The striated muscle groups which move the LARYNX as a whole or its parts, such as altering tension of the VOCAL CORDS, or size of the slit (RIMA GLOTTIDIS).
A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.
Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
Difficulty and/or pain in PHONATION or speaking.
Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.
A pair of cone-shaped elastic mucous membrane projecting from the laryngeal wall and forming a narrow slit between them. Each contains a thickened free edge (vocal ligament) extending from the THYROID CARTILAGE to the ARYTENOID CARTILAGE, and a VOCAL MUSCLE that shortens or relaxes the vocal cord to control sound production.
The process of producing vocal sounds by means of VOCAL CORDS vibrating in an expiratory blast of air.
Biological actions and events that support the functions of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
Paralysis caused by a neurotropic toxin secreted by the salivary glands of ticks.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A family of softbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include ARGAS and ORNITHODOROS among others.
A family of hardbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include DERMACENTOR and IXODES among others.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.
A genus of freshwater polyps in the family Hydridae, order Hydroida, class HYDROZOA. They are of special interest because of their complex organization and because their adult organization corresponds roughly to the gastrula of higher animals.

Myotube heterogeneity in developing chick craniofacial skeletal muscles. (1/197)

Avian skeletal muscles consist of myotubes that can be categorized according to contraction and fatigue properties, which are based largely on the types of myosins and metabolic enzymes present in the cells. Most mature muscles in the head are mixed, but they display a variety of ratios and distributions of fast and slow muscle cells. We examine the development of all head muscles in chick and quail embryos, using immunohistochemical assays that distinguish between fast and slow myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms. Some muscles exhibit the mature spatial organization from the onset of primary myotube differentiation (e.g., jaw adductor complex). Many other muscles undergo substantial transformation during the transition from primary to secondary myogenesis, becoming mixed after having started as exclusively slow (e.g., oculorotatory, neck muscles) or fast (e.g., mandibular depressor) myotube populations. A few muscles are comprised exclusively of fast myotubes throughout their development and in the adult (e.g., the quail quadratus and pyramidalis muscles, chick stylohyoideus muscles). Most developing quail and chick head muscles exhibit identical fiber type composition; exceptions include the genioglossal (chick: initially slow, quail: mixed), quadratus and pyramidalis (chick: mixed, quail: fast), and stylohyoid (chick: fast, quail: mixed). The great diversity of spatial and temporal scenarios during myogenesis of head muscles exceeds that observed in the limbs and trunk, and these observations, coupled with the results of precursor mapping studies, make it unlikely that a lineage based model, in which individual myoblasts are restricted to fast or slow fates, is in operation. More likely, spatiotemporal patterning of muscle fiber types is coupled with the interactions that direct the movements of muscle precursors and subsequent segregation of individual muscles from common myogenic condensations. In the head, most of these events are facilitated by connective tissue precursors derived from the neural crest. Whether these influences act upon uncommitted, or biased but not restricted, myogenic mesenchymal cells remains to be tested.  (+info)

Atrophy of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle as an indicator of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. (2/197)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscle is one of the intrinsic muscles of the larynx innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve. As such, recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy should not only result in paralysis of the true vocal cord or thyroarytenoid muscle but also in a similar change in the PCA muscle. The ability of CT and MR imaging to depict denervation atrophy in the PCA muscle in patients with recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy was evaluated. METHODS: Two investigators reviewed the CT and/or MR studies of 20 patients with a clinical history of vocal cord paralysis. The appearance of the PCA muscle was given a rating of 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4, with 0 being definitely normal and 4 being definitely abnormal or atrophic. Each study was also reviewed for the presence or absence of other features of vocal cord paralysis: thyroarytenoid muscle atrophy, anteromedial deviation of the arytenoid cartilage, an enlarged piriform sinus and laryngeal ventricle, and a paramedian cord. RESULTS: Atrophy of the PCA muscle was shown unequivocally in 65% of the cases and was most likely present in an additional 20%. The frequency with which other features of vocal cord paralysis were seen was as follows: thyroarytenoid atrophy, 95%; anteromedial deviation of the arytenoid cartilage, 70%; enlarged piriform sinus, 100%; enlarged laryngeal ventricle, 90%; and a paramedian cord, 100%. CONCLUSION: Atrophy of the PCA muscle may be commonly documented on CT and MR studies in patients with recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and vocal cord paralysis, and therefore should be part of the constellation of imaging features of vocal cord paralysis. This finding is particularly useful when other imaging findings of vocal cord paralysis are absent or equivocal.  (+info)

Electromyographic activity from human laryngeal, pharyngeal, and submental muscles during swallowing. (3/197)

The durations and temporal relationships of electromyographic activity from the submental complex, superior pharyngeal constrictor, cricopharyngeus, thyroarytenoid, and interarytenoid muscles were examined during swallowing of saliva and of 5- and 10-ml water boluses. Bipolar, hooked-wire electrodes were inserted into all muscles except for the submental complex, which was studied with bipolar surface electrodes. Eight healthy, normal, subjects produced five swallows of each of three bolus volumes for a total of 120 swallows. The total duration of electromyographic activity during the pharyngeal stage of the swallow did not alter with bolus condition; however, specific muscles did show a volume-dependent change in electromyograph duration and time of firing. Submental muscle activity was longest for saliva swallows. The interarytenoid muscle showed a significant difference in duration between the saliva and 10-ml water bolus. Finally, the interval between the onset of laryngeal muscle activity (thyroarytenoid, interarytenoid) and of pharyngeal muscle firing patterns (superior pharyngeal constrictor onset, cricopharyngeus offset) decreased as bolus volume increased. The pattern of muscle activity associated with the swallow showed a high level of intrasubject agreement; the presence of somewhat different patterns among subjects indicated a degree of population variance.  (+info)

Discharge characteristics of laryngeal single motor units during phonation in young and older adults and in persons with parkinson disease. (4/197)

Discharge characteristics of laryngeal single motor units during phonation in young and older adults, and in persons with Parkinson disease. The rate and variability of the firing of single motor units in the laryngeal muscles of young and older nondisordered humans and people with idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD) were determined during steady phonation and other laryngeal behaviors. Typical firing rates during phonation were approximately 24 s/s. The highest rate observed, during a cough, was 50 s/s. Decreases in the rate and increases in the variability of motor unit firing were observed in the thyroarytenoid muscle of older and IPD male subjects but not female subjects. These gender-specific age-related changes may relate to differential effects of aging on the male and female voice characteristics. The range and typical firing rates of laryngeal motor units were similar to those reported for other human skeletal muscles, so we conclude that human laryngeal muscles are probably no faster, in terms of their contraction speed, than other human skeletal muscles. Interspike interval (ISI) variability during steady phonation was quite low, however, with average CV of approximately 10%, with a range of 5 to 30%. These values appear to be lower than typical values of the CV of firing reported in three studies of limb muscles of humans. We suggest therefore that low ISI variability is a special although not unique property of laryngeal muscles compared with other muscles of the body. This conceivably could be the result of less synaptic "noise" in the laryngeal motoneurons, perhaps as a result of suppression of local reflex inputs to these motoneurons during phonation.  (+info)

Assessing the laryngeal cough reflex and the risk of developing pneumonia after stroke: an interhospital comparison. (5/197)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We sought to evaluate the efficacy of testing the laryngeal cough reflex in identifying pneumonia risk in acute stroke patients. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 400 consecutive acute stroke patients examined using the reflex cough test (RCT) compared with 204 consecutive acute stroke patients from a sister facility examined without using the RCT. The binary end point for the study outcome was the development of pneumonia. RESULTS: Of the 400 patients examined with the RCT, 5 developed pneumonia. Of the 204 patients examined without the RCT, 27 developed pneumonia (P<0.001). Three of the 27 patients died in the rehabilitation hospital of respiratory failure secondary to pneumonia. Seven others were transferred to the emergency department with acute respiratory distress. Power analysis for this comparison was 0.99. There were no other significant differences between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: A normal RCT after an acute stroke indicates a neurologically intact laryngeal cough reflex, a protected airway, and a low risk for developing aspiration pneumonia with oral feeding. An abnormal RCT indicates risk of an unprotected airway and an increased incidence of aspiration pneumonia. Alternate feeding strategies and preventive measures are necessary with an abnormal RCT. Clinical treatment algorithm and prescription of food, fluids, and medications are discussed on the basis of RCT results.  (+info)

Differential effects of clonidine on upper airway abductor and adductor muscle activity in awake goats. (6/197)

The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which alpha(2)-adrenoceptor (alpha(2)-AR) pathways affect the central motor output to upper airway muscles that regulate airflow. Electromyogram (EMG) measurements were made from posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA), cricothyroid (CT), thyroarytenoid (TA), and middle (MPC) and inferior (IPC) pharyngeal constrictor muscles in awake standing goats. Systemic administration of the alpha(2)-AR agonist clonidine induced a highly dysrhythmic pattern of ventilation in all animals that was characterized by alternating episodes of tachypnea and slow irregular breathing patterns, including prolonged and variable expiratory time intervals. Periods of apnea were commonly observed. Dysrhythmic ventilatory patterns induced by clonidine were associated with differential recruitment of upper airway muscles. alpha(2)-AR stimulation preferentially decreased the activity of the PCA, CT, and IPC muscles while increasing TA and MPC EMG activities. Clonidine-induced apneas were associated with continuous tonic activation of laryngeal (TA) and pharyngeal (MPC) adductors, leading to airway closure and arterial oxygen desaturation. Tonic activation of the TA and MPC muscles was interrupted only during the first inspiratory efforts after central apnea. Laryngeal abductor, diaphragm, and transversus abdominis EMG activities were completely silenced during apneic events. Ventilatory and EMG effects were reversed by selective alpha(2)-AR blockade with SKF-86466. The results demonstrate that alpha(2)-AR pathways are important modulators of central respiratory motor outputs to the upper airway muscles.  (+info)

Cisatracurium neuromuscular block at the adductor pollicis and the laryngeal adductor muscles in humans. (7/197)

We have compared the dose-response relationship (n = 30) and time course of neuromuscular block (n = 20) of cisatracurium at the laryngeal adductor and the adductor pollicis muscles. ED95 values for cisatracurium were 66.8 (95% confidence interval 61.3-72.3) micrograms kg-1 at the larynx and 45.2 (42.1-48.3) micrograms kg-1 at the adductor pollicis muscle (P < 0.0001). After administration of cisatracurium 0.1 mg kg-1, onset time was 2.7 (2.2-3.2) min at the larynx and 3.9 (3.0-4.8) min at the adductor pollicis (P < 0.0001). Time to 95% recovery of the first twitch of the TOF was 26.9 (20.1-33.7) min and 45.6 (39.7-51.5) min, respectively (P < 0.0001). We found that the laryngeal adductors were more resistant to the action of cisatracurium than the adductor pollicis muscle, but onset and recovery were faster at the larynx.  (+info)

Modulation of laryngeal responses to superior laryngeal nerve stimulation by volitional swallowing in awake humans. (8/197)

Laryngeal sensori-motor closure reflexes are important for the protection of the airway and prevent the entry of foreign substances into the trachea and lungs. The purpose of this study was to determine how such reflexes might be modulated during volitional swallowing in awake humans, when persons are at risk of entry of food or liquids into the airway. The frequency and the amplitude of laryngeal adductor responses evoked by electrical stimulation of the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (ISLN) were studied during different phases of volitional swallowing. Subjects swallowed water on command while electrical stimuli were presented to the ISLN at various intervals from 500 ms to 5 s following the command. Laryngeal adductor responses to unilateral ISLN stimulation were recorded bilaterally in the thyroarytenoid muscles using hooked wire electrodes. Early ipsilateral R1 responses occurred at 17 ms, and later bilateral R2 began around 65 ms. The muscle responses to stimuli occurring during expiration without swallowing were quantified as control trials. Responses to stimulation presented before swallowing, during the swallow, within 3 s after swallowing, and between 3 and 5 s after a swallow were measured. The frequency and amplitude of three responses (ipsilateral R1 and bilateral R2) relative to the control responses were compared across the different phases relative to the occurrence of swallowing. Results demonstrated that a reduction occurred in both the frequency and amplitude of the later bilateral R2 laryngeal responses to electrical stimulation for up to 3 s after swallowing (P = 0.005). The amplitude and frequency of ipsilateral R1 laryngeal responses, however, did not show a significant main effect following the swallow (P = 0.28), although there was a significant time by measure interaction (P = 0.006) related to reduced R1 response amplitude up to 3 s after swallowing (P = 0.021). Therefore, the more rapid and shorter unilateral R1 responses continued to provide some, albeit reduced, laryngeal protective functions after swallowing, whereas the later bilateral R2 responses were suppressed both in occurrence and amplitude for up to 3 s after swallowing. The results suggest that R2 laryngeal adductor responses are suppressed following swallowing when residues may remain in the laryngeal vestibule putting persons at increased risk for the entry of foreign substances into the airway.  (+info)

The laryngeal muscles are a group of skeletal muscles located in the larynx, also known as the voice box. These muscles play a crucial role in breathing, swallowing, and producing sounds for speech. They include:

1. Cricothyroid muscle: This muscle helps to tense the vocal cords and adjust their pitch during phonation (voice production). It is the only laryngeal muscle that is not innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Instead, it is supplied by the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve.
2. Posterior cricoarytenoid muscle: This muscle is primarily responsible for abducting (opening) the vocal cords during breathing and speaking. It is the only muscle that can abduct the vocal cords.
3. Lateral cricoarytenoid muscle: This muscle adducts (closes) the vocal cords during phonation, swallowing, and coughing.
4. Transverse arytenoid muscle: This muscle also contributes to adduction of the vocal cords, working together with the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle. It also helps to relax and lengthen the vocal cords during quiet breathing.
5. Oblique arytenoid muscle: This muscle is involved in adducting, rotating, and shortening the vocal cords. It works together with the transverse arytenoid muscle to provide fine adjustments for voice production.
6. Thyroarytenoid muscle (Vocalis): This muscle forms the main body of the vocal cord and is responsible for its vibration during phonation. The vocalis portion of the muscle helps control pitch and tension in the vocal cords.

These muscles work together to enable various functions of the larynx, such as breathing, swallowing, and speaking.

The larynx, also known as the voice box, is a complex structure in the neck that plays a crucial role in protection of the lower respiratory tract and in phonation. It is composed of cartilaginous, muscular, and soft tissue structures. The primary functions of the larynx include:

1. Airway protection: During swallowing, the larynx moves upward and forward to close the opening of the trachea (the glottis) and prevent food or liquids from entering the lungs. This action is known as the swallowing reflex.
2. Phonation: The vocal cords within the larynx vibrate when air passes through them, producing sound that forms the basis of human speech and voice production.
3. Respiration: The larynx serves as a conduit for airflow between the upper and lower respiratory tracts during breathing.

The larynx is located at the level of the C3-C6 vertebrae in the neck, just above the trachea. It consists of several important structures:

1. Cartilages: The laryngeal cartilages include the thyroid, cricoid, and arytenoid cartilages, as well as the corniculate and cuneiform cartilages. These form a framework for the larynx and provide attachment points for various muscles.
2. Vocal cords: The vocal cords are thin bands of mucous membrane that stretch across the glottis (the opening between the arytenoid cartilages). They vibrate when air passes through them, producing sound.
3. Muscles: There are several intrinsic and extrinsic muscles associated with the larynx. The intrinsic muscles control the tension and position of the vocal cords, while the extrinsic muscles adjust the position and movement of the larynx within the neck.
4. Nerves: The larynx is innervated by both sensory and motor nerves. The recurrent laryngeal nerve provides motor innervation to all intrinsic laryngeal muscles, except for one muscle called the cricothyroid, which is innervated by the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. Sensory innervation is provided by the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve and the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

The larynx plays a crucial role in several essential functions, including breathing, speaking, and protecting the airway during swallowing. Dysfunction or damage to the larynx can result in various symptoms, such as hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, or stridor (a high-pitched sound heard during inspiration).

The laryngeal nerves are a pair of nerves that originate from the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) and provide motor and sensory innervation to the larynx. There are two branches of the laryngeal nerves: the superior laryngeal nerve and the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

The superior laryngeal nerve has two branches: the external branch, which provides motor innervation to the cricothyroid muscle and sensation to the mucous membrane of the laryngeal vestibule; and the internal branch, which provides sensory innervation to the mucous membrane of the laryngeal vestibule.

The recurrent laryngeal nerve provides motor innervation to all the intrinsic muscles of the larynx, except for the cricothyroid muscle, and sensation to the mucous membrane below the vocal folds. The right recurrent laryngeal nerve has a longer course than the left one, as it hooks around the subclavian artery before ascending to the larynx.

Damage to the laryngeal nerves can result in voice changes, difficulty swallowing, and respiratory distress.

Dysphonia is a medical term that refers to difficulty or discomfort in producing sounds or speaking, often characterized by hoarseness, roughness, breathiness, strain, or weakness in the voice. It can be caused by various conditions such as vocal fold nodules, polyps, inflammation, neurological disorders, or injuries to the vocal cords. Dysphonia can affect people of all ages and may impact their ability to communicate effectively, causing social, professional, and emotional challenges. Treatment for dysphonia depends on the underlying cause and may include voice therapy, medication, surgery, or lifestyle modifications.

The Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve (RLN) is a branch of the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X), which is a mixed sensory, motor, and autonomic nerve. The RLN has important functions in providing motor innervation to the intrinsic muscles of the larynx, except for the cricothyroid muscle, which is supplied by the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve.

The recurrent laryngeal nerve supplies all the muscles that are responsible for adduction (bringing together) of the vocal cords, including the vocalis muscle, lateral cricoarytenoid, thyroarytenoid, and interarytenoid muscles. These muscles play a crucial role in voice production, coughing, and swallowing.

The right recurrent laryngeal nerve has a longer course than the left one. It loops around the subclavian artery in the chest before ascending to the larynx, while the left RLN hooks around the arch of the aorta. This anatomical course makes them vulnerable to injury during various surgical procedures, such as thyroidectomy and neck dissection, leading to potential voice impairment or vocal cord paralysis.

Laryngospasm, often mistakenly referred to as "laryngismus," is a medical condition characterized by an involuntary and sustained closure of the vocal cords (the structures that form the larynx or voice box). This spasm can occur in response to various stimuli, such as irritation, aspiration, or emotional distress, leading to difficulty breathing, coughing, and stridor (a high-pitched sound during inspiration).

The term "laryngismus" is not a widely accepted medical term; however, it may be used informally to refer to any condition affecting the larynx. The correct term for a prolonged or chronic issue with the larynx would be "laryngeal dyskinesia."

Vocal cords, also known as vocal folds, are specialized bands of muscle, membrane, and connective tissue located within the larynx (voice box). They are essential for speech, singing, and other sounds produced by the human voice. The vocal cords vibrate when air from the lungs is passed through them, creating sound waves that vary in pitch and volume based on the tension, length, and mass of the vocal cords. These sound waves are then further modified by the resonance chambers of the throat, nose, and mouth to produce speech and other vocalizations.

Phonation is the process of sound production in speech, singing, or crying. It involves the vibration of the vocal folds (also known as the vocal cords) in the larynx, which is located in the neck. When air from the lungs passes through the vibrating vocal folds, it causes them to vibrate and produce sound waves. These sound waves are then shaped into speech sounds by the articulatory structures of the mouth, nose, and throat.

Phonation is a critical component of human communication and is used in various forms of verbal expression, such as speaking, singing, and shouting. It requires precise control of the muscles that regulate the tension, mass, and length of the vocal folds, as well as the air pressure and flow from the lungs. Dysfunction in phonation can result in voice disorders, such as hoarseness, breathiness, or loss of voice.

Respiratory physiological processes refer to the functions and mechanisms involved in respiration, which is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between an organism and its environment. This process includes several steps:

1. Ventilation: The movement of air into and out of the lungs, driven by the contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.
2. External Respiration: The exchange of gases between the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries. Oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the blood, while carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the alveoli.
3. Transport of Gases: The circulation of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. Oxygen is carried by hemoglobin in red blood cells to the body's tissues, while carbon dioxide is carried as bicarbonate ions in plasma or dissolved in the blood.
4. Internal Respiration: The exchange of gases between the blood and the body's tissues. Oxygen diffuses from the blood into the cells, while carbon dioxide diffuses from the cells into the blood.
5. Cellular Respiration: The process by which cells convert glucose and oxygen into water, carbon dioxide, and energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). This process occurs in the mitochondria of the cell.

These processes are essential for maintaining life and are regulated to meet the body's changing metabolic needs.

Myosin Heavy Chains are the large, essential components of myosin molecules, which are responsible for the molecular motility in muscle cells. These heavy chains have a molecular weight of approximately 200 kDa and form the motor domain of myosin, which binds to actin filaments and hydrolyzes ATP to generate force and movement during muscle contraction. There are several different types of myosin heavy chains, each with specific roles in various tissues and cellular functions. In skeletal and cardiac muscles, for example, myosin heavy chains have distinct isoforms that contribute to the contractile properties of these tissues.

A muscle is a soft tissue in our body that contracts to produce force and motion. It is composed mainly of specialized cells called muscle fibers, which are bound together by connective tissue. There are three types of muscles: skeletal (voluntary), smooth (involuntary), and cardiac. Skeletal muscles attach to bones and help in movement, while smooth muscles are found within the walls of organs and blood vessels, helping with functions like digestion and circulation. Cardiac muscle is the specific type that makes up the heart, allowing it to pump blood throughout the body.

Muscle contraction is the physiological process in which muscle fibers shorten and generate force, leading to movement or stability of a body part. This process involves the sliding filament theory where thick and thin filaments within the sarcomeres (the functional units of muscles) slide past each other, facilitated by the interaction between myosin heads and actin filaments. The energy required for this action is provided by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Muscle contractions can be voluntary or involuntary, and they play a crucial role in various bodily functions such as locomotion, circulation, respiration, and posture maintenance.

Electromyography (EMG) is a medical diagnostic procedure that measures the electrical activity of skeletal muscles during contraction and at rest. It involves inserting a thin needle electrode into the muscle to record the electrical signals generated by the muscle fibers. These signals are then displayed on an oscilloscope and may be heard through a speaker.

EMG can help diagnose various neuromuscular disorders, such as muscle weakness, numbness, or pain, and can distinguish between muscle and nerve disorders. It is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests, such as nerve conduction studies, to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the nervous system.

EMG is typically performed by a neurologist or a physiatrist, and the procedure may cause some discomfort or pain, although this is usually minimal. The results of an EMG can help guide treatment decisions and monitor the progression of neuromuscular conditions over time.

Speech is the vocalized form of communication using sounds and words to express thoughts, ideas, and feelings. It involves the articulation of sounds through the movement of muscles in the mouth, tongue, and throat, which are controlled by nerves. Speech also requires respiratory support, phonation (vocal cord vibration), and prosody (rhythm, stress, and intonation).

Speech is a complex process that develops over time in children, typically beginning with cooing and babbling sounds in infancy and progressing to the use of words and sentences by around 18-24 months. Speech disorders can affect any aspect of this process, including articulation, fluency, voice, and language.

In a medical context, speech is often evaluated and treated by speech-language pathologists who specialize in diagnosing and managing communication disorders.

'Nervous system physiological phenomena' refer to the functions, activities, and processes that occur within the nervous system in a healthy or normal state. This includes:

1. Neuronal Activity: The transmission of electrical signals (action potentials) along neurons, which allows for communication between different cells and parts of the nervous system.

2. Neurotransmission: The release and binding of neurotransmitters to receptors on neighboring cells, enabling the transfer of information across the synapse or junction between two neurons.

3. Sensory Processing: The conversion of external stimuli into electrical signals by sensory receptors, followed by the transmission and interpretation of these signals within the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord).

4. Motor Function: The generation and execution of motor commands, allowing for voluntary movement and control of muscles and glands.

5. Autonomic Function: The regulation of internal organs and glands through the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system, maintaining homeostasis within the body.

6. Cognitive Processes: Higher brain functions such as perception, attention, memory, language, learning, and emotion, which are supported by complex neural networks and interactions.

7. Sleep-Wake Cycle: The regulation of sleep and wakefulness through interactions between the brainstem, thalamus, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain, ensuring proper rest and recovery.

8. Development and Plasticity: The growth, maturation, and adaptation of the nervous system throughout life, including processes such as neuronal migration, synaptogenesis, and neural plasticity.

9. Endocrine Regulation: The interaction between the nervous system and endocrine system, with the hypothalamus playing a key role in controlling hormone release and maintaining homeostasis.

10. Immune Function: The communication between the nervous system and immune system, allowing for the coordination of responses to infection, injury, or stress.

Muscle proteins are a type of protein that are found in muscle tissue and are responsible for providing structure, strength, and functionality to muscles. The two major types of muscle proteins are:

1. Contractile proteins: These include actin and myosin, which are responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscles. They work together to cause muscle movement by sliding along each other and shortening the muscle fibers.
2. Structural proteins: These include titin, nebulin, and desmin, which provide structural support and stability to muscle fibers. Titin is the largest protein in the human body and acts as a molecular spring that helps maintain the integrity of the sarcomere (the basic unit of muscle contraction). Nebulin helps regulate the length of the sarcomere, while desmin forms a network of filaments that connects adjacent muscle fibers together.

Overall, muscle proteins play a critical role in maintaining muscle health and function, and their dysregulation can lead to various muscle-related disorders such as muscular dystrophy, myopathies, and sarcopenia.

Smooth muscle, also known as involuntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and functions without conscious effort. These muscles are found in the walls of hollow organs such as the stomach, intestines, bladder, and blood vessels, as well as in the eyes, skin, and other areas of the body.

Smooth muscle fibers are shorter and narrower than skeletal muscle fibers and do not have striations or sarcomeres, which give skeletal muscle its striped appearance. Smooth muscle is controlled by the autonomic nervous system through the release of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and norepinephrine, which bind to receptors on the smooth muscle cells and cause them to contract or relax.

Smooth muscle plays an important role in many physiological processes, including digestion, circulation, respiration, and elimination. It can also contribute to various medical conditions, such as hypertension, gastrointestinal disorders, and genitourinary dysfunction, when it becomes overactive or underactive.

Skeletal muscle, also known as striated or voluntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is attached to bones by tendons or aponeuroses and functions to produce movements and support the posture of the body. It is composed of long, multinucleated fibers that are arranged in parallel bundles and are characterized by alternating light and dark bands, giving them a striped appearance under a microscope. Skeletal muscle is under voluntary control, meaning that it is consciously activated through signals from the nervous system. It is responsible for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and lifting objects.

Androgens are a class of hormones that are primarily responsible for the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics and reproductive function. Testosterone is the most well-known androgen, but other androgens include dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT).

Androgens are produced primarily by the testes in men and the ovaries in women, although small amounts are also produced by the adrenal glands in both sexes. They play a critical role in the development of male secondary sexual characteristics during puberty, such as the growth of facial hair, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass.

In addition to their role in sexual development and function, androgens also have important effects on bone density, mood, and cognitive function. Abnormal levels of androgens can contribute to a variety of medical conditions, including infertility, erectile dysfunction, acne, hirsutism (excessive hair growth), and prostate cancer.

"Sex characteristics" refer to the anatomical, chromosomal, and genetic features that define males and females. These include both primary sex characteristics (such as reproductive organs like ovaries or testes) and secondary sex characteristics (such as breasts or facial hair) that typically develop during puberty. Sex characteristics are primarily determined by the presence of either X or Y chromosomes, with XX individuals usually developing as females and XY individuals usually developing as males, although variations and exceptions to this rule do occur.

Skeletal muscle fibers, also known as striated muscle fibers, are the type of muscle cells that make up skeletal muscles, which are responsible for voluntary movements of the body. These muscle fibers are long, cylindrical, and multinucleated, meaning they contain multiple nuclei. They are surrounded by a connective tissue layer called the endomysium, and many fibers are bundled together into fascicles, which are then surrounded by another layer of connective tissue called the perimysium.

Skeletal muscle fibers are composed of myofibrils, which are long, thread-like structures that run the length of the fiber. Myofibrils contain repeating units called sarcomeres, which are responsible for the striated appearance of skeletal muscle fibers. Sarcomeres are composed of thick and thin filaments, which slide past each other during muscle contraction to shorten the sarcomere and generate force.

Skeletal muscle fibers can be further classified into two main types based on their contractile properties: slow-twitch (type I) and fast-twitch (type II). Slow-twitch fibers have a high endurance capacity and are used for sustained, low-intensity activities such as maintaining posture. Fast-twitch fibers, on the other hand, have a higher contractile speed and force generation capacity but fatigue more quickly and are used for powerful, explosive movements.

A smooth muscle within the vascular system refers to the involuntary, innervated muscle that is found in the walls of blood vessels. These muscles are responsible for controlling the diameter of the blood vessels, which in turn regulates blood flow and blood pressure. They are called "smooth" muscles because their individual muscle cells do not have the striations, or cross-striped patterns, that are observed in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. Smooth muscle in the vascular system is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and by hormones, and can contract or relax slowly over a period of time.

"Xenopus laevis" is not a medical term itself, but it refers to a specific species of African clawed frog that is often used in scientific research, including biomedical and developmental studies. Therefore, its relevance to medicine comes from its role as a model organism in laboratories.

In a broader sense, Xenopus laevis has contributed significantly to various medical discoveries, such as the understanding of embryonic development, cell cycle regulation, and genetic research. For instance, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded in 1963 to John R. B. Gurdon and Sir Michael J. Bishop for their discoveries concerning the genetic mechanisms of organism development using Xenopus laevis as a model system.

Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is a sex hormone and androgen that plays a critical role in the development and maintenance of male characteristics, such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass. It is synthesized from testosterone through the action of the enzyme 5-alpha reductase. DHT is essential for the normal development of the male genitalia during fetal development and for the maturation of the sexual organs at puberty.

In addition to its role in sexual development, DHT also contributes to the growth of hair follicles, the health of the prostate gland, and the maintenance of bone density. However, an excess of DHT has been linked to certain medical conditions, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and androgenetic alopecia (male pattern baldness).

DHT exerts its effects by binding to androgen receptors in various tissues throughout the body. Once bound, DHT triggers a series of cellular responses that regulate gene expression and influence the growth and differentiation of cells. In some cases, these responses can lead to unwanted side effects, such as hair loss or prostate enlargement.

Medications that block the action of 5-alpha reductase, such as finasteride and dutasteride, are sometimes used to treat conditions associated with excess DHT production. These drugs work by reducing the amount of DHT available to bind to androgen receptors, thereby alleviating symptoms and slowing disease progression.

In summary, dihydrotestosterone is a potent sex hormone that plays a critical role in male sexual development and function. While it is essential for normal growth and development, an excess of DHT has been linked to certain medical conditions, such as BPH and androgenetic alopecia. Medications that block the action of 5-alpha reductase are sometimes used to treat these conditions by reducing the amount of DHT available to bind to androgen receptors.

Muscle development, also known as muscle hypertrophy, refers to the increase in size and mass of the muscles through a process called myofiber growth. This is primarily achieved through resistance or strength training exercises that cause micro-tears in the muscle fibers, leading to an inflammatory response and the release of hormones that promote muscle growth. As the muscles repair themselves, they become larger and stronger than before. Proper nutrition, including adequate protein intake, and rest are also essential components of muscle development.

It is important to note that while muscle development can lead to an increase in strength and muscular endurance, it does not necessarily result in improved athletic performance or overall fitness. A well-rounded exercise program that includes cardiovascular activity, flexibility training, and resistance exercises is recommended for optimal health and fitness outcomes.

Tick paralysis is a condition caused by the saliva of certain species of tick that contains neurotoxins. When the tick feeds on the host's blood, the toxin is absorbed, leading to progressive ascending muscle weakness and eventually respiratory failure if not promptly treated. The symptoms typically begin in the lower extremities and progress upward, often within 2-7 days after attachment of the tick. Removal of the attached tick usually leads to improvement in symptoms and full recovery within a few days. It is more commonly seen in children and pets than adults.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Argasidae is a family of ticks commonly known as soft ticks. These ticks differ from hard ticks (Ixodidae) in that they do not have a hard, shield-like plate on their backs and have a softer, leathery cuticle. Soft ticks are also characterized by their mouthparts being located at the end of a prolonged, flexible proboscis.

Soft ticks are primarily parasites of birds and bats but can occasionally feed on humans and other mammals. They are known to transmit several diseases, including relapsing fever caused by various species of Borrelia bacteria. Unlike hard ticks, soft ticks may feed for a short period (minutes) or over extended periods (hours to days), depending on the species.

It is important to note that Argasidae is a medical term used in taxonomy and should not be confused with medical conditions or treatments.

Ixodidae is a family of arachnids commonly known as hard ticks. Here's a more detailed medical definition:

Ixodidae is a family of tick species, also known as hard ticks, which are obligate ectoparasites of many different terrestrial vertebrates, including mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. They have a hard, shield-like structure on their dorsal surface called the scutum, and a prominent mouthpart called the hypostome, which helps them anchor themselves onto their host's skin during feeding.

Hard ticks are vectors of various bacterial, viral, and protozoan diseases that can affect both humans and animals. Some of the diseases transmitted by Ixodidae include Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, and tularemia.

Ixodidae species have a complex life cycle that involves three developmental stages: larva, nymph, and adult. Each stage requires a blood meal from a host to progress to the next stage or to reproduce. The length of the life cycle varies depending on the species and environmental conditions but can take up to several years to complete.

Proper identification and control of Ixodidae populations are essential for preventing tick-borne diseases and protecting public health.

A medical definition of "ticks" would be:

Ticks are small, blood-sucking parasites that belong to the arachnid family, which also includes spiders. They have eight legs and can vary in size from as small as a pinhead to about the size of a marble when fully engorged with blood. Ticks attach themselves to the skin of their hosts (which can include humans, dogs, cats, and wild animals) by inserting their mouthparts into the host's flesh.

Ticks can transmit a variety of diseases, including Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and babesiosis. It is important to remove ticks promptly and properly to reduce the risk of infection. To remove a tick, use fine-tipped tweezers to grasp the tick as close to the skin's surface as possible and pull upward with steady, even pressure. Do not twist or jerk the tick, as this can cause the mouthparts to break off and remain in the skin. After removing the tick, clean the area with soap and water and disinfect the tweezers.

Preventing tick bites is an important part of protecting against tick-borne diseases. This can be done by wearing protective clothing (such as long sleeves and pants), using insect repellent containing DEET or permethrin, avoiding wooded and brushy areas with high grass, and checking for ticks after being outdoors.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nymph" does not have a medical definition. In general, nymph is a term used in mythology to refer to a minor nature deity typically represented as an attractive maiden or beautiful young woman who animates nature and is often associated with various natural phenomena.

If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to help if you could provide more information.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hydra" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. Hydra is a genus of small, simple aquatic animals, belonging to the class Hydrozoa in the phylum Cnidaria. They are named after the multi-headed creature from Greek mythology due to their ability to regenerate lost body parts.

If you're looking for a medical term related to hydra, one possibility could be "Hydralazine," which is a medication used to treat high blood pressure. It works by relaxing the muscle in the walls of blood vessels, causing them to widen and the blood to flow more easily.

I hope this information is helpful! If you have any other questions or need clarification on a different topic, please let me know.

Laryngeal muscles. This results in an altered 'voice' and an increased risk of aspiration pneumonia (inhalation of food, saliva ... The toxin or toxins paralyze muscle tissue; in particular: Skeletal muscles. This results in the overt paralysis for which the ... Heart muscle. This results in congestive heart failure and pulmonary oedema, seen also as labored breathing. Spring is the peak ... Respiratory muscles. Initially this results in rapid, shallow breathing with an inability to cough. In advanced stages it is ...
"Attempts at Evaluation of the Function of various Laryngeal Muscles in the Light of Muscle and Nerve Stimulation Experiments in ... He did his PhD thesis on electromyography of laryngeal muscles in 1967 in Egypt. Later he moved to Norway, where he did a ... Kotby's research interest was focused on understanding the function of the small internal laryngeal muscles and the ... Kotby, M. N. (March 1969). "Electromyography of the laryngeal muscles". Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. 26 ...
Each is overlapped on either side by laryngeal muscles. The conus elasticus (which means elastic cone in Latin) is the lateral ... Cricothyroid ligament Cricothyroid ligament Cricothyroid ligament Cricothyroid ligament Muscles, nerves and arteries of neck. ...
... and are sometimes described as a separate muscle. This muscle's function is to widen the laryngeal inlet. This article ... Muscles of the head and neck, All stub articles, Muscle stubs). ... considerable number of the fibers of the thyroarytenoid muscle ... They have received a distinctive name, thyroepiglotticus or thyroepiglottic muscle, ...
It may be life-threatening as it involves reflex closure of the laryngeal muscles and thus results in inability to ventilate ... Laryngospasm is characterized by involuntary spasms of the laryngeal muscles. It is associated with difficulty or inability to ...
"Intrinsic laryngeal muscles are spared from myonecrosis in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy". Muscle & Nerve ... The intrinsic laryngeal muscles (ILMs) are protected and do not undergo myonecrosis. ILMs have a calcium regulation system ... Muscle weakness usually begins around the age of four, and worsens quickly. Muscle loss typically occurs first in the thighs ... DMD causes progressive muscle weakness due to muscle fiber disarray, death, and replacement with connective tissue or fat. The ...
Schmidt, R.S. (1972). "Action of intrinsic laryngeal muscles during release calling in leopard frog". Journal of Experimental ... In addition, vocalizing muscles can make up 15% of a male spring peeper's body mass, while the same muscles are only 3% of ... In addition, their release calls and movements of their throats and sides are correlated with laryngeal calling movements. For ...
This weakens the laryngeal muscles, and results in a smoother voice. A language disorder is an impairment in the ability to ... Some examples include: increasing awareness of muscles around the mouth increasing awareness of oral postures improving muscle ... The difficulties are not due to weakness of muscles, but rather on coordination between the brain and the specific parts of the ... Therapeutic exercises must focus on planning, sequencing, and coordinating the muscle movements involved in speech production. ...
Flint PW, Shiotani A, O'Malley BW (March 1999). "IGF-1 gene transfer into denervated rat laryngeal muscle". Archives of ... In addition, associated injuries, like injury to bone, muscle and skin, can make nerve recovery more difficult. The level of ... PTEN Muscle LIM protein Microtubule detyrosination Myelinogenesis Neuroprotection Spinal cord injury research Kandel ER, ... Other evidence suggests that gene-therapy induced expression of neurotrophic factors within the target muscle itself can also ...
Breathing difficulties can occur, resulting from neuromyotonic activity of the laryngeal muscles. Laryngeal spasm possibly ... In one of the few reported cases, the subject presented with muscle weakness and fatigue, muscle twitching, excessive sweating ... In vivo electrophysiological studies suggest at least some dysfunction of the muscle cell membrane. In the examined muscles, no ... In 1890, Morvan described a patient with myokymia (muscle twitching) associated with muscle pain, excessive sweating, and ...
Because of the increased muscle tension of the paralaryngeal and laryngeal muscles, the larynx will be elevated on palpation. ... "The Assessment Methods of Laryngeal Muscle Activity in Muscle Tension Dysphonia: A Review". The Scientific World Journal. 2013 ... The goal of voice therapy is to encourage proper vocal used and decrease the tension of the laryngeal muscles. Examples of ... It is caused by increased tension of the laryngeal muscles secondary to personality traits such as anxiety or life factors such ...
MG's dominant characteristic is muscles weakness including facial, jaw, pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles. Charcot-Marie-Tooth ( ... Post-surgical intervention is warranted to restore laryngeal muscle strength, agility and coordination. Due to the complex and ... Electromyography of the larynx muscles (larynx EMG), which measures the electrical activity of the larynx muscles via thin ... These conditions result from continuous damage to the laryngeal nerves and often lead to vocal disability. Recurrent laryngeal ...
... and because of contraction of laryngeal and because of contraction of thyroarytenoid muscles. The consequence of this is that ... Where there is impairment in laryngeal vestibule sensation, silent aspiration (entry of material to the airway that does not ... because the aryepiglottic muscles contract; because of the passive weight of the food pushing down; ...
It belongs to the infrahyoid muscles group and the outer laryngeal muscle group.: 567-568 Its superior attachment is the ... 709 The thyrohyoid muscle is the only infrahyoid muscle that is not innervated via the ansa cervicalis. The muscle is provided ... 538 the sternohyoid muscle,: 538 and the superior portion of the omohyoid muscle.: 538 The thyrohyoid muscle depresses and ... The thyrohyoid muscle is a small skeletal muscle of the neck. Above, it attaches onto the greater cornu of the hyoid bone; ...
The tumor infiltrates into infrahyoid muscles, trachea, oesophagus, recurrent laryngeal nerve, carotid sheath, etc. The tumor ... be present are pain in the anterior region of the neck and changes in voice due to an involvement of the recurrent laryngeal ...
Tobias, M. L.; Marin, M. L.; Kelley, D. B. (1993). "The roles of sex, innervation and androgen in laryngeal muscle fibers of ... The roles of sex, innervation and androgen in laryngeal muscle fibers of Xenopus laevis, J. Neurosci. 13, 324 - 331. Fischer, L ... Catz, Diana S.; Fischer, Leslie M.; Kelley, Darcy B. (1995). "Androgen Regulation of a Laryngeal-Specific Myosin Heavy Chain ... Vocal circuitry in Xenopus laevis; telencephalon to laryngeal motor neurons. J. Comp. Neurol. 464:115-130. Yamaguchi, A. and ...
Sensitivity of elastic properties to measurement uncertainties in laryngeal muscles with implications for voice fundamental ... Individual subject laryngeal dimensions of multiple mammalian species for biomechanical models. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2005 ... Individual subject laryngeal dimensions of multiple mammalian species for biomechanical models. Ann.Otol.Rhinol.Laryngol. 114 ( ... Refinements in modeling the passive properties of laryngeal soft tissue. J Appl Physiol. 2007 Jul;103(1):206-19. PMID 17412782 ...
Laryngeal musculature relaxation techniques: Laryngeal muscles surround the vocal folds and by relaxing them, there is reduced ... of another male or sibling Excessive maternal protection Laryngeal muscle tension which then causes laryngeal elevation Muscle ... This allows the patient to practice using a lower pitch and also to relax the laryngeal muscles. Half swallow boom technique: ... The habitual use of a high pitch while speaking is associated with tense muscles surrounding the vocal folds. Assessment and ...
The superior laryngeal nerve innervates the cricothyroid muscle. A superior laryngeal nerve palsy changes the pitch of the ... and the external laryngeal nerve (its motor branch) which innervates the cricothyroid muscle. The superior laryngeal nerve ... the external laryngeal nerve and the internal laryngeal nerve. The external laryngeal nerve is the smaller, external branch. It ... The superior laryngeal nerve produces of two branches: the internal laryngeal nerve (its sensory branch) which supplies sensory ...
... muscles innervated by recurrent laryngeal nerve) and the vocal cords contract to shut the larynx. The abdominal muscles ... When triggered, impulses travel via the internal laryngeal nerve, a branch of the superior laryngeal nerve which stems from the ... The reflex is impaired in the person whose abdominals and respiratory muscles are weak. This problem can be caused by disease ... The mechanism of a cough is as follows: Diaphragm (innervated by phrenic nerve) and external intercostal muscles (innervated by ...
Physiologically, the glottis is closed by intrinsic laryngeal muscles such as the lateral cricoarytenoid, thyroarytenoid, and ... These muscles act on the arytenoid cartilages at the posterior ends of the vocal cords and are innervated by the left and right ... The strap muscles, pharynx, and larynx are dissected to expose the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage. A permanent ... A suture is used to emulate the action of the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle and position the paralyzed vocal cord closer to the ...
By overstressing or by asymmetrically contracting the laryngeal muscles, a multiphonic or chord may be produced.[citation ...
"Onset and duration of rocuronium and succinylcholine at the adductor pollicis and laryngeal adductor muscles in anesthetized ... They act as the primary receptor in muscle for motor nerve-muscle communication which signals muscle contractions. Under normal ... This is caused by the fasciculations (muscle twitches) that appear in sites such as intercostal muscles, and the diaphragm. ... where patients often experience muscle pain similar to that of post-exercise muscle pain mainly in the shoulders, neck, neck ...
Airflow from the lungs, as well as laryngeal muscle contraction, causes movement of the vocal folds. It is the properties of ... and respiratory muscles. Precise and expeditious timing of these muscles is essential for the production of temporally complex ... During forced expiration for speech, muscles of the trunk and abdomen reduce the size of the thoracic cavity by compressing the ... Forced inspiration for speech uses accessory muscles to elevate the rib cage and enlarge the thoracic cavity in the vertical ...
... recurrent laryngeal nerve branches that innervate the thyroarytenoid muscle during the last stage of expiration; (3) the ... The activated muscles resist stretch through their own intrinsic biomechanical properties, providing a rapid form of length and ... Goslow GE Jr.; Reinking RM; Stuart DG (1973). "The cat step cycle: hind limb joint angles and muscle lengths during ... Hiebert GW, Whelan PJ, Prochazka A, Pearson KG (1996). "Contribution of hind limb flexor muscle afferents to the timing of ...
The laryngeal and pharyngeal muscles located in the throat make prosody and intonation difficult to understand for people with ... For example, in those with autism, pathways running through to the middle ear muscles make it difficult for the person to focus ... Raising eyelids was also found to hinder the stapedius muscle by tensing it, which in turn makes it difficult for these ...
Laryngeal electromyography is a test that measures the electrical signals from the voice box muscles (laryngeal muscles) during ... paralysis resulting in loss of muscle function, and the functionality of the motor unit of the laryngeal muscles. Laryngeal ... Individuals who develop this syndrome tend to speak or perform with poor breath support and laryngeal muscle tension. Causes ... "Muscle Tension Dysphonia". University of Pittsburg. Department of Otolaryngology. Retrieved 17 December 2020. "Laryngeal ...
The intrinsic laryngeal muscles are responsible for moving the arytenoid cartilages as well as modulating the tension of the ... These phonemes are then coordinated into a sequence of muscle commands that can be sent to the muscles, and when these commands ... These phonemes are then coordinated into a sequence of muscle commands that can be sent to the muscles, and when these commands ... The arm, for example, has seven degrees of freedom and 22 muscles, so multiple different joint and muscle configurations can ...
In 1983, he was diagnosed with a laryngeal muscle disorder and did not return to the stage until 1986. In 2015 and 2019, he ...
Surgeries involve myoectomies of the laryngeal muscles to reduce voice breaks, and laryngoplasties, in which laryngeal ... The most common laryngeal diagnoses among the elderly are polyps, laryngopharyngeal reflux, muscle tension dysphonia, vocal ... Laryngeal stroboscopy is the primary clinical tool used for this purpose. Laryngeal stroboscopy uses a synchronized flashing ... which has been used to reduce tension and massage hyoid-laryngeal muscles. This area is often tense from chronic elevation of ...
BackgroundThe diagnosis of microinvasive laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (mLSCC) is not always straightforward and sometimes ... The Role of α-Smooth Muscle Actin in Confirming the Microinvasion of Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma ... A total of eighty-one laryngeal biopsy samples from patients of underwent laryngeal mass evaluation, which included 41 cases of ... Payne J, Koopmann CF, Jr.. Laryngeal carcinoma--or is it laryngeal blastomycosis. The Laryngoscope 1984, 94(5 Pt 1):608-611. ...
Laryngeal muscles. This results in an altered voice and an increased risk of aspiration pneumonia (inhalation of food, saliva ... The toxin or toxins paralyze muscle tissue; in particular: Skeletal muscles. This results in the overt paralysis for which the ... Heart muscle. This results in congestive heart failure and pulmonary oedema, seen also as labored breathing. Spring is the peak ... Respiratory muscles. Initially this results in rapid, shallow breathing with an inability to cough. In advanced stages it is ...
... muscles, and nerves. Lets know details about these laryngeal components. ... Dog vocalis muscle. The dog vocalis muscle is the medial division of the thyroarytenoideus muscle. Another name for this muscle ... The caudal laryngeal nerve of the dogs larynx. Except for the cricothyroideus muscle, most intrinsic muscles are innervated by ... What is the laryngeal vestibule in a dog?. The laryngeal vestibule is the funnel-shaped structure in the laryngeal cavity of a ...
The incidence of laryngeal tumors is closely correlated with smoking, as head and neck tumors occur 6 times more often among ... Laryngeal cancer is the most common cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract. ... The superior laryngeal nerve innervates the cricothyroid muscle, an extrinsic laryngeal muscle that tenses the true vocal cords ... The recurrent laryngeal nerve innervates the intrinsic laryngeal muscles. Damage to this nerve causes hoarseness clinically and ...
TENS should not be placed over the anterior neck, because laryngospasm due to laryngeal muscle contraction may occur. ... Cutaneous stimulation from patella tape causes a differential increase in vasti muscle activity in people with patellofemoral ... Modifications of baropodograms after transcutaneous electric stimulation of the abductor hallucis muscle in humans standing ... electrical muscle stimulation, ultrasound, and thermotherapy. Spine J. 2008 Jan-Feb. 8(1):226-33. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
... which could someday be an option for treating laryngeal paralysis. ... Optogenetics can stimulate the larynx muscles of mice, ... However, laryngeal muscles are part of the skeletal musculature ... which allows to control movements as well as muscle strength precisely. In addition, unlike heart muscle, skeletal muscles can ... The functional principle: the rear laryngeal muscles are genetically modified so that they open the air passage when exposed to ...
... spasms of the jaw and laryngeal muscles may occur during the late stages) ...
Upper part of laryngeal cavity. *Extends from laryngeal inlet, superiorly, to a pair of mucosal folds (vestibular folds), ... muscles of the larynx move the larynx as a whole (elevation and depression) ... The laryngeal ventricle mucosa contains numerous mucous glands, which are the source of lubricating mucus for the ____ ______. ... The action of the ______ muscles tilt the thyroid cartilage forward to increase distance between thyroid and arytenoid ...
Spasmodic dysphonia, also called laryngeal dystonia, involves the muscles that control the vocal cords, resulting in strained ... sudden, brief involuntary twitching or jerking of a muscle or group of muscles (called myoclonus) ... The muscles in the neck that control the position of the head are affected, causing the head to turn to one side or to be ... and patterned muscle contractions of varying severity resulting in sustained spasms of masticatory muscles, affecting the jaws ...
Effects of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor on Restoration of Thyroarytenoid Muscle Atrophy Caused by Recurrent Laryngeal Nerves ... Exploring the Neural Bases of Primary Muscle Tension Dysphonia (pMTD): A Case Study using fMRI. Authors: Nelson Roy, PhD; ...
On July 24, based on the presence of fever, muscle spasms after external stimulation, laryngeal spasms, and muscle atrophy, ... and worsening muscle soreness. On July 17, he showed symptoms of dysphagia, hearing loss, and incoherent speech and was ...
TENS should not be placed over the anterior neck, because laryngospasm due to laryngeal muscle contraction may occur. ... Cutaneous stimulation from patella tape causes a differential increase in vasti muscle activity in people with patellofemoral ... Modifications of baropodograms after transcutaneous electric stimulation of the abductor hallucis muscle in humans standing ... electrical muscle stimulation, ultrasound, and thermotherapy. Spine J. 2008 Jan-Feb. 8(1):226-33. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
Severe spasms of the laryngeal and pharyngeal muscles may occur, and the contractions may be strong enough to close the airway ... who suffer from spastic and tense muscles, weak muscle activation and related pain. The device is recommended to be used every ... The Exopulse Mollii Suit uses a proprietary, customizable stimulation pattern to release spastic muscles by reactivating their ... The Exopulse Mollii Suit uses a proprietary, customizable stimulation pattern to release spastic muscles by reactivating their ...
The laryngeal muscle arytenoideus obliquus and the risorius in the face, both also thought to be uniquely human, are also ... One of these is the fibularis tertius (sometimes called peroneus tertius) muscle, a leg muscle near the base of the foot that ... and the risorius is a facial muscle along the jaw (highlighted in red below). Previously, these muscles were thought to have ... Uniquely Human Muscles Found in Apes Switches Up Evolutionary Dogma. These are unverifiable just-so stories. ...
Laryngeal Muscle use Laryngeal Muscles Laryngeal Muscles Laryngeal Neoplasm use Laryngeal Neoplasms ... Laryngeal Cancer use Laryngeal Neoplasms Laryngeal Cancers use Laryngeal Neoplasms Laryngeal Cartilage use Laryngeal Cartilages ... Laryngeal Epithelium use Laryngeal Mucosa Laryngeal Granuloma use Granuloma, Laryngeal Laryngeal Granulomas use Granuloma, ... Laryngeal Nerve Contusions use Laryngeal Nerve Injuries Laryngeal Nerve Injuries Laryngeal Nerve Injury use Laryngeal Nerve ...
Dyk ned i forskningsemnerne om One-to-one innervation of vocal muscles allows precise control of birdsong. Sammen danner de ... One-to-one innervation of vocal muscles allows precise control of birdsong. ...
The disease also affects the muscles used to swallow or breath, resulting in laryngeal paralysis to some degree.. ​The ... Ongoing Laryngeal Paralysis-Polyneuropathy Research. The tests for LPN1, LPN2, and LPPN3 do not account for all confirmed or ... Until additional DNA-based test(s) are developed, the only way to confirm a suspected diagnosis of laryngeal paralysis is via ... Neurological disorders such as laryngeal paralysis and polyneuropathy were reported in 6% of the 2019 LHFI Health Survey sample ...
Salivation is excessive, and attempts to drink cause painful spasms of the laryngeal and pharyngeal muscles (hydrophobia). In ...
When injected, BTX blocks nerve signals to muscles so they relax. ... When injected, BTX blocks nerve signals to muscles so they ... This weakens the muscles and improves voice quality. It is not a cure for laryngeal dystonia, but can help ease the symptoms. ... When injected, BTX blocks nerve signals to muscles so they relax.. BTX is the toxin that causes botulism, a rare but serious ... An EMG machine records the movement of your vocal cord muscles through tiny electrodes placed on your skin. This helps your ...
Without an intact RLN, the laryngeal muscles will not be able to open the vocal folds (to breathe or to cough), to close the ... Vocal fold movements result from the coordinated contraction of a complicated system of laryngeal muscles. An injury to the ... This may occur alone or in combination with an injury to the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN). Laryngeal electromyography (EMG) ... After three months, their first patient had evidence on laryngeal EMG of denervation of both the RLN and the SLN. This implies ...
2] , the manual suture of pre-laryngeal muscles is unnecessary to reinforce the suture of the pharynx; the IPOLFG performs it ... The most frequent presenting symptoms of laryngeal cancer were dyspnea and dysphonia. In 28.7% of cases, dyspnea led to ...
Laryngeal Muscles. View Article. Anatomy Video Lectures. START NOW FOR FREE.. *Vem ager sveriges dyraste lagenhet ... The muscles that govern abduction are the posterior cricoarytenoid muscles. 2017-12-04 · Larynx Anatomy Quiz: Cartilages and ... what is labelled the arytenoid muscle is generally called the inter-arytenoid muscle supraglottis: extends from the tip of the ... muscles, and mucous membrane, which guards the entrance to the lower respiratory passages (trachea, bronchi, and lungs) and ...
NOTE: The laryngeal muscles and bronchial muscles are related to the Laryngeal Asthma Constellation and Bronchial Asthma ... If the related conflicts (scare-fright conflict and territorial fear conflict) also involve the laryngeal or bronchial muscles ... Brain and Organ Level: The corresponding brain relays are the control centers of the laryngeal mucosa (left temporal lobe) and ... with the impact of the related conflicts in the control centers of the laryngeal mucosa (left temporal lobe) and bronchial ...
Palavras-chave : Airway Obstruction [complications]; Ambulatory Surgical Procedures; Laryngeal Muscles. · resumo em Português ...
Laryngeal Muscle use Laryngeal Muscles Laryngeal Muscles Laryngeal Neoplasm use Laryngeal Neoplasms ... Laryngeal Spasm use Laryngismus Laryngeal Spasms use ... Laryngeal Mask use Laryngeal Masks Laryngeal Mask Airway use ... Laryngeal Cancer use Laryngeal Neoplasms Laryngeal Cancers use Laryngeal Neoplasms Laryngeal Cartilage use Laryngeal Cartilages ... Laryngeal Epithelium use Laryngeal Mucosa Laryngeal Granuloma use Granuloma, Laryngeal Laryngeal Granulomas use Granuloma, ...
Muscle activation times facing to a perturbation in patients with early-stage Parkinsons disease. Moya-Jofré, C., Valencia, O. ... Muscle coactivation. A proposal to calculate its index utilising Python. //Coactivación Muscular. Una Propuesta para Calcular ... Temporal differences in the myoelectric activity of lower limb muscles during rearfoot and forefoot running: A statistical ...
Laryngeal muscles express extraocular and limb muscle MyHCs but shift towards slower MyHCs in large animals. During postnatal ... Thyroid hormone shifts 2A MyHC towards 2B in jaw, laryngeal muscles and possibly extraocular muscles. ... This review deals with the developmental origins of extraocular, jaw and laryngeal muscles, the expression, regulation and ... Jaw-closing muscles express the high-force masticatory MyHC, cardiac or limb MyHCs depending on the appropriateness for the ...
... the upper pole of the thyroid and the cricothyroid muscle was opened to identify the external branch of the superior laryngeal ... The overlying strap muscles were dissected off the thyroid. The strap muscles on the affected side were retracted using an Army ... Berti P, Materazzi G, Conte M, Galleri D, Miccoli P. Visualization of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve ... Recurrent laryngeal nerve function was assessed with preoperative and postoperative fiberoptic laryngoscopy. Postoperative ...
A repetitive, rhythmic neural oscillator sends some messages to laryngeal muscles. This causes those muscles to twitch at a ... It is a repetitive, rhythmic neural oscillator that sends specific messages to laryngeal muscles. Those muscles twitch at a ...
  • The secondary outcome measures were operative time, incidence of temporary and permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, postoperative hematoma formation, length of incision, and duration of hospital stay. (ispub.com)
  • There were no statistically significant differences between both procedures for presence of transient recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and hypoparathyroidism. (ispub.com)
  • Anatomy of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), posterior view. (medscape.com)
  • Right lateral view of the superior and recurrent laryngeal nerves. (medscape.com)
  • Right lateral view of the superior and recurrent laryngeal nerve with the thyroid lamina removed. (medscape.com)
  • Quick overview: a dog's larynx is a musculocartilagenious structure that mainly consists of 5 laryngeal cartilages. (anatomylearner.com)
  • There are different intrinsic muscles in the larynx that covers these cartilages. (anatomylearner.com)
  • You will find different muscles in the structure of the canine larynx structure. (anatomylearner.com)
  • Again, all these abovementioned muscles from the dog larynx are also identified in the labeled diagram. (anatomylearner.com)
  • Optogenetics can stimulate the larynx muscles of mice, which could someday be an option for treating laryngeal paralysis. (laserfocusworld.com)
  • Researchers at the University of Bonn (Germany) have found a way to stimulate the larynx muscles of mice using optogenetics , which could someday be an option for treating laryngeal paralysis, a condition that causes difficulties in phonation and breathing. (laserfocusworld.com)
  • The larynx plays an important role in speaking and swallowing, but most importantly in breathing: when you breathe, the muscles of the larynx pull the vocal cords apart so that air can flow into the lungs. (laserfocusworld.com)
  • Unfortunately, electrical stimulators aren't all that effective in restoring larynx function "because there are different muscles with opposite function close together," explains Dr. Tobias van Bremen, an ear, nose, and throat doctor and one of the co-authors of the study. (laserfocusworld.com)
  • The oblique arytenoids are bilateral muscles within the larynx, the hollow muscular organ that holds the vocal chords, and the risorius is a facial muscle along the jaw (highlighted in red below). (inverse.com)
  • INTRODUCTION The LARYNX is an apparatus made up of cartilage, ligaments, muscles, and mucous membrane, which guards the entrance to the lower respiratory passages (trachea, bronchi, and lungs) and houses the vocal cords. (web.app)
  • 4 Apr 2021 This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Larynx Anatomy, Laryngeal Anatomy, Larynx, Vocal Cords. (web.app)
  • Death, if it occurs, usually results from airway obstruction caused by laryngeal edema or bronchospasm and may be associated with cardiovascular collapse. (cdc.gov)
  • supraglottis: extends from the tip of the epiglottis to the laryngeal ventricle. (web.app)
  • In a few years, for instance, people with laryngeal paralysis could benefit from it. (laserfocusworld.com)
  • Laryngeal paralysis can occur after thyroid operations and during other pathological processes that affect the laryngeal nerves. (laserfocusworld.com)
  • The disease also affects the muscles used to swallow or breath, resulting in laryngeal paralysis to some degree. (leohealth.org)
  • Neurological disorders such as laryngeal paralysis and polyneuropathy were reported in 6% of the 2019 LHFI Health Survey sample. (leohealth.org)
  • The LHFI continues to support research at the Universities of Bern and Minnesota to locate the genes responsible for the remaining LPPNs (Laryngeal Paralysis and Polyneuropathy). (leohealth.org)
  • The tests for LPN1, LPN2, and LPPN3 do not account for all confirmed or suspected cases of laryngeal paralysis and polyneuropathy. (leohealth.org)
  • But you might also identify other different structures (discussed in the next section) from each laryngeal cartilage of the dogs. (anatomylearner.com)
  • The muscles that govern abduction are the posterior cricoarytenoid muscles. (web.app)
  • Anatomy of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN), left lateral view. (medscape.com)
  • Salivation is excessive, and attempts to drink cause painful spasms of the laryngeal and pharyngeal muscles (hydrophobia). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Our detailed analysis shows that in fact, every muscle that has long-been accepted as 'uniquely human' and providing 'crucial singular functional adaptations' for our bipedalism, tool use, and vocal and facial communications is actually present in the same or similar form in bonobos and other apes, such as common chimpanzees and gorillas. (inverse.com)
  • Previously, these muscles were thought to have evolved to provide humans with our sophisticated vocal and facial communication skills. (inverse.com)
  • BTX is injected into the muscles around the vocal cords. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An EMG machine records the movement of your vocal cord muscles through tiny electrodes placed on your skin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your provider will use a long, curved needle to inject directly into the vocal cord muscles. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Muscles respond to nerve stimulation by contracting. (laserfocusworld.com)
  • polyneuropathy is diagnosed via a nerve and muscle biopsy. (leohealth.org)
  • When injected, BTX blocks nerve signals to muscles so they relax. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) branches from the main trunk of the vagus high in the neck. (medscape.com)
  • In approximately 20% of individuals, the external branch is under the inferior constrictor muscle and cannot be visualized, but it can be stimulated using a nerve probe. (medscape.com)
  • 2. The flap was dissected superiorly until the middle of the muscle, approximately 1 cm distal to the entry point of the spinal accessory nerve into the muscle (Figure 1). (who.int)
  • The corresponding brain relays are the control centers of the laryngeal mucosa (left temporal lobe) and the bronchial mucosa (right temporal lobe), located opposite each other in the cerebral cortex. (learninggnm.com)
  • This brain scan of a right-handed female shows a Flying Constellation ( view the GNM diagram ) with the impact of the related conflicts in the control centers of the laryngeal mucosa (left temporal lobe) and bronchial mucosa (right temporal lobe). (learninggnm.com)
  • The laryngeal muscle arytenoideus obliquus and the risorius in the face, both also thought to be uniquely human, are also present in chimpanzees and gorillas. (inverse.com)
  • The interstitium surrounding muscles can handle ot the brain centers also serves to the inclined plane two-dimensional the plasma. (chdouglas.com)
  • A total of 81 laryngeal biopsy specimens were retrieved, including 41 cases of mLSCC with depth of invasion no more than 3 mm, 20 laryngeal SIL, and 20 PEH. (researchsquare.com)
  • I will also discuss these 5 transverse segments of the laryngeal cavity. (anatomylearner.com)
  • Depending on where we point the light beam, we can also stimulate individual muscle groups--exactly the same way the body does it through the nerves. (laserfocusworld.com)
  • Fast muscle fibers are preferentially affected in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. (uiowa.edu)
  • Structure-activity relationships in rodent diaphragm muscle fibers vs. neuromuscular junctions. (uiowa.edu)
  • Secretomotor fibers are also in the internal laryngeal branch of the SLN. (medscape.com)
  • It seems the animal had relaxed its laryngeal muscles a bit in an ambitious effort to swallow the oversized sole. (earthtouchnews.com)
  • From this tissue arise the infrahyoid muscles, the sternocleidomastoid-trapezius muscle complex, the muscles of the floor of the mouth, and the muscles of the tongue. (medscape.com)
  • The external branch descends to the region of the superior pole of the thyroid and travels medially along the inferior constrictor muscle (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • It is almost impossible to stimulate these muscles individually using electrodes. (laserfocusworld.com)
  • With 58 embedded electrodes, each controlled by up to 30 settings, you can precisely target stimulation to up to 40 key muscle groups throughout the body - and potentially deliver significant improvement in patients' mobility and pain symptoms in as little as an hour. (ottobock.com)
  • However, laryngeal muscles are part of the skeletal musculature, "and skeletal muscles follow different rules," says Dr. Philipp Sasse, who led the work. (laserfocusworld.com)
  • For instance, each fiber in a skeletal muscle can contract separately, which allows to control movements as well as muscle strength precisely. (laserfocusworld.com)
  • In addition, unlike heart muscle, skeletal muscles can perform static contractions if they are repeatedly stimulated at high frequency. (laserfocusworld.com)
  • Also passing through this foramen is the superior laryngeal artery. (medscape.com)
  • The diagnosis of microinvasive laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (mLSCC) is not always straightforward and sometimes can be very challenge in daily clinical practice, particularly in the circumstances with differentials such as SIL with inverted growth pattern and PEH. (researchsquare.com)
  • Our study highlights practical role of utilizing α-SMA in the diagnosis of microinvasive laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, with emphasis on variable histomorphologic features of mLSCCs. (researchsquare.com)
  • Sometimes you may find the intraarytenoid and sesamoid cartilages in the laryngeal structure of a dog. (anatomylearner.com)
  • The branchial motor axons in the external branch of the SLN supply the inferior constrictor muscles and the cricothyroid muscles. (medscape.com)
  • 5. The overlying fascia and the remaining inferior constrictor muscle were closed using simple interrupted sutures. (who.int)
  • During further development, the sinus of His becomes obliterated and, in the adult, represents the angle between the dorsal surface of the strap muscles and the anterior margin of the sternocleidomastoid. (medscape.com)
  • Effectiveness of sternocleidomastoid muscle flap in preventing of pharyngocutaneous fistula after total laryngectomy: An Open-label Clinical Trial. (who.int)
  • 7. The lateral edge of the cut muscle was sutured to the contralateral SCM muscle. (who.int)
  • The risorius is a muscle of facial expression. (inverse.com)
  • The tongue is unique in that it is the only muscle that isn't connected to bone at both ends. (web.app)
  • The Exopulse Mollii Suit uses a proprietary, customizable stimulation pattern to release spastic muscles by reactivating their weakened antagonists, using a technique called reciprocal inhibition. (ottobock.com)
  • Differences between forelimb muscles of chimps, bonobos, and humans highlight in color. (inverse.com)
  • As a common malignant otorhinolaryngologic neoplasm, laryngeal cancer accounts for 90% of malignancies occurring in head and neck region [ 1 , 2 ]. (researchsquare.com)
  • The prognosis of advanced laryngeal cancer is currently not optimal [ 4 ]. (researchsquare.com)
  • Fibroblasts activated in the tumor microenvironment, named as myofibroblasts, peritumoral fibroblasts or cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), has been found typically expressing α-SMA and sharing some characteristics of fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells [ 7 ]. (researchsquare.com)
  • Exclusion criteria: Patients were required to have a preoperative hemoglobin level of 12.5 gm/dL or higher, and those with early-stage laryngeal cancer. (who.int)
  • Unlike most standard spasticity treatments, this combined approach uses the body's own natural reflex mechanisms to rebalance muscle activity - and may help patients move more freely, safely, and with less pain. (ottobock.com)
  • Distinct mechanisms regulate slow-muscle development. (uiowa.edu)
  • So, let's continue the article to learn more about these laryngeal components from dogs. (anatomylearner.com)
  • Of such, squamous cell carcinoma is the most common neoplasm accounting for more than 95% of all the laryngeal carcinoma [ 1 , 3 ]. (researchsquare.com)
  • It is a repetitive, rhythmic neural oscillator that sends specific messages to laryngeal muscles. (petsmont.com)
  • 6. The released part of the muscle was reflected to the contralateral side to fully cover the suture line of the neopharynx (Figure 3). (who.int)
  • We observed the presence of α-SMA positive fibroblasts in mLSCC, compared the results with that of laryngeal SIL and benign PEH by Chi-square statistics test, and investigated the correlation between tumor histological characteristics and the presence of CAFs in mLSCC. (researchsquare.com)
  • But optogenetics uses a group of molecules known as channelrhodopsins (ion channels that open when illuminated) that, when appropriately packaged and injected into a muscle, integrate into individual muscle cells. (laserfocusworld.com)
  • As soon as these cells are exposed to light, the channels open and positively charged ions flow into the muscle cell, which then contracts. (laserfocusworld.com)
  • The functional principle: the rear laryngeal muscles are genetically modified so that they open the air passage when exposed to light. (laserfocusworld.com)
  • The similarity in head muscles between chimps, bonobos, and humans. (inverse.com)
  • if we see in organizations and its form and weak, and ileum, but not enter muscles. (chdouglas.com)
  • Myosin heavy chain expression in mouse extraocular muscle: more complex than expected. (uiowa.edu)
  • One of these is the fibularis tertius (sometimes called peroneus tertius) muscle, a leg muscle near the base of the foot that was present in half of bonobos. (inverse.com)
  • In this study, we sought to evaluate the diagnostic role of α-SMA labelling CAFs in mLSCC, with comparison of laryngeal squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) and benign pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia (PEH). (researchsquare.com)
  • On this page we are posted for you Muscle targeted by pulldowns WSJ crossword answers, cheats, walkthroughs and solutions. (naehrat.de)
  • The consequences of this is bad science: Diogo and his colleagues, illustrating this point, revisited muscles thought to be "uniquely human" in the bodies and faces of several ape species, only to find that they actually do exist in our evolutionary relatives. (inverse.com)