Infections caused by nematode larvae which never develop into the adult stage and migrate through various body tissues. They commonly infect the skin, eyes, and viscera in man. Ancylostoma brasiliensis causes cutaneous larva migrans. Toxocara causes visceral larva migrans.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
A family of nonbiting midges, in the order DIPTERA. Salivary glands of the genus Chironomus are used in studies of cellular genetics and biochemistry.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
A superfamily of polymyarian nematode worms. An important characteristic of this group is the presence of three prominent lips around the mouth of the organism.
A genus of nematodes of the superfamily ASCARIDOIDEA. Its organisms are found in the stomachs of marine animals and birds. Human infection occurs by ingestion of raw fish that contain larvae.
Infection with roundworms of the genus ANISAKIS. Human infection results from the consumption of fish harboring roundworm larvae. The worms may cause acute NAUSEA; VOMITING; or penetrate into the wall of the DIGESTIVE TRACT where they give rise to EOSINOPHILIC GRANULOMA in the STOMACH; INTESTINES; or the OMENTUM.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
A genus of parasitic nematodes that causes TRICHINELLOSIS in man and other animal.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
A genus of parasitic nematodes that occurs in mammals including man. Infection in humans is either by larvae penetrating the skin or by ingestion of uncooked fish.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Infections with nematodes of the order ASCARIDIDA.
Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
A parasite of carnivorous mammals that causes TRICHINELLOSIS. It is especially common in rats and in swine fed uncooked garbage. Human infection is initiated by the consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked pork or other meat containing the encysted larvae.
Several species of the genus Simulium (family Simuliidae) that act as intermediate hosts (vectors) for the parasitic disease ONCHOCERCIASIS.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
Infections with nematodes of the order SPIRURIDA.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
A genus of parasitic nematodes of the superfamily METASTRONGYLOIDEA. Two species, ANGIOSTRONGYLUS CANTONENSIS and A. vasorum, infest the lungs of rats and dogs, respectively. A. cantonensis is transmissible to man where it causes frequently fatal infection of the central nervous system.
A genus of ascarid nematodes commonly parasitic in the intestines of cats and dogs.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Common name for the order Pleuronectiformes. A very distinctive group in that during development they become asymmetrical, i.e., one eye migrates to lie adjacent to the other. They swim on the eyeless side. FLOUNDER, sole, and turbot, along with several others, are included in this order.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
A superfamily of nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA. Characteristics include a fluid-filled outer layer of cuticle and a reduced mouth and bursa.
A genus of CRUSTACEA of the order ANOSTRACA, found in briny pools and lakes and often cultured for fish food. It has 168 chromosomes and differs from most crustaceans in that its blood contains hemoglobin.
Infection of horses with parasitic nematodes of the superfamily STRONGYLOIDEA. Characteristics include the development of hemorrhagic nodules on the abdominal peritoneum.
A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.
A superfamily of strongyles or roundworms which are parasites in the intestinal tract of equines, pigs, rodents, and primates (including man). It includes the genera Cyasthostomum, Ransomus, Globocephalus, OESOPHAGOSTOMUM, and STRONGYLUS.
A species of parasitic nematodes distributed throughout the Pacific islands that infests the lungs of domestic rats. Human infection, caused by consumption of raw slugs and land snails, results in eosinophilic meningitis.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
Infection of humans or animals with hookworms of the genus ANCYLOSTOMA. Characteristics include anemia, dyspepsia, eosinophilia, and abdominal swelling.
Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Infections with nematodes of the superfamily FILARIOIDEA. The presence of living worms in the body is mainly asymptomatic but the death of adult worms leads to granulomatous inflammation and permanent fibrosis. Organisms of the genus Elaeophora infect wild elk and domestic sheep causing ischemic necrosis of the brain, blindness, and dermatosis of the face.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.
Infections with nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA.
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.
Infection by roundworms of the superfamily TRICHOSTRONGYLOIDEA, including the genera TRICHOSTRONGYLUS; OSTERTAGIA; Cooperia, HAEMONCHUS; Nematodirus, Hyostrongylus, and DICTYOCAULUS.
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
A genus of parasitic nematode worms which infest the duodenum and stomach of domestic and wild herbivores, which ingest it with the grasses (POACEAE) they eat. Infestation of man is accidental.
Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.
A genus of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING RODS in the family Paenibacillaceae.
Skin diseases caused by ARTHROPODS; HELMINTHS; or other parasites.
A species of parasitic nematode usually found in domestic pigs and a few other animals. Human infection can also occur, presumably as result of handling pig manure, and can lead to intestinal obstruction.
A phylum of small sessile aquatic animals living as small tufted colonies. Some appear like hydroids or corals, but their internal structure is more advanced. Most bryozoans are matlike, forming thin encrustations on rocks, shells, or kelp. (Storer & Stebbins, General Zoology, 6th ed, p443)
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.
A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.
The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
A superfamily of nematodes of the suborder SPIRURINA. Its organisms possess a filiform body and a mouth surrounded by papillae.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
A class of marine annelids including sandworms, tube worms, clamworms, and fire worms. It includes also the genus Myxicola infundibulum.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.
A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).
A species of fish in the cod family GADIDAE, known as the Atlantic cod. It is one of the most important commercial FISHES.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
Infection by nematodes of the genus ASCARIS. Ingestion of infective eggs causes diarrhea and pneumonitis. Its distribution is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation and where human feces are used for fertilizer.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A freshwater fish used as an experimental organism and for food. This genus of the family Cichlidae (CICHLIDS) inhabits Central and South America (one species extends north into Texas), West Indies, Africa, Madagascar, Syria, and coastal India.
The physical measurements of a body.
Proteins found in any species of helminth.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Determination of parasite eggs in feces.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
A genus of parasitic nematodes found in the digestive tract of herbivorous animals. They cause incidental infections in humans from the following species: Trichostrongylus colubriformis, T. orientalis, T. axei, and T. probolurus.
Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
Animals that have no spinal column.
A phylum of the most familiar marine invertebrates. Its class Stelleroidea contains two subclasses, the Asteroidea (the STARFISH or sea stars) and the Ophiuroidea (the brittle stars, also called basket stars and serpent stars). There are 1500 described species of STARFISH found throughout the world. The second class, Echinoidea, contains about 950 species of SEA URCHINS, heart urchins, and sand dollars. A third class, Holothuroidea, comprises about 900 echinoderms known as SEA CUCUMBERS. Echinoderms are used extensively in biological research. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp773-826)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.
Infection with nematodes of the genus HAEMONCHUS, characterized by digestive abnormalities and anemia similar to that from hookworm infestation.
Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.
Infections with nematodes of the genus GNATHOSTOMA, superfamily THELAZIOIDEA. Gnathostomiasis is a food-borne zoonosis caused by eating undercooked or raw fish or meat.
Infestation with nematode worms of the genus TRICHOSTRONGYLUS. Man and animals become infected by swallowing larvae, usually with contaminated food or drink, although the larvae may penetrate human skin.
The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.
A family of the order DIPTERA with over 700 species. Important species that may be mechanical vectors of disease include Musca domesticus (HOUSEFLIES), Musca autumnalis (face fly), Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly), Haematobia irritans (horn fly) and Fannia spp.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
A genus of mosquitoes in the family CULICIDAE. A large number of the species are found in the neotropical part of the Americas.
Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.
The only species of a cosmopolitan ascidian.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
Disciplines that apply sciences to law. Forensic sciences include a wide range of disciplines, such as FORENSIC TOXICOLOGY; FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY; FORENSIC MEDICINE; FORENSIC DENTISTRY; and others.
The largest order of CRUSTACEA, comprising over 10,000 species. They are characterized by three pairs of thoracic appendages modified as maxillipeds, and five pairs of thoracic legs. The order includes the familiar shrimps, crayfish (ASTACOIDEA), true crabs (BRACHYURA), and lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE and PALINURIDAE), among others.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.
A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Infection of the intestinal tract with worms of the genus OESOPHAGOSTOMUM. This condition occurs mainly in animals other than man.
Juvenile hormone analog and insect growth regulator used to control insects by disrupting metamorphosis. Has been effective in controlling mosquito larvae.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Areas set apart as burial grounds.
Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.
A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
An organothiophosphate insecticide.
Infections of the lungs with parasites, most commonly by parasitic worms (HELMINTHS).
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).
The presence of parasites in food and food products. For the presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food, FOOD MICROBIOLOGY is available.
VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.
Carnivores of the genus Procyon of the family PROCYONIDAE. Two subgenera and seven species are currently recognized. They range from southern Canada to Panama and are found in several of the Caribbean Islands.
A genus of oysters in the family OSTREIDAE, class BIVALVIA.
Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.
A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, widespread in Africa. Members of the genus include many important vectors of animal and human pathogens.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria existing symbiotically with nematodes of the family Heterorhabditidae (see RHABDITOIDEA). These nematodes infect a variety of soil-dwelling insects. Upon entering an insect host, the nematode releases Photorhabdus from its intestinal tract and the bacterium establishes a lethal septicemia in the insect.
The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
A superfamily of nematodes of the suborder CAMALLANINA. Its organisms possess a poorly developed buccal cavity and a rudimentary esophagus and intestine.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.
A species of parasitic nematode found in rats.
Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
A genus of SEA URCHINS in the family Strongylocentrotidae with a hemicyclic apical disk and short spines.
An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Characteristics include an H-shaped excretory system with two subventral glands.
One of the largest orders of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 10,000 species. Like AMPHIPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Amphipoda, they possess abdominal pleopods (modified as gills) and their bodies are dorsoventrally flattened.
Aquatic vertebrate sensory system in fish and amphibians. It is composed of sense organs (canal organs and pit organs) containing neuromasts (MECHANORECEPTORS) that detect water displacement caused by moving objects.
Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.
Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.
A species of parasitic nematode found in man and other mammals. It has been reported from Malaya and East Pakistan and may produce symptoms of tropical eosinophilia.
A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A species of parasitic nematodes widely distributed throughout central Africa and also found in northern South America, southern Mexico, and Guatemala. Its intermediate host and vector is the blackfly or buffalo gnat.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.

Investigation of maturation requirements for Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora larvae. (1/8915)

Infection of parasite-free six to eight week old calves with doses of 50,000 mixed Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora larvae varying in age from seven to 42 days did not reveal a significant larval maturation requirement.  (+info)

Down-regulation of RpS21, a putative translation initiation factor interacting with P40, produces viable minute imagos and larval lethality with overgrown hematopoietic organs and imaginal discs. (2/8915)

Down-regulation of the Drosophila ribosomal protein S21 gene (rpS21) causes a dominant weak Minute phenotype and recessively produces massive hyperplasia of the hematopoietic organs and moderate overgrowth of the imaginal discs during larval development. Here, we show that the S21 protein (RpS21) is bound to native 40S ribosomal subunits in a salt-labile association and is absent from polysomes, indicating that it acts as a translation initiation factor rather than as a core ribosomal protein. RpS21 can interact strongly with P40, a ribosomal peripheral protein encoded by the stubarista (sta) gene. Genetic studies reveal that P40 underexpression drastically enhances imaginal disc overgrowth in rpS21-deficient larvae, whereas viable combinations between rpS21 and sta affect the morphology of bristles, antennae, and aristae. These data demonstrate a strong interaction between components of the translation machinery and showed that their underexpression impairs the control of cell proliferation in both hematopoietic organs and imaginal discs.  (+info)

The optically determined size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool correlates with the quantal content at the neuromuscular junction of Drosophila larvae. (3/8915)

According to the current theory of synaptic transmission, the amplitude of evoked synaptic potentials correlates with the number of synaptic vesicles released at the presynaptic terminals. Synaptic vesicles in presynaptic boutons constitute two distinct pools, namely, exo/endo cycling and reserve pools (). We defined the vesicles that were endocytosed and exocytosed during high K+ stimulation as the exo/endo cycling vesicle pool. To determine the role of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool in synaptic transmission, we estimated the quantal content electrophysiologically, whereas the pool size was determined optically using fluorescent dye FM1-43. We then manipulated the size of the pool with following treatments. First, to change the state of boutons of nerve terminals, motoneuronal axons were severed. With this treatment, the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool decreased together with the quantal content. Second, we promoted the FM1-43 uptake using cyclosporin A, which inhibits calcineurin activities and enhances endocytosis. Cyclosporin A increased the total uptake of FM1-43, but neither the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool nor the quantal content changed. Third, we increased the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool by forskolin, which enhances synaptic transmission. The forskolin treatment increased both the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool and the quantal content. Thus, we found that the quantal content was closely correlated with the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool but not necessarily with the total uptake of FM1-43 fluorescence by boutons. The results suggest that vesicles in the exo/endo cycling pool primarily participate in evoked exocytosis of vesicles.  (+info)

Active transport of calcium across the isolated midgut of Hyalophora cecropia. (4/8915)

1. The net flux of 45Ca from lumen to blood side across the isolated and short-circuited Cecropia midgut was 1-9 +/- 0-2 muequiv. cm-2h-1 in 8 mM Ca and the flux ratio was as high as 56 to 1. 2. The calcium influx was depressed by anoxia; 73% after 30 min. 3. The kinetics of Ca transport were anomalous; the apparent Km varied with Ca concentration from less than 0-2 to greater than 5-6 mM Ca and the apparent Vmax varied from less than 1-3 to greater than 3-3 muequiv. cm-2h-1. 4. The calcium influx showed a delay before the tracer steady state was attained, indicating the existence in the transport route of a calcium pool equivalent to 5-7 muequiv/g. wet weight of midgut tissue. 5 High calcium (16 mM) depressed the short-circuit current and potassium transport from blood to lumen side across the midgut. 6. Calcium depressed magnesium transport, from lumen to blood side across the midgut, and magnesium depressed the calcium transport. 7. Ca transport by the midgut does not regulate the Ca level in the haemolymph in vivo; it merely aids the diffusion of calcium down its electrochemical gradient. However, Ca transport may assist the uptake of the nutrients from the midgut contents.  (+info)

Depression of synaptic efficacy in high- and low-output Drosophila neuromuscular junctions by the molting hormone (20-HE). (5/8915)

The molt-related steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE), was applied to muscles 6 and 7 of third instar larval of Drosophila melanogaster neuromuscular junction preparations to examine if rapid, nongenomic responses could be observed as was shown recently to occur in crustacean neuromuscular junctions. At a dose of 10 microM, the excitatory junction potentials were reduced in amplitude within minutes. To elucidate the site of action of the hormone, focal-macropatch recordings of synaptic currents were obtained over the neuromuscular junctions. The results showed that the high-output (Is) and the low-output (Ib) motor nerve terminals, which innervate muscles 6 and 7, released fewer synaptic vesicles for each stimulation while exposed to 20-HE. Because the size and shape of synaptic currents from spontaneous releases did not change, the effects of the 20-HE are presynaptic. The rapid effects of this hormone may account in part for the quiescent behavior associated with molts among insects and crustaceans.  (+info)

Light-induced calcium influx into retinal axons is regulated by presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activity in vivo. (6/8915)

Visual activity is thought to be a critical factor in controlling the development of central retinal projections. Neuronal activity increases cytosolic calcium, which was hypothesized to regulate process outgrowth in neurons. We performed an in vivo imaging study in the retinotectal system of albino Xenopus laevis tadpoles with the fluorescent calcium indicator calcium green 1 dextran (CaGD) to test the role of calcium in regulating axon arbor development. We find that visual stimulus to the retina increased CaGD fluorescence intensity in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon arbors within the optic tectum and that branch additions to retinotectal axon arbors correlated with a local rise in calcium in the parent branch. We find three types of responses to visual stimulus, which roughly correlate with the ON, OFF, and SUSTAINED response types of RGC reported by physiological criteria. Imaging in bandscan mode indicated that patterns of calcium transients were nonuniform throughout the axons. We tested whether the increase in calcium in the retinotectal axons required synaptic activity in the retina; intraocular application of tetrodotoxin (10 microM) or nifedipine (1 and 10 microM) blocked the stimulus-induced increase in RGC axonal fluorescence. A second series of pharmacological investigations was designed to determine the mechanism of the calcium elevation in the axon terminals within the optic tectum. Injection of bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-AM (BAPTA-AM) (20 mM) into the tectal ventricle reduced axonal calcium levels, supporting the idea that visual stimulation increases axonal calcium. Injection of BAPTA (20 mM) into the tectal ventricle to chelate extracellular calcium also attenuated the calcium response to visual stimulation, indicating that calcium enters the axon from the extracellular medium. Caffeine (10 mM) caused a large increase in axonal calcium, indicating that intracellular stores contribute to the calcium signal. Presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) may play a role in axon arbor development and the formation of the topographic retinotectal projection. Injection of nicotine (10 microM) into the tectal ventricle significantly elevated RGC axonal calcium levels, whereas application of the nAChR antagonist alphaBTX (100 nM) reduced the stimulus-evoked rise in RGC calcium fluorescence. These data suggest that light stimulus to the retina increases calcium in the axon terminal arbors through a mechanism that includes influx through nAChRs and amplification by calcium-induced calcium release from intracellular calcium stores. Such a mechanism may contribute to developmental plasticity of the retinotectal system by influencing both axon arbor elaboration and the strength of synaptic transmission.  (+info)

Patterning of Caenorhabditis elegans posterior structures by the Abdominal-B homolog, egl-5. (7/8915)

The Caenorhabditis elegans body axis, like that of other animals, is patterned by the action of Hox genes. In order to examine the function of one C. elegans Hox gene in depth, we determined the postembryonic expression pattern of egl-5, the C. elegans member of the Abdominal-B Hox gene paralog group, by means of whole-mount staining with a polyclonal antibody. A major site of egl-5 expression and function is in the epithelium joining the posterior digestive tract with the external epidermis. Patterning this region and its derived structures is a conserved function of Abd-B paralog group genes in other animals. Cells that initiate egl-5 expression during embryogenesis are clustered around the presumptive anus. Expression is initiated postembryonically in four additional mesodermal and ectodermal cell lineages or tissues. Once initiated in a lineage, egl-5 expression continues throughout development, suggesting that the action of egl-5 can be regarded as defining a positional cell identity. A variety of cross-regulatory interactions between egl-5 and the next more anterior Hox gene, mab-5, help define the expression domains of their respective gene products. In its expression in a localized body region, function as a marker of positional cell identity, and interactions with another Hox gene, egl-5 resembles Hox genes of other animals. This suggests that C. elegans, in spite of its small cell number and reproducible cell lineages, may not differ greatly from other animals in the way it employs Hox genes for regional specification during development.  (+info)

Properties of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase and its relationship to microsomal mixed-function oxidation in the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania). (8/8915)

1. Activity of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase was measured in the midgut and other tissues of the last larval instar of the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania Cramer, formerly Prodenia eridania Cramer). 2. Optimum conditions for measuring the activity were established with respect to all variables involved and considerable differences from those reported for mammalian enzyme preparations were found. 3. Maximum activity (20 nmol/h per mg of protein) occurs 18-24 h after the fifth moult and thereafter decreases to trace amounts as the larvae age and approach pupation. 4. Synthetase activity was rapidly induced by oral administration (in the diet) of pentamethylbenzene, phenobarbital, diethyl 1,4-dihydro-2,4,6-trimethylpyridine-3, 5-dicarboxylate, and 2-allyl-2-isopropylacetamide. 5. Puromycin inhibited the induction of synthetase by pentamethylbenzene. 6. Induction of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase correlated well with the induction of microsomal N-demethylation of p-chloro-N-methylaniline, except for phenobarbital, which induced the microsomal oxidase relatively more than the synthetase.  (+info)

Background Malaria is an important cause of illness and death in people living in many parts of the world, especially sub-Saharan Africa. Long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) reduce malaria transmission by targeting the adult mosquito vector and are key components of malaria control programmes. However, mosquito numbers may also be reduced by larval source management (LSM), which targets mosquito larvae as they mature in aquatic habitats. This is conducted by permanently or temporarily reducing the availability of larval habitats (habitat modification and habitat manipulation), or by adding substances to standing water that either kill or inhibit the development of larvae (larviciding). Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of mosquito LSM for preventing malaria. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; CABS Abstracts; and ...
To identify genes differentially expressed in the fatbody of Drosphila melanogaster bigmax mutants, a loss-of-function allele was generated by P-element mobilization. Mutant and wildtype first instar larvae were raised on two different sources of food, control and high-sugar media. When the animals reached the wandering third instar stage, animals were sacrificed and their fat bodies dissected. Total RNA was extracted, labeled fluorescently and hybridized competitively to Agilents 4x44K Drosophila Gene Expression Microarrays. On each array, three different samples were analyzed: 1. wildtype animals raised on control food, 2. wildtype animals raised on high-sugar food and 3. bigmax mutant animals raised on high-sugar food.
In this study, the nutritional indices of the larval stages of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) were determined on 10 canola (Brassica napus L.) genotypes (Talaye, Opera, Licord, Modena, SLM046, Hayula420, Zarfam, Okapi, RGS003 and Sarigol) at 25±1˚C, 60±5% RH and a photoperiod of 16: 8 (L: D) hours. The third instar larvae reared on Talaye showed the highest value of Efficiency of Conversion of Ingested food ECI and Efficiency of Conversion of Digested food ECD (7.005±0.632 and 8.972±1.862, respectively). However, the lowest value of ECI and ECD was on Licord (0.503±0.017 and 2.507±0.449, respectively). The highest (0.778±0.091) and lowest (0.594±0.059) Relative Growth Rate (RGR) of the fourth instar larvae were obtained on SLM046 and Sarigol, respectively. Results indicated that the highest values of ECI and ECD for fourth instar larvae were on Talaye (6.300±0.585 and 8.880±1.954, respectively). The lowest value of the Relative Consumption Rate (RCR) and Approximate Digestibility (AD) of the
The expression pattern of B. mori nm-g and D. melanogaster sro. (A) qRT-PCR analysis of the nm-g transcript in several tissues from the fifth instar larvae 2 days after the onset of spinning (V spin 2), when the ecdysteroid titer increases (see B). CC-CA, corpus allatum-corpus cardiacum complex; PG, prothoracic gland; BR, brain; FB, fat body; MG, midgut; EP, epidermis; MU, muscle; MT, Malpighian tubules; SIG, silk gland; SAG, salivary gland; TS, testis; OV, ovary. (B) The temporal expression profile of nm-g in the PG during the fourth larval (IV), fifth larval (V) and pupal stages. Stage of B. mori is defined as hours after ecdysis and hours after head capsule slippage (HCS) for the fourth instar larvae, and days after ecdysis, days after spinning (Spin) and the HCS stage for the fifth instar larvae. Under our experimental conditions, the HCSs in the fourth and fifth instar larvae occurred at IV 84 hours and V Spin day 3, respectively. V Spin day 0.5 larvae displayed gut purge. The red line is a ...
Environmental Entomology publishes reports on the interaction of insects with the biological, chemical, and physical aspects of their environment.
The present experiments were carried out at the plant protection researchstation, Kaha, Qalubia Governorate, Egypt to study the efficiency of the bioagentBacillus thuringensis var. Kurstaki against the 2nd instar larvae of the lesser cottonleafworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hb). Results revealed that the 2nd instar larvae weremore susceptible to B. thuringiensis towards 4th instar larvae. Accumulative mortalitypercentage of the 2nd instar larvae of S. exigua treated with the differentconcentrations of B. thuringeinsis kurstaki, increased gradually with increasing thetime elapsed after treatment. There was a stronger larvicidal effect on the 2nd instarlarvae giving 2.889x106 and 6.267x1013spore/ml for LC50 and LC90 respectively. Themean larval duration for both LC50 and LC90 of B. thuringeinsis var. kurstaki waselongated compared to the control treatment. Pupal duration was insignificantlyaffected when 2nd instar larvae of S. exigua were pretreated with LC50 and LC90 of B.thuringeinsis kurstaki. The percentage
The Role of Maternal Nutrition on Oocyte Size and Quality, with Respect to Early Larval Development in The Coral-Eating Starfish, Acanthaster planci. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
There are four larval instar stages of the CSPW and each stage is white and grub-like in appearance ranging up to 5-6mm in length (refer to lower left photo). The first instar larva feeds on the cuticle on the outside of the pod while the second instar larva bores into the pod, feeding on the developing seeds. A single larva consumes about 5 canola seeds. The mature larva chews a small, circular exit hole from which it drops to the soil surface and pupation takes place in the soil within an earthen cell. Approximately 10 days later, the new adult emerges to feed on maturing canola pods. Later in the season these new adults migrate to overwintering sites beyond the field. ...
There are four larval instar stages of the CSPW and each stage is white and grub-like in appearance ranging up to 5-6mm in length (refer to lower left photo). The first instar larva feeds on the cuticle on the outside of the pod while the second instar larva bores into the pod, feeding on the developing seeds. A single larva consumes about 5 canola seeds. The mature larva chews a small, circular exit hole from which it drops to the soil surface and pupation takes place in the soil within an earthen cell. Approximately 10 days later, the new adult emerges to feed on maturing canola pods. Later in the season these new adults migrate to overwintering sites beyond the field. ...
Two strains homozygous for Snfor, SnForGly/Gly and SnForSer/Ser, were each initiated from 15 homozygote founder couples taken from the laboratory-reared polymorphic population and genotyped after reproduction. For the whole-body analysis, 30 fourth-instar larvae per strain were tested. For the brain analysis, 64 fourth-instar larvae per strain were tested. In this condition, the brains (deutocerebrum) were pooled in groups of eight (i.e. eight replicates for each population). The live larvae were retrieved from the artificial diet at the fourth-instar stadium, a stage usually reached during behavioural testing protocol, and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at −80°C until RNA extraction.. Total RNA was extracted from whole larvae using TRI Reagent (Sigma-Aldrich). The brains were dissected in the RA1 buffer and total RNA was extracted using the NucleoSpin RNA XS kit (Macherey Nagel). In both conditions, a DNase treatment (DNase I recombinant, Roche) was also performed. The ...
The mechanisms of cold tolerance in insects which are exposed to suboptimal temperatures for survival include accumulation of cryoprotectants and expression of heat shock protein genes (hsps). Spodoptera exigua is a freeze avoidance insect, which can overwinter as third instar larvae in China. Our previous study illustrated that seasonal and diel fluctuating temperatures enhanced its cold hardening. The survival mechanism for this stage, however, is poorly understood. We hypothesized that the survival mechanisms in third instar larvae of S. exigua were correlated with the induction of cryoprotectants and/or expression of hsps. Results showed that trehalose as the main cryoprotectant was accumulated during the cold acclimation (CA), and the level of accumulation fell off sharply when the CA treatment was discontinued (discontinued cold acclimation, DCA). Furthermore, inducible hsp90 was down-regulated in all treatments compared with the control, and hsp70 was up-regulated under conditions of CA and RCH
The purpose of the meeting was to discuss Anopheles spp., their role as malaria vectors, and their distribution in various eco-epidemiological zones of the WHO European Region. Also discussed were the susceptibility of ...
Based on museum-held and field-collected specimens new data are presented regarding the distribution, adult phenology and first-instar larva of the uncommon green lacewing Abachrysa eureka. It was found that this species is broadly distributed across the southeastern United States, from Texas to the east coast south to Florida and north to South Carolina. There are multiple short duration emergence periods which vary with latitude. This species appears to be a typical chrysopid in various biological aspects, such as the occurrence of a stalked egg and placement of debris on the backs of larva ...
This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Fikáček, Martin, Minoshima, Yûsuke N., Jäch, Manfred A. (2018): Larval morphology of Yateberosus, a New Caledonian endemic subgenus of Laccobius (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae), with notes on Berosus - like larvae in Hydrophiloidea. Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae 58 (1): 195-206, DOI: 10.2478/aemnp-2018-0017 ...
Mosquito larvae feeding. Light microscope footage of mosquito larvae (family Culicidae) feeding near the surface of water. Mosquito larvae are aquatic and breathe through spiracles located on their abdomen, or like these larvae, through a siphon (breathing tube) on the end of the abdomen. They feed by wafting algae and other detritus suspended in the water into their mouths, using the beating hairs of their mouth brushes to create a current. On the upper right of the frame the anal gills of one larva can be seen. These structures are found on the anal segment at the end of the abdomen, and arise from a thin membrane around the anus. They are thought to be involved in osmoregulation, the maintenance of correct concentration of fluids and electrolytes. - Stock Video Clip K005/4026
When cultures of C. elegans become crowded and exhaust their food supply, dauer formation results (Cassada and Russell, 1975). Wild-type larvae typically do not enter dauer at temperatures at or below 25 °C when there is any food on the plate, even a small amount, unless high concentrations of pheromone are added by one of the methods discussed in Section 3.2 and Section 3.3. Immediately after exhausting the food supply, most of the larvae will enter L1 arrest/L1 diapause (Johnson et al., 1984). Some will remain arrested and others will continue on to the dauer stage. Thus, the first dauer larvae do not appear until at least a few days after exhaustion of the food supply. By contrast, very old plates contain relatively fewer dauer larvae. Dauer larva survival decreases with time, whereas the propensity to recover from dauer increases (Klass and Hirsh, 1976; Golden and Riddle, 1984b). In wild-type cultures, there is always a mix of stages observed on the plates. The percentage of dauer larvae ...
About a year ago, FlySorter took on a consulting project for the Klein Lab at the University of Miami, in Florida. Mason Klein uses Drosophila larvae to study biophysics and neuroscience, often with the same simple setup: a sheet of agar gel and a camera.. The Klein Lab records videos of freely wandering larvae on a bed of black agar and then analyzes their behavior. The duration of the videos is limited by the size of the agar gel - when the larvae reach the edge of the sheet, their behavior is impacted (or they either crawl off altogether) - and for 3rd instar larvae on a 10″ square sheet, it can be as quick as 10 or 15 minutes. We came up with the idea of using a robotic gantry and custom-designed nozzle to pick up larvae that had gotten close to the edge, replacing them near the center of the gel and thereby extending the experiments.. To cut to the chase: FlySorter successfully built a robotic system to relocate larvae on the agar bed for a total budget under $15k (for both time and ...
GLOBE Mosquito Larvae Protocol is a project for students, that may expand to adults and other volunteers, to learn how to identify mosquito larvae in their community or at a study site. Students will collect, sort, identify, and count the number of mosquito larvae they find in a sample of water. They can learn how to use a variety of sampling strategies depending on the types of mosquito larval habitats found in their particular study area. Through sampling, student volunteers can learn to identify mosquito larvae to either the genus or species level. By performing this kind of citizen science, young people can begin to understand the importance of representative sampling in scientific procedures, along with the relationship between species, climate, and mosquito-borne diseases. By collaborating with GLOBE through school, students can report their data online and share their observations and findings with real scientists ...
TIF-IA is required for cell and organismal growth. (A) Levels of TIF-IA mRNA and pre-rRNA were measured by quantitative RT-PCR, using RNA isolated from either wild-type or Tif-IA−/− mutant larvae. Data were corrected for levels of GPDH mRNA. Data are mean (± SEM) fold changes compared with wild type (n = 6). (B) Tif-IA−/− mutant larvae are growth arrested. Images of Tif-IA heterozygote (+/−) and Tif-IA homozygous mutant larvae (−/−) at different stages (48-120 h) of larval development are shown. (C) Loss of p53 has no effect on the growth arrest phenotype seen in TIF-IA mutant larvae. Images of TIF-IA+/−; p53−/− (top) or Tif-IA+/−; p53−/− (bottom) larvae at 120 h of development are shown. (D) The hsFlp-GAL4 system was used to generate mosaic expression of GFP-marked cells overexpressing TIF-IA (arrowheads) in the larval fat body of Tif-IA−/− mutant animals (red, phalloidin; blue, DAPI). Bar, 25 μm. (E) The hsFlp-GAL4 system was used to generate mosaic expression ...
ABDO-DE LA PARRA, Ma. Isabel et al. Effects of temperature and salinity on the egg incubation of bullseye puffer fish Sphoeroides annulatus. Rev. biol. mar. oceanogr. [online]. 2012, vol.47, n.1, pp.147-153. ISSN 0718-1957. The effects of different water temperatures (22, 25, 28 and 31ºC) and salinities between 0 and 60 psu (with intervals of 5 psu) on egg incubation of the bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus) were evaluated in this study. The embryos could not develop at 22ºC and the highest hatching rate for normal larvae was observed at 28ºC. At 0, 50, 55 and 60 psu larvae were unable to develop. Highest hatching rates were obtained at 25, 30 and 35 psu. It was concluded that water temperature and salinity affects the incubation period, embryo development stage and larval survival of the bullseye puffer.. Palavras-chave : Embryo development; period incubation; hatch; deformed larvae. ...
J Suslak , T , Watson , S , Thompson , K J , Shenton , F C , Bewick , G S , Armstrong , J D & Jarman , A P 2015 , Piezo is essential for amiloride-sensitive stretch-activated mechanotransduction in larval Drosophila dorsal bipolar dendritic sensory neurons , PloS ONE , vol. 10 , no. 7 , 0130969 . ...
Fig. 1. Orcein staining of polytene chromosomes from third instar larvae. (A) Detail of the chromocentre (arrow) from HA:FL4D larvae after daily heat-shocks (hs) or without heat-shocks. (B) Polytene chromosomes from males and females containing a heat-inducible Su(var)3-7 transgene. Homozygous HA:FL4D males and females kept at 18°C (no hs) or submitted to daily heat-shock at 35°C from the second larval instar stage (hs) or three daily heat-shocks from the first instar larval stage (hs+). Arrows indicate the X chromosome.. ...
Abstract 【Aim】 This study aims to clone a C-type lectin gene from Plutella xylostella, to investigate its expression patterns and to elucidate its agglutination on bacteria. 【Methods】 Based on the bioinformatical analysis of genome and transcriptome database of P. xylostella, the full-length cDNA of a C-type lectin gene was cloned from P. xylostella by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques. Prokaryotic expression plasmid was constructed and the fusion protein was expressed in E.coli BL21. The polyclonal antibody with high serum titer was prepared using the purified fusion protein to immunize New Zealand white rabbit. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was employed to analyze the expression profiles of this gene in different tissues (hemocyte, cuticle, fat body, midgut and Malpighiam tubules) of the day-1 4th instar larvae and different developmental stages (egg, 1st-4th instar larva, prepupa, pupa, and adult) of P. xylostella. RT-qPCR and Western blot were ...
Visualization of larval feeding is challenging because of size, time scale and rarity of feeding events at the early larval stages. However, visualization is essential for measuring the rate of feeding attempts and failed attempts. Here, we present a novel method that can be used to automatically identify and classify prey acquisition strikes in larval fishes, facilitating the acquisition of large datasets from swift, sparse events. This method can be used to facilitate the assessment of feeding rates and success, and to determine the fate of food particles during the feeding cycle. Following automatic identification, detailed kinematic analysis of prey acquisition strikes can be carried out. For example, the spatial resolution and frame rate reported here enable (manual) frame-by-frame digitization of landmarks on the fishs body to extract larval swimming speed during foraging and during prey acquisition strikes, determination of mouth size during prey acquisition strikes, and the distance ...
Avoiding temperatures outside the physiological range is critical for animal survival, but how temperature dynamics are transformed into behavioral output is largely not understood. Here, we used an infrared laser to challenge freely swimming larval zebrafish with white-noise heat stimuli and built quantitative models relating external sensory information and internal state to behavioral output. These models revealed that larval zebrafish integrate temperature information over a time-window of 400 ms preceding a swimbout and that swimming is suppressed right after the end of a bout. Our results suggest that larval zebrafish compute both an integral and a derivative across heat in time to guide their next movement. Our models put important constraints on the type of computations that occur in the nervous system and reveal principles of how somatosensory temperature information is processed to guide behavioral decisions such as sensitivity to both absolute levels and changes in stimulation ...
In the highly variable environment of the Baltic Sea two genetically distinct cod stocks exist, one west of the island of Bornholm, which is referred to as the western stock, and one to the east of Bornholm, the eastern stock. A hydrodynamic model combined with a Lagrangian particle tracking technique was utilised to provide spatially and temporally resolved long-term information on environmentally-related (i) spawning habitat size, (ii) egg/yolk-sac larval survival, (iii) separation of causes of mortality, and (iv) connectivity between spawning areas of eastern Baltic cod. Simulations were performed to quantify processes generating heterogeneity in spatial distribution of cod eggs and yolk sac larvae up to the first feeding stage. The spatial extent of cod eggs represented as virtual drifters is primarily determined by oxygen and salinity conditions at spawning, which define the habitat requirement to which cods physiology is suited for egg development. The highest habitat suitability occurred ...
NIWA were engaged by the Auckland Regional Council, Environment Waikato and the Western Firth Mussel Consortium to make quantitative predictions of the degree to which large-scale mussel farming in the western Firth would influence snapper egg / larval survival and plankton abundance and spatial distribution.. Three separate simulation models were used, and three distinct farm scenarios modelled (no farms (NF), existing farms (0), and existing farms plus a maximal modelled western Firth Aquaculture Management Area (AMA) (1)). For each farm scenario simulations were made under six distinct hydrodynamic conditions.. The simulations indicated that under the existing farm scenario, the Firth-wide numbers of snapper larvae surviving to age 8 days post-spawn may be reduced by 2-6 percent relative to the NF scenario, and by 2.5-15 percent under scenario 1.. Two biological models were used to examine the influence of mussel farming upon phytoplankton and zooplankton, a logistic and a biophysical ...
The differences in the development time resulted in overall delays of the molting time, from two days at the 1st larval stage (Figure 1: L1) to more than four days in the 3rd and 4th stages (Figure 1: L3, L4). The graphs show that for the first two developmental stages (Figure 1: L1, L2) the larvae treated with the antibiotic follow a developmental curve similar to that of the control larvae (and of those supplemented with Ar in addition to the antibiotic), with the curve that is only shifted in time. For the latter developmental stages (Figure 1: L3, L4) the larvae treated with rifampicin showed very different curve shape. The appearance of the first larvae at these 3rd and 4th stages is also delayed in the group (A). In addition, we can also observe that in these stages (Figure 1: L3, L4) the larvae that are subjected only to the antibiotic treatment have a less synchronous appearance. This asynchronous development is not observed in treated larvae from previous stages (Figure 1: L1, L2). The ...
Helicoverpa populations have started with a bang this season. One or more larvae per plant are common in pre-flowering sorghum, corn and cotton. However, early
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Embryology of the ectoproctConopeum tenuissimum was followed from egg extrusion to three days and colony development from settlement to about seven days (20 generations of zooids). The cyphonautes lar
Plastic pollution is a key theme of this years World Oceans Day, and a worrying new study finds fish larvae can actually turn to eating microplastics instead of natural sources.
More than seventy percent of the earths surface is covered by ocean - the home to a staggering and sometimes overwhelming diversity of organisms, a majority of which reside in pelagic form. Marine invertebrate larvae are an integral part of this pelagic diversity and have stimulated the curiosity of researchers for centuries.
Mosquito larvae feeding. Light microscope footage of mosquito larvae (family Culicidae) feeding near the surface of water. Mosquito larvae are aquatic and breathe through spiracles located on their abdomen, or like these larvae, through a siphon (breathing tube) on the end of the abdomen. They feed by wafting algae and other detritus suspended in the water into their mouths, using the beating hairs of their mouth brushes to create a current. - Stock Video Clip K005/4009
Hello, I wonder if anyone can lend some insight into our recent problem. We are having a problem with crosses and stocks, at a rate of 1-10%, characterized by many dead/black third instar larvae stretched out on the top of the food, lots of live second instar larvae just above the food on the vial walls, and only a few pupae on the walls. There also seems to be lots of detritus on the vial walls above the food. The food appears to be worked. Anti-anti (Gibcos antifungal and antibiotic) does not seem to help. It seems that the problem is prevalent in weaker stocks or those with fewer flies. The bulk of the stocks appear to be vigorous as ever. This problem spans numerous batches of food made, lasting almost a month now. As for changes in the food making, we are using the same cook, equipment, recipe, agar, tegosept, and propionic acid. Due to high volume it is possible the batches of cormneal, sugar, ethanol and yeast have changed. Has anyone encountered viral infections in fly stocks? Please ...
The switch from feeding to nonfeeding larvae is an ecologically important transformation that has evolved on several separate occasions within the echinoids. In each case, this life history transformation has been accompanied by extensive changes in larval morphology. A phylogenetic approach is used here to reconstruct these morphological changes, to begin asking why they have taken the particular forms observed, and to assess the degree of parallel transformation in separate cases. Both traditional character mapping and a less usual aggregate analysis indicate massively parallel transformations in larval morphology associated with, and only with, this particular life history transformation. Some of these parallel morphological transformations may be due to relaxed functional constraints associated with the ancestral life history mode, but many are probably the result of new functional constraints associated with the derived mode. The comparative data suggest a simple and testable model for the ...
Phillips, C.B.; Emberson, R.M. 1999: Morphological discrimination between first instar larvae of four euphorine parasitoids. BioControl, 44(2): 159-169. doi: 10.1023/A:1009929427588 ...
Planktonic eggs coUoplcd from P^k.Bsy ,ancl Gulf of Mannar and identified circiunstantially as of Valamugil seheli (Forsskal) were reared in the laboratory up to the 72-h postlarvae. The eggs ranged in diameter from 0.621 mm to 1.09 mm and were with single, pigmented oilglobules ranging in diameter from 0.212 mm to 0.273 mm. The periviteUine space was narrow. The yolk, being neither sagmented nor vacuolated, was clear. Newly hatched larvae measured 2.179mm. They had black pigment spots on the dorsal side of the body, with a few localised, yellowish networks of xanthophores. In the 24-h larva, most of the black pigment spots had migrated to the ventral side of the body. The 48-h-old larva had its mouth formed, eyes pigmented, yolk utilized and pectoral fins developed, and so was in the early postlarval stage. In the 72-h larva there was iiicrease in pigmentation along both dorsal and ventral aspects of body. In this postlarval phase the number of myomeres had stabilized at 25, corresponding to ...
Larvae: Seen mostly in July and August. When young, larvae have a tawny appearance. They group together to build a large silk nest around a branch and eat the leaves from inside this nest. When mature, larvae may have either a red or black head, grey in colour, and covered with thick yellow-orange hairs on its back. Larvae can grow up to 35 millimetres long ...
Detailed information on immature stages of Mutillidae is being acquired. However, Clausen (1940) noted that very little information was available regarding the form or habits of immature stages of this family. The egg of Mutilla sp (Williams 1919b) has been described as elongated and curved, with the chorion minutely granulated. It is placed transversely upon the dorsum of a Tiphia larva, between the 1st and 2nd thoracic segments. The point of larval feeding is ventral. Ferton stated that the egg of Stenomutilla argentata var. saundersivora Fer. is attached to the inner wall of the host cocoon. The early larval instars by 1940 had not been described for any species. The mature larva of M. glossinae has 11 pairs of spiracles, located on the 2nd and 3rd thoracic and the first 9 abdominal segments. The mandibles are 4-dentate, while those of M. lunata and M. attenuata are believed to be tridentate. The mature larvae of all species spin a cocoon within the cell, cocoon, or puparium of the host, ...
FIGURE 9. Analysis of progenitor cells at larval stages (Sox2, DCX, BLBP, PCNA, PH3). Micrographs of transverse sections through the pallium of Xenopus laevis at larval stages 46 (A-E,M) and 54 (F-L,N-R) showing the distribution of the progenitors markers Sox2 (A,C,F,H,I,J,L,N), the neuroblasts marker DCX (B,C,E,G-I,Q) and the progenitors markers Lhx2 (M,N,Q) and BLBP (O,P), and their combinations with the mitotic marker PCNA (L,O,P) and PH3 (M). In addition, the codistribution of DCX and calretinin is shown (Q). In each panel the developmental stage and the color code for the used markers are indicated. (A-E,O,P) Are confocal images, and the higher magnifications (O′,P′,R′) correspond to the framed areas, as indicated (white boxes in O,P,R). At stage 46 Sox2/DCX double labeled cells were observed in the ventricular zone and away from it (arrowheads in A-C), and DCX labeled mitotic cells away from the ventricle were observed (arrowheads in E). At stage 54 Sox2 is expressed in the ...
Its a bit wet out this morning, so I did not get a chance to spend as much time out back as in previous days. Todays count is four, yesterdays was 12. Ive been watching some videos of Monarch caterpillars molting at You Tube and also some time reading a bit about the different instars. I think the caterpillars in the photo attached are second instar. Im no expert, and it is wet out there, but I think the one on the left may have just molted. Their antennae are definitely longer today than yesterday when they were just little horns. Waste not, want not, Ive read that they eat their old skin. Ill check a little later on to see if that bit of junk just below the caterpillar on the left is gone ...
EPA is soliciting proposals pursuant to Section 319 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) from eligible tribes and intertribal consortia to develop and/or implement watershed-based plans and on-the-ground projects that will result in significant steps towards solving Nonpoint Source (NPS) impairments on a watershed-wide basis. Eligible entities are strongly encouraged to submit proposals that develop and/or implement watershed-based plans designed to protect unimpaired waters and restore NPS-impaired waters. is a goverment program.
Larvae can be found glowing both in wet soil and while on the bark or leaves of trees (though these arboreal larvae are mainly found in tropical regions where moisture levels above the ground is high.) Even though species in this family are not well studied, the males and females appear to be the most active at night. When males are collected, they are generally collected at lights and light traps in the evening. Even though females appear to hide in their burrows during the day, females can often be detected on the surface of the ground by their glowing, immediately following a summer rain. Even though the females are bioluminescent, the females light emission does not appear to be the cue that the males use to locate their mates. Females are located by males following the females pheromone. Current evidence suggests that females are advertising their unpalatability by using their glowing as a warning signal to nocturnal predators (Viviani and Bechara 1997). Females also often glow continuously ...
The larvae will feed mainly on low-fibrous waste (overripe fruit, vegetables, some leaves such as cabbage, etc.), so it is not necessary to put green waste (leaves, branches, grass). Similarly, thick fruit skins (banana, orange, lemon...) or pits will not be completely degraded. However, they will scrape off all the food available and it may be interesting to put them on, it will just not reduce the volume of waste. It is also possible to give them animal or human faeces (droppings, dry toilets...). As larvae naturally destroy bacteria such as salmonella [1], it seems possible to feed them to animals without risk of transmission. The optimal substrate conditions for larvae can be summarized as follows: - Depth: About ten centimeters. If there is more, the larvae will bury deeper and may not emerge. If there are fewer of them, they wont be able to bury themselves properly. Nutrients: Protein-rich substrates and readily available hydrocarbons ensure good larval growth. - Food aspect : The larvae ...
Asymmetric cell division (ACD) is an essential process during development for generating cell diversity. In addition, a more recent connection between ACD, cancer and stem cell biology has opened novel and highly intriguing venues in the field. This connection between compromised ACD and tumorigenesis was first demonstrated using Drosophila neural stem cells (neuroblasts, NBs) more than a decade ago and, over the past years, it has also been established in vertebrate stem cells. Here, focusing on Drosophila larval brain NBs, and in light of results recently obtained in our lab, we revisit this connection emphasizing two main aspects: 1) the differences in tumor suppressor activity of different ACD regulators and 2) the potential relevance of environment and temporal window frame for compromised ACD-dependent induction of tumor-like overgrowth ...
When natural larval habitats of An. gambiae s.l. dry up, their contribution towards the population dynamics of the adult stage is often neglected, since mass larval mortality is assumed to occur [9]. We found that eggs of An. gambiae s.s. hatched and that emerging larvae showed limited capability of reaching a nearby breeding site, when placed on damp soil. With this experiment we simulated a natural situation whereby eggs remain on damp soil when the water level drops or eggs are oviposited deliberately on damp soil after desiccation of the habitat [8, 10]. In addition, we found that larvae of An. gambiae s.s. survive for several days in sites that are drying up, depending on the larval stage.. Larvae that hatch from eggs on damp soil were able to reach a breeding site within a distance of 10 cm, albeit in low numbers. We induced hatching of the eggs by keeping the soil of our experimental sites damp by daily spraying of water, but during spraying we made sure that no water ran off or that a ...
Staphylococcus aureus is a human opportunistic pathogen that causes a wide range of superficial and systemic infections in susceptible patients. Here we describe how an inoculum of S. aureus activates the cellular and humoral response of Galleria mellonella larvae while growing and disseminating throughout the host, forming nodules and ultimately killing the host. An inoculum of S. aureus (2×106 larva− 1 ) decreased larval viability at 24 (80±5.77 %), 48 (55.93±5.55 %) and 72 h (10.23±2.97 %) and was accompanied by significant proliferation and dissemination of S. aureus between 6 and 48 h and the formation of nodules in the host. The hemocyte (immune cell) densities increased between 4 and 24 h and hemocytes isolated from larvae after 24 h exposure to heat-killed S. aureus (2×106 larva− 1 ) showed altered killing kinetics as compared to those from control larvae. Alterations in the humoral immune response of larvae 6 and 24 h post-infection were also determined by quantitative shotgun
Variation in local environmental conditions can have pronounced effects on the population structure and dynamics of marine organisms. Previous studies on crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci, have primarily focused on effects of water quality and nutrient availability on larval growth and survival, while the role of maternal nutrition on reproduction and larval development has been overlooked. To examine the effects of maternal nutrition on oocyte size and early larval development in A. planci, we pre-conditioned females for 60 days on alternative diets of preferred coral prey (Acropora abrotanoides) versus non-preferred coral prey (Porites rus) and compared resulting gametes and progeny to those produced by females that were starved over the same period. Females fed ad libitum with Acropora increased in weight, produced heavier gonads and produced larger oocytes compared to Porites-fed and starved females. Fed starfish (regardless of whether it was Acropora or Porites) produced bigger ...
The susceptibility of field collected Aedes aegypti larvae was evaluated in terms of median lethal time (LT50) and final mortality, when treated with temephos, Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis as well as mixtures of these two agents. Third instar larvae were shown to be more susceptible than early and late fourth instar ones to the entomopathogen. Survival of some individuals when exposed to temephos suggest possible resistance. Temporal synergism in early fourth instar larvae was detected when they were exposed to mixtures of Bti-temephos. The possibility of this integrated treatment is commented on ...
Where Do Carpet Beetles Larvae Live.Carpet Beetle Larvae From Iran Not Causing Bites Whats . Problems Carpet Beetles Cause In Your Hartford Home. Carpet Beetle Larvae Insect ID. Best Gallery Images for Your Reference and Informations
BioAssay record AID 1082680 submitted by ChEMBL: Insecticidal activity against Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth) third-instar larvae measured 24 hr post dose by leaf disk dipping assay.
Abstract: Currently, there are significant gaps in understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved in nociceptor sensitivity. Dysregulated nociceptor sensitivity is the likely pathogenesis in many types of chronic pain, a disease that ails over 100 million people in the United States alone. To improve current chronic pain therapies, it is essential to define the regulatory mechanisms responsible for nociception. The goal of this study was to characterize how genes classically involved in RNA processing and translation regulate nociceptor sensitivity. The model organism Drosophila melanogaster was used for this study because of their quantifiable response to noxious stimuli and the powerful tools available for genetic manipulations. My results suggest that eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) and components of the exon junction complex (EJC) control nociceptor sensitivity by regulating RNA processing and translation, suggesting a major role for RNA metabolism and translation in controlling ...
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We are ready to research the Bornean Firefly Larva, though we cannot discount that it might be a Netwing Beetle Larvae. Eric Eaton says the way to tell the difference it to introduce a snail. If the beetle larva eats the snail, it is a Firefly Larva. If it prefers fungus, it is a Netwing Beetle Larva. We imagine that there may also be snail and fungus specificity in the preferences. Here is an example from The Flying Kiwi of a Larviform female Netwing Beetle from Viet Nam, and here is another example of a Netwing Beetle and The Flying Kiwis, AKA Richard Seamans, written account: I didnt notice that this one in Malaysia was glowing, but it turns out that both this and the Vietnamese firefly arent fireflies at all, theyre actually the larvae of net-winged beetles in the genus Duliticola, otherwise known as trilobite larvae because of their prehistoric shape; the one you see here is Duliticola hoiseni. The drops of liquid on this ones back look like they are some toxic substance exuded ...
Observation - Unidentified Beetle larvae found in compost heap - UK and Ireland. Description: These beetle larvae were found in a compost heap as part of a national compost heap survey conducted from the University of Plymouth Need the ID for this beetle larvae please
Fire-Colored Beetle Larva वीडियो देखें! फ्री में Fire-Colored Beetle Larva वीडियो देखने के लिए अभी क्लिक करें! Fire-Colored Beetle Larva से संबंधित सर्वश्रेष्ठ वीडियो के चयन का आनंद लें।
Despite the increasing interest in insect-based bioactive products, the biological activities of these products are rarely studied adequately. Larvae of Tenebrio molitor, the yellow mealworm, have been eaten as a traditional food and provide many health benefits. Therefore, we hypothesized that T. molitor larvae might influence adipogenesis and obesity-related disorders. In the present study, we investigated the anti-adipogenic and antiobesity effects of T. molitor larvae in vitro and in vivo. The lipid accumulation and triglyceride content in mature adipocytes was reduced significantly (up to 90%) upon exposure to an ethanol extract of T. molitor larvae, without a reduction in cell viability. Exposure also resulted in key adipogenic and lipogenic transcription factors. Additionally, in adipogenic differentiation medium the extract induced phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Daily oral administration of T. molitor larvae powder
Perturbation of energy metabolism via NAD supplementation modifies the expression of larval development time, a genetically based trait relevant to development and whole-organism fitness in Drosophila melanogaster. The results suggest a link between energy metabolism and gene expression. Supplemental NAD significantly decreased larval development time for isofemale strains chosen on the basis of development time differences. This effect did not represent a trade-off with larval survival, and was not related to the effects of supplemental glucose. The isofemale strains were assayed by using a method derived from Warburgs manometric procedures which measured changes in the proportions of ATP, ADP and AMP in larval homogenates. Supplemental NAD appeared to increase the proportion of ATP and the [ATP]/[ADP] ratio in vitro and during larval development. The decrease in larval development time mediated by NAD was attributed to supplemental NAD modifying the NAD pool beyond levels established during ...
Two lipid synthesis inhibitors compounds (spiromesifen SPM and spirotetramat SPT) were used against the second instar larvae of cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis under laboratory condition. Toxicity of both compounds was tested. Effect of these insecticides on total lipid also was determined. The obtained results showed that both compounds were moderately toxic against the second instar larvae of S. littoralis. The mortality percentages caused by the field rate of spiromesifen and spirotetramat were 51.7 and 60.0%, respectively. The lethal concentrations for 50% of tested insect population (LC50) were 170.1 and 42.2 ppm, respectively. The total lipid content was determined in treated larvae and compared with the untreated. The percentage of total lipid in spiromesifen- and spirotetramat-treated larvae was 2.17 and 2.21%, respectively, compared with 2.42% in untreated larvae. GC/MS also was used in identification of fatty acids composition of S. littoralis larvae. The results cleared that 13 fatty
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interactive effects of maternal and environmental exposure to coal combustion wastes decrease survival of larval southern toads (Bufo terrestris). AU - Metts, Brian S.. AU - Buhlmann, Kurt A.. AU - Scott, David E.. AU - Tuberville, Tracey D.. AU - Hopkins, William A.. PY - 2012/5/1. Y1 - 2012/5/1. N2 - We conducted a mesocosm study to assess the individual and interactive effects of previous maternal exposure and larval exposure to trace element-laden sediments on southern toads (Bufo terrestris). Previous maternal exposure to coal combustion wastes (CCW) reduced larval survival to metamorphosis up to 57% compared to larvae of unexposed females. Larvae reared on CCW accumulated significant concentrations of trace elements resulting in extended larval periods, reduced growth rates, and reduced mass at metamorphosis. However, the effects were dependent on age of sediments, suggesting the effects of contaminants from CCW may be partially ameliorated over time through the reduced ...
A settlement inhibition assay using barnacle cyprid larvae, Balanus amphitrite, was developed with Cd2+ and phenol as standard reference toxicants. Mean percentage settlement of cyprid larvae showed a progressive reduction with increasing concentrations of Cd2+ and phenol. A significant reduction in settlement was found when cyprids were exposed to 0.1 mgL(-1) Cd2+ or 10 mgL(-1) phenol. The assay was used to assess the sublethal toxicity of three oil dispersants (Vecom B-1425 GL, Norchem OSD-570 and Corexit 9905) commonly used in Hong Kong waters. Results of this investigation show that the barnacle settlement inhibition assay can be incorporated into the battery of tests currently available for ecotoxicological assessment of marine contaminants. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd ...
Definition of ascidian tadpole. What does ascidian tadpole mean? Meaning of ascidian tadpole. ascidian tadpole synonyms, pronunciation, spelling and more from Free Dictionary.
We present various methods to record cardiac function in the larval Drosophila. The approaches allow heart rate to be measured in unrestrained and restrained whole larvae. For direct control of the environment around the heart another approach utiliz
Another factor is turf quality and maintenance. High turf quality means that theres more organic matter present. White grubs rarely damage turf thats allowed to go dormant in July and August.. Egg and first instar larval survival are the major factors determining grub populations. White grub eggs need to absorb moisture from the surrounding soil in order to develop. If they dont absorb moisture within 24 to 36 hours after being laid, theyll die. The tiny first instar grubs are also very susceptible to desiccation. So, if turf is irrigated during the time that scarab beetles are laying eggs, the risk of having white grubs rises.. In our risk assessment, we need to: note if there was a damaging grub population in the previous season; determine the age of the turf and how much thatch is present; and determine if the turf is being kept green during July and August.. When all these factors are positive, the risk of having a major grub problem is high. In this turf, I would recommend preventive ...
Food habits and biology of five species of Pleocoma larvae were studied at a dozen forested sites in western Oregon between May 1960 and December 1961. First instar Pleocoma hatch in late summer and moult to second instars in early fall. Second and subsequent instars moult annually between mid-summer and early fall. Larvae appear to go through more than nine instars pupating after the seventh, in the upper 20 inches of soil, in mid-summer. Male larvae outnumber females by about 30 percent. Larvae move through the soil primarily by use of the mandibles. This movement can exceed a rate of four inches a day. Larval populations varied from none to 4.4 larvae per square foot and were distributed between two and 44 inches in depth. Soil temperatures and soil moisture influenced most larvae at some sites to leave the upper 16 inches of soil during the summer. At other sites, however, a shallow silicate clay hardpan influenced larvae to remain at shallow depths throughout the year. A fungus disease ...
Watch The Video: o-DISC Deployed Off One Reef Island ]. Lee Rannals for - Your Universe Online Scientists writing in the journal PLOS ONE say that if fish larvae were lost, they could just sniff their way back home. The study establishes that reef fish larvae can smell the presence of coral reefs from as far away as several miles offshore. The larvae are then able to use this scent to help guide themselves back home.. The researchers were aiming to study the response of cardnalfish and damselfish larvae in an open ocean setting using an outflow plume. The larvae were observed in the central chamber of an ocean Drifting In Situ Chamber (o-DISC), a device that is composed of a circular behavioral arena that is transparent to light, sound and small-scale turbulence.. The equipment was set up in the water column, and the swimming activity and bearing of the larvae was recorded using an underwater motion-sensing system. The o-DISC tracked larval movement and orientation using odor cues ...
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We examined the life history consequences of cornicle secretion by Aphis fabae Scopoli in second and fourth instars, and its effects on host suitability for its parasitoid, Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall). Cornicle secretion did not affect aphid fecundity, but secretion in the second instar enhanced life table parameters, whereas secretion in the fourth instar affected them negatively, suggesting a higher cost of secretion in later instars. Secretion in either instar improved host suitability for L. fabarum. Although control and treated aphids were parasitized at similar rates, and with similar success, wasps developed faster and emerged as larger adults in aphids that had secreted, regardless of instar. Transgenerational effects were also evident. Progeny emergence was higher when parental wasps developed in fourth instars than in seconds, whether aphids secreted or not, and progeny were larger when parental hosts secreted in the second instar, but not in the fourth. Secreting fourth instars ...
The first instar caterpillar that emerges out of the egg is pale green and translucent. It lacks banding coloration or tentacles. The larvae or caterpillar eats its egg case and begins to feed on milkweed. It is during this stage of growth that the caterpillar begins to sequester cardenolides. The circular motion a caterpillar uses while eating milkweed prevents the flow of latex that could entrap it. The second instar larva develops a characteristic pattern of white, yellow and black transverse bands. It is no longer translucent but is covered in short setae. Pairs of black tentacles begin to grow. One pair grows on the thorax and another pair on the abdomen. The third instar larva has more distinct bands and the two pairs of tentacles become longer. Legs on the thorax differentiate into a smaller pair near the head and larger pairs further back. These third-stage caterpillars begin to eat along the leaf edges. The fourth instar has a different banding pattern. It develops white spots on the ...
Leaf feeding and missing or cut plants are not hard to see, but it is useful to find a few of the larvae that caused the damage and determine size and species. This can be frustrating so why bother?. Knowing which species is present is important to understand the extent of the threat. Black cutworms are more damaging to corn than some other species. For example, dingy cutworms are a very common cutworm species in Minnesota that feed at or above the soil surface. As a result, it does not cut corn below the growing point.. Cutworms are nocturnal. During the day, they hide under soil clods, crop residue, and loose soil, typically at the boundary between dry and moist soil. Cutworms will likely be deeper when soils are dry. Carefully look under pieces of residue and soil clods close to cut or injured plants. If you dont find a cutworm near the base of an injured plant, look near a couple plants on either side in the row. Using a possum-like defense strategy, most cutworm species roll into a ...
Stretch-activated afferent neurons, such as those of mammalian muscle spindles, are essential for proprioception and motor co-ordination, but the underlying mechanisms of mechanotransduction are poorly understood. The dorsal bipolar dendritic (dbd) sensory neurons are putative stretch receptors in the Drosophila larval body wall. We have developed an in vivo protocol to obtain receptor potential recordings from intact dbd neurons in response to stretch. Receptor potential changes in dbd neurons in response to stretch showed a complex, dynamic profile with similar characteristics to those previously observed for mammalian muscle spindles. These profiles were reproduced by a general in silico model of stretch-activated neurons. This in silico model predicts an essential role for a mechanosensory cation channel (MSC) in all aspects of receptor potential generation. Using pharmacological and genetic techniques, we identified the mechanosensory channel, DmPiezo, in this functional role in dbd ...
The larval growth of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) was compared between two main spawning areas, the Sea of Japan (SOJ) and the western North Pacific (WNP). Growth trajectories indicate that the larval survival depends on their growth in both areas. Until the flexion stage, larvae of the SOJ showed lower growth than those of the WNP, but after the post-flexion stage, there was no signi ...
In the northern North Island, damage from black beetle larvae may be showing. Unfortunately little can be done to prevent this. Adults are deterred by AR37, Endo5 and NEA2 endophyte-infected grasses which will reduce egg laying and larval numbers. See DairyNZ Pasture Renewal Guide.. ...
Population dynamics studies of pink stem borer was carried out during spring seasons of the year 2013-14 and 2014-15 at the Research cum Instructional Farm, IGKV, Raipur (C.G.). Larval population increased gradually and reached to a peak of 13.81 and 18.56 larvae /plant in 56 days (12th SMW) and 49 days (11th SMW) in spring season during 2013-14 and 2014-15, respectively. The maximum adult population was trapped during fourth week of March (13th SMW) and third week of March (12th SMW), when the mean maximum29.7 ºC and 36.4ºC and minimum temperatures were16.4and 19.4ºC and with mean relative humidities of 67 and 47.5 per cent during the years 2013-14 and 2014-15, respectively. The interactions between the larval population and weather parameters revealed non-significant correlation. The interactions between the adult population and weather parameters during spring 2013 and 2014 revealed negative and significant and non-significant correlation with maximum temperature (r = - 0.6519 and - 0.4964),
Ribosome profiling of Drosophila third instar larvae body wall muscle (with ribosome affinity purification) protocol (method) by Xun Chen
Species identification using the characteristics of developmental stages is challenging. However, for insect taxonomy the coloration of larval stages can be an informative feature. The use of live specimens is recommended for this because the color fades in preserved specimens. In this study we examine the possibility of using variation in coloration and color pattern of larvae in order to distinguish between two ground beetles species Epomis dejeani Dejean, 1831 and E. circumscriptus Duftschmid, 1812. We present an atlas and describe the coloration and body size of the three larval stages of the above species based on live specimens. The first instar larvae of the two Epomis species can be easily distinguished based on their color. From the second instar on, the variability in coloration and color patterns increases, creating an overlap in these attributes between larvae of the two species. Except for minor differences in color of the antennae and the base of the mandibles, larvae of the two species
Argyrotaenia franciscana is bivoltine or multivoltine, depending on location. In warmer inland areas of California, larvae aestivate during the summer and only two generations are completed. In cooler coastal areas there may be up to 5 continuous overlapping generations with adults present year-round.. Eggs are laid on smooth surfaces of leaves, fruits, and twigs in masses that contain approximately 200 individual eggs. Early instar larvae skeletonize leaves under a silk shelter; later instars roll, fold, or web leaves together or to fruits. Larvae complete 5-7 instars in a period of 20-30 days. Larvae or pupae overwinter in dead leaves, in mummified fruits, under buds, or on weedy herbaceous plants in the same vicinity as the host. Pupation occurs in the final larval shelter.. Larvae can cause economic damage by directly feeding on developing fruit in citrus, apple, and grape. Larvae may also feed on stems, causing fruit to drop.. Host plants. Argyrotaenia franciscana has been described as one ...
Abstract:. Poultry litter (PL), which is usually used as organic fertilizer, is a source of nutrients, metals, veterinary pharmaceuticals and bacterial pathogens, which, through runoff, may end up in the nearest aquatic ecosystems. In this study, Leptodactylus chaquensis at different development stages (eggs, larval stages 28 and 31 here referred to as stages I, II and III respectively) were exposed to PL test sediments as follows: 6.25% (T1), 12.5% (T2); 25% (T3); 50% (T4); 75% (T5); 100% PL (T6) and to dechlorinated water as control. Larval survival, development endpoints (growth rate -GR-, development rate -DR-, abnormalities), antioxidant enzyme activities (Catalase -CAT- and Glutathione-S-Transferase -GST-), and genotoxic effect (DNA damage index by the Comet assay) were analyzed at different times. In stage I, no egg eclosion was observed in treatments T3-T6, and 50% of embryo mortality was recorded after 24 h of exposure to T2. In stages II and III, mortality in treatments T3-T6 reached ...
The underlying processes of nociception and pain are, despite the rodent models available, still not fully understood. One of the drawbacks of rodent model systems is the difficulty to screen compound libraries for their influence on nociception, thus slowing down the discovery of novel analgesics for clinical use.. Rodent behavioural tasks have been previously adapted for larval zebrafish in our group and in the current manuscript we investigated the possibilities of zebrafish larvae as an additional model system to study nociception and pain and their underlying mechanisms.. Zebrafish larvae were exposed to different concentrations of diluted acetic acid, a chemical noxious stimulus, and we measured nociceptive-specific behaviours. Cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2), a gene known to be involved in nociception, was used as a marker for the activation of nociceptive pathways. Upon exposure to diluted acetic acid, five-day old larval zebrafish showed a concentration dependent increase in locomotor ...
The mission of our group is to unravel structure-function relationships between neural circuits, sensory coding and adaptive behaviours. We are interested in understanding how odour tracking comes about in terms of circuit computation. This problem is tackled in the olfactory system of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster larva. Our research combines a variety of experimental and computational techniques aiming to define how naturalistic odorant stimuli are encoded and processed in the olfactory system. In particular, we are developing new computational tools to monitor and classify stereotypical behaviours automatically. We are seeking to identify circuits involved in the processing of olfactory information and the making of decisions underlying chemotaxis.. ...
Our 3-year field study (2006-2009) using captive populations of D. melanogaster is the first field study to investigate the relationship between inbreeding depression and seasonal fluctuations in stress level. We found that stress levels were on average fourfold higher in the winter compared with the summer, and that this higher stress level increased the inbreeding depression affecting population productivity from 32 per cent in the summer to 65 per cent in the winter. Moreover, this covariation of stress level and inbreeding depression conformed to the same linear relationship seen in experimental Drosophila laboratory studies of stress and inbreeding (figure 2). The observation that inbreeding depression based on population productivity in the field follows the same relationship as inbreeding depression based on larval survival in the laboratory suggests that even in complex environments stress and inbreeding interact in the same predictable manner. This same general relationship has been ...
The easy-to-use in vivo model, zebrafish larva, is being increasingly used to screen chemical-induced hepatotoxicity, with a good predictivity for various mechanisms of liver injury. However, nothing is known about its applicability in exploring the mechanism called membrane remodeling, depicted as changes in membrane fluidity or lipid raft properties. The aim of this study was, therefore, to substantiate the zebrafish larva as a suitable in vivo model in this context. Ethanol was chosen as a prototype toxicant because it is largely described, both in hepatocyte cultures and in rodents, as capable of inducing a membrane remodeling leading to hepatocyte death and liver injury. The zebrafish larva model was demonstrated to be fully relevant as membrane remodeling was maintained even after a 1-week exposure without any adaptation as usually reported in rodents and hepatocyte cultures. It was also proven to exhibit a high sensitivity as it discriminated various levels of cytotoxicity depending on the extent
Post-larva[edit]. The post-larva is characterised by the use of abdominal appendages (pleopods) for propulsion. The post-larva ... The larvae of the Achelata (slipper lobsters and spiny lobsters) are unlike any other crustacean larvae. The larvae are known ... the larvae hatch as antizoea larvae, with five pairs of thoracic appendages, and develop into erichthus larvae, where the ... In the Squilloidea, a pseudozoea larva develops into an alima larva, while in Gonodactyloidea, a pseudozoea develops into an ...
E.g. first instar larvae of parasitic hymenoptera. Polypod larvae - also known as eruciform larvae, these larva have abdominal ... Some larvae are dependent on adults to feed them. In many eusocial Hymenoptera species, the larvae are fed by female workers. ... Media related to Larvae at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of larva at Wiktionary Arenas-Mena, C. (2010) Indirect ... Larvae are frequently adapted to environments separate from adults. For example, some larvae such as tadpoles live almost ...
Dauer larvae are thus considered an alternative L3 stage larva, and this stage is sometimes preceded by L2d. L2d animals are ... For example, dauer larvae of rhabditids are often found in parallel rows under the elytra of dung beetles, which transport them ... Dauer larvae generally remain motionless, but can react to touch or vibrations. They can stand on their tails, waving their ... L2d larvae can either continue normal development or enter dauer stage depending on whether the conditions that triggered their ...
Larva (2005) R , 1h 36min , Horror, Sci-Fi , TV Movie 22 January 2005 ... Referenced in Creating Larva (2005) See more » Soundtracks. Waterin Hole Blues Written and Performed by Carl Rutherford ... then you do need a copy of Larva, if only for a look at Rod Stewarts old girlfriend. ...
The mind of an abyssal larva is a warped and tangled mass of chaos. As a result, abyssal larvae are immune to all mind- ... Abyssal larvae are believed to be the final form of an evil soul deemed too weak to become a demon and too weak to become the ... Abyssal Larva (3pp) This creature looks like a puffy and bloated human-sized whitish-yellow maggot with purplish veins ... An abyssal larvas natural weapons, as well as any weapon it wields, is treated as chaotic-aligned and evil-aligned for the ...
Larva of certain species of owlet moths (family Noctuidae). The cutworm (not a true worm) is a serious insect pest of tobacco ... larva. Larva. , stage in the development of many animals, occurring after birth or hatching and before the adult form is ... Cutworm, Larva of certain species of owlet moths (family Noctuidae). The cutworm (not a true worm) is a serious insect pest of ... Larvae of other species may eat foliage or fruits, whereas others (e.g., the glossy cutworm [. Crymodes devastator. ]) live ...
... free-swimming larva characteristic of marine annelids and most groups of mollusks. Trochophores are spherical or pear-shaped ... the trochophore larva develops into a veliger larva. In these generally planktotrophic larvae, the girdle of ciliated cells ... into a free-swimming form (trochophore larva). Upon the expansion of the ciliary girdle of the trochophore larva into large, ... larva typical of certain mollusks such as marine snails and bivalves and a few freshwater bivalves. The veliger develops from ...
Larva, which has been in use and continuous development for almost a decade, has been extended in several ways and used in a ... In this paper we give an overview of Larva and give an overview of its extensions and uses.. Keyphrases: case studies, runtime ... Runtime Verification using LARVA. 9 pages•Published: December 14, 2017. Christian Colombo and Gordon Pace ... inproceedings{RV-CuBES2017:Runtime_Verification_using_LARVA, author = {Christian Colombo and Gordon Pace}, title = {Runtime ...
Source for information on echinopluteus larva: A Dictionary of Zoology dictionary. ... echinopluteus larva In Echinodermata, a planktonic and feeding larval form that possesses limb-like outgrowths bearing ciliated ... echinopluteus larva A Dictionary of Zoology © A Dictionary of Zoology 1999, originally published by Oxford University Press ... echinopluteus larva In Echinodermata, a planktonic and feeding larval form that possesses limb-like outgrowths bearing ciliated ...
... the larva of the eel is interesting because it is flat and transparent. The tadpole, the familiar larva of the amphibian , ... larva: Vertebrate Larvae. Among vertebrates a number of fishes pass through larval stages; the larva of the eel is interesting ... The tadpole, the familiar larva of the amphibian , develops to a considerable size in the relatively hospitable aquatic ...
Doctors find tapeworm larva in California mans brain. 11/05/2015 11:59:55 AM PST · by Gamecock · 23 replies Click On Detroit ^ ... and was told a tapeworm larva had been living in his brain when he woke up. The surgery and the aftermath have greatly impacted ...
... is a rare inflammatory condition of the eye caused by local reactions to the larva of Toxocara species. ... Ocular larva migrans is a rare inflammatory condition of the eye caused by local reactions to the larva of Toxocara species. ... Ocular larva migrans is a disease caused by the final migration of these larvae and affects mostly the young, with an average ... When they reach the eye and settle in it, the condition is called ocular larva migrans. Only a small number of larvae are ...
... the Larvae can expand its library of genetic strains. With a command from the Overlords, Larvae will enter a pupal state and ... Each Larva contains within it the genetic makeup of every other Zerg strain available to the Hive. A young Hive will have only ... The creatures most similar to the original Zerg insectoids are the Zerg Larvae. ... The creatures most similar to the original Zerg insectoids are the Zerg Larvae. Each Larva contains within it the genetic ...
To watch full episodes, you must have a cable provider that supports IFCs full episode service and you must have IFC as part of your cable package.. ...
The leafwing butterfly larvae are as spectacular as the butterflies. They have beautiful iridescent - blue spots along their ... Leafwing Butterfly Larva (1) Doleschallia bisaltide australis. The leafwing butterfly larvae are as spectacular as the ...
Culling mozzie larvae. From David Lowry John Balfour is concerned that rainwater storage tanks will breed mosquitoes (25 March ... We moved to a house with a 5000-litre corrugated iron tank but I was discouraged by the presence of lively mosquito larvae in a ...
... larva často obýva iného hostiteľa ako dospelé jedince. Larva nemusí byť ani nutne menšia ako dospelý jedinec. Napríklad larva ... Larva alebo larválne štádium je nedospelé vývinové štádium živočíchov, ktoré sa buď postupným zvliekaním (nedokonalá premena) ... Larva nemusí obývať rovnaké životné prostredie ako dospelé štádium (napríklad larvy podeniek žijú vo vodnom prostredí a dýchajú ... Patrí medzi ne napríklad larva škľabiek - glochídium. Premena larvy na dospelého jedinca sa môže uskutočniť viacerými spôsobmi ...
... Klaus Rohde The larva of Austramphilina elongata, which has been studied in greatest ... Page: Tree of Life Structure of the Amphilinidea Larva Authored by Klaus Rohde. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the ... Figure 2. Larva of Austramphilina elongata showing sensilla, hooks and transverse muscle bands (redrawn from Rohde and Georgi, ... Figure 1. Larva of Austramphilina elongata, showing cilia, hooks, penetration glands and protonephridial system (redrawn from ...
Larva (id); Larva (sk); Larva (tr); larva (pt); لارو (fa); Lárva (hu); личинка (ru); Lerva (lt); Ličinka (sl); Larba (tl); ... Larvas, Fase larvar (pt); Larwy (pl); Kāpuri (lv); Гъсеница (bg); Lervos (lt); Ličinke, Larva, Nimfa (sl); Larvae, Larva (tl); ... Larva (es); Велигер (kk-kz); Lirfa (is); Larva (ms); Larva (en-gb); Ларва (bg); Larvă (ro); لاروا (ur); larv (sv); Личинка (uk ... Larva (sr-el); इल्ली (hi); 幼蟲 (zh-hk); toukka (fi); Kāpurs (lv); Larva (en-ca); Лічынка (be-tarask); குடம்பி (ta); larva (it); ...
Larva Labs on Android Market Sales. Matt Hall from Larva Labs reveals the sales numbers for a top-selling game in the Android ...
About Larva Mortus At the end of 19th Century, dark forces shade the world once again. A brave agent, experienced in exorcism ... Larva Mortus is an action horror game that has you hunting monsters of the supernatural in a dark and ominous atmosphere full ... Larva Mortus is now available on Steam for $9.99. For more information, visit ... Larva Mortus offers fast and entertaining monster-hunting game play. A horrific atmosphere goes hand in hand with furious ...
Zara Larva is a level 30 NPC that can be found in Ruins of Ahn'Qiraj. This NPC can be found in Ruins of Ahn'Qiraj. In ...
Harrison G. Dyar, "The Larva of Crocota Opella Grote," Psyche, vol. 8, no. 257, pp. 119-119, 1897. ...
Larva Labs is a mobile software company based in New York City. We make apps for iPhone, Android and the Sidekick. Some ... Larva Labs is a mobile software company based in New York City. We make apps for iPhone, Android and the Sidekick. ... Source: [About Larva Labs - The Game Website]. ...
Ocular larva migrans (OLM) is a rare but potentially disabling condition. It is also difficult to diagnose because of the ... In the majority of cases (90%), ocular larva migrans affects only one eye. Most children with ocular larva migrans are in the ... Ocular larva migrans may be due to a variety of different organisms:. *Toxocara canis (T. canis) or cutis is the most common ... The larva has no particular predilection for the eye, and it seems to be a matter of chance that it takes up its residence in ...
Beetle larvae, or grubs, typically have three pairs of legs, one on each segment of their thorax, behind a distinct head. The ... Carpet beetles larvae are 1/8 inch long, with tufts of hair. These and clothes moths are common around textiles in the home. ... Fly larvae, or maggots, are smooth, worm-like, legless creatures. Moth caterpillars have legs and often extra fleshy appendages ... University of California Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program: How to Distinguish Insect Larvae ...
I did not see any adults, only the larvae. I am unsure if it is Furniture Carpet Beetle (Anthremus flavipes) (LeConte) or ... Re: [pestlist] Carpet Beetle larvae Voron, Joel Tue, 24 Oct 2017 09:21:40 -0700 ...
Our great-to-the-nth-grandmother was a hungry sponge larva. Put that on your family … ...
IM/I_DLW/0000/640/Paratraea_plebeja,_larva,I_DLW63.jpg. width=640 x height=430 pixels; size=91686 bytes Discover Life , Top ...
IM/I_DLW/0000/640/Apatelodes_torrefacta,_larva,I_DLW65_1.jpg. width=640 x height=395 pixels; size=29430 bytes Discover Life , ...
  • Only a small number of larvae are required to precipitate this eye disorder, and therefore the anti-Toxocara antibody level is lower or indiscernible, in contrast with visceral larva migrans. (
  • Visceral larva migrans (VLM) is a human infection with certain parasites found in the intestines of dogs and cats. (
  • Visceral larva migrans and other uncommon helminth infections. (
  • In a few cases, they may have the clinical features of covert toxocariasis or visceral larva migrans. (
  • Visceral larva migrans is an infection caused by certain parasites found in the intestines of dogs and cats . (
  • Visceral larva migrans is caused by worms (parasites) that infect the intestines of dogs and cats . (
  • If you have visceral larva migrans, you may have a higher-than-normal level of white blood cells. (
  • Visceral larva migrans involving the eyes, primarily of older children, and marked by decreased visual acuity and strabismus. (
  • I have had VLM (visceral larva migrans) and I have to tell you, it was no party. (
  • Children rarely require hospitalization for visceral larva migrans (VLM). (
  • Visceral larva migrans is generally benign and self-limiting. (
  • Toxocariasis of the liver: visceral larva migrans. (
  • Hepatic visceral larva migrans, a resilient entity on imaging: Experience from a tertiary liver center. (
  • Myocarditis associated with visceral larva migrans due to Toxocara canis. (
  • Arango CA. Visceral larva migrans and the hypereosinophilia syndrome. (
  • Toxocariasis: visceral larva migrans in children. (
  • Hepatic visceral larva migrans of Toxocara canis: CT and sonographic findings. (
  • Dirofilaria, visceral larva migrans, and tropical pulmonary eosinophilia. (
  • Ecevit Ç, Bag Ö, Vergin C, Öztürk A. Visceral larva migrans presenting with hypereosinophilia. (
  • Visceral larva migrans associated with the hypereosinophilic syndrome and the onset of severe asthma. (
  • Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia due to visceral larva migrans. (
  • Cutaneous larva migrans is a condition that occurs when dog or cat hookworm larvae migrate through the skin. (
  • Cutaneous larvae migrans (also called "creeping eruption" or "ground itch") is found in southeastern and Gulf states, and in tropical developing countries. (
  • Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is a cutaneous lesion produced by percutaneous penetration and migration of larvae of various nematode parasites, characterized by erythematous, serpiginous, papular, or vesicular linear lesions corresponding to the movements of the larvae beneath the skin. (
  • Cutaneous larva migrans often presents itself as skin dermatitis. (
  • The hook worm is the most common species of cutaneous larva migrans, and is often found in the stool of dogs and cats , unlike the round worm, which is found in the stool of raccoons, more commonly in the Midwest. (
  • Join the ' Cutaneous Larva Migrans ' group to help and get support from people like you. (
  • Our support group for Cutaneous Larva Migrans has 2 questions and 7 members. (
  • Cutaneous Larva Migrans - this larva will past to my wife.we slepp in the same bed? (
  • Hookworm, also known as Cutaneous Larva Migrans (CLM), is a skin infection primarily caused by Ancyclostoma braziliense hookworms. (
  • Cutaneous Larva Migrans is prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas of the Caribbean, South America, Asia, and Africa, but can also occur during the hot months in temperate regions. (
  • Caumes E. Treatment of cutaneous larva migrans. (
  • Heukelbach J, Feldmeier H. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans. (
  • Hochedez P, Caumes E. Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans. (
  • Vanhaecke C, Perignon A, Monsel G, Regnier S, Bricaire F, Caumes E. The efficacy of single dose ivermectin in the treatment of hookworm related cutaneous larva migrans varies depending on the clinical presentation. (
  • Ocular larva migrans is a rare inflammatory condition of the eye caused by local reactions to the larva of Toxocara species. (
  • When they reach the eye and settle in it, the condition is called ocular larva migrans. (
  • Ocular larva migrans is a disease caused by the final migration of these larvae and affects mostly the young, with an average age group of 3-11 years. (
  • In the presence of ocular larva migrans, treatment is directed towards suppressing intraocular inflammation by glucocorticoid therapy. (
  • Retrieved on February 22, 2020 from (
  • Ocular larva migrans (OLM) is a rare but potentially disabling condition. (
  • Ocular toxocariasis is typically due to a single toxocara larva invading the eye. (
  • The larva has no particular predilection for the eye, and it seems to be a matter of chance that it takes up its residence in ocular tissues. (
  • Children with toxocarial ocular larva migrans rarely have any other signs or symptoms of the infestation. (
  • In the majority of cases (90%), ocular larva migrans affects only one eye. (
  • Most children with ocular larva migrans are in the age group of 3-11 years, though recently the incidence among young teenagers has been reported to be higher. (
  • Retrieved on July 30, 2021 from (
  • We moved to a house with a 5000-litre corrugated iron tank but I was discouraged by the presence of lively mosquito larvae in a typical jug of water. (
  • Fresh running pond and stream water can house mayfly and some mosquito larvae, and slow moving ponds, marshes and streams can provide a home for dragonfly, damselfly, water strider, giant water bug, water scorpion, maggot and most mosquito larvae. (
  • Mosquito larvae are also commonly found in stagnant water that collects in buckets, birdbaths and pools. (
  • Mosquito larvae look completely different -- they are segmented and tube-shaped, with tufts of hair coming out of each segment. (
  • The fungi, M. anisopliae and B. bassiana, cause muscardine disease in mosquito larvae, leading to their death before they can pupate and develop into the adult form. (
  • The Monarch Larva Monitoring Project (MLMP) began in 1997 at the University of Minnesota. (
  • The Monarch Larva Monitoring Project (MLMP) is a citizen science project involving volunteers from across the United States and Canada in monarch research. (
  • In 1996, she and graduate student Michelle Prysby started a nationwide Citizen Science project called the Monarch Larva Monitoring Project, which continues to engage hundreds of volunteers throughout North America. (
  • Toxocariasis and Larva Migrans Syndromes. (
  • When soil contaminated with these larvae is ingested, whether deliberately, as in children with pica, or accidentally, the eggs are swallowed and hatch in the intestine of the human host. (
  • The hatched eggs produce second-stage larvae which cannot, however, mature in the accidental human host. (
  • Beetles lay eggs near young plants and larva attack plant roots. (
  • The Eggs and Larvae database aims to store, and make available, data collected by ichthyoplankton surveys for use by ICES and the wider marine community. (
  • During their time in the pouch the eggs develop into a special larva called a glochidium. (
  • After fertilisation , the eggs develop into tiny larvae. (
  • The hookworm eggs hatch in the soil or sand and the larvae migrate through a person's skin forming red burrows or tracks underneath the outer skin layer. (
  • While many of these larvae turn into benign, and even attractive insects such as dragonflies, others become biting flies such as mosquitoes. (
  • What's That Bug, listed in the references, is an online resource you can use to research aquatic insects and larvae. (
  • The National Wildlife Federation's Field Guide to Insects and Spiders of North America is another useful reference book which contains numerous colour photos of insects and larvae. (
  • Co-founders of Protix Tarique Arsiwalla and Kees Aarts, pose next to Dutch King Willem-Alexander as they hold larvae of insects in the first farm capable of large scale production of insects for use in animal feed that opened in Bergen-op-Zoom, Netherlands June 11, 2019. (
  • A larva /ˈlɑːrvə/ (plural larvae /ˈlɑːrviː/) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. (
  • The larvae of crustaceans often bear little resemblance to the adult, and there are still cases where it is not known what larvae will grow into what adults. (
  • This is especially true of crustaceans which live as benthic adults (on the sea bed), more so than where the larvae are planktonic and therefore more easily caught. (
  • Any organs which are absent from the adults do not generally appear in the larvae, although there are a few exceptions, such as the vestige of the fourth pereiopod in the larvae of Lucifer , and some pleopods in certain Anomura and crabs . (
  • Larvae are frequently adapted to environments separate from adults. (
  • In some organisms like polychaetes and barnacles, adults are immobile but their larvae are mobile, and use their mobile larval form to distribute themselves. (
  • Some larvae are dependent on adults to feed them. (
  • In fact, if the food supply and the population density become optimal for growth the dauer larvae can exit this stage and become L4s and then adults. (
  • I did not see any adults, only the larvae. (
  • Larvae pupate in soil and emerge as adults usually in August. (
  • While the larvae apparently diverged into highly specialized forms very early on, the morphology of the adults has remained very similar to that seen in the earliest known fossil representatives of the group. (
  • Colonial forms are also common, and one group, called the larvaceans , retains the characteristics of larvae as adults. (
  • For a variety of reasons, we conclude that the larvae are likely conspecific with the adults. (
  • The larvae develop and grow for some time before metamorphosing into adults. (
  • The larvae eat different food from the adults, and disperse. (
  • It was found that actively feeding Acipenseridae larvae have the same types of olfactory receptor cells as observed in adults (Pyatkina, 1976). (
  • In most cases, the larvae migrate into the posterior segment of one eye through the choroidal and retinal blood vessels. (
  • This allows the larva to persist in the body for years, to migrate through the body and enter the eye. (
  • Found in Cyclorrhapha Protopod larvae - larva have many different forms and often unlike a normal insect form. (
  • However, the vast majority of aquatic insect larvae with abdominal lateral gills or gill tufts are mayflies (Ephemeroptera) or stoneflies (Plecoptera). (
  • While walking around your ponds and streams, you may notice insect larvae swimming around. (
  • Insect larvae are an important part of our food chain, as many eat decaying vegetation and provide food for fish. (
  • Use an insect guide to compare your larvae to photos or illustrations in the guide. (
  • Beautiful colorful larva of night insect, long colored stripe. (
  • Through a series of moults, the young animal then passes through various zoea stages, followed by a megalopa or post-larva. (
  • Under environmental conditions that are favorable for reproduction, C. elegans larvae develop through four stages or moults which are designated as L1, L2, L3 and L4. (
  • Larvae are typical of the invertebrates, some of which (for example, shrimps) have two or more distinct larval stages. (
  • Sit back and watch while they float weightlessly up to the top as they mature and progress through the stages of their little larvae lives. (
  • The surveys were focused on different stages of eel larvae. (
  • Many species have relatively long pelagic larval stages (how long a larva is in the water column). (
  • [1] [2] During this time, larvae feed and grow, and many species move through several stages of development. (
  • For example, most barnacles moult through six nauplius larva stages before moulting to a cipris , when they look to settle. (
  • Fish egg and fish larvae data have been collected in the ICES area for a long time for use in stock assessments and fisheries management. (
  • Pyatkina G.A. (1992) Olfactory Receptors in Acipenseridae Fish Larvae. (
  • I thought you might be interested in this item at Title: A ladybug larva grows up Author: Katie Marsico Publisher: New York : Children's Press, 2007. (
  • Many crustacean larvae were not immediately recognised as larvae when they were discovered, and were described as new genera and species. (
  • Cutworm , Larva of certain species of owlet moths (family Noctuidae). (
  • In many eusocial Hymenoptera species, the larvae are fed by female workers. (
  • Larvae of some species build a protective capsule made of secretions and debris that they live in during the stage, emerging only long enough to feed. (
  • These worms turned out to be larvae of a species of fungus gnat (Order: Diptera, Family: Sciaridae). (
  • Trochophore , also called trochosphere , small, translucent, free-swimming larva characteristic of marine annelids and most groups of mollusks. (
  • Rotifers and the larvae (sometimes considered trochophores) of such invertebrates as phoronids and bryozoans are trochophore-like in appearance. (
  • echinopluteus larva In Echinodermata , a planktonic and feeding larval form that possesses limb-like outgrowths bearing ciliated bands. (
  • On dispersal and planktonic larvae of benthic invertebrates: an eclectic overview and summary of problems. (
  • [1] Also, the Sacculina and other Rhizocephala have a distinctive nauplius larva with its complex body structure, but the adult form lacks many organs due to extreme adaptation to its parasitic life style. (
  • E.g. first instar larvae of parasitic hymenoptera. (
  • The dauer stage is also considered to be equivalent to the infective stage of parasitic nematode larvae. (
  • Narr: Parasitic larvae like the botfly can live in almost any part of the body. (
  • The genus name Nauplius was published posthumously by Otto Friedrich Müller in 1785 for animals now known to be the larvae of copepods . (
  • If you are interested in studying water larvae or avoiding the breeding grounds of biting flies, you should become familiar with the characteristics of common water larvae. (
  • Once per day, an abyssal larva can regurgitate and fire a stream of maggots at a single opponent within 10 feet. (
  • Tadpoles , maggots and caterpillars are larvae. (
  • Caterpillars are the larval form or larvae (pl) of butterflies and moths. (
  • Polypod larvae - also known as eruciform larvae, these larva have abdominal prolegs, in addition to usual thoracic legs. (
  • Larva Mortus is now available on Steam for $9.99. (
  • Larva Mortus is an action horror game that has you hunting monsters of the supernatural in a dark and ominous atmosphere full of undead, terrifying and demonic nightmares. (
  • Larva Mortus offers fast and entertaining monster-hunting game play. (
  • Other popular games of Rake in Grass are Larva Mortus (horror action game), Achibald's Adventures (an action puzzle game for Win/Mac/iPhone/PocketPC/Palm), KingMania (action strategy game) etc. (
  • Larva Mortus ist ein rasantes Action Horrorspiel, das Sie in eine dunkle und bedrohliche Welt Ihrer schlimmsten Albträume versetzt. (
  • There are four main types of endopterygote larvae types: Apodous larvae - no legs at all and are poorly sclerotized. (
  • Apodous larvae - no legs at all and are poorly sclerotized. (
  • Oligopod larvae - have well developed head capsule and mouthparts are similar to the adult, but without compound eyes. (
  • other parasite larvae live in intermediate hosts that are normally eaten by the final host, in which the adult parasites develop . (
  • The larva reaches the posterior segment of the eye through the blood vessels of the retina and choroid, and occasionally through the optic nerve. (
  • Strange Costa Rican caterpillar the Monkey slug a hag moth larva (Phobetron hipparchia) in the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. (
  • Full-grown larva of a Coxcomb Prominent moth (Ptilodon capucinai) feedind on an oak leaf. (
  • The study in Michigan revealed that Lyme disease can be found in roughly 40 percent of the state's adult blacklegged ticks, and in about 25 percent of the nymphs - the life stage between larva and adult. (
  • Once blacklegged tick larvae consume a blood meal from a host infected with Lyme, they retain the bacteria when they molt and become infected nymphs. (
  • Larvae are much smaller than workers and nymphs. (
  • when the blood meals are taken from the final host, the parasite larvae are introduced into the blood or skin. (
  • Thus a sight-threatening response to the larvae depends also upon the release of the Toxocara excretory-secretory (TES) antigen and/or the host immune response. (
  • The post-larva is characterised by the use of abdominal appendages (pleopods) for propulsion. (
  • Near-mature larva of an aeshnid dragonfly (USA). (
  • Gas exchange in Anisopteran larvae is by gills inside the rectum. (
  • Dauer (German "die Dauer", English "the enduring", "the duration" in the meaning of "a length of time",) describes an alternative developmental stage of nematode worms, particularly rhabditids including Caenorhabditis elegans, whereby the larva goes into a type of stasis and can survive harsh conditions. (
  • The dauer state is given other names in the various types of nematodes such as 'diapause' or 'hypobiosis', but since the C. elegans nematode has become the most studied nematode, the term 'dauer stage' or 'dauer larvae' is becoming universally recognised when referring to this state in other free-living nematodes. (
  • The genus Zoea was initially described by Louis Augustin Guillaume Bosc in 1802 for an animal now known to be the larva of a crab . (
  • Some plants in the genus Cynanchum are also eaten by monarchs, but Cynanchum nigrum is toxic to the larvae . (
  • Keroplatidae larva, probably genus Keroplatus (or Cerotelion ? (
  • If our reasoning proves correct, they would represent the first reported larvae from the genus Berchmansus . (
  • Beetle larvae, or grubs, typically have three pairs of legs, one on each segment of their thorax, behind a distinct head. (
  • One Colorado potato beetle larva - Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Walking on the stem of a Potato plant. (
  • A False Potato Beetle (Leptinotarsa juncta) larva feeds on Carolina Horsenettle (Solanum carolinense). (
  • Turns out it is the larva of the Bloody Nose Beetle Timarcha tenebricosa . (
  • The bug larva was a type of leaf beetle that consumes and destroys leaves of native plants, agriculture officials said. (
  • These 2nd instar Western Sheepmoth (Hemileuca eglanterina) larvae are active and feeding in a large cluster. (
  • A lava lamp that has the base set up in such a way that maggot larvae may thrive and multiply as if they were in their very own private petre dish. (
  • A long-standing theory is that in transformed larvae of sea-squirts ( tunicates ) lies the origin of vertebrates. (
  • Tunicates are sessile, but their larvae are mobile, and have some features found in early vertebrates. (
  • Inspect the larva for identifying characteristics such as size, shape, length and special characteristics such as pincers. (
  • The tadpole, the familiar larva of the amphibian , develops to a considerable size in the relatively hospitable aquatic environment before metamorphosis prepares it for an amphibious or terrestrial life as a frog or toad . (
  • For example, some larvae such as tadpoles live almost exclusively in aquatic environments, but can live outside water as adult frogs. (
  • Every other crustacean group with free larvae shows a metamorphosis , and this difference in the larvae is thought to reflect "a fundamental cleavage" of the crustaceans. (
  • With a command from the Overlords, Larvae will enter a pupal state and begin the metamorphosis into whichever strains the Hive requires. (
  • The process whereby the larva changes into another stage, such as a pupa (chrysalis) or adult, is known as metamorphosis . (
  • A larva does not look like the adult animal, and changes shape (known as metamorphosis ) as it grows up. (
  • This takes 2-5 weeks, during which they mature into embryonated infective third-stage larvae under the right conditions of warmth, moisture and shade. (
  • For example, dauer larvae of rhabditids are often found in parallel rows under the elytra of dung beetles, which transport them to fresh supplies of dung. (
  • The larva often is found at the nodes and near the outer surface of the stalk. (
  • Identify the type of water where the larvae are found. (
  • This fly however imitates the red midge larvas found in many lakes, ponds and slow moving rivers. (
  • I later found that the young larvae looked nice under crossed polars, and took some photographs. (
  • Larvae are commonly found as their sidekicks. (
  • Escamoles are an edible ant larvae of the velvety tree ant, found anywhere from central Mexico up to Washington state in the U.S. In Mexico, escamoles have been consumed since the era of the Aztecs, but the unexpected food source is receiving renewed interest as a rare delicacy-among Mexicans and visitors alike. (
  • A ghost like appearance in marine plankton, although less than a millimetre long, the transparent body of the larva of the starfish is a magnificent lifeform. (
  • The larva weaves tiny strings of "web" from the ceiling and attaches little drops of mucus along each string. (
  • BERGEN OP ZOOM, Netherlands (Reuters) - Tiny fly larvae have Dutch firm Protix thinking big as it looks to produce enough fish food to generate 100 million servings of salmon a year. (
  • Matt Hall from Larva Labs reveals the sales numbers for a top-selling game in the Android Market. (
  • Larva Labs is a mobile software company based in New York City. (
  • Source: [About Larva Labs - The Game Website]. (
  • Larva Labs is the home for our professional and experimental projects. (
  • The post-larva is usually similar to the adult form, and so many names have been erected for the stage in different groups. (
  • The larvae of some organisms (for example, some newts) can become pubescent and do not develop further into the adult form. (
  • A young Hive will have only the genetic codes for the most basic of Zerg strains, such as the Drone, but as the Hive grows and develops new structures, the Larvae can expand its library of genetic strains. (
  • larvae ) develops from the egg in those animals . (
  • It is acquired by walking barefoot or sitting on soil or sand contaminated with dog or cat feces containing hookworm larvae. (
  • Carpet beetles larvae are 1/8 inch long, with tufts of hair. (
  • The larvae make nests by webbing leaves together. (
  • They then delicately separate ants from their larvae with large sieves, and must ensure that nests are covered again by the soil and plant that they removed. (
  • This photograph of a green larva (caterpillar) on a purplish Hydrangea bloom was taken on the grounds of Bellevue State Park, located in Wilmington, Delaware. (
  • The underside and feet of the caterpillar or larva of an Anise Swallowtail butterfly, Papilio zelicaon, before it pupates. (
  • inproceedings{RV-CuBES2017:Runtime_Verification_using_LARVA, author = {Christian Colombo and Gordon Pace}, title = {Runtime Verification using LARVA}, booktitle = {RV-CuBES 2017. (
  • By living in a distinct environment, larvae may be given shelter from predators and reduce competition for resources with the adult population. (

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