Laryngeal Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Larynx: A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.Vocal Cords: A pair of cone-shaped elastic mucous membrane projecting from the laryngeal wall and forming a narrow slit between them. Each contains a thickened free edge (vocal ligament) extending from the THYROID CARTILAGE to the ARYTENOID CARTILAGE, and a VOCAL MUSCLE that shortens or relaxes the vocal cord to control sound production.Vocal Cord Paralysis: Congenital or acquired paralysis of one or both VOCAL CORDS. This condition is caused by defects in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, the VAGUS NERVE and branches of LARYNGEAL NERVES. Common symptoms are VOICE DISORDERS including HOARSENESS or APHONIA.Laryngectomy: Total or partial excision of the larynx.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Gastroesophageal Reflux: Retrograde flow of gastric juice (GASTRIC ACID) and/or duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the distal ESOPHAGUS, commonly due to incompetence of the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER.Glottis: The vocal apparatus of the larynx, situated in the middle section of the larynx. Glottis consists of the VOCAL FOLDS and an opening (rima glottidis) between the folds.Esophageal pH Monitoring: Analysis of the HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION in the lumen of the ESOPHAGUS. It is used to record the pattern, frequency, and duration of GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.Fundoplication: Mobilization of the lower end of the esophagus and plication of the fundus of the stomach around it (fundic wrapping) in the treatment of GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX that may be associated with various disorders, such as hiatal hernia. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Esophagus: The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Esophagitis: INFLAMMATION, acute or chronic, of the ESOPHAGUS caused by BACTERIA, chemicals, or TRAUMA.Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine: A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Dideoxynucleosides: Nucleosides that have two hydroxy groups removed from the sugar moiety. The majority of these compounds have broad-spectrum antiretroviral activity due to their action as antimetabolites. The nucleosides are phosphorylated intracellularly to their 5'-triphosphates and act as chain-terminating inhibitors of viral reverse transcription.Infusions, Intra-Arterial: Regional infusion of drugs via an arterial catheter. Often a pump is used to impel the drug through the catheter. Used in therapy of cancer, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, infection, and peripheral vascular disease.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Fluorine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Larynx, Artificial: A device, activated electronically or by expired pulmonary air, which simulates laryngeal activity and enables a laryngectomized person to speak. Examples of the pneumatic mechanical device are the Tokyo and Van Hunen artificial larynges. Electronic devices include the Western Electric electrolarynx, Tait oral vibrator, Cooper-Rand electrolarynx and the Ticchioni pipe.Organ Sparing Treatments: Techniques, procedures, and therapies carried out on diseased organs in such a way to avoid complete removal of the organ and preserve the remaining organ function.Speech, Alaryngeal: Methods of enabling a patient without a larynx or with a non-functional larynx to produce voice or speech. The methods may be pneumatic or electronic.Speech, Esophageal: A method of speech used after laryngectomy, with sound produced by vibration of the column of air in the esophagus against the contracting cricopharyngeal sphincter. (Dorland, 27th ed)ChileArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Death, Sudden: The abrupt cessation of all vital bodily functions, manifested by the permanent loss of total cerebral, respiratory, and cardiovascular functions.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Bereavement: Refers to the whole process of grieving and mourning and is associated with a deep sense of loss and sadness.Coroners and Medical Examiners: Physicians appointed to investigate all cases of sudden or violent death.Forensic Pathology: The application of pathology to questions of law.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Literature, ModernConnecticutNasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Thyroid Gland: A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated: CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.Otolaryngology: A surgical specialty concerned with the study and treatment of disorders of the ear, nose, and throat.Cellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.WisconsinMiddle Ear Ventilation: Ventilation of the middle ear in the treatment of secretory (serous) OTITIS MEDIA, usually by placement of tubes or grommets which pierce the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Otitis Media with Effusion: Inflammation of the middle ear with a clear pale yellow-colored transudate.Professional Practice Location: Geographic area in which a professional person practices; includes primarily physicians and dentists.Hearing Loss, Conductive: Hearing loss due to interference with the mechanical reception or amplification of sound to the COCHLEA. The interference is in the outer or middle ear involving the EAR CANAL; TYMPANIC MEMBRANE; or EAR OSSICLES.

Elevation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and dependent signaling in human papillomavirus-infected laryngeal papillomas. (1/1167)

Laryngeal papillomas are benign tumors caused by human papillomaviruses types 6 and 11. This study addressed alterations in levels of signal transduction from the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in papillomas and cultured papilloma cells compared to normal tissue and cells. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was activated to a greater extent, phosphotyrosine was more abundant, and EGFR was overexpressed in laryngeal papillomas compared to normal laryngeal epithelium by Western blot analysis. The EGFR was 3 times more abundant in cultured papilloma cells than in normal laryngeal cells by Scatchard analysis and Western blot, without gene amplification or an increase in steady-state levels of mRNA. Following stimulation with EGF, a significant portion of the EGFR was recycled to the surface in papilloma cells, whereas in normal cells, it was not. Tyrosine kinase activity and activation of MAPK was more responsive to epidermal growth factor stimulation in papilloma cells than in uninfected primary laryngeal cells. PD153035, a specific inhibitor of the EGFR, and an EGFR-specific antibody that blocks ligand binding completely abrogated basal MAPK activation by endogenous ligands in laryngeal papilloma cells. These results demonstrated that infection of laryngeal epithelium by low-risk human papillomaviruses elevates the EGFR by posttranslational mechanisms, increasing its responsiveness to ligand-mediated activation. They also showed that MAPK activation in laryngeal papillomas depends upon ligand-mediated EGFR stimulation.  (+info)

Glutathione S-transferase GSTM3 and GSTP1 genotypes and larynx cancer risk. (2/1167)

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are involved in detoxification of reactive metabolites of carcinogens and, therefore, could be potentially important in susceptibility to cancer. The associations between larynx cancer risk and GSTM3 and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms, either separately or in combination with GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms, were evaluated using peripheral blood DNA from 129 cancer patients and 172 controls, all regular smokers. The frequencies of GSTM3 AA, AB, and BB genotypes were 60.5%, 36.4%, and 3.1% in cases and 72.7%, 24.4%, and 2.9% in controls, respectively. The frequencies of GSTP1 AA, AG, and GG genotypes were 48.1%, 40.3%, and 11.6% in cases and 50.0%, 37.2%, and 12.8% in controls, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analyses did not reveal any association between the GSTP1 (AG or GG) genotype and larynx cancer [odds ratio, 1.1; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.7-2.0]. In contrast, a significant increase in risk was related to the GSTM3 (AB or BB) genotype (odds ratio, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.4). The combined GSTM3 (AB or BB) and GSTM1-null genotype conferred a 4-fold risk (95% CI, 1.6-10.1) of larynx cancer as compared with the combined GSTM3 AA and GSTM1-positive genotype. However, the effect of GSTM3 (AB or BB) genotype was similar among individuals with GSTM1-positive or GSTM1-null genotypes.  (+info)

Concordant induction of cyclin E and p21cip1 in differentiated keratinocytes by the human papillomavirus E7 protein inhibits cellular and viral DNA synthesis. (3/1167)

Productive infections by human papillomaviruses (HPVs) occur only in differentiated keratinocytes in squamous epithelia in which the HPV E7 protein reactivates the host DNA replication machinery to support viral DNA replication. In a fraction of the differentiated keratinocytes, E7 also posttranscriptionally induces p21Cip1, which is distributed in a mutually exclusive manner with unscheduled cellular DNA synthesis. In this study, double immunofluorescence labeling unexpectedly revealed that E7 caused a concordant accumulation of both cyclin E and p21Cip1 to high levels in patient papillomas and in organotypic cultures of primary human keratinocytes. The induction of cyclin E is mutually exclusive with unscheduled cellular DNA synthesis or abundant viral DNA. These novel virus-host interactions in differentiated keratinocytes are in contrast to previous observations made in submerged proliferating cultures, in which HPV E7 induces cyclin E and overcomes p21Cip1 inhibition of S-phase entry. We propose that an appropriately timed induction of cyclin E/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 by HPV E7 in postmitotic cells enables S-phase reentry and HPV DNA amplification, whereas prematurely induced cyclin E stabilizes p21Cip1 protein, which then inhibits cyclin E/cyclin-dependent kinase 2. Consequently, cyclin E and p21Cip1 both fail to turn over, and DNA synthesis does not occur.  (+info)

Preradiotherapy computed tomography as a predictor of local control in supraglottic carcinoma. (4/1167)

PURPOSE: To determine the utility of pretreatment computed tomography (CT) for predicting primary site control in patients with supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pretreatment CT studies in 63 patients were reviewed. Minimum length of follow-up was 2 years. Local recurrence and treatment complications resulting in permanent loss of laryngeal function were documented. Tumor volume was calculated using a computer digitizer, and pre-epiglottic space (PES) spread was estimated. The data were analyzed using a combination of Fisher's exact test, logistic regression modeling, and multivariate analyses. Five-year local control rates were calculated using the product-limit method. RESULTS: Local control rates were inversely and roughly linearly related to tumor volume, although there seemed to be a threshold volume at which primary site prognosis diminished. Local control was 89% in tumors less than 6 cm3 and 52% when volumes were > or =6 cm3 (P = .0012). The likelihood of maintaining laryngeal function also varied with tumor volume: 89% for tumors less than 6 cm3 and 40% for tumors > or =6 cm3 (P = .00004). Pre-epiglottic space involvement by tumor of > or =25% was associated with a reduced chance of saving the larynx (P = .0076). Multivariate analyses revealed that only tumor volume independently altered these end points. CONCLUSION: Pretreatment CT measurements of tumor volume permits stratification of patients with supraglottic SCC treated with RT alone (which allows preservation of laryngeal function) into groups in which local control is more likely and less likely. Pre-epiglottic space spread is not a contraindication to using RT as the primary treatment for supraglottic SCC.  (+info)

Sternothoracotomy for combined coronary artery bypass grafting and left upper lobectomy in a patient with low-lying tracheostoma. (5/1167)

A 64-year-old man had a low-lying tracheostoma and presented with unstable angina and a mass in the pulmonary left upper lobe. Simultaneous coronary revascularization and resection of the lung neoplasm were completed through a sternothoracotomy (clam-shell) incision. The advantages of this approach include excellent exposure to the mediastinum and the lung fields, and the option of using both internal thoracic arteries for bypass grafting.  (+info)

Suppression of extracellular signals and cell proliferation by the black tea polyphenol, theaflavin-3,3'-digallate. (6/1167)

Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that the major green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), suppressed autophosphorylation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor induced by EGF in human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of black tea polyphenols, including theaflavin (TF-1), a mixture (TF-2) of theaflavin-3-gallate (TF-2a) and theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF-2b), theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF-3) and the thearubigin fraction on the autophosphorylation of the EGF and PDGF receptors in A431 cells and mouse NIH3T3 fibroblast cells, respectively. First, we examined the effects of these polyphenols on the proliferation of A431 and NIH3T3 cells. Both EGCG and TF-3 strongly inhibited the proliferation of A431 and NIH3T3 cells more than the other theaflavins did. In cultured cells with pre-treatment of tea polyphenol, TF-3 was stronger than EGCG on the reduction of EGF receptor and PDGF receptor autophosphorylation induced by EGF and PDGF, respectively. Other theaflavins slightly reduced the autophosphorylation of the EGF and PDGF receptors; furthermore, TF-3 could reduce autophosphorylation of the EGF receptor (or PDGF receptor) even with co-treatment with EGF (or PDGF) and TF-3, but EGCG was inactive under these conditions. In addition, TF-3 was stronger than EGCG in blocking EGF binding to its receptor. These results suggest that not only the green tea polyphenol, EGCG, but also the black tea polyphenol, TF-3, have an antiproliferative activity on tumor cells, and the molecular mechanisms of antiproliferation may block the growth factor binding to its receptor and thus suppress mitogenic signal transduction.  (+info)

The difference between delayed extubation and tracheostomy in post-operative sleep apnea after glossectomy or laryngectomy. (7/1167)

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer of the tongue or larynx require glossectomies or laryngectomies and subsequent reconstruction. These procedures remove part of the patient's upper airway. In cancer of the tongue, the removed part of the airway is substituted by a flap of their skin. Post-operatively, it is possible that the patients have problems respiring comfortably. In addition to this, long surgical procedures may simply interfere with their circadian rhythm. To elucidate the possible change in their post-operative respiration, we monitored the patient's respiratory pattern with an apnea monitor. METHODS: We attached an apnea monitor to the patients and recorded their respiratory pattern and arterial oxygen saturation. The patients were monitored for a total of five days: three days prior to the operation, one day before the operation, the day of operation, two days after, and on the fourth day after the operation. The period of monitoring was from 8:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m. the next morning. RESULTS: Sixteen patients completed this study. The patients whose tube was extubated after glossectomy showed frequent apnea, low mean oxygen saturation and low comfort score as compared to the patients with tracheostomy after laryngectomy. Because two failed cases of free skin flap were among the former, it is possible that the frequent apnea is a factor of failed free skin graft after glossectomy and laryngectomy. CONCLUSION: Further studies are required to improve the patient's respiration during their sleep after tracheal extubation in glossectomy.  (+info)

Differential protection against benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide-induced DNA damage in HepG2 cells stably transfected with allelic variants of pi class human glutathione S-transferase. (8/1167)

The pi class glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1-1), which is polymorphic in human populations, is believed to play an important role in detoxification of the ultimate carcinogen of widespread environmental pollutant benzo[a]pyrene [(+)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide [(+)-anti-BPDE]]. The allelic variants of human GSTP1-1 (hGSTP1-1) differ in their structures by the amino acids in positions 104 (isoleucine or valine) and/or 113 (valine or alanine). Here, we have determined the protective effect of overexpression of allelic variants of hGSTP1-1, through stable transfection in HepG2 cells, against (+)-anti-BPDE-induced DNA modification. Clonal transfectants of HepG2 cells corresponding to the three allelic variants of hGSTP1-1 [(I104,A113), (V104,A113), and (V104,V113), denoted hGSTP1(IA), hGSTP1(VA), and hGSTP1(VV), respectively] with similar levels of hGSTP1 protein were identified and characterized for their GST activity and (+)-anti-BPDE-induced DNA modification. The glutathione S-transferase activity toward (+)-anti-BPDE was significantly higher (approximately 3.0-3.6-fold) in cells transfected with hGSTP1(VA) [HepG2(VA)] and hGSTP1(VV) [HepG2(VV)] compared with hGSTP1(IA) transfectant [HepG2(IA)]. The formation of (+)-anti-BPDE-DNA adducts was significantly reduced in HepG2(VA) and HepG2(VV) cells compared with cells transfected with insert-free vector (HepG2-vect). Maximum protection against (+)-anti-BPDE-induced DNA damage was afforded by the hGSTP1(VV) isoform. The results of this study indicate that the allelic variants of hGSTP1-1 significantly differ in their ability to provide protection against (+)-anti-BPDE-induced DNA damage. Thus, hGSTP1-1 polymorphism may be an important factor in differential susceptibility of individuals to tumorigenesis induced by benzo[a]pyrene.  (+info)

  • BACKGROUND The objectives of this study were to identify factors associated with treatment differences, characterize changes in treatment patterns over time, and compare survival across treatment types in patients who received treatment for localized laryngeal cancer. (
  • METHODS Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, we conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of patients who were treated from 1995 to 2009 for localized laryngeal cancer. (
  • RESULTS In total, 10,429 patients with localized laryngeal cancer were identified. (
  • CONCLUSIONS Although treatment patterns became more adherent to treatment guidelines over time, we identified survival differences associated with treatment type that warrant further investigation into treatment decision-making for patients with localized laryngeal cancer. (
  • To test whether the distribution of AHH inducibility is shifted toward the high end of the range in patients who had lung and laryngeal cancer, we measured this trait in 59 patients (32 lung and 27 laryngeal) who had resectable tumors and had been disease-free for a period of time. (
  • in patients who had laryngeal cancer 2.96 +/- 0.18, and for all controls 3.29 +/- 0.04 (no significant difference at p = 0 05). (
  • Further analysis of the distribution of AHH inducibility in the patient group compared to controls showed no suggestion of a shift toward the higher end of the range in patients who had lung and laryngeal cancer. (
  • Laryngeal cancer stage 4 can be determined by the presence of a sufficiently extensive tumor, which occupies a relatively large area of ​​the organ with tissue infiltration. (
  • Laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinomas (LNECs) are rare but are the most common nonsquamous tumors of this organ, which can be divided into 2 broad categories based on their tissue of origin: epithelial and neural. (
  • Two imaging findings were considered as neoplastic invasion of the laryngeal cartilage-increased density and chondrolysis. (
  • EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A careful analysis of the Literature regarding the possible etiological role of the professional activity in laryngeal neoplasia has been carried out, focusing mainly on the years 1990-2017. (
  • art methods and reveals open issues and problems of computing solutions for analysis and identification of laryngeal disorders. (
  • Early identification of laryngeal neoplasms results in improved prognosis and functional outcomes. (
  • Recurrent laryngeal nerve stimulation is delivered by applying electric charge from an electrode in the form of a probe or an indwelling device to the intact neck skin at specific points. (
  • In conclusion, a laryngeal granuloma was detected in a racing thoroughbred mare by a multidisciplinary, clinical study involving endoscopy , as well as histopathologic and microbiologic studies. (
  • This study was conducted to determine the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT) to detect the neoplastic invasion of the laryngeal cartilages. (
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second case of laryngeal lipoma associated with lipomatosis to be reported in the English-language literature. (