Larva Migrans: Infections caused by nematode larvae which never develop into the adult stage and migrate through various body tissues. They commonly infect the skin, eyes, and viscera in man. Ancylostoma brasiliensis causes cutaneous larva migrans. Toxocara causes visceral larva migrans.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Chironomidae: A family of nonbiting midges, in the order DIPTERA. Salivary glands of the genus Chironomus are used in studies of cellular genetics and biochemistry.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Ascaridoidea: A superfamily of polymyarian nematode worms. An important characteristic of this group is the presence of three prominent lips around the mouth of the organism.Anisakis: A genus of nematodes of the superfamily ASCARIDOIDEA. Its organisms are found in the stomachs of marine animals and birds. Human infection occurs by ingestion of raw fish that contain larvae.Anisakiasis: Infection with roundworms of the genus ANISAKIS. Human infection results from the consumption of fish harboring roundworm larvae. The worms may cause acute NAUSEA; VOMITING; or penetrate into the wall of the DIGESTIVE TRACT where they give rise to EOSINOPHILIC GRANULOMA in the STOMACH; INTESTINES; or the OMENTUM.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Trichinella: A genus of parasitic nematodes that causes TRICHINELLOSIS in man and other animal.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Bacillus thuringiensis: A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.Culex: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Gnathostoma: A genus of parasitic nematodes that occurs in mammals including man. Infection in humans is either by larvae penetrating the skin or by ingestion of uncooked fish.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Ascaridida Infections: Infections with nematodes of the order ASCARIDIDA.Nematode Infections: Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Hemocytes: Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.Bombyx: A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Trichinella spiralis: A parasite of carnivorous mammals that causes TRICHINELLOSIS. It is especially common in rats and in swine fed uncooked garbage. Human infection is initiated by the consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked pork or other meat containing the encysted larvae.Simuliidae: Several species of the genus Simulium (family Simuliidae) that act as intermediate hosts (vectors) for the parasitic disease ONCHOCERCIASIS.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Spirurida Infections: Infections with nematodes of the order SPIRURIDA.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Fat Body: A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Hymenoptera: An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Angiostrongylus: A genus of parasitic nematodes of the superfamily METASTRONGYLOIDEA. Two species, ANGIOSTRONGYLUS CANTONENSIS and A. vasorum, infest the lungs of rats and dogs, respectively. A. cantonensis is transmissible to man where it causes frequently fatal infection of the central nervous system.Toxocara: A genus of ascarid nematodes commonly parasitic in the intestines of cats and dogs.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Urochordata: A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Molting: Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Flatfishes: Common name for the order Pleuronectiformes. A very distinctive group in that during development they become asymmetrical, i.e., one eye migrates to lie adjacent to the other. They swim on the eyeless side. FLOUNDER, sole, and turbot, along with several others, are included in this order.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Metastrongyloidea: A superfamily of nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA. Characteristics include a fluid-filled outer layer of cuticle and a reduced mouth and bursa.Artemia: A genus of CRUSTACEA of the order ANOSTRACA, found in briny pools and lakes and often cultured for fish food. It has 168 chromosomes and differs from most crustaceans in that its blood contains hemoglobin.Strongyle Infections, Equine: Infection of horses with parasitic nematodes of the superfamily STRONGYLOIDEA. Characteristics include the development of hemorrhagic nodules on the abdominal peritoneum.Entomology: A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.Strongyloidea: A superfamily of strongyles or roundworms which are parasites in the intestinal tract of equines, pigs, rodents, and primates (including man). It includes the genera Cyasthostomum, Ransomus, Globocephalus, OESOPHAGOSTOMUM, and STRONGYLUS.Angiostrongylus cantonensis: A species of parasitic nematodes distributed throughout the Pacific islands that infests the lungs of domestic rats. Human infection, caused by consumption of raw slugs and land snails, results in eosinophilic meningitis.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Spodoptera: A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Ancylostomiasis: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms of the genus ANCYLOSTOMA. Characteristics include anemia, dyspepsia, eosinophilia, and abdominal swelling.Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Filariasis: Infections with nematodes of the superfamily FILARIOIDEA. The presence of living worms in the body is mainly asymptomatic but the death of adult worms leads to granulomatous inflammation and permanent fibrosis. Organisms of the genus Elaeophora infect wild elk and domestic sheep causing ischemic necrosis of the brain, blindness, and dermatosis of the face.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Insect Hormones: Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.Weevils: BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.Strongylida Infections: Infections with nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Gastropoda: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.Trichostrongyloidiasis: Infection by roundworms of the superfamily TRICHOSTRONGYLOIDEA, including the genera TRICHOSTRONGYLUS; OSTERTAGIA; Cooperia, HAEMONCHUS; Nematodirus, Hyostrongylus, and DICTYOCAULUS.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Haemonchus: A genus of parasitic nematode worms which infest the duodenum and stomach of domestic and wild herbivores, which ingest it with the grasses (POACEAE) they eat. Infestation of man is accidental.Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.Ecdysterone: A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.Paenibacillus: A genus of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING RODS in the family Paenibacillaceae.Skin Diseases, Parasitic: Skin diseases caused by ARTHROPODS; HELMINTHS; or other parasites.Ascaris suum: A species of parasitic nematode usually found in domestic pigs and a few other animals. Human infection can also occur, presumably as result of handling pig manure, and can lead to intestinal obstruction.Bryozoa: A phylum of small sessile aquatic animals living as small tufted colonies. Some appear like hydroids or corals, but their internal structure is more advanced. Most bryozoans are matlike, forming thin encrustations on rocks, shells, or kelp. (Storer & Stebbins, General Zoology, 6th ed, p443)Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Zooplankton: Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Ivermectin: A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.Nematoda: A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.Perciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Filarioidea: A superfamily of nematodes of the suborder SPIRURINA. Its organisms possess a filiform body and a mouth surrounded by papillae.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Polychaeta: A class of marine annelids including sandworms, tube worms, clamworms, and fire worms. It includes also the genus Myxicola infundibulum.Ecdysone: A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Antinematodal Agents: Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.Albendazole: A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Malpighian Tubules: Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).Gadus morhua: A species of fish in the cod family GADIDAE, known as the Atlantic cod. It is one of the most important commercial FISHES.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Ascariasis: Infection by nematodes of the genus ASCARIS. Ingestion of infective eggs causes diarrhea and pneumonitis. Its distribution is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation and where human feces are used for fertilizer.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tilapia: A freshwater fish used as an experimental organism and for food. This genus of the family Cichlidae (CICHLIDS) inhabits Central and South America (one species extends north into Texas), West Indies, Africa, Madagascar, Syria, and coastal India.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Helminth Proteins: Proteins found in any species of helminth.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Parasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Trichostrongylus: A genus of parasitic nematodes found in the digestive tract of herbivorous animals. They cause incidental infections in humans from the following species: Trichostrongylus colubriformis, T. orientalis, T. axei, and T. probolurus.Animal Structures: Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Echinodermata: A phylum of the most familiar marine invertebrates. Its class Stelleroidea contains two subclasses, the Asteroidea (the STARFISH or sea stars) and the Ophiuroidea (the brittle stars, also called basket stars and serpent stars). There are 1500 described species of STARFISH found throughout the world. The second class, Echinoidea, contains about 950 species of SEA URCHINS, heart urchins, and sand dollars. A third class, Holothuroidea, comprises about 900 echinoderms known as SEA CUCUMBERS. Echinoderms are used extensively in biological research. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp773-826)DNA, Helminth: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.Haemonchiasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus HAEMONCHUS, characterized by digestive abnormalities and anemia similar to that from hookworm infestation.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Gnathostomiasis: Infections with nematodes of the genus GNATHOSTOMA, superfamily THELAZIOIDEA. Gnathostomiasis is a food-borne zoonosis caused by eating undercooked or raw fish or meat.Trichostrongylosis: Infestation with nematode worms of the genus TRICHOSTRONGYLUS. Man and animals become infected by swallowing larvae, usually with contaminated food or drink, although the larvae may penetrate human skin.Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Muscidae: A family of the order DIPTERA with over 700 species. Important species that may be mechanical vectors of disease include Musca domesticus (HOUSEFLIES), Musca autumnalis (face fly), Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly), Haematobia irritans (horn fly) and Fannia spp.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Ochlerotatus: A genus of mosquitoes in the family CULICIDAE. A large number of the species are found in the neotropical part of the Americas.Biological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.Ciona intestinalis: The only species of a cosmopolitan ascidian.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Forensic Sciences: Disciplines that apply sciences to law. Forensic sciences include a wide range of disciplines, such as FORENSIC TOXICOLOGY; FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY; FORENSIC MEDICINE; FORENSIC DENTISTRY; and others.Decapoda (Crustacea): The largest order of CRUSTACEA, comprising over 10,000 species. They are characterized by three pairs of thoracic appendages modified as maxillipeds, and five pairs of thoracic legs. The order includes the familiar shrimps, crayfish (ASTACOIDEA), true crabs (BRACHYURA), and lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE and PALINURIDAE), among others.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Tick Infestations: Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.Copepoda: A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Oesophagostomiasis: Infection of the intestinal tract with worms of the genus OESOPHAGOSTOMUM. This condition occurs mainly in animals other than man.Methoprene: Juvenile hormone analog and insect growth regulator used to control insects by disrupting metamorphosis. Has been effective in controlling mosquito larvae.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cemeteries: Areas set apart as burial grounds.Sea Urchins: Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.Beauveria: A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.Mollusca: A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.Temefos: An organothiophosphate insecticide.Lung Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the lungs with parasites, most commonly by parasitic worms (HELMINTHS).AnguillaLocomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Insect Viruses: Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Crustacea: A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).Food Parasitology: The presence of parasites in food and food products. For the presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food, FOOD MICROBIOLOGY is available.Amphibians: VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.Raccoons: Carnivores of the genus Procyon of the family PROCYONIDAE. Two subgenera and seven species are currently recognized. They range from southern Canada to Panama and are found in several of the Caribbean Islands.Crassostrea: A genus of oysters in the family OSTREIDAE, class BIVALVIA.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Metarhizium: A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.RNA Virus InfectionsSalinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Rhipicephalus: A genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, widespread in Africa. Members of the genus include many important vectors of animal and human pathogens.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Photorhabdus: A genus of gram-negative bacteria existing symbiotically with nematodes of the family Heterorhabditidae (see RHABDITOIDEA). These nematodes infect a variety of soil-dwelling insects. Upon entering an insect host, the nematode releases Photorhabdus from its intestinal tract and the bacterium establishes a lethal septicemia in the insect.Bufonidae: The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.BrazilSequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Dracunculoidea: A superfamily of nematodes of the suborder CAMALLANINA. Its organisms possess a poorly developed buccal cavity and a rudimentary esophagus and intestine.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Strongyloides ratti: A species of parasitic nematode found in rats.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Pacific OceanReproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Hemicentrotus: A genus of SEA URCHINS in the family Strongylocentrotidae with a hemicyclic apical disk and short spines.Strongylida: An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Characteristics include an H-shaped excretory system with two subventral glands.Isopoda: One of the largest orders of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 10,000 species. Like AMPHIPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Amphipoda, they possess abdominal pleopods (modified as gills) and their bodies are dorsoventrally flattened.Lateral Line System: Aquatic vertebrate sensory system in fish and amphibians. It is composed of sense organs (canal organs and pit organs) containing neuromasts (MECHANORECEPTORS) that detect water displacement caused by moving objects.Ectoparasitic Infestations: Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Genes, Helminth: The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.Air Sacs: Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.Brugia pahangi: A species of parasitic nematode found in man and other mammals. It has been reported from Malaya and East Pakistan and may produce symptoms of tropical eosinophilia.Cnidaria: A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Onchocerca volvulus: A species of parasitic nematodes widely distributed throughout central Africa and also found in northern South America, southern Mexico, and Guatemala. Its intermediate host and vector is the blackfly or buffalo gnat.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.

Investigation of maturation requirements for Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora larvae. (1/8915)

Infection of parasite-free six to eight week old calves with doses of 50,000 mixed Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora larvae varying in age from seven to 42 days did not reveal a significant larval maturation requirement.  (+info)

Down-regulation of RpS21, a putative translation initiation factor interacting with P40, produces viable minute imagos and larval lethality with overgrown hematopoietic organs and imaginal discs. (2/8915)

Down-regulation of the Drosophila ribosomal protein S21 gene (rpS21) causes a dominant weak Minute phenotype and recessively produces massive hyperplasia of the hematopoietic organs and moderate overgrowth of the imaginal discs during larval development. Here, we show that the S21 protein (RpS21) is bound to native 40S ribosomal subunits in a salt-labile association and is absent from polysomes, indicating that it acts as a translation initiation factor rather than as a core ribosomal protein. RpS21 can interact strongly with P40, a ribosomal peripheral protein encoded by the stubarista (sta) gene. Genetic studies reveal that P40 underexpression drastically enhances imaginal disc overgrowth in rpS21-deficient larvae, whereas viable combinations between rpS21 and sta affect the morphology of bristles, antennae, and aristae. These data demonstrate a strong interaction between components of the translation machinery and showed that their underexpression impairs the control of cell proliferation in both hematopoietic organs and imaginal discs.  (+info)

The optically determined size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool correlates with the quantal content at the neuromuscular junction of Drosophila larvae. (3/8915)

According to the current theory of synaptic transmission, the amplitude of evoked synaptic potentials correlates with the number of synaptic vesicles released at the presynaptic terminals. Synaptic vesicles in presynaptic boutons constitute two distinct pools, namely, exo/endo cycling and reserve pools (). We defined the vesicles that were endocytosed and exocytosed during high K+ stimulation as the exo/endo cycling vesicle pool. To determine the role of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool in synaptic transmission, we estimated the quantal content electrophysiologically, whereas the pool size was determined optically using fluorescent dye FM1-43. We then manipulated the size of the pool with following treatments. First, to change the state of boutons of nerve terminals, motoneuronal axons were severed. With this treatment, the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool decreased together with the quantal content. Second, we promoted the FM1-43 uptake using cyclosporin A, which inhibits calcineurin activities and enhances endocytosis. Cyclosporin A increased the total uptake of FM1-43, but neither the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool nor the quantal content changed. Third, we increased the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool by forskolin, which enhances synaptic transmission. The forskolin treatment increased both the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool and the quantal content. Thus, we found that the quantal content was closely correlated with the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool but not necessarily with the total uptake of FM1-43 fluorescence by boutons. The results suggest that vesicles in the exo/endo cycling pool primarily participate in evoked exocytosis of vesicles.  (+info)

Active transport of calcium across the isolated midgut of Hyalophora cecropia. (4/8915)

1. The net flux of 45Ca from lumen to blood side across the isolated and short-circuited Cecropia midgut was 1-9 +/- 0-2 muequiv. cm-2h-1 in 8 mM Ca and the flux ratio was as high as 56 to 1. 2. The calcium influx was depressed by anoxia; 73% after 30 min. 3. The kinetics of Ca transport were anomalous; the apparent Km varied with Ca concentration from less than 0-2 to greater than 5-6 mM Ca and the apparent Vmax varied from less than 1-3 to greater than 3-3 muequiv. cm-2h-1. 4. The calcium influx showed a delay before the tracer steady state was attained, indicating the existence in the transport route of a calcium pool equivalent to 5-7 muequiv/g. wet weight of midgut tissue. 5 High calcium (16 mM) depressed the short-circuit current and potassium transport from blood to lumen side across the midgut. 6. Calcium depressed magnesium transport, from lumen to blood side across the midgut, and magnesium depressed the calcium transport. 7. Ca transport by the midgut does not regulate the Ca level in the haemolymph in vivo; it merely aids the diffusion of calcium down its electrochemical gradient. However, Ca transport may assist the uptake of the nutrients from the midgut contents.  (+info)

Depression of synaptic efficacy in high- and low-output Drosophila neuromuscular junctions by the molting hormone (20-HE). (5/8915)

The molt-related steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE), was applied to muscles 6 and 7 of third instar larval of Drosophila melanogaster neuromuscular junction preparations to examine if rapid, nongenomic responses could be observed as was shown recently to occur in crustacean neuromuscular junctions. At a dose of 10 microM, the excitatory junction potentials were reduced in amplitude within minutes. To elucidate the site of action of the hormone, focal-macropatch recordings of synaptic currents were obtained over the neuromuscular junctions. The results showed that the high-output (Is) and the low-output (Ib) motor nerve terminals, which innervate muscles 6 and 7, released fewer synaptic vesicles for each stimulation while exposed to 20-HE. Because the size and shape of synaptic currents from spontaneous releases did not change, the effects of the 20-HE are presynaptic. The rapid effects of this hormone may account in part for the quiescent behavior associated with molts among insects and crustaceans.  (+info)

Light-induced calcium influx into retinal axons is regulated by presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activity in vivo. (6/8915)

Visual activity is thought to be a critical factor in controlling the development of central retinal projections. Neuronal activity increases cytosolic calcium, which was hypothesized to regulate process outgrowth in neurons. We performed an in vivo imaging study in the retinotectal system of albino Xenopus laevis tadpoles with the fluorescent calcium indicator calcium green 1 dextran (CaGD) to test the role of calcium in regulating axon arbor development. We find that visual stimulus to the retina increased CaGD fluorescence intensity in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon arbors within the optic tectum and that branch additions to retinotectal axon arbors correlated with a local rise in calcium in the parent branch. We find three types of responses to visual stimulus, which roughly correlate with the ON, OFF, and SUSTAINED response types of RGC reported by physiological criteria. Imaging in bandscan mode indicated that patterns of calcium transients were nonuniform throughout the axons. We tested whether the increase in calcium in the retinotectal axons required synaptic activity in the retina; intraocular application of tetrodotoxin (10 microM) or nifedipine (1 and 10 microM) blocked the stimulus-induced increase in RGC axonal fluorescence. A second series of pharmacological investigations was designed to determine the mechanism of the calcium elevation in the axon terminals within the optic tectum. Injection of bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-AM (BAPTA-AM) (20 mM) into the tectal ventricle reduced axonal calcium levels, supporting the idea that visual stimulation increases axonal calcium. Injection of BAPTA (20 mM) into the tectal ventricle to chelate extracellular calcium also attenuated the calcium response to visual stimulation, indicating that calcium enters the axon from the extracellular medium. Caffeine (10 mM) caused a large increase in axonal calcium, indicating that intracellular stores contribute to the calcium signal. Presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) may play a role in axon arbor development and the formation of the topographic retinotectal projection. Injection of nicotine (10 microM) into the tectal ventricle significantly elevated RGC axonal calcium levels, whereas application of the nAChR antagonist alphaBTX (100 nM) reduced the stimulus-evoked rise in RGC calcium fluorescence. These data suggest that light stimulus to the retina increases calcium in the axon terminal arbors through a mechanism that includes influx through nAChRs and amplification by calcium-induced calcium release from intracellular calcium stores. Such a mechanism may contribute to developmental plasticity of the retinotectal system by influencing both axon arbor elaboration and the strength of synaptic transmission.  (+info)

Patterning of Caenorhabditis elegans posterior structures by the Abdominal-B homolog, egl-5. (7/8915)

The Caenorhabditis elegans body axis, like that of other animals, is patterned by the action of Hox genes. In order to examine the function of one C. elegans Hox gene in depth, we determined the postembryonic expression pattern of egl-5, the C. elegans member of the Abdominal-B Hox gene paralog group, by means of whole-mount staining with a polyclonal antibody. A major site of egl-5 expression and function is in the epithelium joining the posterior digestive tract with the external epidermis. Patterning this region and its derived structures is a conserved function of Abd-B paralog group genes in other animals. Cells that initiate egl-5 expression during embryogenesis are clustered around the presumptive anus. Expression is initiated postembryonically in four additional mesodermal and ectodermal cell lineages or tissues. Once initiated in a lineage, egl-5 expression continues throughout development, suggesting that the action of egl-5 can be regarded as defining a positional cell identity. A variety of cross-regulatory interactions between egl-5 and the next more anterior Hox gene, mab-5, help define the expression domains of their respective gene products. In its expression in a localized body region, function as a marker of positional cell identity, and interactions with another Hox gene, egl-5 resembles Hox genes of other animals. This suggests that C. elegans, in spite of its small cell number and reproducible cell lineages, may not differ greatly from other animals in the way it employs Hox genes for regional specification during development.  (+info)

Properties of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase and its relationship to microsomal mixed-function oxidation in the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania). (8/8915)

1. Activity of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase was measured in the midgut and other tissues of the last larval instar of the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania Cramer, formerly Prodenia eridania Cramer). 2. Optimum conditions for measuring the activity were established with respect to all variables involved and considerable differences from those reported for mammalian enzyme preparations were found. 3. Maximum activity (20 nmol/h per mg of protein) occurs 18-24 h after the fifth moult and thereafter decreases to trace amounts as the larvae age and approach pupation. 4. Synthetase activity was rapidly induced by oral administration (in the diet) of pentamethylbenzene, phenobarbital, diethyl 1,4-dihydro-2,4,6-trimethylpyridine-3, 5-dicarboxylate, and 2-allyl-2-isopropylacetamide. 5. Puromycin inhibited the induction of synthetase by pentamethylbenzene. 6. Induction of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase correlated well with the induction of microsomal N-demethylation of p-chloro-N-methylaniline, except for phenobarbital, which induced the microsomal oxidase relatively more than the synthetase.  (+info)

*Yellowjacket

After eggs hatch from the 30 to 50 brood cells, the queen feeds the young larvae for about 18 to 20 days. Larvae pupate, then ... Larvae, in return, secrete a sugar material to be eaten by the adults; this exchange is a form of trophallaxis. In late summer ... Larvae feed on proteins derived from insects, meats, and fish, which are collected by the adults, which chew and condition them ... Workers in the colony take over caring for the larvae, feeding them with chewed up meat or fruit. By midsummer, the first adult ...

*Silphidae

... larvae are opportunistic predators that will feed on dipteran eggs, larvae, and on the carcass itself. This presents ... The larvae will develop through three instars on the carrion lasting for ten to thirty days. After that time period is up the ... The Silphidae larvae mainly inhabit during the decaying and dry stages of the carrion. The primary food source for the ... Oviposition is done near the carcass and takes twelve to forty eight hours for the eggs to hatch into larvae. The amount of ...

*Eristalis tenax

The larva likely feeds on the abundant bacteria living in these places. When fully grown, the larva creeps out into drier ... The larva of E. tenax is a rat-tailed maggot. It lives in drainage ditches, pools around manure piles, sewage, and similar ... 2001) The larva is figured by Hartley (1961) and in colour by Rotheray (1993). Adults feed on flowers, especially those of ... Larvae are saprophagous. There have occasionally been documented cases of human intestinal myiasis of the rat-tailed maggot ( ...

*Cotesia congregata

This would help the larva to conserve water. Starved larvae can also ultimately molt and pupate if they are large enough, but ... which will prevent subsequent development of the larvae. Interestingly, these hormones also allow the parasitized larva to ... Larvae which have reached 8 days old are able to survive and eclose when transplanted into a new host which has not been ... However, these transplanted larvae will exhibit a mortality rate of 50%. The wasp also injects venom along with the eggs and ...

*Mischocyttarus mexicanus

It has been observed that upon removal of a queen from the nest, the larvae and eggs gradually disappear over the course of a ... It is suspected that they prey on arthropod larvae. Additionally, females have been observed foraging on palmetto and Lyonia ... of the tarsal segments in adults and by appendix-like projections extending forward from the abdominal sternum of mature larvae ...

*Baylisascaris shroederi

In animals, it is the most common cause of larva migrans. The Paratenic host, however, cannot shed infective eggs, as the larva ... As small numbers of larvae can cause severe disease, and larvae occur randomly in tissue, a biopsy usually fails to include ... Baylisascaris larvae in paratenic hosts can migrate, causing visceral larva migrans (VLM). Baylisascariasis is characterized by ... Larvae tend to migrate to the brain and other vital organs, cause damage, and affect the behavior of the intermediate host, ...

*Acilius sulcatus

Larvae prefer micro-invertebrate prey such as Daphnia, whereas adults select size appropriate prey. Known for its high aquatic ... Acilius sulcatus Larva Acilius sulcatus, male and female; mounted specimen Abjornsson, K., Wagner, B. M. A., Axelsson, A., ... A. sulcatus larvae capture prey headfirst, with their mandibles before injecting digestive enzymes, for extra oral digestion. ... sulcatus to be a highly effective predator of mosquito larvae. As such its use as an environmentally friendly bio-control ...

*Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki

During sporulation, Btk produces a crystal protein that is lethal to lepidopteran larvae. Once ingested by the insect, the ...

*Chrysomya megacephala

C. megacephala larvae are known to compete with C. rufifacies larvae for food in a mixed-species environment. Research has ... and competition from larvae of other species, such as C. rufifacies. In the presence of competing larvae, those of C. ... However, blowfly larvae tend to infect these sun-dried fish when the weather is warm and humid. In an experiment, 95% of the ... Larvae vary in size according to instar and are shaped more thickly towards the rear. C. megacephala have large red eyes, those ...

*Ambush predator

"Video of lion ant larva ambushing an ant". National Geographic. Retrieved November 30, 2014. "Antlion ambush". BBC. Retrieved ...

*Chilo suppressalis

Full-grown larvae are yellow, with five, dim, longitudinal lines, and can grow to a length of about 25 mm. Apart from the major ... First-instar larvae are greyish white with a black head. Head capsule gradullay turns brown towards final stages. ... food plant, rice, larvae also feed on wide array of plants such as Gigantochloa verticellata, Echinochloa crusgalli cruspavonis ...

*Vespula acadica

Occasionally, workers will feed the liquid to the larvae after drinking up the wastes. Sanitation behaviors are seen at a ...

*Mischocyttarus mexicanus cubicola

Mischocyytarus larvae can be distinguished from other wasps by having a one-, two-, or three-pointed lobe on the ventral ... When a queen is removed from a nest, it has been observed over the course of a week that the eggs and larvae gradually ... This subspecies is also known to exhibit cannibalism, with M. m. cubicola queens feeding on their own larvae for nourishment ... Similarly, mature Mischocyttarus larvae are identified by appendix-like projections extending forward from the abdominal ...

*Culex infula

Larva can be found in water courses with high content of algal populations. In 1998, the species was identified as a vector of ...

*Trichogramma

The larvae are the stage that causes the most damage, especially to grape berries, as their feeding provides sites for bunch ... As a result, Trichogramma were considered a good candidate for biological control, even more so as the moth larvae are ...

*Salt Creek tiger beetle

Upon hatching, the larva constructs a burrow. The larva is a voracious feeder, capturing prey that wanders too close to the ... The larva prepares for its pupation by digging a side chamber and sealing the burrow entrance. The beetle is found at Arbor ...

*Click beetle

... larvae, called wireworms, are usually saprophagous, living on dead organisms, but some species are serious ... The ninth segment, the rearmost, is pointed in larvae of Agriotes, Dalopius and Melanotus, but is bifid due to a so-called ... Larvae are slender, elongate, cylindrical or somewhat flattened, with relatively hard bodies, somewhat resembling mealworms. ... as is frequently the case in beetle larvae, directed downwards and may serve as a terminal proleg in some species. ...

*Histeridae

Beetle larvae often reside in fly breeding resources, and they can be distinguished from fly larvae by the following: Beetle ... The Histeridae larvae are destructive and when they hatch they eat the maggots in the dead body. The stage of the beetle and ... The larvae of Hister beetles feed on the blowfly pupae found on the body. Some Histeridae species live in an integrated nest ... The larvae and adult forms of Histeridae have been known to feed on dung, carrion, decomposing vegetation, other insects, ...

*Polistes fuscatus

Thus the costs of destroying male larvae or replacing the male larvae with their own eggs is not worth the investment. Global ... Thus when the workers have the opportunity to bias the sex ratio, there are few male larvae present. Additionally, the males ... Laying these eggs during the summer ensures that the larvae are well-fed due to the great environmental conditions and ... these larvae eventually emerge as abnormal adults. After this destruction, the adult wasps abandon the nests. Prior to ...

*Larva

first instar larvae of parasitic hymenoptera. Polypod larvae - also known as eruciform larvae, these larva have abdominal ... Some larvae are dependent on adults to feed them. In many eusocial Hymenoptera species, the larvae are fed by female workers. ... The larva's appearance is generally very different from the adult form (e.g. caterpillars and butterflies). A larva often has ... Media related to Larva at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of larva at Wiktionary Arenas-Mena, C. (2010) Indirect ...

*Larva currens

... (Latin for racing larva) is an itchy, cutaneous condition caused by infections with Strongyloides stercoralis. It ... ISBN 0-7216-2921-0. ARTHUR, ROBERT P. (1 August 1958). "Larva Currens". AMA Archives of Dermatology. 78 (2): 186-90. PMID ... is caused by the intradermal migration of strongyloides and distinguished from cutaneous larva migrans (caused by hookworm) by ...

*Cranopsis larva

... is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Fissurellidae, the keyhole limpets and slit ... Proceedings of the United States National Museum 70(2667): 1-134 Rosenberg, G. (2012). Cranopsis larva (Dall, 1927). Accessed ...

*Harri Larva

Larva finished 10th in the 1500 m at the 1932 Summer Olympics. Larva was requested to change his last name in 1928 by Urho ... Harry Edvin "Harri" Larva (born Lagerström, 9 September 1906 - 15 November 1980) was a Finnish athlete who won the 1500 m race ...

*Dauer larva

Dauer larvae are thus considered an alternative L3 stage larva, and this stage is sometimes preceded by L2d. L2d animals are ... For example, dauer larvae of rhabditids are often found in parallel rows under the elytra of dung beetles, which transport them ... Dauer larvae generally remain motionless, but can react to touch or vibrations. They can stand on their tails, waving their ... L2d larvae can either continue normal development or enter dauer stage depending on whether the conditions that triggered their ...

*Crustacean larva

The larvae of the Achelata (slipper lobsters and spiny lobsters) are unlike any other crustacean larvae. The larvae are known ... the larvae hatch as antizoea larvae, with five pairs of thoracic appendages, and develop into erichthus larvae, where the ... The post-larva is characterised by the use of abdominal appendages (pleopods) for propulsion. The post-larva is usually similar ... Many crustacean larvae were not immediately recognised as larvae when they were discovered, and were described as new genera ...
Background Malaria is an important cause of illness and death in people living in many parts of the world, especially sub-Saharan Africa. Long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) reduce malaria transmission by targeting the adult mosquito vector and are key components of malaria control programmes. However, mosquito numbers may also be reduced by larval source management (LSM), which targets mosquito larvae as they mature in aquatic habitats. This is conducted by permanently or temporarily reducing the availability of larval habitats (habitat modification and habitat manipulation), or by adding substances to standing water that either kill or inhibit the development of larvae (larviciding). Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of mosquito LSM for preventing malaria. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; CABS Abstracts; and ...
To identify genes differentially expressed in the fatbody of Drosphila melanogaster bigmax mutants, a loss-of-function allele was generated by P-element mobilization. Mutant and wildtype first instar larvae were raised on two different sources of food, control and high-sugar media. When the animals reached the wandering third instar stage, animals were sacrificed and their fat bodies dissected. Total RNA was extracted, labeled fluorescently and hybridized competitively to Agilents 4x44K Drosophila Gene Expression Microarrays. On each array, three different samples were analyzed: 1. wildtype animals raised on control food, 2. wildtype animals raised on high-sugar food and 3. bigmax mutant animals raised on high-sugar food.
In this study, the nutritional indices of the larval stages of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) were determined on 10 canola (Brassica napus L.) genotypes (Talaye, Opera, Licord, Modena, SLM046, Hayula420, Zarfam, Okapi, RGS003 and Sarigol) at 25±1˚C, 60±5% RH and a photoperiod of 16: 8 (L: D) hours. The third instar larvae reared on Talaye showed the highest value of Efficiency of Conversion of Ingested food ECI and Efficiency of Conversion of Digested food ECD (7.005±0.632 and 8.972±1.862, respectively). However, the lowest value of ECI and ECD was on Licord (0.503±0.017 and 2.507±0.449, respectively). The highest (0.778±0.091) and lowest (0.594±0.059) Relative Growth Rate (RGR) of the fourth instar larvae were obtained on SLM046 and Sarigol, respectively. Results indicated that the highest values of ECI and ECD for fourth instar larvae were on Talaye (6.300±0.585 and 8.880±1.954, respectively). The lowest value of the Relative Consumption Rate (RCR) and Approximate Digestibility (AD) of the
Morphology of all larval instars and puparium of Dohrniphora cornuta (Bigot), a most common phorid fly species indoors in China, is presented using scanning electron microscopy. The first instar larva was composed of 12 segments, each of segments 3-11 with six slender tubercles situated dorsally, dorsolaterally, and laterally in transverse row. These tubercles divided into two segments, of which the basal one was smooth, and the brush-shaped distal one was comprised of a cluster of fine spines. Antennae and maxillary palp complex were visible. Two slits could be seen at the posterior spiracle. Besides the presence of anterior spiracle, the tubercles of second instar became stouter than those of first instar and were covered by numerous long bristles from the base to top. The posterior spiracle contained four slits. Third larval instar was similar to second instar. The bubble membrane comprised of ≈120 globules with a pointed tip on their top presented at the segment 5 of third instar larvae. ...
The Role of Maternal Nutrition on Oocyte Size and Quality, with Respect to Early Larval Development in The Coral-Eating Starfish, Acanthaster planci. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
There are four larval instar stages of the CSPW and each stage is white and grub-like in appearance ranging up to 5-6mm in length (refer to lower left photo). The first instar larva feeds on the cuticle on the outside of the pod while the second instar larva bores into the pod, feeding on the developing seeds. A single larva consumes about 5 canola seeds. The mature larva chews a small, circular exit hole from which it drops to the soil surface and pupation takes place in the soil within an earthen cell. Approximately 10 days later, the new adult emerges to feed on maturing canola pods. Later in the season these new adults migrate to overwintering sites beyond the field. ...
There are four larval instar stages of the CSPW and each stage is white and grub-like in appearance ranging up to 5-6mm in length (refer to lower left photo). The first instar larva feeds on the cuticle on the outside of the pod while the second instar larva bores into the pod, feeding on the developing seeds. A single larva consumes about 5 canola seeds. The mature larva chews a small, circular exit hole from which it drops to the soil surface and pupation takes place in the soil within an earthen cell. Approximately 10 days later, the new adult emerges to feed on maturing canola pods. Later in the season these new adults migrate to overwintering sites beyond the field. ...
Two strains homozygous for Snfor, SnForGly/Gly and SnForSer/Ser, were each initiated from 15 homozygote founder couples taken from the laboratory-reared polymorphic population and genotyped after reproduction. For the whole-body analysis, 30 fourth-instar larvae per strain were tested. For the brain analysis, 64 fourth-instar larvae per strain were tested. In this condition, the brains (deutocerebrum) were pooled in groups of eight (i.e. eight replicates for each population). The live larvae were retrieved from the artificial diet at the fourth-instar stadium, a stage usually reached during behavioural testing protocol, and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at −80°C until RNA extraction.. Total RNA was extracted from whole larvae using TRI Reagent (Sigma-Aldrich). The brains were dissected in the RA1 buffer and total RNA was extracted using the NucleoSpin RNA XS kit (Macherey Nagel). In both conditions, a DNase treatment (DNase I recombinant, Roche) was also performed. The ...
The mechanisms of cold tolerance in insects which are exposed to suboptimal temperatures for survival include accumulation of cryoprotectants and expression of heat shock protein genes (hsps). Spodoptera exigua is a freeze avoidance insect, which can overwinter as third instar larvae in China. Our previous study illustrated that seasonal and diel fluctuating temperatures enhanced its cold hardening. The survival mechanism for this stage, however, is poorly understood. We hypothesized that the survival mechanisms in third instar larvae of S. exigua were correlated with the induction of cryoprotectants and/or expression of hsps. Results showed that trehalose as the main cryoprotectant was accumulated during the cold acclimation (CA), and the level of accumulation fell off sharply when the CA treatment was discontinued (discontinued cold acclimation, DCA). Furthermore, inducible hsp90 was down-regulated in all treatments compared with the control, and hsp70 was up-regulated under conditions of CA and RCH
The purpose of the meeting was to discuss Anopheles spp., their role as malaria vectors, and their distribution in various eco-epidemiological zones of the WHO European Region. Also discussed were the susceptibility of ...
Based on museum-held and field-collected specimens new data are presented regarding the distribution, adult phenology and first-instar larva of the uncommon green lacewing Abachrysa eureka. It was found that this species is broadly distributed across the southeastern United States, from Texas to the east coast south to Florida and north to South Carolina. There are multiple short duration emergence periods which vary with latitude. This species appears to be a typical chrysopid in various biological aspects, such as the occurrence of a stalked egg and placement of debris on the backs of larva ...
Mosquito larvae feeding. Light microscope footage of mosquito larvae (family Culicidae) feeding near the surface of water. Mosquito larvae are aquatic and breathe through spiracles located on their abdomen, or like these larvae, through a siphon (breathing tube) on the end of the abdomen. They feed by wafting algae and other detritus suspended in the water into their mouths, using the beating hairs of their mouth brushes to create a current. On the upper right of the frame the anal gills of one larva can be seen. These structures are found on the anal segment at the end of the abdomen, and arise from a thin membrane around the anus. They are thought to be involved in osmoregulation, the maintenance of correct concentration of fluids and electrolytes. - Stock Video Clip K005/4026
When cultures of C. elegans become crowded and exhaust their food supply, dauer formation results (Cassada and Russell, 1975). Wild-type larvae typically do not enter dauer at temperatures at or below 25 °C when there is any food on the plate, even a small amount, unless high concentrations of pheromone are added by one of the methods discussed in Section 3.2 and Section 3.3. Immediately after exhausting the food supply, most of the larvae will enter L1 arrest/L1 diapause (Johnson et al., 1984). Some will remain arrested and others will continue on to the dauer stage. Thus, the first dauer larvae do not appear until at least a few days after exhaustion of the food supply. By contrast, very old plates contain relatively fewer dauer larvae. Dauer larva survival decreases with time, whereas the propensity to recover from dauer increases (Klass and Hirsh, 1976; Golden and Riddle, 1984b). In wild-type cultures, there is always a mix of stages observed on the plates. The percentage of dauer larvae ...
To address this growing challenge, PROTEINSECT experts from Europe, China and Africa have been investigating the use of two species of fly larvae in the diets of chickens, pigs and fish, carrying out feeding trials and analysing the quality and safety of rearing farmed flies on organic waste substrates such as manure.. Insects are rich in protein and are a natural component of the diet of many fish and free-range poultry. The project argues that fly larvae can be reared on a wide range of wastes and by-products offering a way of recovering value from materials that may traditionally be disposed of by the agricultural and food industries.. The biological reprocessing of organic waste was a key concept for PROTEINSECT, as not only would insect use for animal feed help to alleviate Europes protein deficit, but would also facilitate significant reductions in waste volumes.. The project found that fly larvae can reduce the mass of organic waste by up to 60 per cent in just 10 days, contributing ...
GLOBE Mosquito Larvae Protocol is a project for students, that may expand to adults and other volunteers, to learn how to identify mosquito larvae in their community or at a study site. Students will collect, sort, identify, and count the number of mosquito larvae they find in a sample of water. They can learn how to use a variety of sampling strategies depending on the types of mosquito larval habitats found in their particular study area. Through sampling, student volunteers can learn to identify mosquito larvae to either the genus or species level. By performing this kind of citizen science, young people can begin to understand the importance of representative sampling in scientific procedures, along with the relationship between species, climate, and mosquito-borne diseases. By collaborating with GLOBE through school, students can report their data online and share their observations and findings with real scientists ...
ABDO-DE LA PARRA, Ma. Isabel et al. Effects of temperature and salinity on the egg incubation of bullseye puffer fish Sphoeroides annulatus. Rev. biol. mar. oceanogr. [online]. 2012, vol.47, n.1, pp.147-153. ISSN 0718-1957. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-19572012000100014.. The effects of different water temperatures (22, 25, 28 and 31ºC) and salinities between 0 and 60 psu (with intervals of 5 psu) on egg incubation of the bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus) were evaluated in this study. The embryos could not develop at 22ºC and the highest hatching rate for normal larvae was observed at 28ºC. At 0, 50, 55 and 60 psu larvae were unable to develop. Highest hatching rates were obtained at 25, 30 and 35 psu. It was concluded that water temperature and salinity affects the incubation period, embryo development stage and larval survival of the bullseye puffer.. Palavras-chave : Embryo development; period incubation; hatch; deformed larvae. ...
Abstract 【Aim】 This study aims to clone a C-type lectin gene from Plutella xylostella, to investigate its expression patterns and to elucidate its agglutination on bacteria. 【Methods】 Based on the bioinformatical analysis of genome and transcriptome database of P. xylostella, the full-length cDNA of a C-type lectin gene was cloned from P. xylostella by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques. Prokaryotic expression plasmid was constructed and the fusion protein was expressed in E.coli BL21. The polyclonal antibody with high serum titer was prepared using the purified fusion protein to immunize New Zealand white rabbit. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was employed to analyze the expression profiles of this gene in different tissues (hemocyte, cuticle, fat body, midgut and Malpighiam tubules) of the day-1 4th instar larvae and different developmental stages (egg, 1st-4th instar larva, prepupa, pupa, and adult) of P. xylostella. RT-qPCR and Western blot were ...
Visualization of larval feeding is challenging because of size, time scale and rarity of feeding events at the early larval stages. However, visualization is essential for measuring the rate of feeding attempts and failed attempts. Here, we present a novel method that can be used to automatically identify and classify prey acquisition strikes in larval fishes, facilitating the acquisition of large datasets from swift, sparse events. This method can be used to facilitate the assessment of feeding rates and success, and to determine the fate of food particles during the feeding cycle. Following automatic identification, detailed kinematic analysis of prey acquisition strikes can be carried out. For example, the spatial resolution and frame rate reported here enable (manual) frame-by-frame digitization of landmarks on the fishs body to extract larval swimming speed during foraging and during prey acquisition strikes, determination of mouth size during prey acquisition strikes, and the distance ...
In the highly variable environment of the Baltic Sea two genetically distinct cod stocks exist, one west of the island of Bornholm, which is referred to as the western stock, and one to the east of Bornholm, the eastern stock. A hydrodynamic model combined with a Lagrangian particle tracking technique was utilised to provide spatially and temporally resolved long-term information on environmentally-related (i) spawning habitat size, (ii) egg/yolk-sac larval survival, (iii) separation of causes of mortality, and (iv) connectivity between spawning areas of eastern Baltic cod. Simulations were performed to quantify processes generating heterogeneity in spatial distribution of cod eggs and yolk sac larvae up to the first feeding stage. The spatial extent of cod eggs represented as virtual drifters is primarily determined by oxygen and salinity conditions at spawning, which define the habitat requirement to which cods physiology is suited for egg development. The highest habitat suitability occurred ...
NIWA were engaged by the Auckland Regional Council, Environment Waikato and the Western Firth Mussel Consortium to make quantitative predictions of the degree to which large-scale mussel farming in the western Firth would influence snapper egg / larval survival and plankton abundance and spatial distribution.. Three separate simulation models were used, and three distinct farm scenarios modelled (no farms (NF), existing farms (0), and existing farms plus a maximal modelled western Firth Aquaculture Management Area (AMA) (1)). For each farm scenario simulations were made under six distinct hydrodynamic conditions.. The simulations indicated that under the existing farm scenario, the Firth-wide numbers of snapper larvae surviving to age 8 days post-spawn may be reduced by 2-6 percent relative to the NF scenario, and by 2.5-15 percent under scenario 1.. Two biological models were used to examine the influence of mussel farming upon phytoplankton and zooplankton, a logistic and a biophysical ...
The differences in the development time resulted in overall delays of the molting time, from two days at the 1st larval stage (Figure 1: L1) to more than four days in the 3rd and 4th stages (Figure 1: L3, L4). The graphs show that for the first two developmental stages (Figure 1: L1, L2) the larvae treated with the antibiotic follow a developmental curve similar to that of the control larvae (and of those supplemented with Ar in addition to the antibiotic), with the curve that is only shifted in time. For the latter developmental stages (Figure 1: L3, L4) the larvae treated with rifampicin showed very different curve shape. The appearance of the first larvae at these 3rd and 4th stages is also delayed in the group (A). In addition, we can also observe that in these stages (Figure 1: L3, L4) the larvae that are subjected only to the antibiotic treatment have a less synchronous appearance. This asynchronous development is not observed in treated larvae from previous stages (Figure 1: L1, L2). The ...
Helicoverpa populations have started with a bang this season. One or more larvae per plant are common in pre-flowering sorghum, corn and cotton. However, early
Embryology of the ectoproctConopeum tenuissimum was followed from egg extrusion to three days and colony development from settlement to about seven days (20 generations of zooids). The cyphonautes lar
More than seventy percent of the earths surface is covered by ocean - the home to a staggering and sometimes overwhelming diversity of organisms, a majority of which reside in pelagic form. Marine invertebrate larvae are an integral part of this pelagic diversity and have stimulated the curiosity of researchers for centuries.
Mosquito larvae feeding. Light microscope footage of mosquito larvae (family Culicidae) feeding near the surface of water. Mosquito larvae are aquatic and breathe through spiracles located on their abdomen, or like these larvae, through a siphon (breathing tube) on the end of the abdomen. They feed by wafting algae and other detritus suspended in the water into their mouths, using the beating hairs of their mouth brushes to create a current. - Stock Video Clip K005/4009
It is now possible to map the activity of nearly all the neurons in a vertebrate brain at cellular resolution. What does this mean for neuroscience research and projects like the Brain Activity Map proposal?

In a recent publication, Misha Ahrens and Philipp Keller from the HHMIs Janelia Farm Research Campus used high-speed light sheet microscopy to image the activity of 80% of the neurons in the brain of a fish larva at speeds of a whole brain every 1.3 seconds. This represents-to our knowledge-the first technology that achieves whole brain imaging of a vertebrate brain at cellular resolution with speeds that approximate neural activity patterns and behavior.

In an Article that just went live in Nature Methods, Misha Ahrens and Philipp Keller from HHMIs Janelia Farm Research Campus used high-speed light sheet microscopy to image the activity of 80% of the neurons in the brain of a fish larva at speeds of a whole brain every 1.3 seconds. This represents-to our knowledge-the first
Hello, I wonder if anyone can lend some insight into our recent problem. We are having a problem with crosses and stocks, at a rate of 1-10%, characterized by many dead/black third instar larvae stretched out on the top of the food, lots of live second instar larvae just above the food on the vial walls, and only a few pupae on the walls. There also seems to be lots of detritus on the vial walls above the food. The food appears to be worked. Anti-anti (Gibcos antifungal and antibiotic) does not seem to help. It seems that the problem is prevalent in weaker stocks or those with fewer flies. The bulk of the stocks appear to be vigorous as ever. This problem spans numerous batches of food made, lasting almost a month now. As for changes in the food making, we are using the same cook, equipment, recipe, agar, tegosept, and propionic acid. Due to high volume it is possible the batches of cormneal, sugar, ethanol and yeast have changed. Has anyone encountered viral infections in fly stocks? Please ...
The switch from feeding to nonfeeding larvae is an ecologically important transformation that has evolved on several separate occasions within the echinoids. In each case, this life history transformation has been accompanied by extensive changes in larval morphology. A phylogenetic approach is used here to reconstruct these morphological changes, to begin asking why they have taken the particular forms observed, and to assess the degree of parallel transformation in separate cases. Both traditional character mapping and a less usual aggregate analysis indicate massively parallel transformations in larval morphology associated with, and only with, this particular life history transformation. Some of these parallel morphological transformations may be due to relaxed functional constraints associated with the ancestral life history mode, but many are probably the result of new functional constraints associated with the derived mode. The comparative data suggest a simple and testable model for the ...
Postembryonic developmental stages of naturally occurring populations of Paratylenchus straeleni and P. steineri were studied. In the former species all juveniles had a well developed stylet and pharynx, while the body of the 4th stage juveniles contained numerous dark granules and this is considered the resting stage. In P. steineri the stylet and pharynx were well developed in the 2nd and 3rd stage juvenile, but the 3rd stage juvenile had numerous granules in the body suggesting it is the resting stage. Fourth stage juveniles had no stylets and the pharynx is much reduced. Because some moulting females have the stylet cone of the juveniles being shed together with the juvenile cuticle, it is concluded that the 4th stage is short-lasting. The length of the body, pharynx, tail and genital primordium as well as the index b increases in successive developmental stages. Indices a, c, c' were almost constant in all juvenile stages. The resting juvenile stage characterises species and it should be
Phillips, C.B.; Emberson, R.M. 1999: Morphological discrimination between first instar larvae of four euphorine parasitoids. BioControl, 44(2): 159-169. doi: 10.1023/A:1009929427588 ...
Planktonic eggs coUoplcd from P^k.Bsy ,ancl Gulf of Mannar and identified circiunstantially as of Valamugil seheli (Forsskal) were reared in the laboratory up to the 72-h postlarvae. The eggs ranged in diameter from 0.621 mm to 1.09 mm and were with single, pigmented oilglobules ranging in diameter from 0.212 mm to 0.273 mm. The periviteUine space was narrow. The yolk, being neither sagmented nor vacuolated, was clear. Newly hatched larvae measured 2.179mm. They had black pigment spots on the dorsal side of the body, with a few localised, yellowish networks of xanthophores. In the 24-h larva, most of the black pigment spots had migrated to the ventral side of the body. The 48-h-old larva had its mouth formed, eyes pigmented, yolk utilized and pectoral fins developed, and so was in the early postlarval stage. In the 72-h larva there was iiicrease in pigmentation along both dorsal and ventral aspects of body. In this postlarval phase the number of myomeres had stabilized at 25, corresponding to ...
Larvae: Seen mostly in July and August. When young, larvae have a tawny appearance. They group together to build a large silk nest around a branch and eat the leaves from inside this nest. When mature, larvae may have either a red or black head, grey in colour, and covered with thick yellow-orange hairs on its back. Larvae can grow up to 35 millimetres long ...
Detailed information on immature stages of Mutillidae is being acquired. However, Clausen (1940) noted that very little information was available regarding the form or habits of immature stages of this family. The egg of Mutilla sp (Williams 1919b) has been described as elongated and curved, with the chorion minutely granulated. It is placed transversely upon the dorsum of a Tiphia larva, between the 1st and 2nd thoracic segments. The point of larval feeding is ventral. Ferton stated that the egg of Stenomutilla argentata var. saundersivora Fer. is attached to the inner wall of the host cocoon. The early larval instars by 1940 had not been described for any species. The mature larva of M. glossinae has 11 pairs of spiracles, located on the 2nd and 3rd thoracic and the first 9 abdominal segments. The mandibles are 4-dentate, while those of M. lunata and M. attenuata are believed to be tridentate. The mature larvae of all species spin a cocoon within the cell, cocoon, or puparium of the host, ...
I found A. maculatum at several sites. I observed larvae at various stages of devolvement at NWHRP1, NWHRP2, WMP, EMP, ULP, and BBP, and I found two dead salamander larvae that I assume were A. maculatum in LLP in early June. The only pool from which I observed emergent metamorphs was WMP, where the coverboard array picked up three metamorphs in mid-July. There were still larvae in NWHRP2 when it dried up in mid-July. I only started the project at the end of May, so I was unable to observe the spring migration at most of my sites (though I happened to observe at least part of it at NWHRP1, NWHRP2, and EMP), so I did not intentionally seek out adults. However, the coverboard array on the hill near EMP did turn up a large adult in late July. Qualitatively, larvae seemed to develop differently in different pools. In WMP, NWHRP1 and NWHRP2 they grew relatively quickly and were generally the largest larvae at any given time. Growth rates were very variable in EMP, where I might catch larvae that ...
Its a bit wet out this morning, so I did not get a chance to spend as much time out back as in previous days. Todays count is four, yesterdays was 12. Ive been watching some videos of Monarch caterpillars molting at You Tube and also some time reading a bit about the different instars. I think the caterpillars in the photo attached are second instar. Im no expert, and it is wet out there, but I think the one on the left may have just molted. Their antennae are definitely longer today than yesterday when they were just little horns. Waste not, want not, Ive read that they eat their old skin. Ill check a little later on to see if that bit of junk just below the caterpillar on the left is gone ...
Developmental changes in the temporal and spatial regulation of gene expression drive the emergence of normal mature brain function, while disruptions in these processes underlie many neurodevelopmental abnormalities. expression in neonatal cortex and striatum that decreases during infancy and juvenile development was significantly enriched for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-related genes. This network was enriched for genes associated with axon guidance and interneuron differentiation, consistent with a disruption in the formation of functional cortical circuitry in ASD. Introduction Human and non-human primate brain development requires the complex coordination of genetic and environmental cues that start during early embryogenesis and continue throughout adulthood. After birth, there is a protracted period of axon Ruboxistaurin (LY333531) IC50 myelination and circuit development: synapses are overproduced during infancy, pruned during juvenile development and show cortical layer specificity ...
Larvae can be found glowing both in wet soil and while on the bark or leaves of trees (though these arboreal larvae are mainly found in tropical regions where moisture levels above the ground is high.) Even though species in this family are not well studied, the males and females appear to be the most active at night. When males are collected, they are generally collected at lights and light traps in the evening. Even though females appear to hide in their burrows during the day, females can often be detected on the surface of the ground by their glowing, immediately following a summer rain. Even though the females are bioluminescent, the females light emission does not appear to be the cue that the males use to locate their mates. Females are located by males following the females pheromone. Current evidence suggests that females are advertising their unpalatability by using their glowing as a warning signal to nocturnal predators (Viviani and Bechara 1997). Females also often glow continuously ...
Asymmetric cell division (ACD) is an essential process during development for generating cell diversity. In addition, a more recent connection between ACD, cancer and stem cell biology has opened novel and highly intriguing venues in the field. This connection between compromised ACD and tumorigenesis was first demonstrated using Drosophila neural stem cells (neuroblasts, NBs) more than a decade ago and, over the past years, it has also been established in vertebrate stem cells. Here, focusing on Drosophila larval brain NBs, and in light of results recently obtained in our lab, we revisit this connection emphasizing two main aspects: 1) the differences in tumor suppressor activity of different ACD regulators and 2) the potential relevance of environment and temporal window frame for compromised ACD-dependent induction of tumor-like overgrowth ...
Multi-cellular organisms need to successfully link cell growth and metabolism to environmental cues during development. Insulin receptor-target of rapamycin (InR-TOR) signalling is a highly conserved pathway that mediates this link. Herein, we describe poly, an essential gene in Drosophila that mediates InR-TOR signalling. Loss of poly results in lethality at the third instar larval stage, but only after a stage of extreme larval longevity. Analysis in Drosophila demonstrates that Poly and InR interact and that poly mutants show an overall decrease in InR-TOR signalling, as evidenced by decreased phosphorylation of Akt, S6K and 4E-BP. Metabolism is altered in poly mutants, as revealed by microarray expression analysis and a decreased triglyceride : protein ratio in mutant animals. Intriguingly, the cellular distribution of Poly is dependent on insulin stimulation in both Drosophila and human cells, moving to the nucleus with insulin treatment, consistent with a role in InR-TOR signalling. ...
Parasitic nematodes, also know as roundworms, cause diseases in a variety of organs. Their larva can cause disease by migrating through the body.
Roundworms tend to affect puppies, especially puppies living in close quarters. Puppies that come from puppy mills and pet shops tend to be inundated with this parasite. Roundworms tend to be very common in puppies and kittens due to the way it is spread. The roundworm larva can migrate between the mother and the developing fetus. It can also be spread during nursing time. Once the larva migrates, they grow up to 5 inches in the dogs or cats intestine. There they start to absorb nutrients from the intestinal tract, then it will start laying eggs. Roundworms can lay up to 1 million eggs over the span of a couple of weeks. Due to this number, many kittens and puppies with advanced stages of infestation tend to have large bellies and mid sections. Severe infestations can cause a blockage, killing the host. Not only are puppies and kittens in danger of roundworm infestation, but an adult can be exposed as well ...
Eggs are collected from females breeding in a controlled environment. Excellent for studying embryological development, vertebrate organogenesis, and experimental physiology. Easily observe rapid development with a stereomicroscope. Hatched larvae can be reared to adults in small aquaria (not includ...
The larvae can be found in egg like sacks throughout the Insecta infested universe. They can also be found in larvae carrying bugs (Nanny-bugs). They secrete pheromones that alert Insecta to their presence. They are fragile and useful in combat.
After about 3 days of growth, and reaching a length of about 2.8mm, the caterpillar moults to the next instar. The 2nd instar caterpillar is yellowish green to green in body colour, and has whitish patches which larger and more quadrate for those occurring dorsally, smaller and irregular-shaped for those occurring laterally. There are numerous short pale yellowish brown setae on the body surface, and moderately long whitish setae lining the body rim. The dorsal nectary organ (DNO) and the tentacular organs (TOs) are present now, but they are still too small to be easily distinguisable. The 2nd instar caterpillar reaches a length of about 5mm, and after about 4 days in this stage, it moults again. ...
Adult ladybugs and larvae can be found living in gardens, agricultural fields, wooded areas and on plants that are frequented by aphids, which are a primary source of food for many species. The...
Automated 3‑D analysis of zebrafish larvae, often used as a window on embryonic growth, could aid in the development of new drugs (credit: MIT) Zebrafish
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In this study we utilized multiple fluorescent reporters with different emission wavelengths to simultaneously monitor digestive phospholipase, protease, and swallowing activities. We observed a strong correlation between the fluorescence intensity of the reporters PED6 and EnzChek that suggests a coupling between the protease and lipase signals. This coupling likely reflects the natural variance in the amounts of digestive enzyme substrates consumed by individual larvae.. The approach of using multiple fluorescent reporters in live zebrafish larvae enables the study of many aspects of the vertebrate digestive process while assaying relevant physiology. In the present study, we demonstrated that CCK signaling regulates the intestinal digestive activity in zebrafish, as in mammals (Fig. 3). Furthermore, we focused on the digestive role of the exocrine pancreas, which is the main source of intestinal digestive enzymes in mammals and found that, unlike protease activity, exocrine pancreas-derived ...
In this accessible and groundbreaking work, Friedrich Kipp shows that childhood and youth-an extended period of nurture and protection from the struggle for existence-have been, and will continue to be, a necessary condition for human evolution. His observations confirm our intuitive feeling that this prolonged phase of human life holds the promise of our future. Kipps comparative study of the juvenile stage in animals and humans also sheds surprising new light on the process of human evolution and our relation to the animal primates. In their earliest developmental stage, animals-and the animal primates in particular-display characteristics reminiscent of human children. However these more universal, humanlike characteristics are quickly lost as the animals adapt to specific ecological conditions. The animals early closeness to the human form and their developmental trajectory away from the human suggests that the main trunk of the evolutionary tree is intimately associated with human ...
Activation and inactivation of feeding related motor neurons leads to decline in feeding.A, Experimental setup: yeast intake of larvae at 18°C and 32°C (% of
For a few days ago my Red Spotted Purple caterpillars had the honour to be on your website. Today I am sending some more pictures of the later development: the last instar caterpillar, the pre-pupa, and the pupa. Best regards, and keep making people happy with your website ...
An Overview of Tools Available in CS 501. Ken Hopkinson [email protected] Talk Overview. Rational Rose for Design Source Management Tools A Selection of Available Development Environments Debugging Techniques. Using Rational Rose for Project Design. Start Rational Rose. Slideshow 99376 by richard_edik
Depth based from holotype (Ref. 1821); to be replaced with a better reference. Members of the class Scaphopoda are gonochoric. Fertilization occurs in the mantle cavity. Life cycle: Eggs hatch into free-swimming lecithotrophic trochophore larvae, succeeded by shelled veligers (Ref. 833). ...
Members of the class Scaphopoda are gonochoric. Fertilization occurs in the mantle cavity. Life cycle: Eggs hatch into free-swimming lecithotrophic trochophore larvae, succeeded by shelled veligers (Ref. 833). ...
Hy Im looking for a protocoll to isolate proteins from the nucleus of 3rd instar larvae D.m.. Please send it to path092 at mail.uni-wuerzburg.de Thank you in advance Thomas Twardzik ...
Pyrgus communis larva on mallow. The larvae make nests by webbing leaves together. This particular leaf had 4 larvae in various instars. This larva is about a half inch long and appears to be close to pupation. ...
kayak and hairy are expressed in glia in the brain. (A,A) Superficial layer of a late third instar larval brain expressing kayak-GFP (kay-GFP) stained for G
If you have problems finding these, go to the sea shore and hunt lvl5+ spirit crabs. Larvae are commonly found as their sidekicks. ...
When natural larval habitats of An. gambiae s.l. dry up, their contribution towards the population dynamics of the adult stage is often neglected, since mass larval mortality is assumed to occur [9]. We found that eggs of An. gambiae s.s. hatched and that emerging larvae showed limited capability of reaching a nearby breeding site, when placed on damp soil. With this experiment we simulated a natural situation whereby eggs remain on damp soil when the water level drops or eggs are oviposited deliberately on damp soil after desiccation of the habitat [8, 10]. In addition, we found that larvae of An. gambiae s.s. survive for several days in sites that are drying up, depending on the larval stage.. Larvae that hatch from eggs on damp soil were able to reach a breeding site within a distance of 10 cm, albeit in low numbers. We induced hatching of the eggs by keeping the soil of our experimental sites damp by daily spraying of water, but during spraying we made sure that no water ran off or that a ...
The susceptibility of field collected Aedes aegypti larvae was evaluated in terms of median lethal time (LT50) and final mortality, when treated with temephos, Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis as well as mixtures of these two agents. Third instar larvae were shown to be more susceptible than early and late fourth instar ones to the entomopathogen. Survival of some individuals when exposed to temephos suggest possible resistance. Temporal synergism in early fourth instar larvae was detected when they were exposed to mixtures of Bti-temephos. The possibility of this integrated treatment is commented on ...
Where Do Carpet Beetles Larvae Live.Carpet Beetle Larvae From Iran Not Causing Bites Whats . Problems Carpet Beetles Cause In Your Hartford Home. Carpet Beetle Larvae Insect ID. Best Gallery Images for Your Reference and Informations
BioAssay record AID 1082680 submitted by ChEMBL: Insecticidal activity against Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth) third-instar larvae measured 24 hr post dose by leaf disk dipping assay.
Observation - Unidentified Beetle larvae found in compost heap - UK and Ireland. Description: These beetle larvae were found in a compost heap as part of a national compost heap survey conducted from the University of Plymouth Need the ID for this beetle larvae please
Fire-Colored Beetle Larva वीडियो देखें! फ्री में Fire-Colored Beetle Larva वीडियो देखने के लिए अभी क्लिक करें! Fire-Colored Beetle Larva से संबंधित सर्वश्रेष्ठ वीडियो के चयन का आनंद लें।
Despite the increasing interest in insect-based bioactive products, the biological activities of these products are rarely studied adequately. Larvae of Tenebrio molitor, the yellow mealworm, have been eaten as a traditional food and provide many health benefits. Therefore, we hypothesized that T. molitor larvae might influence adipogenesis and obesity-related disorders. In the present study, we investigated the anti-adipogenic and antiobesity effects of T. molitor larvae in vitro and in vivo. The lipid accumulation and triglyceride content in mature adipocytes was reduced significantly (up to 90%) upon exposure to an ethanol extract of T. molitor larvae, without a reduction in cell viability. Exposure also resulted in key adipogenic and lipogenic transcription factors. Additionally, in adipogenic differentiation medium the extract induced phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Daily oral administration of T. molitor larvae powder
Perturbation of energy metabolism via NAD supplementation modifies the expression of larval development time, a genetically based trait relevant to development and whole-organism fitness in Drosophila melanogaster. The results suggest a link between energy metabolism and gene expression. Supplemental NAD significantly decreased larval development time for isofemale strains chosen on the basis of development time differences. This effect did not represent a trade-off with larval survival, and was not related to the effects of supplemental glucose. The isofemale strains were assayed by using a method derived from Warburgs manometric procedures which measured changes in the proportions of ATP, ADP and AMP in larval homogenates. Supplemental NAD appeared to increase the proportion of ATP and the [ATP]/[ADP] ratio in vitro and during larval development. The decrease in larval development time mediated by NAD was attributed to supplemental NAD modifying the NAD pool beyond levels established during ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interactive effects of maternal and environmental exposure to coal combustion wastes decrease survival of larval southern toads (Bufo terrestris). AU - Metts, Brian S.. AU - Buhlmann, Kurt A.. AU - Scott, David E.. AU - Tuberville, Tracey D.. AU - Hopkins, William A.. PY - 2012/5/1. Y1 - 2012/5/1. N2 - We conducted a mesocosm study to assess the individual and interactive effects of previous maternal exposure and larval exposure to trace element-laden sediments on southern toads (Bufo terrestris). Previous maternal exposure to coal combustion wastes (CCW) reduced larval survival to metamorphosis up to 57% compared to larvae of unexposed females. Larvae reared on CCW accumulated significant concentrations of trace elements resulting in extended larval periods, reduced growth rates, and reduced mass at metamorphosis. However, the effects were dependent on age of sediments, suggesting the effects of contaminants from CCW may be partially ameliorated over time through the reduced ...
A settlement inhibition assay using barnacle cyprid larvae, Balanus amphitrite, was developed with Cd2+ and phenol as standard reference toxicants. Mean percentage settlement of cyprid larvae showed a progressive reduction with increasing concentrations of Cd2+ and phenol. A significant reduction in settlement was found when cyprids were exposed to 0.1 mgL(-1) Cd2+ or 10 mgL(-1) phenol. The assay was used to assess the sublethal toxicity of three oil dispersants (Vecom B-1425 GL, Norchem OSD-570 and Corexit 9905) commonly used in Hong Kong waters. Results of this investigation show that the barnacle settlement inhibition assay can be incorporated into the battery of tests currently available for ecotoxicological assessment of marine contaminants. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd ...
We present various methods to record cardiac function in the larval Drosophila. The approaches allow heart rate to be measured in unrestrained and restrained whole larvae. For direct control of the environment around the heart another approach utiliz
Another factor is turf quality and maintenance. High turf quality means that theres more organic matter present. White grubs rarely damage turf thats allowed to go dormant in July and August.. Egg and first instar larval survival are the major factors determining grub populations. White grub eggs need to absorb moisture from the surrounding soil in order to develop. If they dont absorb moisture within 24 to 36 hours after being laid, theyll die. The tiny first instar grubs are also very susceptible to desiccation. So, if turf is irrigated during the time that scarab beetles are laying eggs, the risk of having white grubs rises.. In our risk assessment, we need to: note if there was a damaging grub population in the previous season; determine the age of the turf and how much thatch is present; and determine if the turf is being kept green during July and August.. When all these factors are positive, the risk of having a major grub problem is high. In this turf, I would recommend preventive ...
Food habits and biology of five species of Pleocoma larvae were studied at a dozen forested sites in western Oregon between May 1960 and December 1961. First instar Pleocoma hatch in late summer and moult to second instars in early fall. Second and subsequent instars moult annually between mid-summer and early fall. Larvae appear to go through more than nine instars pupating after the seventh, in the upper 20 inches of soil, in mid-summer. Male larvae outnumber females by about 30 percent. Larvae move through the soil primarily by use of the mandibles. This movement can exceed a rate of four inches a day. Larval populations varied from none to 4.4 larvae per square foot and were distributed between two and 44 inches in depth. Soil temperatures and soil moisture influenced most larvae at some sites to leave the upper 16 inches of soil during the summer. At other sites, however, a shallow silicate clay hardpan influenced larvae to remain at shallow depths throughout the year. A fungus disease ...
Watch The Video: o-DISC Deployed Off One Reef Island ]. Lee Rannals for redOrbit.com - Your Universe Online Scientists writing in the journal PLOS ONE say that if fish larvae were lost, they could just sniff their way back home. The study establishes that reef fish larvae can smell the presence of coral reefs from as far away as several miles offshore. The larvae are then able to use this scent to help guide themselves back home.. The researchers were aiming to study the response of cardnalfish and damselfish larvae in an open ocean setting using an outflow plume. The larvae were observed in the central chamber of an ocean Drifting In Situ Chamber (o-DISC), a device that is composed of a circular behavioral arena that is transparent to light, sound and small-scale turbulence.. The equipment was set up in the water column, and the swimming activity and bearing of the larvae was recorded using an underwater motion-sensing system. The o-DISC tracked larval movement and orientation using odor cues ...
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We examined the life history consequences of cornicle secretion by Aphis fabae Scopoli in second and fourth instars, and its effects on host suitability for its parasitoid, Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall). Cornicle secretion did not affect aphid fecundity, but secretion in the second instar enhanced life table parameters, whereas secretion in the fourth instar affected them negatively, suggesting a higher cost of secretion in later instars. Secretion in either instar improved host suitability for L. fabarum. Although control and treated aphids were parasitized at similar rates, and with similar success, wasps developed faster and emerged as larger adults in aphids that had secreted, regardless of instar. Transgenerational effects were also evident. Progeny emergence was higher when parental wasps developed in fourth instars than in seconds, whether aphids secreted or not, and progeny were larger when parental hosts secreted in the second instar, but not in the fourth. Secreting fourth instars ...
Evaluations of egg and larval survival and mortality factors will be based on EAB life tables developed from marked cohorts of eggs and larvae on common American ash trees at a minimum of four field sites in natural forests, where some indigenous parasitoids may have become associated with EAB, and the three introduced Chinese parasitoids (Oobius agrili, Tetrastichus planipennisi, Spathius agrili) either have already been released or will be released in the first year of the study. Naturally occurring native species (if any) in each of the study sites will be treated as sequential and/or contemporary factors inflicting mortality of EAB along with the previously introduced Chinese parasitoids. If work from associated EAB projects leads to successful discovery and introduction of new species of parasitoids from Russia and/or China, these species will be introduced and then included in the evaluation studies. ...
A lectotype is designated for Agabus setulosus (J. Sahlberg, 1895), a rare rheophilous dytiscid known mainly from northern Fennoscandia. The larval instars are described for the first time, based on material from northern Sweden. The first-instar larva is characterized by the presence of two dorsal spines on each femur and a pair of mediodorsal setae on last abdominal segment; both characters are seemingly unique among Agabus. The third instar differs from all other Palaearctic Agabus species in the complete sclerotization of the ring-like abdominal segment 6. The biology of A. setulosus is described from a Swedish population; semivoltine life cycle with overwintering eggs laid in summer followed by adult overwintering prior to breeding is suggested.
Stretch-activated afferent neurons, such as those of mammalian muscle spindles, are essential for proprioception and motor co-ordination, but the underlying mechanisms of mechanotransduction are poorly understood. The dorsal bipolar dendritic (dbd) sensory neurons are putative stretch receptors in the Drosophila larval body wall. We have developed an in vivo protocol to obtain receptor potential recordings from intact dbd neurons in response to stretch. Receptor potential changes in dbd neurons in response to stretch showed a complex, dynamic profile with similar characteristics to those previously observed for mammalian muscle spindles. These profiles were reproduced by a general in silico model of stretch-activated neurons. This in silico model predicts an essential role for a mechanosensory cation channel (MSC) in all aspects of receptor potential generation. Using pharmacological and genetic techniques, we identified the mechanosensory channel, DmPiezo, in this functional role in dbd ...
The larval growth of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) was compared between two main spawning areas, the Sea of Japan (SOJ) and the western North Pacific (WNP). Growth trajectories indicate that the larval survival depends on their growth in both areas. Until the flexion stage, larvae of the SOJ showed lower growth than those of the WNP, but after the post-flexion stage, there was no signi ...
In the northern North Island, damage from black beetle larvae may be showing. Unfortunately little can be done to prevent this. Adults are deterred by AR37, Endo5 and NEA2 endophyte-infected grasses which will reduce egg laying and larval numbers. See DairyNZ Pasture Renewal Guide.. ...
How insects sense their body size and determine when to undergo a molt is a fundamental, yet unsolved, question in developmental biology. Reaching the "critical weight," which is specific to each developmental stage, induces secretion of the steroid hormone ecdysone to trigger molting. Mechanisms by which body size is sensed and controlled are not completely understood, but oxygen availability is one factor that influences body size. Callier and Nijhout looked at the role of the tracheal system, which delivers oxygen directly to tissues, in controlling larval body size and molting times in the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta. Measurement of tracheal system volume and imaging of gut tracheae indicated that the tracheal system increased in volume and size by a discrete amount at each molt, so that larvae began each developmental stage (instar) with a tracheal system of a set size that did not increase during that instar. In contrast, the body mass and size of larvae increased throughout the instar. ...
Utetes anastrephae is a larval-prepupal synovigenic (produce eggs over the life of the adult), endoparasitic koinobiont (parasitoid allows the host to continue development and does not kill the host until the parasitoid larva pupates) that develops well in late instar larvae. It forages for larvae in ripe fruit hanging on tree branches (Ovruski et al. 2000) and the female inserts a single egg inside the body of the fly larvae. Upon hatching, the parasitoid larva remains in the first instar stage until the host begins to pupate. Development time from egg to adult parasitoid is temperature dependent, but usually takes about two weeks. Females are attracted to fruit volatiles in their search for food and fly hosts. Host location within the fruit is mediated by antennation (sensing information by touching antennae) and perhaps probing with the ovipositor to detect compounds unique to larval hosts (Stuhl et al. 2011). It is assumed that fruit juices and other plant-produced substances such as ...
Argyrotaenia franciscana is bivoltine or multivoltine, depending on location. In warmer inland areas of California, larvae aestivate during the summer and only two generations are completed. In cooler coastal areas there may be up to 5 continuous overlapping generations with adults present year-round.. Eggs are laid on smooth surfaces of leaves, fruits, and twigs in masses that contain approximately 200 individual eggs. Early instar larvae skeletonize leaves under a silk shelter; later instars roll, fold, or web leaves together or to fruits. Larvae complete 5-7 instars in a period of 20-30 days. Larvae or pupae overwinter in dead leaves, in mummified fruits, under buds, or on weedy herbaceous plants in the same vicinity as the host. Pupation occurs in the final larval shelter.. Larvae can cause economic damage by directly feeding on developing fruit in citrus, apple, and grape. Larvae may also feed on stems, causing fruit to drop.. Host plants. Argyrotaenia franciscana has been described as one ...
Abstract:. Poultry litter (PL), which is usually used as organic fertilizer, is a source of nutrients, metals, veterinary pharmaceuticals and bacterial pathogens, which, through runoff, may end up in the nearest aquatic ecosystems. In this study, Leptodactylus chaquensis at different development stages (eggs, larval stages 28 and 31 here referred to as stages I, II and III respectively) were exposed to PL test sediments as follows: 6.25% (T1), 12.5% (T2); 25% (T3); 50% (T4); 75% (T5); 100% PL (T6) and to dechlorinated water as control. Larval survival, development endpoints (growth rate -GR-, development rate -DR-, abnormalities), antioxidant enzyme activities (Catalase -CAT- and Glutathione-S-Transferase -GST-), and genotoxic effect (DNA damage index by the Comet assay) were analyzed at different times. In stage I, no egg eclosion was observed in treatments T3-T6, and 50% of embryo mortality was recorded after 24 h of exposure to T2. In stages II and III, mortality in treatments T3-T6 reached ...
The underlying processes of nociception and pain are, despite the rodent models available, still not fully understood. One of the drawbacks of rodent model systems is the difficulty to screen compound libraries for their influence on nociception, thus slowing down the discovery of novel analgesics for clinical use.. Rodent behavioural tasks have been previously adapted for larval zebrafish in our group and in the current manuscript we investigated the possibilities of zebrafish larvae as an additional model system to study nociception and pain and their underlying mechanisms.. Zebrafish larvae were exposed to different concentrations of diluted acetic acid, a chemical noxious stimulus, and we measured nociceptive-specific behaviours. Cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2), a gene known to be involved in nociception, was used as a marker for the activation of nociceptive pathways. Upon exposure to diluted acetic acid, five-day old larval zebrafish showed a concentration dependent increase in locomotor ...
Adult: The adult horse bot fly emerges after a three to 10 week period during the summer or fall season. After the fly emerges from the pupa, it quickly finds a mate. The mating activity typically occurs in the early afternoon during warm, sunny weather in relative proximity to horses or on hilltops. According to Cogley and Cogley (2000), mating may not solely rely on the presence of horses or hilltops. Mating is likely to occur around fecal piles where pupae numbers are large thereby greatly increasing the chances of male and female contact upon adult fly emergence. Once the male and female flies meet, they sink to the ground and copulation occurs within three to four minutes. Within hours, the female begins host seeking and oviposits. Dispersal of eggs by the female is not restricted to one horse but can occur on many horses within an area. The female increases the chance of larval survival by not limiting her eggs to one horse (Cogley and Cogley 2000). The adult female lifespan lasts seven to ...
The mission of our group is to unravel structure-function relationships between neural circuits, sensory coding and adaptive behaviours. We are interested in understanding how odour tracking comes about in terms of circuit computation. This problem is tackled in the olfactory system of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster larva. Our research combines a variety of experimental and computational techniques aiming to define how naturalistic odorant stimuli are encoded and processed in the olfactory system. In particular, we are developing new computational tools to monitor and classify stereotypical behaviours automatically. We are seeking to identify circuits involved in the processing of olfactory information and the making of decisions underlying chemotaxis.. ...
Our 3-year field study (2006-2009) using captive populations of D. melanogaster is the first field study to investigate the relationship between inbreeding depression and seasonal fluctuations in stress level. We found that stress levels were on average fourfold higher in the winter compared with the summer, and that this higher stress level increased the inbreeding depression affecting population productivity from 32 per cent in the summer to 65 per cent in the winter. Moreover, this covariation of stress level and inbreeding depression conformed to the same linear relationship seen in experimental Drosophila laboratory studies of stress and inbreeding (figure 2). The observation that inbreeding depression based on population productivity in the field follows the same relationship as inbreeding depression based on larval survival in the laboratory suggests that even in complex environments stress and inbreeding interact in the same predictable manner. This same general relationship has been ...
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El Archivo Digital UPM alberga en formato digital la documentacion academica y cientifica (tesis, pfc, articulos, etc..) generada en la Universidad Politecnica de Madrid.Los documentos del Archivo Digital UPM son recuperables desde buscadores: Google, Google Academics, Yahoo, Scirus, etc y desde recolectores OAI: E-ciencia, DRRD, Recolecta (REBIUN-FECYT), Driver, Oaister, etc.
Global warming is likely to affect all biological processes in Nereids, including growth and timing of reproduction. Furthermore, those species that use daylength as the proximate cue to predict time of year may be particularly vulnerable (Olive et al. 1990; Norse 1993; Lawrence 1996). Based on current predictions, climate change will cause a significant shift in the phase relationship between temperature and photoperiod, which in turn may impact on aspects of reproduction. This might include significant changes in the speed or timing of gametogenesis and spawning, fecundity and, ultimately, larval survival.. Climate change impacts on Nereidae are difficult to predict. As already highlighted, the initiation of vitellogenesis is fixed to time of year by photoperiod. In addition, a key element of gametogenesis is the requirement for low photoperiod and low temperature regimes over the winter. The shorter the day and lower the temperature, the quicker the gametes develop. Furthermore, final ...
2 Islamic Azad University, Department of Fisheries, Ahvaz Branch, Ahvaz, Iran DOI : 10.4194/1303-2712-v17_5_18 Viewed : 710 - Downloaded : 594 In the present study, we have investigated the inducing effect of ovaprim on reproductive parameters of Shirbot, Barbus grypus including: spawning rate, working fecundity, egg weight/g.bw, egg hatching percent and larval survival rate in order to found an alternative for carp pituitary extract. For this purpose, 105 female fish were divided in 6 experimental treatments and injected intraperitoneally in two stages (first stage by 10% hormone and after 12 hours the second s0% hormone) with different doses of ovtage with 9aprim including: T1: 0.25 ml/kg.bw, T2: 0.5 ml/kg.bw, T3: 0.75 ml/kg.bw, T4: 1 ml/kg.bw, T5: 1.25 ml/kg.bw, T6: 1. 5 ml/kg.bw. Also, one group was considered as control and its fish were injected by 3 mg/kg.bw pituitary extract. To obtain spermatozoa, 3 maturing male fish were injected intraperitoneally by 3/kg.bw pituitary extract in one ...
The first uses blow fly larval development or maggots and the second looks at successional ecology.. 1. Larval or maggot development. The female blow fly lays eggs very shortly after death and these hatch into 1st instar larvae which feed on the remains, moult to 2nd instar, continue to feed, then moult to 3rd instar, removing a great deal of tissue, then changing behaviourally and leaving the body looking for a safe place in which to metamorphose to an adult fly. They will then from an external pupal case inside which they will metamorphose and emerge as an adult fly. As insects are cold blooded, their development through this lifecycle is heavily influenced by temperature, so their development is predictable. Each species develops at a different rate so an entomologist needs to know the species of insect on the body, the oldest stage on the body, the temperature of the crime scene and known and published developmental rates for that species. With this information they can estimate the minimum ...
Genes related to RNA processing and translation showed higher rates of expression in young larvae (first and second instars) than in older larvae (Table 1). RNA helicase was strongly expressed by young larvae, as was an RNA-binding protein and translation elongation factor 2. Interestingly, two heat-shock proteins also were overexpressed in the youngest larvae. One shows a significant match to the Hsp70 family, whereas the second matches Hsp90. Heat-shock proteins are named for their ubiquitous presence following hyperthermy and other stresses [12], but members of this group have a more general role as molecular chaperones, and are involved in the assembly of newly translated proteins [13]. Hsp90 appears to be involved in the assembly of steroid hormone receptors [13]. Expression analyses on a more precise time scale, and at the level of specific tissues, should help determine whether the covariance between the expression of Hsps and agents involved in RNA processing reflects a joint role in ...
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Both colonial and solitary species are capable of asexual clonal reproduction by budding; species may reproduce sexually and be dioecious, simultaneous, or protandrous hermaphrodites. Eggs either hatch into planktonic larvae, or in some species, complete early development in a brood chamber (located in the atrium), attached by secretions of cement glands to the chambers wall. In some brooding species, nutrition is provided to developing embryos via special placental cells; in others, the egg yolk nourishes the growing larvae. Planktonic larvae may remain free swimming for up to 7 months before settling, while those raised in a brood chamber will settle relatively quickly (within a few days of hatching). (Brusca and Brusca, 2003; Ruppert, et al., 2004; Shanks, 2001). Entoproct embryonic development follows the holoblastic, spiral cleavage pattern typical of protostome organisms, with the mesoderm forming from the 4d mesentoblast. Development continues to a coeloblastula stage, after which, the ...
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Fly larvae fed on alcohol-spiked food for a period of days grow dependent on those spirits for learning. The findings, reported in Current Biology, a Cell Press publication, on November 29th, show how overuse of alcohol can produce lasting changes in the brain, even after alcohol abuse stops.
The amphibian fauna of Sichuan Province, China, is remarkable for the large number of species of pelobatid frogs, of which species of Oreolalax form a large portion. We have collected larvae of five species of Oreolalax on Mt. Emei, Sichuan, four of these five at a second locality 40 km from Mt. Emei, and larvae of two additional species at a locality 200 km S of Mt. Emei. These tadpoles are very similar to one another morphologically, a conclusion supported by multivariate analysis. We give diagnostic descriptions and a key for the identification of these seven larval forms. All tadpoles of Oreolalax have lotic habits, and the seven species in our study live in small to medium-sized streams (maximum width 8 m). These species show only moderate ecological segregation in terms of stream size and microhabitat type.
The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)) is a significant pest of potato plants that has been controlled for more than two decades by neonicotinoid imidacloprid. L. decemlineata can develop resistance to this agent even though the molecular mechanisms underlying this resistance are not well characterized. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short ribonucleic acids that have been linked to response to various insecticides in several insect models. Unfortunately, the information is lacking regarding differentially expressed miRNAs following imidacloprid treatment in L. decemlineata. In this study, next-generation sequencing and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were used to identify modulated miRNAs in imidacloprid-treated versus untreated L. decemlineata. This approach identified 33 differentially expressed miRNAs between the two experimental conditions. Of interest, miR-282 and miR-989, miRNAs previously shown to be modulated by imidacloprid in other insects, and miR-100,
Goblet cells in the midgut epithelium of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta larva, 5th instar) actively secrete K+. This can be measured as short-circuit
This will be the first research aiming to investigate the chemical and nutritional ecology of Lucilia sericata, (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) focusing on 1) carrion resource associated microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) emissions as insect semiochemicals in regulating the olfactory response of adult L. sericata of different biological states, 2) the impact of exposure to these VOCs on the life history related traits of L. sericata adult flies, and 3) effect of carrion associated nutritional resources on blow fly larval performance. One GFP producing Providencia was successfully constructed to be used to visualize bacteria along the alimentary canal of L. sericata larvae to implement investigation of its impact on the physiology of both L. sericata immature and adults, such as the immature developmental stages, the adults potential choice for food location and oviposition. Microbes play an important role in the decomposition processes of carrion associated resources producing ...
The closest permanent populations of Colorado potato beetles are found in Russia, north and south of Lake Ladoga. Occasional overwintered beetles can be found in Finland, mainly in the vicinity of the eastern border. The Colorado potato beetles that burrowed into the ground as adults come out of hibernation when the temperature of the soil exceeds 15 degrees. This usually happens at the end of June and beginning of July.. It is difficult to find single beetles, but there can be findings of several dozen adult beetles in a colony that has overwintered. The adult beetles and larvae first eat holes in the potato leaves, and later they eat the leaves completely. In this case the area has to be examined carefully for findings of adult Colorado potato beetles or egg masses. The Colorado potato beetles only eat potatoes or other solanaceae. In the home garden there are many other common insects eating the leaves of plants.. An adult Colorado potato beetle is about one centimetre long. There are 10 ...
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The lepidopteran-specific P1 delta-endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-1 was activated in vitro using insect gut proteases and found to be highly specific for the lepidopteran cell line Choristoneura fumiferana CF1 among a wide range of lepidopteran and dipteran cell lines tested. The toxicity of P1 against CF1 cells is inhibited by N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), and the lectins soybean agglutinin (SBA) and wheat-germ agglutinin. Protein blotting was used to identify a glycoprotein of 146 X 10(3) Mr in the plasma membrane of CF1 cells, capable of binding both the toxin and SBA, which is specific for GalNAc. This glycoprotein was labelled using galactose oxidase and sodium boro-[3H]hydride and solubilized in Triton X-100 before partial purification by affinity chromatography on SBA-agarose. We propose that this glycoprotein is a good candidate for the cellular receptor of the lepidopteran-specific P1 delta-endotoxin of B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-1. ...
A sophisticated evolutionary conserved innate immune system has evolved in insects to fight pathogens and to restrict damage in harmful (danger) situations including cancer. A significant amount of knowledge about different infection models in Drosophila has been generated in past decades, which revealed functional resemblances and implications for vertebrate systems. However, how Drosophila responds towards multicellular parasitic nematodes and in danger situations is still little understood. Therefore, the aim of the thesis was to characterize multiple aspects of the host defense in the two important contexts mentioned above.. We analyzed the transcriptome profiles of nematode-infected Drosophila larvae with uninfected samples. For this we employed the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora with its symbiont Photorhabdus luminescence to infect Drosophila larvae. We found 642 genes were differentially regulated upon infection. Among them a significant portion belonged to immune ...
Review Mosquitocidal bacterial toxins (Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis): Mode of action, cytopathological effects and mechanism of resistance Subbiah Poopathi and S. Abidha Unit of Microbiology and Immunology, Vector Control Research Centre (Indian Council of Medical Research), Medical complex, Indira Nagar, Puducherry - 60 5006, India.. *Corresponding author. E-mail: [email protected] Tel: 91-9443957479. Fax: 91-413-2272041 Accepted 4 September, 2013. Bacillus sphaericus Neide (Bs) and Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis deBarjac (Bti) provide effective alternatives to broad spectrum larvicides in many situations with little or no environmental impact. Taking into account environmental benefits including safety for humans and other non- target organisms, reduction of pesticide residues in the aquatic environment, increased activity of most other natural enemies and increased biodiversity in aquatic ecosystems, their advantages are ...

I Have Cutaneous Larva MigransI Have Cutaneous Larva Migrans

Join friendly people sharing true stories in the I Have Cutaneous Larva Migrans group. Find support forums, advice and chat ... I Have Cutaneous Larva Migrans does not have any stories yet. Be a superstar and share yours. ... A Cutaneous Larva Migrans anonymous support group with information on diagnosis, treatment, symptoms, along with personal ... stories and experiences with Cutaneous Larva Migrans. Youre not alone. Report Group. ...
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Saris Time Capsule: CUTANEOUS LARVA MIGRANS (CLM)Sari's Time Capsule: CUTANEOUS LARVA MIGRANS (CLM)

In their natural animal hosts, the larvae of cutaneous larva migrans are able to penetrate into the dermis and are transported ... Cutaneous larva migrans demonstrates no specific sexual predilection because cutaneous larva migrans depends on exposure. ... Perlu diketahui, larva cacing terhambat pada suhu di bawah 10 derajat cecius, tetapi tidak mati, dan baru bisa mati pada suhu ... Edelglass JW, Douglass MC, Stiefler R, Tessler M. Cutaneous larva migrans in northern climates. A souvenir of your dream ...
more infohttp://micymicy.blogspot.com/2011/03/cutaneous-larva-migrans-clm.html

Effects of cadmium on the kinetics of calcium uptake in developing tilapia larvae, Oreochromis mossambicus<...Effects of cadmium on the kinetics of calcium uptake in developing tilapia larvae, Oreochromis mossambicus<...

Consequently, the actual Ca2+ influx of larvae in solutions of 0.2 mM Ca2+ are suppressed by 32-45%. Also, 3 day-old larvae ... Consequently, the actual Ca2+ influx of larvae in solutions of 0.2 mM Ca2+ are suppressed by 32-45{\%}. Also, 3 day-old larvae ... Consequently, the actual Ca2+ influx of larvae in solutions of 0.2 mM Ca2+ are suppressed by 32-45%. Also, 3 day-old larvae ... Consequently, the actual Ca2+ influx of larvae in solutions of 0.2 mM Ca2+ are suppressed by 32-45%. Also, 3 day-old larvae ...
more infohttps://mayoclinic.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/effects-of-cadmium-on-the-kinetics-of-calcium-uptake-in-developin

First feeding of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) larvae: use of Brachionus plicatilis acclimated at low...First feeding of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) larvae: use of Brachionus plicatilis acclimated at low...

... larvae: use of Brachionus plicatilis acclimated at low temperatures as live prey ... larvae fed B. plicatilis reared at 24 °C and (2) larvae fed B. plicatilis reared at 24 °C but acclimated overnight at 10 °C ... of winter flounder larvae is provided in this study. Trypsin activity was detected very early in larvae and was not affected by ... Fatty acid composition of larvae was also studied with a focus on the levels and ratios of three essential fatty acids ( ...
more infohttps://nrc-publications.canada.ca/eng/view/object/?id=1be2b6b8-ac4f-404f-9421-d6b4f7d4b04e

中国科学院水生生物研究所机构知识库(IHB OpenIR): A settlement inhibition assay with cyprid larvae of the barnacle中国科学院水生生物研究所机构知识库(IHB OpenIR): A settlement inhibition assay with cyprid larvae of the barnacle

A settlement inhibition assay with cyprid larvae of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite.pdf(357KB). --. --. 开放获取. --. View Download ... Rudolf S.S. Wu; Paul K.S. Lam and Bingsheng Zhou.A settlement inhibition assay with cyprid larvae of the barnacle Balanus ... A settlement inhibition assay using barnacle cyprid larvae, Balanus amphitrite, was developed with Cd2+ and phenol as standard ... Mean percentage settlement of cyprid larvae showed a progressive reduction with increasing concentrations of Cd2+ and phenol. A ...
more infohttp://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/152342/10246

Article | Taurine metabolism and effects of inclusion levels in rotifer (Brachionus rotundiformis, Tschugunoff, 1921) on...Article | Taurine metabolism and effects of inclusion levels in rotifer (Brachionus rotundiformis, Tschugunoff, 1921) on...

... larvae. ,i,Aquaculture,/i,, 510, pp. 353-363. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2019.05.040 ... However, ABT larvae fed tau1 displayed higher growth and survival, and flexion index at 14 dah, than larvae fed the other ... Larvae fed tau1 also showed generally higher expression of tauT and cdo and digestive and antioxidant enzyme genes. While this ... Whole larvae expression of csad peaked at 15 dah, whereas the other genes generally increased throughout development to show ...
more infohttps://www.stir.ac.uk/research/hub/publication/1368944

Crustacean larva - WikipediaCrustacean larva - Wikipedia

Post-larva[edit]. The post-larva is characterised by the use of abdominal appendages (pleopods) for propulsion. The post-larva ... The larvae of the Achelata (slipper lobsters and spiny lobsters) are unlike any other crustacean larvae. The larvae are known ... the larvae hatch as antizoea larvae, with five pairs of thoracic appendages, and develop into erichthus larvae, where the ... In the Squilloidea, a pseudozoea larva develops into an alima larva, while in Gonodactyloidea, a pseudozoea develops into an ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nauplius_

Keyword: larvaKeyword: larva

Doctors find tapeworm larva in California mans brain. 11/05/2015 11:59:55 AM PST · by Gamecock · 23 replies Click On Detroit ^ ... and was told a tapeworm larva had been living in his brain when he woke up. The surgery and the aftermath have greatly impacted ...
more infohttp://www.freerepublic.com/tag/larva/index

echinopluteus larva | Encyclopedia.comechinopluteus larva | Encyclopedia.com

Source for information on echinopluteus larva: A Dictionary of Zoology dictionary. ... echinopluteus larva In Echinodermata, a planktonic and feeding larval form that possesses limb-like outgrowths bearing ciliated ... echinopluteus larva A Dictionary of Zoology © A Dictionary of Zoology 1999, originally published by Oxford University Press ... echinopluteus larva In Echinodermata, a planktonic and feeding larval form that possesses limb-like outgrowths bearing ciliated ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/echinopluteus-larva

Abyssal Larva (3pp) - Pathfinder OGCAbyssal Larva (3pp) - Pathfinder OGC

The mind of an abyssal larva is a warped and tangled mass of chaos. As a result, abyssal larvae are immune to all mind- ... Abyssal larvae are believed to be the final form of an evil soul deemed too weak to become a demon and too weak to become the ... Abyssal Larva (3pp) This creature looks like a puffy and bloated human-sized whitish-yellow maggot with purplish veins ... An abyssal larvas natural weapons, as well as any weapon it wields, is treated as chaotic-aligned and evil-aligned for the ...
more infohttps://sites.google.com/site/pathfinderogc/bestiary/monster-listings/outsiders/abyssal-larva-tohc

larva: Vertebrate Larvae | Infopleaselarva: Vertebrate Larvae | Infoplease

... the larva of the eel is interesting because it is flat and transparent. The tadpole, the familiar larva of the amphibian , ... larva: Vertebrate Larvae. Among vertebrates a number of fishes pass through larval stages; the larva of the eel is interesting ... The tadpole, the familiar larva of the amphibian , develops to a considerable size in the relatively hospitable aquatic ...
more infohttps://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/plants-and-animals/animals/zoology-invertebrates/larva/vertebrate-larvae

Ocular Larva MigransOcular Larva Migrans

... is a rare inflammatory condition of the eye caused by local reactions to the larva of Toxocara species. ... Ocular larva migrans is a rare inflammatory condition of the eye caused by local reactions to the larva of Toxocara species. ... Ocular larva migrans is a disease caused by the final migration of these larvae and affects mostly the young, with an average ... When they reach the eye and settle in it, the condition is called ocular larva migrans. Only a small number of larvae are ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/health/Ocular-Larva-Migrans.aspx

Larva - WikipédiaLarva - Wikipédia

... larva často obýva iného hostiteľa ako dospelé jedince. Larva nemusí byť ani nutne menšia ako dospelý jedinec. Napríklad larva ... Larva alebo larválne štádium je nedospelé vývinové štádium živočíchov, ktoré sa buď postupným zvliekaním (nedokonalá premena) ... Larva nemusí obývať rovnaké životné prostredie ako dospelé štádium (napríklad larvy podeniek žijú vo vodnom prostredí a dýchajú ... Patrí medzi ne napríklad larva škľabiek - glochídium. Premena larvy na dospelého jedinca sa môže uskutočniť viacerými spôsobmi ...
more infohttps://sk.wikipedia.org/wiki/Larv%C3%A1lne_%C5%A1t%C3%A1dium

Trochophore | larva | Britannica.comTrochophore | larva | Britannica.com

... free-swimming larva characteristic of marine annelids and most groups of mollusks. Trochophores are spherical or pear-shaped ... the trochophore larva develops into a veliger larva. In these generally planktotrophic larvae, the girdle of ciliated cells ... into a free-swimming form (trochophore larva). Upon the expansion of the ciliary girdle of the trochophore larva into large, ... larva typical of certain mollusks such as marine snails and bivalves and a few freshwater bivalves. The veliger develops from ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/trochophore

Hellgrammite | larva | Britannica.comHellgrammite | larva | Britannica.com

Mature larvae migrate from their freshwater habitat to wet soil, moss, or decaying vegetation near the water to form pupal ... The larvae, sometimes known as hellgrammites or toe-biters, are aquatic and are eaten by fish, especially bass; they often are ... The larvae, sometimes known as hellgrammites or toe-biters, are aquatic and are eaten by fish, especially bass; they often are ... Mature larvae migrate from their freshwater habitat to wet soil, moss, or decaying vegetation near the water to form pupal ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/animal/hellgrammite

Larva - Game - StarCraft IILarva - Game - StarCraft II

... the Larvae can expand its library of genetic strains. With a command from the Overlords, Larvae will enter a pupal state and ... Each Larva contains within it the genetic makeup of every other Zerg strain available to the Hive. A young Hive will have only ... The creatures most similar to the original Zerg insectoids are the Zerg Larvae. ... The creatures most similar to the original Zerg insectoids are the Zerg Larvae. Each Larva contains within it the genetic ...
more infohttp://us.battle.net/sc2/en/game/unit/larva?page=2

Larva - Game - StarCraft IILarva - Game - StarCraft II

... the Larvae can expand its library of genetic strains. With a command from the Overlords, Larvae will enter a pupal state and ... Each Larva contains within it the genetic makeup of every other Zerg strain available to the Hive. A young Hive will have only ... The creatures most similar to the original Zerg insectoids are the Zerg Larvae. ... The creatures most similar to the original Zerg insectoids are the Zerg Larvae. Each Larva contains within it the genetic ...
more infohttp://us.battle.net/sc2/en/game/unit/larva?page=6

Larva - FactbitesLarva - Factbites

Larva (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05). A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile from of animal with indirect ... AnimeNfo.Com : Larva. Larva, is Miyus "Captive" as those that know Larva would say, but he is her protector and helps her hunt ... N I learned that the larva arent the same size when they go into their chrysalis, and larva are larva for about three weeks. ... I learned that the larva arent the same size when they go into their chrysalis, and that larva are larva for about three weeks ...
more infohttp://www.factbites.com/topics/Larva

Larva MortusLarva Mortus

... ist ein rasantes Action Horrorspiel, das Sie in eine dunkle und bedrohliche Welt Ihrer schlimmsten Albträume ...
more infohttps://www.greenmangaming.com/de/games/larva-mortus/

Larva My Life - IFCLarva My Life - IFC

To watch full episodes, you must have a cable provider that supports IFCs full episode service and you must have IFC as part of your cable package.. ...
more infohttps://www.ifc.com/shows/stan-against-evil/season-03/episode-03/larva-my-life

Structure of the Amphilinidea LarvaStructure of the Amphilinidea Larva

... Klaus Rohde The larva of Austramphilina elongata, which has been studied in greatest ... Page: Tree of Life Structure of the Amphilinidea Larva Authored by Klaus Rohde. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the ... Figure 2. Larva of Austramphilina elongata showing sensilla, hooks and transverse muscle bands (redrawn from Rohde and Georgi, ... Figure 1. Larva of Austramphilina elongata, showing cilia, hooks, penetration glands and protonephridial system (redrawn from ...
more infohttp://tolweb.org/accessory/Structure_of_the_Amphilinidea_Larva?acc_id=1779

Larva Metal Prints | Society6Larva Metal Prints | Society6

Shop larva metal prints from thousands of artists from around the world. Our metal wall art produces vibrant colors and amazing ...
more infohttps://society6.com/metal-prints/larva

Visceral larva migrans: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaVisceral larva migrans: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Visceral larva migrans (VLM) is a human infection with certain parasites found in the intestines of dogs and cats. ... Parasite infection - visceral larva migrans; VLM; Toxocariasis; Ocular larva migrans; Larva migrans visceralis ... Visceral larva migrans and other uncommon helminth infections. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and ... Visceral larva migrans (VLM) is a human infection with certain parasites found in the intestines of dogs and cats. ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000633.htm

LARVA - ToyNewsLARVA - ToyNews

Larva. Created by South Koreas TUBA, Larva follows the comic capers of Red and Yellow, two cheeky larvae who live beneath a ... Re:creation signs with Commonwealth to bring YouTubes LARVA plush to UK 21st November 2018 Licensing Comments Off on Re: ... Hit kids series and toy line Larva embarks on licensing programme with Riverside Brands 2nd April 2019 Featured, Highlight, ... LARVA currently has almost four million YouTube subscribers and more than 260 episodes. It features a variety of CGI animated ...
more infohttps://www.toynews-online.biz/tag/larva/

Paratraea plebeja, larva imageParatraea plebeja, larva image

IM/I_DLW/0000/640/Paratraea_plebeja,_larva,I_DLW63.jpg. width=640 x height=430 pixels; size=91686 bytes Discover Life , Top ...
more infohttp://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20p?see=I_DLW63&res=640
  • Only a small number of larvae are required to precipitate this eye disorder, and therefore the anti-Toxocara antibody level is lower or indiscernible, in contrast with visceral larva migrans. (news-medical.net)
  • Visceral larva migrans is an infection caused by certain parasites found in the intestines of dogs and cats . (factbites.com)
  • Visceral larva migrans is caused by worms (parasites) that infect the intestines of dogs and cats . (factbites.com)
  • If you have visceral larva migrans, you may have a higher-than-normal level of white blood cells. (factbites.com)
  • Visceral larva migrans (VLM) is a human infection with certain parasites found in the intestines of dogs and cats. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Visceral larva migrans and other uncommon helminth infections. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is a cutaneous lesion produced by percutaneous penetration and migration of larvae of various nematode parasites, characterized by erythematous, serpiginous, papular, or vesicular linear lesions corresponding to the movements of the larvae beneath the skin. (factbites.com)
  • Cutaneous larva migrans often presents itself as skin dermatitis. (factbites.com)
  • The hook worm is the most common species of cutaneous larva migrans, and is often found in the stool of dogs and cats , unlike the round worm, which is found in the stool of raccoons, more commonly in the Midwest. (factbites.com)
  • It is caused by the intradermal migration of strongyloides and distinguished from cutaneous larva migrans (caused by hookworm) by its rapid migration, perianal involvement and wide band of urticaria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Found in Cyclorrhapha Protopod larvae - larva have many different forms and often unlike a normal insect form. (wikipedia.org)
  • Larva Mortus ist ein rasantes Action Horrorspiel, das Sie in eine dunkle und bedrohliche Welt Ihrer schlimmsten Albträume versetzt. (greenmangaming.com)
  • Larva Mortus is now available on Steam for $9.99. (ign.com)
  • Larva Mortus is an action horror game that has you hunting monsters of the supernatural in a dark and ominous atmosphere full of undead, terrifying and demonic nightmares. (ign.com)
  • Larva Mortus offers fast and entertaining monster-hunting game play. (ign.com)
  • Other popular games of Rake in Grass are Larva Mortus (horror action game), Achibald's Adventures (an action puzzle game for Win/Mac/iPhone/PocketPC/Palm), KingMania (action strategy game) etc. (ign.com)
  • In some species like barnacles, adults are immobile but their larvae are mobile, and use their mobile larval form to distribute themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is especially true of crustaceans which live as benthic adults (on the sea bed), more so than where the larvae are planktonic and therefore more easily caught. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, the Sacculina and other Rhizocephala have a distinctive nauplius larva with its complex body structure, but the adult form lacks many organs due to extreme adaptation to its parasitic life style. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus name Nauplius was published posthumously by Otto Friedrich Müller in 1785 for animals now known to be the larvae of copepods . (wikipedia.org)
  • The Monarch Larva Monitoring Project (MLMP) began in 1997 at the University of Minnesota. (factbites.com)
  • Report any sighting of a monarch egg or larva , even if it was not on an official MLMP monitoring site. (factbites.com)
  • Larvy vznikajú ako výsledok pohlavného rozmnožovania , zriedkavú výnimku tvoria brvoústovce ( Cycliophora ), z ktorých sa nepohlavným pučaním vytvára larva pandora . (wikipedia.org)
  • Larva nemusí obývať rovnaké životné prostredie ako dospelé štádium (napríklad larvy podeniek žijú vo vodnom prostredí a dýchajú tracheálnymi žiabrami , zatiaľ čo dospelé jedince sú suchozemské a dokonca lietajú). (wikipedia.org)
  • The post-larva is usually similar to the adult form, and so many names have been erected for the stage in different groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • A larva often has unique structures and organs that do not occur in the adult form. (wikipedia.org)
  • The larvae of some species (for example, some newts) can become pubescent and do not develop further into the adult form. (wikipedia.org)
  • When soil contaminated with these larvae is ingested, whether deliberately, as in children with pica, or accidentally, the eggs are swallowed and hatch in the intestine of the human host. (news-medical.net)
  • The hatched eggs produce second-stage larvae which cannot, however, mature in the accidental human host. (news-medical.net)
  • Beetles lay eggs near young plants and larva attack plant roots. (cornell.edu)
  • Media related to Larva at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of larva at Wiktionary Arenas-Mena, C. (2010) Indirect development, transdifferentiation and the macroregulatory evolution of metazoans. (wikipedia.org)
  • This egg hatches into a pre-larva or pre-zoea. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus Zoea was initially described by Louis Augustin Guillaume Bosc in 1802 for an animal now known to be the larva of a crab . (wikipedia.org)
  • The larva of a hookworm is visible in the center of this photograph. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Thus the larva has opportunity to reach the eye, even 10 years after initial infection. (news-medical.net)
  • A young Hive will have only the genetic codes for the most basic of Zerg strains, such as the Drone, but as the Hive grows and develops new structures, the Larvae can expand its library of genetic strains. (battle.net)
  • Larva of Austramphilina elongata showing sensilla, hooks and transverse muscle bands (redrawn from Rohde and Georgi, 1983). (tolweb.org)
  • Abyssal larvae are believed to be the final form of an evil soul deemed too weak to become a demon and too weak to become the servant of a demon . (google.com)
  • Larvae in young colonies only have access to a fraction of the DNA strains available to fully developed hives. (battle.net)
  • Born in Turku, Harry Larva was forced to change his last name from Lagerström to Larva in 1928 by a young president of Finnish Athletics Union and known nationalist Urho Kaleva Kekkonen, because his name didn't sound as Finnish. (factbites.com)
  • Larvae leave the cocoons in the early spring about the time the buds open, feed briefly (about two weeks) on the exterior of opening buds and then bore into the young tender shoots, where they mature and pupate. (factbites.com)
  • Created by South Korea's TUBA, Larva follows the comic capers of Red and Yellow, two cheeky larvae who live beneath a city storm drain. (toynews-online.biz)
  • Consumables are first liquefied through a process requiring the abyssal larva to regurgitate stomach acids onto its meal. (google.com)
  • We moved to a house with a 5000-litre corrugated iron tank but I was discouraged by the presence of lively mosquito larvae in a typical jug of water. (newscientist.com)