves the use of light to manage or improve certain conditions. It can be delivered in various forms, such as natural light exposure or artificial light sources, including lasers, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), or fluorescent lamps. The wavelength and intensity of light are carefully controlled to achieve specific therapeutic effects.

Phototherapy is most commonly used for newborns with jaundice to help break down bilirubin in the skin, reducing its levels in the bloodstream. This type of phototherapy is called bilirubin lights or bili lights.

In dermatology, phototherapy can be applied to treat various skin conditions like psoriasis, eczema, vitiligo, and acne. Narrowband ultraviolet B (UVB) therapy, PUVA (psoralen plus UVA), and blue or red light therapies are some examples of dermatological phototherapies.

Phototherapy can also be used to alleviate symptoms of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and other mood disorders by exposing patients to bright artificial light, which helps regulate their circadian rhythms and improve their mood. This form of phototherapy is called light therapy or bright light therapy.

It's essential to consult a healthcare professional before starting any phototherapy treatment, as inappropriate use can lead to adverse effects.

Spectrum analysis in the context of Raman spectroscopy refers to the measurement and interpretation of the Raman scattering spectrum of a material or sample. Raman spectroscopy is a non-destructive analytical technique that uses the inelastic scattering of light to examine the vibrational modes of molecules.

When a monochromatic light source, typically a laser, illuminates a sample, a small fraction of the scattered light undergoes a shift in frequency due to interactions with the molecular vibrations of the sample. This shift in frequency is known as the Raman shift and is unique to each chemical bond or functional group within a molecule.

In a Raman spectrum, the intensity of the scattered light is plotted against the Raman shift, which is expressed in wavenumbers (cm-1). The resulting spectrum provides a "fingerprint" of the sample's molecular structure and composition, allowing for the identification and characterization of various chemical components within the sample.

Spectrum analysis in Raman spectroscopy can reveal valuable information about the sample's crystallinity, phase transitions, polymorphism, molecular orientation, and other properties. This technique is widely used across various fields, including materials science, chemistry, biology, pharmaceuticals, and forensics, to analyze a diverse range of samples, from simple liquids and solids to complex biological tissues and nanomaterials.

Birefringence is a property of certain materials, such as crystals and some plastics, to split a beam of light into two separate beams with different polarization states and refractive indices when the light passes through the material. This phenomenon arises due to the anisotropic structure of these materials, where their physical properties vary depending on the direction of measurement.

When a unpolarized or partially polarized light beam enters a birefringent material, it gets separated into two orthogonally polarized beams called the ordinary and extraordinary rays. These rays propagate through the material at different speeds due to their distinct refractive indices, resulting in a phase delay between them. Upon exiting the material, the recombination of these two beams can produce various optical effects, such as double refraction or interference patterns, depending on the thickness and orientation of the birefringent material and the polarization state of the incident light.

Birefringence has numerous applications in optics, including waveplates, polarizing filters, stress analysis, and microscopy techniques like phase contrast and differential interference contrast imaging.

Optical tweezers, also known as optical traps or laser tweezers, refer to a scientific instrument that uses highly focused laser beams to manipulate and trap microscopic particles, typically smaller than a micron in diameter. The principle behind optical tweezers is the transfer of momentum between photons (light particles) and the particle being manipulated. When a laser beam is focused through a high numerical aperture objective lens, it creates an intense gradient force that attracts and holds the particle at the focus point, allowing researchers to precisely move and apply forces to the particle in three dimensions.

Optical tweezers have become an essential tool in various fields of biology, physics, and engineering due to their ability to manipulate and measure microscopic objects with high precision and non-invasively. In the medical field, optical tweezers are used for studying cell mechanics, molecular motors, DNA manipulation, protein folding, and other biological processes at the single-molecule level. Additionally, they have potential applications in diagnostics, therapeutics, and drug development by enabling the analysis of individual cells or biomolecules with unprecedented accuracy.

The optic disk, also known as the optic nerve head, is the point where the optic nerve fibers exit the eye and transmit visual information to the brain. It appears as a pale, circular area in the back of the eye, near the center of the retina. The optic disk has no photoreceptor cells (rods and cones), so it is insensitive to light. It is an important structure to observe during eye examinations because changes in its appearance can indicate various ocular diseases or conditions, such as glaucoma, optic neuritis, or papilledema.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Krypton" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Kr and atomic number 36. It's a noble gas, colorless, odorless, tasteless, and nonreactive. It's commonly used in lighting products like flash lamps and high-powered gas lasers. The misconception might arise from its use in popular culture, notably as the element that gives Superman his powers in comic books, movies, and television shows.

Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process that occurs after tissue injury, aiming to restore the integrity and functionality of the damaged tissue. It involves a series of overlapping phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling.

1. Hemostasis: This initial phase begins immediately after injury and involves the activation of the coagulation cascade to form a clot, which stabilizes the wound and prevents excessive blood loss.
2. Inflammation: Activated inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, infiltrate the wound site to eliminate pathogens, remove debris, and release growth factors that promote healing. This phase typically lasts for 2-5 days post-injury.
3. Proliferation: In this phase, various cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes, proliferate and migrate to the wound site to synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM) components, form new blood vessels (angiogenesis), and re-epithelialize the wounded area. This phase can last up to several weeks depending on the size and severity of the wound.
4. Remodeling: The final phase of wound healing involves the maturation and realignment of collagen fibers, leading to the restoration of tensile strength in the healed tissue. This process can continue for months to years after injury, although the tissue may never fully regain its original structure and function.

It is important to note that wound healing can be compromised by several factors, including age, nutrition, comorbidities (e.g., diabetes, vascular disease), and infection, which can result in delayed healing or non-healing chronic wounds.

Nerve fibers are specialized structures that constitute the long, slender processes (axons) of neurons (nerve cells). They are responsible for conducting electrical impulses, known as action potentials, away from the cell body and transmitting them to other neurons or effector organs such as muscles and glands. Nerve fibers are often surrounded by supportive cells called glial cells and are grouped together to form nerve bundles or nerves. These fibers can be myelinated (covered with a fatty insulating sheath called myelin) or unmyelinated, which influences the speed of impulse transmission.

300 kJ of laser light at the 351 nm third harmonic with pulsewidths of around 1 to 3 ns. Laser Arzamas-16 List of laser types ... The ISKRA-4 and ISKRA-5 lasers are lasers which were built by the Soviet Union at RFNC-VNIIEF in Arzamas-16 (Арзама́с-16) with ... The ISKRA-4 laser is a spatially filtered (image relayed) 8 beam photolytically pumped iodine gas laser capable of producing ... The ISKRA-5 laser is a spatially filtered (image relayed) 12 beam photolytically pumped iodine gas laser capable of producing ...
"Product Focus: Alpes Lasers commercially introduces frequency-comb quantum-cascade lasers". Laser Focus World. Retrieved May 4 ... "Alpes commercializes quantum-cascade laser". Laser Focus World. Retrieved April 30, 2020. "Alpes Lasers to Supply QCLs to US ... Alpes Lasers S.A. is a Swiss engineering company and manufacturer of Infrared lasers and electrical drivers based in St-Blaise ... In 2007, Alpes Lasers supplied NASA with lasers for gas analysis instruments on Mars rovers. In 2017, the firm introduced QCL ...
The Lasers defeated the Freedoms 19-18 for their first WTT Championship in team history. In 2015, the Lasers made slight ... In 2010, the Lasers had the best regular season record (10-4) in World TeamTennis and advanced to the WTT Western Conference ... The Springfield Lasers are a World TeamTennis franchise. The franchise was purchased and donated to the city of Springfield, ... At the same time, the Lasers began using an alternate logo with the same design but a different color scheme. In place of ...
We will not lose because we are not losers, we are lasers! Lasers are revolutionary. Lasers are the future. On January 4, 2011 ... originally titled We Are Lasers and then changed to Lasers. "Lasers" is a backronym for "Love Always Shines Everytime, Remember ... "Lasers: Lupe Fiasco: Music". Retrieved February 18, 2011. "Lasers: Lupe Fiasco: Musique ... "Lasers: Lupe Fiasco: Musik". September 9, 2009. Retrieved April 2, 2011. Lasers at Metacritic LupeFiasco. ...
Semiconductor nanowire lasers are nano-scaled lasers that can be embedded on chips and constitute an advance for computing and ... Nanowire lasers are coherent light sources (single mode optical waveguides) as any other laser device, with the advantage of ... therefore they do not require polishing or cleaving for high-reflectivity facets as in conventional lasers. Nanowire lasers can ... Nanowire lasers using the group-III nitride and ZnO materials systems have been demonstrated to emit in the visible and ...
"Laser Products". JK Lasers. Retrieved 20 August 2012. "2-kW Fiber Laser - JK Lasers ( , May 2012 , Products)". ... JK Lasers range of products includes watt to kilowatt fiber lasers, CO2 lasers, Nd:YAG lasers, process tools and software. Its ... "WORLD OF PHOTONICS - Laser 2007: of green apples and fiber lasers". Laser Focus World. Retrieved 20 August 2012. SPIE Europe ... In 1982, JK Lasers was acquired by Lumonics of Canada to form one of the largest laser companies in the world. Lumonics merged ...
The Kanata Lasers were a Junior "A" ice hockey team from Ottawa, Ontario, in Canada. They are a part of the Central Canada ... The Kanata Lasers have been at the talk of relocation (even before the Ottawa Canadians of the CCHL2 moved to the Jack Charron ... The Lasers played their home games at The Tom Flood Arena located inside the Kanata Rec Complex in Kanata, Ontario. The Kanata ... During their first 15 years as the Valley Lasers, the team never missed the playoffs, had the same head coach, Archie Mulligan ...
"London Lasers (1990, 1992)". CSL Memories. Litterer, David. "Canadian Soccer League I". Soccer History USA. "London Lasers". ... In 1992, the Lasers were set to be re-founded by local businessman, Bob Facca. However, the new team folded prior to the start ... The Lasers narrowly missed the playoffs, amid rumours that the team was told to cut their expenses by the league. By the end of ... The London Lasers were founded in 1990 as an expansion franchise in the Canadian Soccer League. The club spent a great deal of ...
... "with lasers" communities for everything (one notable exception being "Lasers with Chuck Norris" instead of the opposite, due to ... With Lasers is a 2007 album by the band Bonde do Rolê. It was released on the Domino Records label. The album title is based on ... "Bonde do Role With Lasers". Archived from the original on 2007-06-07. "Stylus Magazine". v t e v t e (Articles with short ...
"Lasers and Feelings", "The Mystery's Gone" and "Oh, Mr. Darcy" are about relationships. "Lasers and Feelings" is a love song to ... Lasers and Feelings at Bandcamp Lasers and Feelings at MusicBrainz (Articles with short description, Short description is ... Lasers and Feelings is the second album from the nerd-folk duo The Doubleclicks, released on July 9, 2013. The album debuted at ... Lasers and Feelings debuted at #7 on Billboard's Comedy Albums chart for the week ending July 27, 2013. When questioned about ...
The San Jose Lasers were a women's professional basketball team in San Jose, California. It was a member of the American ... The head coach of the Lasers for their first season was Jan Lowrey, who was fired after an 18-22 season. For the second and ... "Angela Beck Formally Introduced as Coach of San Jose Lasers". AP News. April 24, 1997. Retrieved January 20 ... to head the Lasers. The team folded along with the rest of the league during the third ABL season in 1998. " ...
The name Blues and Lasers came from a daylong jam session that sounded like blues with lasers. In 2008 Blues and Lasers ... Blues and Lasers is an American Delta blues rock band from Burlington, Vermont. Blues and Lasers formed in 2007 in Burlington, ... Blues and Lasers EP (2008) After All We're Only Human (2010) Balik, Rachel (March 31, 2009). "Review: Blues & Lasers @ Sullivan ... "Blues and Lasers". JamBase Inc. January 16, 2009. Woodward, Garrett K. (May 18, 2010). "Blues and Lasers: Interview - Scott ...
... is the 2002 debut album from The Baldwin Brothers. All songs written and performed by The Baldwin Brothers ... Allmusic review Baldwin Style, Official Baldwin Brothers Website Cooking With Lasers[permanent dead link], audio samples from ...
... is a company headquartered in Glasgow, Scotland with a subsidiary, M Squared Lasers Inc., based in San Jose, ... mid-infrared and terahertz lasers. M Squared Lasers was founded in 2005 by Dr. Graham Malcolm FRSE and Dr. Gareth Maker who had ... The company designs and manufactures lasers and photonic instruments for applications in academia, remote sensing, biophotonics ... "M Squared Lasers appoints Peter Bordui chairman." Official website (Webarchive template wayback links, Articles with topics of ...
The Lasers passed on making any selections in the second and third rounds of the draft. February 16, 2017: The Lasers selected ... The 2017 Springfield Lasers season will be the 22nd season of the franchise in World TeamTennis (WTT). The Lasers had the ... Springfield Lasers official website World TeamTennis official website (Springfield Lasers seasons, 2017 World TeamTennis season ... In doing so, the Lasers left John Isner unprotected. He was chosen by the Empire with the first pick in the second round. The ...
Dazzler (weapon) Laser safety Laser pointer Laser Safety in Aviation "NSW bans laser pointers". Australian Broadcasting ... "Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors" or NASA's "Use Policy for Outdoor Lasers". Restricting the sale or use of laser devices. This is ... laser levels and laser gun sights." Requiring review or approval of outdoor laser uses. This is discussed in the Regulation and ... of a more powerful laser-the type that might be used in an outdoor laser show: a 6-watt green (532 nm) laser with a 1.1 ...
... the International Academy for Laser Medicine and Surgery, the European Laser Association (ELA), and the World Academy for Laser ... Lasers in Medical Science is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering laser medicine. It was established in 1986 and ... "Lasers in Medical Science". 2020 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2021. Official ... It is the official journal of Sociedad Española de Láser Médico Quirúrgico, the British Medical Laser Association, ...
The Lasers protected James Blake after acquiring him in a trade with the Boston Lobsters. The selections made by the Lasers are ... The 2014 Springfield Lasers season was the 19th season of the franchise in World TeamTennis (WTT). The Lasers won their second ... The Lasers also selected Alisa Kleybanova and Jean-Julien Rojer as protected picks in the draft. March 11, 2014: The Lasers ... "Lasers' Anna-Lena Groenefeld Out for the Season with Hip Injury; Liga Dekmeijere Added to Lasers Roster, Playing Tonight in ...
The 2015 Springfield Lasers season was the 20th season of the franchise in World TeamTennis (WTT). The Lasers had 3 wins and 11 ... The loss to the Aviators was the first of four consecutive losses by the Lasers to close the season. March 16, 2015: The Lasers ... "Springfield Lasers Draft No. 1 American John Isner". Springfield Lasers. March 16, 2015. Archived from the original on April 2 ... On July 10, 2015, the Lasers announced that Rogers would miss the 2015 season due to an injury. In her place, the Lasers signed ...
... lasers, argon lasers, and neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) lasers. Lasers also may be used to relieve certain ... lasers, argon lasers, and neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) lasers. Laser therapy is often given through a flexible ... Argon lasers are often used to activate the drugs used in PDT. CO2 lasers can also be used to debulk and resect tumors. Lasers ... Laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT), or interstitial laser photocoagulation, also uses lasers to treat some cancers ...
Two of the Lasers' four losses had already come at the hands of the Freedoms. Jean Andersen and Benjamin Becker got the Lasers ... The 2016 Springfield Lasers season was the 21st season of the franchise in World TeamTennis (WTT). The Lasers finished with 4 ... Becker held serve, 4-1, in the first game of extended play to clinch a 23-18 win for the Lasers. The Lasers were eliminated ... It is the second consecutive season the Lasers have missed the postseason. The Lasers met the New York Empire in the season ...
... , Hautes-Alpes, a commune in southeastern France Panther Lazer, a car Lazer 103, the former brand name of a Wisconsin ... Lazer may refer to: An incorrect spelling of laser, an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation An ... a 2015 feature film by Rooster Teeth Productions Major Lazer, an electronic dance music trio Lazer Cat, a Colorado hash company ... Laser (disambiguation) Laze (disambiguation) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Lazer. If an ...
... laser ablation, laser annealing, laser scattering, laser interferometry, lidar, laser capture microdissection, fluorescence ... Low to medium power laser diodes are used in laser pointers, laser printers and CD/DVD players. Laser diodes are also ... including infrared lasers, ultraviolet lasers, X-ray laser, and gamma-ray laser). All devices operating at microwave or lower ... Such a laser is known as continuous-wave (CW) laser. Many types of lasers can be made to operate in continuous-wave mode to ...
Laser theory of Fabry-Perot (FP) semiconductor lasers proves to be nonlinear, since the gain, the refractive index and the loss ... Maxwell's equations describe the field for passive medium and cannot be used in describing the field in laser and quantum ... The necessary condition of induced radiation of the 2nd kind allows formulating the basic restriction of laser capacity, which ... this suggests that the nonlinear theory developed is a new paradigm of the laser theory. ...
... (2009). Are you reading me?. Leboswki publishers. ISBN 978-90-488-0188-6. "Graffiti-poëet Laser 3.14". Het Parool ( ... "Creatie: Laser 3.14 spreker op tiende editie TEDxAmsterdam". Retrieved 2021-12-24. Website Laser 3.14 (CS1 Dutch ... Laser 3.14 is the pseudonym of an anonymous graffiti artist, painter and poet in Amsterdam, who started writing graffiti in the ... "Laser 3.14: Freedom , Eeuwig Weekend". 2008-12-11. Archived from the original on 2008-12-11. Retrieved 2021-12-24. "Are you ...
... is a domestic operation of the Canadian Armed Forces for contingency planning and response in the event of a ... "OP Laser JTCF OBSERVATIONS IN LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES IN ONTARIO". CBC News. Retrieved 26 May 2020. Brewster, Murray (26 June ... Under Operation Laser, military medical personnel and resources were deployed to certain long-term care facilities in Quebec ... The next day, it was disclosed that the Ontario Op Laser LTCFs suffered in human resources from a form of disrepair, decay and ...
In optical physics, laser detuning is the tuning of a laser to a frequency that is slightly off from a quantum system's ... If this system is excited by a laser with a frequency ω L {\displaystyle \omega _{L}} close to this value, the laser detuning ... When used as a noun, the laser detuning is the difference between the resonance frequency of the system and the laser's optical ... which allows lasers to affect only atoms moving at a specific speed or in a specific direction and makes laser detuning a ...
"Laser Ghost". Zzap!64. August 1991: 37. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) "Laser Ghost". klov. Retrieved ... Laser Ghost is a horror-themed light gun shooter arcade video game released by Sega in 1990. The game is patterned after the ... The One calls Laser Ghost's gameplay "nothing out of the ordinary to play", but expresses that "the ghostly goings-on will get ... Laser Ghost for the Master System is completely different from the arcade original. In the game, players must protect a young ...
... is an independent archaeologist who has worked on sites in the Middle East, Italy, Cyprus, the UK, Antarctica and ... Lazer concluded from her studies of the skeletal remains that there were three main causes of death at Pompeii: asphyxiation, ... Many of the skulls examined by Lazer have teeth which show considerable wear compared to teeth today. Some are worn down to the ... The results, and the cast itself, were analysed by Estelle Lazer and the team of medical specialists. It was the first high- ...
... ing Resource conservation through laser leveling Dumpy level List of laser articles Laser Machine Control Blake, L. ... A rotary laser level is a more advanced laser level in that it spins the beam of light fast enough to give the effect of a ... Most laser levels are used in the construction industry. A tower-mounted laser level is used in combination with a sensor on a ... The laser beam projector employs a rotating head with a mirror for sweeping the laser beam about a vertical axis. If the mirror ...
300 kJ of laser light at the 351 nm third harmonic with pulsewidths of around 1 to 3 ns. Laser Arzamas-16 List of laser types ... The ISKRA-4 and ISKRA-5 lasers are lasers which were built by the Soviet Union at RFNC-VNIIEF in Arzamas-16 (Арзама́с-16) with ... The ISKRA-4 laser is a spatially filtered (image relayed) 8 beam photolytically pumped iodine gas laser capable of producing ... The ISKRA-5 laser is a spatially filtered (image relayed) 12 beam photolytically pumped iodine gas laser capable of producing ...
The laser beam was then directed into the chamber using fiber optic cables. If the test resulted in an explosion, the laser ... laser technologies are being developed for a variety of applications. In the coal mining industry, lasers can be used to detect ... Laser ignition power thresholds for methane and coal dust were measured. Limiting the laser power to levels below the ... Researchers observed that the amount of laser power needed to create explosions was proportional to the laser beam diameter. ...
The bio-mission of diode lasers Diode lasers represent a viable alternative to light sources used in many biomedical ... Diode lasers are electrically driven lasers generally made from semiconducting materials. In addition to the optical ... Red narrow-linewidth lasing and frequency comb from gain-switched self-injection-locked Fabry-Pérot laser diode *Artem E. ... Single-mode quasi PT-symmetric laser with high power emission The quasi PT-symmetry design enables the creation of electrically ...
As laser manufacturing systems for sheet and tube grow more sophisticated-powerful, automated and scalable-navigating the ... "These fiber lasers are so fast that if youre replacing a traditional 4 kW, CO2 machine with a 6 kW or 10 kW fiber laser, ... Lasers Leading with Light July 26, 2023. Revolutionizing Manufacturing: How Laser Pioneers and Automation Are Transforming the ... Weve talked to them about going with our laser-based hybrid," which the customer can use as a laser on its own or also perform ...
See customer reviews and comparisons for Laser Color Printers. Upgrades and savings on select products. ...
Aiming a laser at an aircraft is a federal crime. ... Aiming a laser at an aircraft is a federal crime.. Click to ... Protecting Aircraft from Lasers Poster (Urban). Poster depicting urban environment with the message: Dont Let a Prank Lead to ...
... ultra-compact photonic and optoelectronic devices has been taken with the realization of a two-dimensional excitonic laser. ... Exciting breakthrough in 2-D lasers. Researchers demonstrate atomically thin excitonic laser. Date:. October 20, 2015. Source: ... that creates an ultrafast laser pulse that is freed from the physical limits endemic to sources of laser light and ... ... "For our excitonic laser, we dropped the metal coating and designed a microdisk resonator that supports a dielectric whispering ...
... could be more awesome than laser technology. (Sadly, freaking maser beams doesnt sound as cool.) ... Weve seen a lot of advancements in lasers, from ones that could one day start up a fusion reactor to ones that can transfer ... Unlike lasers, masers can pierce though cloud cover, living tissue, and other solid materials undisturbed. Its ability to ... After seeing all the advancements in laser technology over the last few decades, who knows what might be possible with masers ...
... laser pointers, and CD players. "Right now, it takes a $300,000 laser to make a nanocrystal laser," he says. "But if you could ... As opposed to current gas or diode lasers, which emit at a single wavelength, nanocrystal lasers could emit light ranging from ... Indeed, a practical nanocrystal laser would need to be energized using electricity, Krauss says, just like the lasers used in ... which is a crucial requirement in making a nanocrystal laser.. In a significant breakthrough in creating a nanocrystal laser, ...
Phaser 3020 prints black and white affordably and has many standard features perfect for individuals and small work teams
Laser Engraving For Jewelry - Download as a PDF or view online for free ... Laser engraver-prima4-2pp-brochure-uk-a4-10 by Laser engraver-prima4-2pp-brochure-uk-a4-10ELESRAA OFFICE trade appliances and ... If youre seeking a modern and innovative approach to creating stunning jewelry pieces, laser technology is the answer! Laser ... If youre seeking a modern and innovative approach to creating stunning jewelry pieces, laser technology is the answer! Laser ...
The concept is applied to a one-dimensional optofluidic device, but could also be applicable to other random lasers. A laser is ... This method paves the way towards versatile tunable and controlled random lasers as well as the taming of other laser sources. ... random laser. The absence of mirrors greatly simplifies laser design, but control over the emission wavelength and ... It is now shown that this problem can be remedied by carefully matching the pump laser to the specific random medium. ...
Phaser 3020 prints black and white affordably and has many standard features perfect for individuals and small work teams
Laser eye surgery (LASIK) is surgery to improve your vision. You may no longer need glasses or contacts. Learn about the types ... For many people, laser eye surgery can correct their vision so they no longer need glasses or contact lenses. Laser eye surgery ... Corneal Surgery, Laser (National Institutes of Health) * Laser In Situ Keratomileusis ( ... There are different types of laser eye surgery. LASIK - laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis - is one of the most common. Many ...
More laser action: Raygun testing begins - 100kW electro-laser nearly ready for battlefield use , Do a Jean Michel Jarre with ... Tag: lasers. Tech Digest daily roundup: Britishvolt collapses into administration. The battery startup Britishvolt has ... Learn to play guitar with LASERS. Im afraid, before you get too excited, that this is a concept product. Its an awesome idea ... US Navy loading up on LASER MACHINE GUNS. The US Navy is about to go a bit Star Wars, after signing an agreement with Boeing ...
The first consensus guideline has been released for the laser treatment of vascular birthmarks. ... The laser treatment settings can vary based on the type and location of the birthmark and also the patients skin type, which ... A new practice guideline is setting a standard for doctors who use lasers to treat cutaneous vascular anomalies. ... "For decades, I have observed adverse outcomes from the improper laser treatment of vascular birthmarks," Linda Rozell-Shannon, ...
The term LASER stands for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. ... Laser therapy is a medical treatment that uses a strong beam of light to cut, burn, or destroy tissue. ... Laser therapy is a medical treatment that uses a strong beam of light to cut, burn, or destroy tissue. The term LASER stands ... The laser light beam does not pose health risks to the patient or medical team. Laser treatment has the same risks as open ...
... and welding event.Eagle Lasers will show all the advantages of the iNspire 1530 fiber laser cutting machine with a 20 kW laser ... Eagle Lasers 20kW at Fabtech 2021. The Brand New Evision 2040 20kW Laser Cutting Machine is Already on Its Way.. Sep 11, 2021 ... Eagle Lasers, leader of fiber laser cutting systems, will be participating in Fabtech 21, at McCormick Place in Chicago from ... What is more, iNspire fiber laser machine with its own patented best-in-class eVa Laser Cutting Head will be operating live ...
488-nm Blue Laser, 633-nm Red Laser, and 405-nm Violet Laser Please Note: By signing up on this calendar you are declaring that ...
Flow Laser Quest is a puzzle game in which you must link points of the same color in a hundred of levels. To fulfill this ... Fans of digital worlds, Tron and of brain games come and see! Flow Laser quest is an ingenious puzzle game in a computer world ... Flow Laser Quest is an amusing game for the whole family! Only recommended for... everyone!. ...
San Jose, CA)--introduced in February 1997--represents the commercialization of an entirely new diode-laser-based technology. ... Science & ResearchLasers & SourcesDetectors & ImagingOpticsBio & Life SciencesLaser ProcessingFiber OpticsSoftware & ... To join the conversation, and become an exclusive member of Laser Focus World, create an account today! Join today!. ... DIODE LASERS. The FiberLaser from SDL Inc. (San Jose, CA)--introduced in February 1997--represents the commercialization of an ...
160;After a decade of enthusiasm for laser weapons, the US Department of Defense is backing off The main problem is getting the ... Meanwhile, lasers continue to proliferate as measuring tools (laser range finders) and sensors (ladar). The laser weapons, its ... lasers were also not yet ready for prime time. A lot of work was also done on lasers that can blind enemy sensors. This sort of ... Lasers have too often failed in all three categories. One of the biggest, and most expensive, disappointments has been the YAL- ...
... for BMW i8 still not approved in the U.S.. Earlier today, a report on a BMW forum made a reference to the laser ... Exclusive: BMW i8 Laser Lights Will Cost 9,500 Euros. The BMW i8 is the first production car in the world which can be equipped ... BMW i8 Laser Lights available as an option for the first time in the US. Currently in showrooms and priced at $141,695 ... BMWBLOG goes aboard the BMW i8 to experience the Laser Lights. While in Los Angeles for the launch of the new BMW i8, our own ...
Erbium Laser. Erbium laser treatments are less aggressive than CO2 fractional lasers but more aggressive than non-ablative ... Pulsed Dye Lasers. A perfect treatment for a ruddy complexion or post-acne redness is to use pulsed dye lasers like VBeam or ... What Lasers Can Fix. Laser treatments can be used to assist with hair and tattoo removal and to treat a variety of concerns, ... What are lasers. Lasers come in numerous intensities and can treat just about any skin-related problem. So, how do you know ...
FDA-Approved Lasers for PRK and Other Refractive Surgeries ... Eximed UV200LA Excimer Laser System SVS Apex Excimer Laser ... WaveLight EX500 Excimer Laser System and Allegretto Wave Eye-Q Excimer Laser System. Alcon Laboratories, Inc. P020050/S23. ... VISX Excimer Laser System Models "B" and "C". VISX, Inc.. P930016/S5. January 29, 1998. Labeling,. Approval Order,. Summary of ... VISX Excimer Laser System Models "B" and "C". VISX, Inc.. P930016/S3. April 24, 1997. Labeling,. Approval Order,. Summary of ...
Find HeNe Lasers suppliers with the Photonics Buyers Guide. Details for all companies and products provided to help you make ... HeNe Lasers. The HeNe laser is the most commonly used gas laser. The HeNe laser has an emission that is determined by neon ... Find LASERS & LASER SYSTEMS by specification*. He-Ne Laser Series. LASOS Lasertechnik GmbH. ... helium-neon (HeNe) laser The most commonly used gas laser. The HeNe laser has an emission that is determined by neon atoms by ...
The laser crams all of the energy of a continuous laser into a few femtoseconds, which creates really intense laser pulses," ... "A lot of chemists and biologists use ultrafast lasers, so it was important that our device be easy to use because non-laser ... Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are used for numerous applications including micromachining, microscopy, laser eye ... Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics. Funder. National Science Foundation Keywords. * /Physical sciences/Physics/Optics/ ...
Laser surgery for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) can help reduce further vision loss in those with the wet type of ... Laser photocoagulation. Laser photocoagulation is the oldest form of laser surgery for AMD. It works by burning retina tissue, ... Both laser photocoagulation and PDT can reduce the amount of vision loss people with wet AMD experience. However, laser surgery ... Macular degeneration may respond to new laser therapy. A new study shows how a new type of laser treatment reduces some of the ...
  • The ISKRA-5 laser is a spatially filtered (image relayed) 12 beam photolytically pumped iodine gas laser capable of producing laser pulse energies of around 30 kJ and peak pulse powers of around 100 terawatts (pulsewidth about 0.25 ns) at its fundamental emission wavelength of 1.315 micrometers. (
  • ISKRA-6 would be a 128 beam laser capable of irradiating targets with ~300 kJ of laser light at the 351 nm third harmonic with pulsewidths of around 1 to 3 ns. (
  • This leads to the question-just how powerful does a laser beam need to be before it can cause an explosion? (
  • The laser beam was then directed into the chamber using fiber optic cables. (
  • The series of tests continued until the laser beam was not powerful enough to ignite the methane or coal dust. (
  • Researchers observed that the amount of laser power needed to create explosions was proportional to the laser beam diameter. (
  • Laser therapy is a medical treatment that uses a strong beam of light to cut, burn, or destroy tissue. (
  • The laser light beam does not pose health risks to the patient or medical team. (
  • Because the laser beam is so small and precise, it allows health care providers to safely treat tissue without injuring the surrounding area. (
  • The high-quality beam results from the laser cavity being a single-mode optical fiber, and this monolithic design reduces the number of optical components and sensitivity to misalignment. (
  • Ablative lasers use the power of light in a targeted beam to remove and resurface the skin, either superficially or through to the deeper layers. (
  • No matter what kind of laser pen you buy, they all operate on the same principle: a laser diode , related to an LED (light-emitting diode), powered by AA batteries emits a narrow, coherent beam of light when switched on. (
  • The partially reflective mirror at one end has an aperture through which the amplified light exits as a laser beam. (
  • Continuous wave lasers emit a steady-state, uninterrupted beam. (
  • When a doctor is certain the eye is numb, they will fit a lens on the cornea to help focus the laser beam on the retina. (
  • After a doctor is sure they have sealed all the leaking blood vessels, they will turn off the laser beam and cover the eye. (
  • When voltage is applied, light generated in the Indium Phosphide enters the silicon waveguide to create a continuous laser beam that can be used to drive other silicon photonic devices. (
  • However, adding conditioning optics - such as beam expanding and reducing telescopes - to the laser has improved drilling capabilities. (
  • Sensors and software for laser-beam focus control have also improved. (
  • The sensors, typically capacitive or optical, measure and help automatically control the distance between the laser-processing beam focal point and workpiece. (
  • In the past, automatic focus controls often used a small motor to directly position the cutting/drilling nozzle, thus moving the focusing lens parallel to the laser-cutting beam. (
  • Stored data, in turn, helps control the laser-beam position during part processing. (
  • With the precise location of the satellite in space, the location of where the beam hit, the coordinates of where Fujii's cameras were set up, and the addition of cloudy conditions, Martino was able to confirm, definitively, that the streaks of light came from ICESat-2's laser," NASA officials added in the statement. (
  • Laser therapy works by putting out a very high intensity beam of light with a particular wavelength. (
  • The wavelength of the laser light beam needs to be changed to treat different coloured ink pigments used in the tattoo. (
  • Q switch is a mechanism used to deliver a pulsed beam, and this provides energy at much higher densities and longer duration, but also with greater frequency, thus optimizing the laser output. (
  • Scattering of laser energy may result in collateral, nonthermal damage to surrounding tissue, while the reflection of a laser beam can lead to effects outside the body of the patient, as in airway fires and injury to operating room personnel. (
  • We will discuss the nessecary parts of a laser (resonators and amplifiers), the physics behind the function (interaction between photons and atoms) and the specific properties which defines a laser (beam optics). (
  • High resolution is achieved by scanning the sample with a finely focussed laser beam, and exclusion of out-of-focus fluorescence by a confocal aperture. (
  • Using a laser beam that crossed through the center of a very dark box, researchers were able to light up the droplets as people spoke into the box. (
  • Selective excitation of the carrier population in one set of two distinct valleys can further lead to lasing in the confined valley, paving the way for easily-tunable circularly polarized lasers. (
  • This method paves the way towards versatile tunable and controlled random lasers as well as the taming of other laser sources. (
  • A new type of nanometer-size semiconductor crystal that can amplify light marks an important step toward cheap, tunable lasers. (
  • Develops and manufactures solid-state and gas lasers in the UV-VIS spectrum with special focus on OEM applications in biophotonics, Raman spectroscopy, and holography. (
  • Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are used for numerous applications including micromachining, microscopy, laser eye surgery, spectroscopy and controlling chemical reactions. (
  • The Institute for Ultrafast Spectroscopy and Lasers (IUSL) of the City University of New York (CUNY) is a world-renowned multidisciplinary research laboratory devoted to promoting research and education in ultrafast optical science , photonic and laser technologies for scientific, engineering, medical, and industrial applications. (
  • We have access to numerous laser spectroscopy setups for experiments in broad range of timescales including femto- and attosecond. (
  • In addition to the optical considerations common with all semiconductors, diode laser structures must also incorporate a means of injecting an electrical current into the active region. (
  • The FiberLaser from SDL Inc. (San Jose, CA)--introduced in February 1997--represents the commercialization of an entirely new diode-laser-based technology. (
  • SDL developed a high-brightness diode-laser pum ce that emits at a previously unavailable wavelength, and Polaroid researchers produced a high-reliability, double-clad optical fiber. (
  • The all-in-one everyday diode laser. (
  • The first advanced surgical diode laser in dentistry, offering more power, enhanced clinical applications, and innovation than any other diode on the market. (
  • Objective: to demonstrate through a clinical case report the excision of an inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia (IFH) with the use of surgical diode laser. (
  • The proposed treatment was surgical removal with diode laser, following manufacturer's suggested protocol. (
  • Final considerations: the use of surgical diode laser is a safe and effective method, and presents numerous advantages compared to the conventional technique for surgical excisions of soft tissue lesions in the oral cavity. (
  • TruPulse is a range of pulsed solid-state lasers that can be used for cost-effective welding of a wide range of materials. (
  • The students will be exposed to He-Ne, diode, dye and solid-state lasers. (
  • Masers (short for Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) are much like lasers in that they are concentrated beams of energy. (
  • The term LASER stands for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. (
  • By actively shaping the optical pump within the random laser, single-mode operation at any selected wavelength is achieved with spectral selectivity down to 0.06 nm and more than 10 dB side-lobe rejection. (
  • As opposed to current gas or diode lasers, which emit at a single wavelength, nanocrystal lasers could emit light ranging from violet to green. (
  • The design of the waveguide is critical to determining the performance and specific wavelength of the hybrid silicon laser. (
  • Carbon dioxide laser emits light at a wavelength of 10,600 nm that is absorbed strongly by water (the primary chromophore for carbon dioxide light that is abundant in skin). (
  • What he uncovered in his new book, Jewish Space Lasers: The Rothschilds and 200 Years of Conspiracy Theories , out Sept. 19, is a densely woven web of rumor and subterfuge, infectious racism and stubborn ignorance, that extends from medieval Europe to Rep. Marjorie Taylor Greene 's ludicrous claim that the 2018 California wildfires were ignited by a space laser controlled in part by the Rothschilds. (
  • ICESat-2, which launched in September 2018, uses lasers and a very precise detection instrument to measure the elevation of ice sheets, sea ice thickness and land topography on Earth . (
  • Solid Outcomes for Femtosecond Laser Cataract Surgery - Medscape - Apr 11, 2018. (
  • When it comes to lasers, what works for one skin tone may not work for another since different laser wavelengths pick up different pigments-some of the darker skin types may not see optimal results with certain types of lasers, which is why it's crucial that only a board-certified and experienced dermatologist, plastic or facial plastic surgeon administer your treatment. (
  • The course "Lasers" presents the physical principles of lasers and gives an orientation on the different types of lasers and laser techniques. (
  • The main use for both lasers being the investigation into inertial confinement fusion, high energy density physics and nuclear weapons research. (
  • Investigation of the spectral narrowing physics of self-injection-locked on-chip lasers to Hz-level linewidth using a composite-cavity structure. (
  • image: Georgia Tech physics professor Rick Trebino and graduate student Pam Bowlan pose with SEA TADPOLE, a device that allows non-laser scientists to easily measure complicated ultrashort pulses. (
  • Researchers have always measured the pulse immediately as it exited the laser, so they didn't realize the extent to which the pulse became distorted by the time it reached the focus after traveling through the optics and lenses in the system," said Rick Trebino, a professor in the Georgia Institute of Technology's School of Physics and Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar in Ultrafast Optical Physics. (
  • The people have spoken, and it doesn't get any more amazing than laser cooling, which is hereby awarded bragging rights over all other fields of laser-related physics. (
  • The aim of the course is the give the students a deeper knowledge about modern Laser Physics. (
  • It goes from the basics of lasers using quantum mechanics and electromagnetic field theory to the research front within some aspects of the physics of lasers. (
  • The instruments are handled by specialist in the divisions of Chemical Physics and Atomic Physics, both included in the Lund Laser Center (LLC). (
  • Other characteristics that affect laser performance include the power output and the mode of emission (eg, continuous wave, pulsed, or Q-switched). (
  • In 2005, Intel researchers were the first to demonstrate that silicon could be used to amplify light using an external light source to produce a continuous wave laser-on-a-chip based on the Raman effect. (
  • The workhorses of industrial laser processing continue to be the flashlamp pumpedpulsed Nd:YAG, continuous-wave Nd:YAG, and CO2 lasers. (
  • Older lasers emit light continuously - this is known as continuous wave (CW) . (
  • A pulsed laser delivers higher peak power, measured in joules (watts per second) than does a continuous wave laser, the energy of which is measured in watts. (
  • however, this technique was not adopted widely because of the significant thermal damage that accompanied the use of continuous wave lasers, which meant a high likelihood of potential scarring. (
  • Approximately 90% of carbon dioxide laser energy is absorbed in the initial 20-30 µm of skin, yet traditional continuous wave lasers leave behind a thick zone of thermal damage measuring 0.2-1 mm in thickness. (
  • The second type uses an optomechanical flash scanner connected to a conventional continuous wave carbon dioxide laser. (
  • Ablative lasers produce dramatic results in resurfacing skin to diminish wrinkles, acne scars and other surface irregularities through removal of upper layers of the skin. (
  • Treatment with ablative lasers requires anesthesia and pain management. (
  • Ablative lasers necessitate real downtime-you can expect for your skin to crust over, before it sheds the scabs and fully heals-and carry risk of infection, pigment changes and scarring. (
  • Any type of ablative lasers can cause the potential for permanent skin whitening in treated areas. (
  • Erbium and carbon dioxide lasers are examples of ablative lasers. (
  • Pulsed dye laser (PDL) is long-pulsed, whereas quality-switched (QS) and picosecond lasers are very short pulsed. (
  • Advent of short-pulsed high energy and scanned carbon dioxide lasers and other laser systems that limit skin heating has revolutionized laser skin resurfacing. (
  • Devious humans have given green lasers a bad name. (
  • To get a taste of the dark side of green lasers, check out these rap sheets . (
  • Green lasers often use AAA batteries and draw a good amount of power especially on chilly nights. (
  • Back in olden days, 5 mW red and green lasers were as bright as they came, and the green ones were pricey. (
  • The Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite 2, or ICESat-2 , flew over the museum at the perfect time for its green lasers to be caught in action, streaming from orbit to Earth . (
  • Researchers conducted over 1,000 ignition experiments with powerful lasers, studying several variables that can contribute to an explosion. (
  • It's been the same with less powerful lasers, designed to knock down rockets and shells. (
  • While quantum dots have found use in medical imaging and are close to being used in photovoltaic cells and LEDs, researchers have been trying for a decade to use the semiconductor nanocrystals to make lasers. (
  • A chaotic semiconductor laser signal generates a very large amount of information. (
  • State-of-the-art semiconductor lasers can generate chaotic signals equivalent to one gigabyte of random bits per second, and potentially at least 10 times more than this," said Davis. (
  • A lot of chemists and biologists use ultrafast lasers, so it was important that our device be easy to use because non-laser scientists don't want to spend all day measuring their laser pulses," noted Bowlan. (
  • Light propagation in anisotropic materials, · Acusto-optical effects and modulators, · Electro-optical effects and modulators, · Non-linear interaction between light and matter, · Ultrafast optics, propagation of short laser pulses in dispersive non-linear media, · Basic laser safety. (
  • The teaching consists of lectures, two laboratory sessions (non-linear optics, ultrafast optics (titanium-sapphire laser)) including preparatory laser safety, group work and a project in optical design by means of a modern ray tracing program. (
  • Newer types of laser emit light in bursts. (
  • The device was described in a presentation at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics on May 8. (
  • Whether it's cutting, drilling, ablation, or structuring: TRUMPF's short and ultrashort pulse lasers provide a sophisticated tool for micro-processing. (
  • In Phase I of theresearch we will (i) evaluate various dyes, including lipophilic, 'sticky' dyes for surgical use, (ii) explorehow the fundamentals of laser-tissue interaction (thermal diffusion, photoacoustic effects) are modifiedb use of dyes and (iii) assess the clinical efficacy (ablation efficiency vrs tissue damage) of selectedlaser-dye combinations. (
  • TUESDAY, Oct. 3, 2023 (HealthDay News) -- Minimally invasive transperineal laser ablation (TPLA) of the prostate appears effective for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), according to a review published online Sept. 21 in Therapeutic Advances in Urology . (
  • As with any cosmetic procedure, laser patients come from mixed ethnicities, and this is important to inform your doctor of. (
  • This article will look at the reasons for getting laser eye surgery for AMD , how effective it is, and what the procedure involves. (
  • PDT is a newer procedure and is more precise than laser photocoagulation because it only targets unhealthy blood vessels without as much damage to surrounding tissue. (
  • One of the best things about the laser procedure is that the removed hair usually does not regrow. (
  • If you are considering a cosmetic laser procedure, make sure you discuss your expectations and whether you'd be a suitable candidate with your doctor. (
  • Densely distributed erythematous papules and pustules developed within the treated area within 2 weeks of the laser procedure. (
  • Fractionated CO 2 laser resurfacing is a widely used cosmetic procedure that minimizes the appearance of rhytides (skin wrinkles) and acne scars, and compared with older laser procedures, fractionated CO 2 resurfacing is associated with less downtime and a lower rate of infectious and noninfectious complications ( 7 - 9 ). (
  • Although aware of heat-induced collagen shrinkage during laser resurfacing procedure, whether this immediate shrinkage observed clinically persists or results in long-term collagen tightening is not known. (
  • The pulsed TRUMPF TruPulse nano fiber lasers with GTWave and PulseTune technology are some of the most versatile industrial lasers in the nanosecond range by far. (
  • Fractional laser resurfacing , or fractional photothermolysis (Fraxel), treats just a fraction of the skin. (
  • Theory of selective photothermolysis states that selective heating of the target chromophore can be achieved when using laser pulses shorter than the thermal relaxation time (TRT) of the chromophore (time required for chromophore to lose 50% of its heat to surrounding tissue). (
  • Using the theory of selective photothermolysis, carbon dioxide lasers with a pulse duration of less than 1 millisecond are capable of selectively vaporizing tissue with only a very thin zone of residual thermal necrosis measuring approximately 100 µm. (
  • The laser crams all of the energy of a continuous laser into a few femtoseconds, which creates really intense laser pulses," said Pam Bowlan, a graduate student supported by the Technological Innovation: Generating Economic Results (TI:GER) program. (
  • Because the laser pulses enter SEA TADPOLE through optical fibers, which only collect a very small portion of the light, the device naturally measures pulses with high spatial resolution and can measure them at a focus spot size smaller than a micron," explained Bowlan. (
  • Pulsed lasers from TRUMPF enable short, high-energy pulses at high pulse power. (
  • Some of these systems have a computerized pattern generator (CPG) that rapidly and precisely can place individual laser pulses in several different patterns. (
  • This scanner efficiently distributes laser energy into a train of pulses with a dwell time shorter than skin TRT, thus mimicking truly pulsed carbon dioxide lasers. (
  • In conventional lasers, the optical cavity determines the main characteristics of the laser emission: its geometry fixes the emission wavelengths and the lasing modes, as well as the direction of the laser emission. (
  • The HeNe laser has an emission that is determined by neon atoms by virtue of a resonant transfer of excitation of helium. (
  • A new practice guideline is setting a standard for doctors who use lasers to treat cutaneous vascular anomalies . (
  • The guideline , published on the ASLMS website along with supporting videos, was jointly developed by ASLMS, VBF, and an international group of clinicians, marking the first consensus guideline on laser treatments for cutaneous vascular anomalies. (
  • Cite this: New Guidelines for Laser Treatment of Cutaneous Vascular Anomalies - Medscape - Jul 26, 2023. (
  • Cutaneous laser surgery. (
  • Until the advent of cutaneous laser resurfacing in the late 1980s, physicians long had used mechanical abrasion and various chemical peeling agents to restore a youthful look to the aged face. (
  • While CO2 systems are still available for particularly thick materials, fiber lasers continue to gain ground thanks to being easier to operate and maintain. (
  • Eagle Lasers, leader of fiber laser cutting systems, will be participating in Fabtech 21, at McCormick Place in Chicago from September 13 to 16, 2021. (
  • North America's metal forming, fabricating, and welding event.Eagle Lasers will show all the advantages of the iNspire 1530 fiber laser cutting machine with a 20 kW laser source, the unmatched 6G acceleration, and the 9 secs pallet changer - unique in the industry. (
  • What is more, iNspire fiber laser machine with its own patented best-in-class eVa Laser Cutting Head will be operating live through a large variety of materials and thicknesses with the brand's premium software technologies like CatLine, FastLine, MixLine, CutEye, and Drop&Cut. (
  • Our instrument combines a miniature, solid-state fluid microdispenser, basedon ink jet printing technology, and a laser fiber in a slim, endoscopic instrument. (
  • For decades, the conventional wisdom was that you needed a high powered laser (as in instantly burning through the metal skin of a missile). (
  • The FiberLaser is being shipped in increasing numbers to the graphics arts market (through Polaroid) for thermal platesetting and imagesetting applications and is making inroads in displacing conventional laser systems in thermal marking and other material-processing applications. (
  • In the past, traditional carbon dioxide laser treatments removed the entire surface of the skin. (
  • Overall, delivering a 1-millisecond carbon dioxide laser pulse with an energy fluence of approximately 5 J/cm 2 leads to tissue vaporization measuring 20-30 µm and residual thermal injury measuring 40-120 µm. (
  • Two different types of carbon dioxide lasers are promoted for the purpose of skin resurfacing. (
  • First is a high-power pulsed carbon dioxide laser that can deliver approximately 500 µJ of energy in each submillisecond pulse, resulting in energy fluence measuring 5-7 J/cm 2 . (
  • they ablate less tissue per pass and leave behind a narrower zone of thermal necrosis than original carbon dioxide resurfacing lasers. (
  • Laser eye surgery reshapes the cornea, the clear front part of the eye. (
  • laser printing ensures that every speck of toner is applied to the page in exactly the right position, offering a precise, crisp finish. (
  • Laser vaporization offers a precise means of treating mouth lesions that reduces the potential for pain and scarring. (
  • These three beams come from 50 mW lasers. (
  • A mysterious spectacle of green laser beams in the sky was caught on video by motion-detecting cameras positioned outside Hiratsuka City Museum in Japan. (
  • The museum's motion detector footage is the first time the satellite's laser beams have been caught on camera, according to a NASA statement . (
  • On Sept. 16, 2022, motion-sensing cameras set up by Hiratsuka City Museum curator Daichi Fujii to capture meteors instead caught the laser beams of NASA's ICESat-2 satellite as it passed over Japan. (
  • Generally, the satellite's laser beams are difficult to spot from Earth. (
  • To achieve the highest possible intensity of the laser, the pulse must be as small as possible in space and as short as possible in time. (
  • The pulsed high-power laser, TruDisk Pulse, was specifically developed for the requirements of highly reflective materials, such as copper. (
  • Advances in lasers and fiberoptics have made them ideally suited to travel through routes in the human body where no hand or scalpel has gone before. (
  • Turning out critical components such as turbine-engine blades, nozzle guide vanes, shrouds, combustors, and even air frames increasingly depends on advances in multiaxis lasers that speed manufacturing, improve quality, and reduce part costs. (
  • Development of laser diagnostic techniques and extensive hardware development has led to rapid advances in a various other research fields the last decades. (
  • PMRD researchers have taken an experimental approach to help reduce the risk of ignition by lasers used in potentially explosive environments. (
  • Researchers also measured the time delays for producing laser ignitions, which can be used for designing automatic safety shutoffs. (
  • The problem is that they've always been impractical-that is, until the team of researchers came up with a device that could let masers over take lasers in the coolness race. (
  • Researchers from Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International (ATR) in Japan have found a way for two people in different locations to work out a cryptographic key using the signal from the rapidly and randomly fluctuating light signal of a chaotic laser. (
  • SANTA CLARA, Calif., Sept. 18, 2006 Researchers from Intel Corporation and the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) have built the world s first electrically powered Hybrid Silicon Laser using standard silicon manufacturing processes. (
  • Using lasers, NIDDK researchers showed droplets of saliva as people spoke. (
  • An important step towards next-generation ultra-compact photonic and optoelectronic devices has been taken with the realization of a two-dimensional excitonic laser. (
  • In addition to its photonic and optoelectronic applications, this 2D excitonic laser technology also has potential for valleytronic applications, in which digital information is encoded in the spin and momentum of an electron moving through a crystal lattice as a wave with energy peaks and valleys. (
  • While still far from becoming a commercial product, we believe dozens, maybe even hundreds of hybrid silicon lasers could be integrated with other silicon photonic components onto a single silicon chip. (
  • ISKRA-6 is a laser under investigation for future construction by VNIIEF which would be in the near-NIF and LMJ class of extremely high energy, high power frequency tripled Nd:glass lasers used to access the ignition regime of imploding DT fusion fuel capsules for nuclear weapons research. (
  • If the test resulted in an explosion, the laser power was reduced and the experiment was repeated. (
  • Laser ignition power thresholds for methane and coal dust were measured. (
  • Limiting the laser power to levels below the thresholds will minimize the risk of ignition. (
  • The quasi PT-symmetry design enables the creation of electrically pumped large-area edge-emitting lasers with high power single-mode emissions by selectively inducing loss on high-order modes. (
  • For our excitonic laser, we dropped the metal coating and designed a microdisk resonator that supports a dielectric whispering gallery mode rather than a plasmonic mode, and gives us a high Q factor with low power consumption," says co-lead author Ye. (
  • A persistent problem with combat lasers is generating sufficient electrical power to drive them. (
  • But the U.S. Army and Air Force have discovered that low power lasers can be pretty lethal battlefield weapons. (
  • That was thought to be potentially very useful, but the U.S. Department of Defense conducted lots of tests in the last five years, only to discover that these cheaper, easier to use (because of the lower power requirements) lasers were also not yet ready for prime time. (
  • Breakthroughs in battery power and laser design can eventually solve a lot of the existing problems. (
  • TRUMPF marking lasers, available in a variety of power classes, are the ideal addition to your laser marking systems. (
  • The high power densities of a pulsed laser produce nonthermal interactions with tissue, which is a useful adjunct to the primary purpose for which the laser is used (eg, in lithotripsy procedures). (
  • After seeing all the advancements in laser technology over the last few decades, who knows what might be possible with masers now that scientists have removed its barrier to research. (
  • For decades, I have observed adverse outcomes from the improper laser treatment of vascular birthmarks," Linda Rozell-Shannon, PhD , president and founder of the Vascular Birthmarks Foundation (VBF) said in a statement from the ASLMS . (
  • Pulsed lasers from TRUMPF have been used for welding a wide range of products and workpieces for decades. (
  • And for those not feeling the classic 'rolled up newspaper' approach, a scientist has come up with the world's first automated mosquito laser. (
  • More recently he worked on the mosquito laser, built from parts bought on eBay. (
  • It is important to realize that just because someone is board certified does not mean they are skilled in treating all conditions or using all lasers," Paul Friedman, MD , a dermatologist in Houston, and former president of ASLMS, said in the ASLMS statement. (
  • Lasers are an ever growing industry," says Hackensack, NJ, dermatologist David Goldberg, MD. "They have evolved so much since they were first introduced about 25 years ago-each generation is better and more effective than the last. (
  • Basically, the pigment in the skin can attract the laser energy and if used incorrectly, can cause discoloration," says Washington, DC, dermatologist Elizabeth Tanzi, MD. There's always the risk of pigment changes even if everything is done correctly. (
  • In this Letter, we achieve experimental control of the random laser spectral emission by optimization of the optical pump profile. (
  • Some photons are emitted spontaneously from the excited atoms or molecules that cause light to travel in all directions within the laser cavity. (
  • When atoms interact with strong laser fields, high-order harmonics are generated. (
  • And since nanocrystals are made in the form of bright solutions, the lasers could be built right into optical telecommunication fibers or deposited on lab-on-a-chip devices and silicon-based medical and chemical sensors. (
  • A lot of work was also done on lasers that can blind enemy sensors. (
  • This sort of thing has been around for years, but new, cheaper and more sensitive sensors are also more vulnerable to lasers. (
  • Meanwhile, lasers continue to proliferate as measuring tools (laser range finders) and sensors (ladar). (
  • For example, today's systems typically optimize motion parameters based on the components being produced, laser processing speeds, and the ability of workpiece sensors to detect and the controls to adaptively correct for part-to-part variations. (
  • The recent addition of laser-based sensors, termed Optical Focus Control (OFC), addresses limitations of capacitance sensors to 'side sense,' or detect part surfaces adjacent to the one being processed. (
  • Diode lasers represent a viable alternative to light sources used in many biomedical applications. (
  • For instance, integrated multiaxis laser systems move the nozzle via the main system axes, thus letting the user specify any desired direction of motion. (
  • Lasers come in numerous intensities and can treat just about any skin-related problem. (
  • According to the American Macular Degeneration Foundation, laser surgery can only treat 10-15% of the lesions caused by wet AMD. (
  • There are many different types of laser that can be used to treat different skin conditions. (
  • Both fully ablative and fractional laser resurfacing can be used for cosmetic skin rejuvenation and to treat problems such as scarring (e.g. from acne or burns) and sun damaged skin. (
  • Attempts have been made to treat the disease with systemic anticoagulation/antiaggregation therapy, transluminal laser embolysis and selective intra-arterial lysis of the clot [3]. (
  • Often used incorrectly, the term "laser" is actually an acronym for Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation. (
  • The HeNe laser is the most commonly used gas laser. (
  • helium-neon (HeNe) laser The most commonly used gas laser. (
  • In contrast, Indium Phosphide-based lasers are commonly used today in telecommunications equipment. (
  • The thermal effects of laser, which occur at 60-65ºC, are the most commonly used. (
  • The tendency of tissue to absorb laser energy determines the final effect of the laser. (
  • If you're seeking a modern and innovative approach to creating stunning jewelry pieces, laser technology is the answer! (
  • Earlier today, a report on a BMW forum made a reference to the laser lights technology for the BMW i8 coming this Fall in the US. (
  • Nevertheless, lasers progressed rapidly and became an omnipresent part of modern technology and procedural medicine. (
  • The most striking change in multiaxis laser technology over the last decade has been the degree of integration of subsystems. (
  • Explore the latest dental laser technology with BIOLASE's line of award-winning all-tissue and soft-tissue lasers and discover the benefits of laser dentistry. (
  • This aerosol-free best-seller dental laser features new software technology and a new cordless foot pedal, among other notable innovations. (
  • Laser hair removal uses intense pulsed light (IPL) - a type of non-ablative laser - to remove unwanted hair. (
  • This minimally invasive dental laser system features expanded and enhanced capabilities such as REPAIR protocols to give your patients the best possible experience, and give your practice an opportunity for practice growth. (
  • Poor treatment has been an issue in this field because no uniform guidelines existed to inform practice, according to a press release from the American Society for Laser Medicine and Surgery (ASLMS). (
  • Laser treatment has the same risks as open surgery, including pain, bleeding, and scarring. (
  • But recovery time from laser surgery is usually faster than recovery from open surgery. (
  • Lasers are also often used during skin surgery . (
  • For many people, laser eye surgery can correct their vision so they no longer need glasses or contact lenses. (
  • There are different types of laser eye surgery. (
  • Only your eye doctor can tell if you are a good candidate for laser eye surgery. (
  • Macular degeneration laser surgery: Does it work? (
  • People receive laser surgery for wet AMD, as it can seal the leaky blood vessels that cause the condition. (
  • In most cases of wet AMD, doctors try anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy before laser surgery. (
  • However, sometimes the eyes do not respond well to anti-VEGF drugs, in which case a person may need laser surgery. (
  • Laser surgery cannot reverse vision loss, but it can preserve current vision or prevent further loss. (
  • How does laser surgery work for wet AMD? (
  • There are several types of laser surgery for wet AMD. (
  • Laser photocoagulation is the oldest form of laser surgery for AMD. (
  • Is laser surgery an effective wet AMD treatment? (
  • Generally, a person can expect some further vision loss from photocoagulation surgery, as the laser can destroy some surrounding healthy tissue. (
  • Laser surgery is not a cure for AMD, but it can reduce symptoms. (
  • Who can have laser surgery? (
  • Many people with wet AMD can have laser surgery, but certain features of the condition may mean some have a better outcome than others. (
  • People with dry AMD typically do not need laser surgery. (
  • This is because dry AMD causes thinning of the retina, which laser surgery cannot help. (
  • Before someone undergoes laser surgery, a doctor will dilate the pupils using eye drops and examine the eye. (
  • What happens next will depend on which type of laser surgery a person receives. (
  • I'm doing procedures I would have never done without the BIOLASE laser such as soft tissue biopsies, periodontal surgery or REPAIR surgery, frenectomies, and so much more! (
  • Oral lesions treated with laser surgery include aphthous ulcers, lymphangiomas, hemangiomas, and verrucous carcinomas. (
  • The adoption of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) has remained relatively flat over the past few years. (
  • When considering a femtosecond laser for cataract surgery and devices like Zepto and miLOOP, I believe that there are certain cases where the pros outweigh the cons, even when accounting for the additional cost incurred. (
  • Unlike lasers, masers can pierce though cloud cover, living tissue, and other solid materials undisturbed. (
  • Unfortunately, laser photocoagulation also burns healthy tissue along with treating the leaky vessels, so it is used sparingly in very select cases. (
  • Waterlase iPlus is the market's best-selling and most advanced all-tissue laser. (
  • It is the easiest way to join the all tissue-laser revolution. (
  • ii)because surgeons can 'paint' the tissue withbrief burst of dye prior to each laser shot, they gain a new dimension of interactive control over theirlaser's impact on tissue. (
  • Laser light interacts with tissue to cause thermal, chemical, or mechanical effects. (
  • The chemical uses of laser are seen in photodynamic therapy in which a photosensitizer drug concentrates in neoplastic tissue and is then activated with laser light to release free oxygen radicals that destroy the abnormal tissue. (
  • All the above effects of laser are dependent on the type of laser used, as well as on the type of tissue, since a particular tissue may transmit, absorb, scatter or reflect the laser light. (
  • Confocal laser scanning microscopy is mainly used in biomedical sciences for high-resolution analysis of cell and tissue structures labeled with fluorescent markers. (
  • From employing multiple lasers to updatable cutting process libraries and moving and storing high volumes of material, systems are more flexible than ever. (
  • Red, green and violet lasers with a high enough output to trace a line in the night sky are all available these days for reasonable prices. (
  • A laser based on silicon could drive wider use of photonics in computers because the cost can be greatly reduced by using high-volume silicon manufacturing techniques. (
  • Another innovation introduced at the 2016 CES is a BMW K 1600 GTL bike with laser lights. (
  • However, lasers must not pose an ignition hazard when used in potentially flammable environments found in underground mines and surface facilities. (
  • Ablative laser therapy removes the outer, thin layers of skin and heats the deeper layers, causing collagen to shrink. (
  • Then Chu recounts his transition to Bell Labs and describes the laser work going on there at the time, as well as his burgeoning interest in beta decay experiments. (
  • For that, a researcher needs a femtosecond laser, says Klimov. (
  • With increasing data to suggest the benefit of FLACS, we are now seeing technologies that provide the benefits of a femtosecond laser but without the same capital investment. (
  • The femtosecond laser offers the ability to place corneal astigmatic incisions for which we can charge. (
  • The remaining benefits of the femtosecond laser (ie, imaging, femto-fragmentation, and capsulotomy) are included as part of the insurance coverage for the cataract extraction. (
  • The thermal effects of laser cutting, coagulation, and vaporization are made use of in the majority of laser applications at settings of 25 to 100 watts. (
  • In a laser, the energy source is usually electric or flashlamp driven. (
  • The course includes: interaction between light and matter, optical resonators, lasers and laser amplifiers. (