Transcription Factor TFIIB: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.Transcription Factors, TFII: The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.TATA-Box Binding Protein: A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Transcription Factor TFIID: The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Transcription Factor TFIIA: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Transcription Initiation, Genetic: The process that starts the transcription of an RNA molecule. It includes the assembly of the initiation complex and establishment of the start site.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-1: A eukaryotic initiation factor that binds to 40S ribosomal subunits. Although initially considered a "non-essential" factor for eukaryotic transcription initiation, eukaryotic initiation factor-1 is now thought to play an important role in localizing RIBOSOMES at the initiation codon of MRNA.TATA-Binding Protein Associated Factors: Factors that associate with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. Many of them are components of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIIDNuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Transcription Factor TFIIH: A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Mediator Complex: A large protein complex which acts as a signaling adaptor protein that allows communication between the various regulatory and functional components of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION including DNA POLYMERASE II; GENERAL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that are bound to upstream ENHANCER ELEMENTS. The mediator complex was originally studied in YEAST where at least 21 subunits were identified. Many of the yeast subunits are homologs to proteins in higher organisms that are found associated with specific nuclear receptors such as THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS and VITAMIN D RECEPTORS.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-3: A multisubunit eukaryotic initiation factor that contains at least 8 distinct polypeptides. It plays a role in recycling of ribosomal subunits to the site of transcription initiation by promoting the dissociation of non-translating ribosomal subunits. It also is involved in promoting the binding of a ternary complex of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2; GTP; and INITIATOR TRNA to the 40S ribosomal subunit.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational: A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-5: A eukaryotic initiation factor that interacts with the 40S initiation complex and promotes the hydrolysis of the bound GTP. The hydrolysis of GTP causes the release of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2 and EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-3 from the 40S subunit and the subsequent joining of the 60S ribosomal subunit to the 40S complex to form the functional 80S initiation complexSignal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.RNA Polymerase I: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Transcription Initiation Site: The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Transcription Factors, TFIII: Factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE III and aid in transcription. They include the assembly factors TFIIIA and TFIIIC and the initiation factor TFIIIB. All combine to form a preinitiation complex at the promotor that directs the binding of RNA POLYMERASE III.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.RNA Polymerase III: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Transcription Factor TFIIIB: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. TFIIIB recruits and positions pol III over the initiation site and remains stably bound to the DNA through multiple rounds of re-initiation by RNA POLYMERASE III.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Pol1 Transcription Initiation Complex Proteins: Factors that form a preinitiation complex at promoters that are specifically transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE I.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Codon, Initiator: A codon that directs initiation of protein translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) by stimulating the binding of initiator tRNA (RNA, TRANSFER, MET). In prokaryotes, the codons AUG or GUG can act as initiators while in eukaryotes, AUG is the only initiator codon.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors: A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.YY1 Transcription Factor: A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.RNA, Transfer, Met: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying methionine to sites on the ribosomes. During initiation of protein synthesis, tRNA(f)Met in prokaryotic cells and tRNA(i)Met in eukaryotic cells binds to the start codon (CODON, INITIATOR).Prokaryotic Initiation Factor-3: A prokaryotic initiation factor that plays a role in recycling of ribosomal subunits for a new round of translational initiation. It binds to 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA and stimulates the dissociation of vacant 70S ribosomes. It may also be involved in the preferential binding of initiator tRNA to the 30S initiation complex.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.GATA4 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Peptide Initiation Factors: Protein factors uniquely required during the initiation phase of protein synthesis in GENETIC TRANSLATION.Sp3 Transcription Factor: A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.NFATC Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.Activating Transcription Factor 3: An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Activating Transcription Factor 2: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)STAT1 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.MEF2 Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.TCF Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.Sarcosine: An amino acid intermediate in the metabolism of choline.GATA1 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.GATA3 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2: Eukaryotic initiation factor of protein synthesis. In higher eukaryotes the factor consists of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. As initiation proceeds, eIF-2 forms a ternary complex with Met-tRNAi and GTP.GATA2 Transcription Factor: An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.GATA Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Eukaryotic Initiation Factors: Peptide initiation factors from eukaryotic organisms. Over twelve factors are involved in PEPTIDE CHAIN INITIATION, TRANSLATIONAL in eukaryotic cells. Many of these factors play a role in controlling the rate of MRNA TRANSLATION.Activating Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Transcription Factor RelA: A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Nucleosomes: The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. This core is composed of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic: The small subunit of the 80s ribosome of eukaryotes. It is composed of the 18S RIBOSOMAL RNA and 32 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Deoxyadenine Nucleotides: Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Reverse Transcription: The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs: Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Activating Transcription Factor 1: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.Activating Transcription Factor 4: An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.Transcription Factor 7-Like 1 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.NFI Transcription Factors: Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.GATA6 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Transcription Factor TFIIIA: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly: The mechanisms effecting establishment, maintenance, and modification of that specific physical conformation of CHROMATIN determining the transcriptional accessibility or inaccessibility of the DNA.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.STAT5 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4G: A component of eukaryotic initiation factor-4F that is involved in multiple protein interactions at the site of translation initiation. Thus it may serve a role in bringing together various initiation factors at the site of translation initiation.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets: A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.Octamer Transcription Factor-1: A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.Mice, Inbred C57BLDNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Gene Products, tat: Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.SOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.Cell Extracts: Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.PhosphoproteinsGene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional: Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.Leucine Zippers: DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Adenoviruses, Human: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
... but rather are part of the large transcription preinitiation complex that interacts with RNA polymerase directly. The most ... However, not all bases in the transcription factor-binding site may actually interact with the transcription factor. In ... This is also true with transcription factors: Not only do transcription factors control the rates of transcription to regulate ... transcription recruit coactivator or corepressor proteins to the transcription factor DNA complex Transcription factors are one ...
This particular subunit interacts with the largest TFIID subunit, as well as multiple transcription activators. The protein is ... that together participate in the assembly of the transcription preinitiation complex. TAFII55 binds to TAFII250 and inhibits ... Dantonel JC, Murthy KG, Manley JL, Tora L (September 1997). "Transcription factor TFIID recruits factor CPSF for formation of 3 ... "Association of Tat with purified HIV-1 and HIV-2 transcription preinitiation complexes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ...
Mediator complexes interact with transcription factors and RNA polymerase II. The main (but not exclusive) function of mediator ... The preinitiation complex, which contains mediator, transcription factors, a nucleosome and RNA polymerase II, is important to ... Mammalian mediator complexes are slightly larger. A great deal is known about the physical arrangement of the subunits, but a ... Thus, the structure of a mediator complex can be augmented by RNA as well as proteinaceous transcription factors. Mediator was ...
Together, these factors are responsible for promoter recognition and the formation of a transcription preinitiation complex ( ... Both genes are present in species ranging from humans to yeast, and their protein products interact to form a complex composed ... It is the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of the large subunit that participate in interactions with the small subunit. These ... Transcription factor TFIIA is a nuclear protein involved in the RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription of DNA. TFIIA is one ...
... creating a stable complex onto which the rest of the General Transcription Factors (GTFs) can assemble. This complex is ... For subTADs larger than 100 kb and TAD boundaries, CTCF is the typical insulator found to interact with cohesion. In eukaryotes ... much of the regulatory checkpoints in the transcription process occur in the assembly and escape of the pre-initiation complex ... Similar to the sigma factors in prokaryotes, the general transcription factors (GTFs) are a set of factors in eukaryotes that ...
... is one of several general transcription factors that make up the RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex. It is a tetramer of ... "Structural motifs and potential sigma homologies in the large subunit of human general transcription factor TFIIE". Nature. 354 ... two alpha and two beta chains and interacts with TAF6/TAFII80, ATF7IP, and varicella-zoster virus IE63 protein. TFIIE recruits ... Transcription factor II E is encoded by the GTF2E1 and GTF2E2 genes. TFIIE is thought to be involved in DNA melting at the ...
The preinitiation complex (PIC) is a large complex of proteins that is necessary for the transcription of protein-coding genes ... Mediator then encases all the transcription factors and Pol II. It interacts with enhancers, areas very far away (upstream or ... General transcription factors (GTFs) or basal transcription factors are protein transcription factors that have been shown to ... ERCC2 is involved in transcription-coupled NER and is an integral member of the basal transcription factor BTF2/TFIIH complex. ...
Enhancers can recruit a large complex of proteins, such as the mediator complex, PIC, and other cell specific transcription ... factors, involved in initiating the transcription of a gene. Self-interacting (or self-associating) domains are found in many ... effectively repressing gene expression by blocking transcription preinitiation complex (PIC) assembly at the promoter and ... These factories are associated with elevated levels of transcription due to the high concentration of transcription factors ( ...
... has been shown to interact with GTF2H5, XPB and ERCC2. Transcription Factor II H ENSG00000276910, ENSG00000275045 GRCh38 ... "Association of Tat with purified HIV-1 and HIV-2 transcription preinitiation complexes". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (11): 6951-8. doi: ... a subunit of the transcription factor TFIIH, is involved in large-scale deletions associated with Werdnig-Hoffmann disease". Am ... "Isolation and characterization of two human transcription factor IIH (TFIIH)-related complexes: ERCC2/CAK and TFIIH". Proc. ...
"Association of Tat with purified HIV-1 and HIV-2 transcription preinitiation complexes". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (11): 6951-8. doi: ... Dantonel JC, Murthy KG, Manley JL, Tora L (1997). "Transcription factor TFIID recruits factor CPSF for formation of 3' end of ... This gene encodes a small subunit associated with a subset of TFIID complexes. This subunit interacts with TBP and with two ... and chondrogenesis of human bone marrow stromal cells via chondrosphere formation with expression profiling by large-scale cDNA ...
"The chromatin remodelling complex WSTF-SNF2h interacts with nuclear myosin 1 and has a role in RNA polymerase I transcription ... 2003). "Multiple interactions between RNA polymerase I, TIF-IA and TAF(I) subunits regulate preinitiation complex assembly at ... "Multiple protein-protein interactions by RNA polymerase I-associated factor PAF49 and role of PAF49 in rRNA transcription". Mol ... "Molecular cloning and characterization of the cDNA encoding the largest subunit of mouse RNA polymerase I". Mol Gen Genet. 255 ...
... is a general transcription factor that is involved in the formation of the RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex (PIC). The ... physically interacts with FKF1, CDF1 protein is more stable in FKF1 mutants. Another transcription factor, transcription factor ... a breast cancer specific drug treatment mode-of-action network for treatment effective prediction using large scale microarray ... Fifteen transcription factors with highly conserved binding sites across multiple species' promoter regions for c8orf33 were ...
"Association of Tat with purified HIV-1 and HIV-2 transcription preinitiation complexes". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (11): 6951-8. doi: ... and TBP-associated factors, or TAFs (e.g., TAF2B; MIM 604912), in 2 distinct complexes, TFIID and B-TFIID. The TFIID complex is ... Beausoleil SA, Jedrychowski M, Schwartz D, Elias JE, Villén J, Li J, Cohn MA, Cantley LC, Gygi SP (2004). "Large-scale ... Klejman MP, Pereira LA, van Zeeburg HJ, Gilfillan S, Meisterernst M, Timmers HT (2004). "NC2α Interacts with BTAF1 and ...
... but rather are part of the large transcription preinitiation complex that interacts with RNA polymerase directly. The most ... Availability of other cofactors/transcription factorsEdit. Most transcription factors do not work alone. Many large TF families ... However, not all bases in the transcription factor-binding site may actually interact with the transcription factor. In ... This is also true with transcription factors: Not only do transcription factors control the rates of transcription to regulate ...
"TBP-TAF complex SL1 directs RNA polymerase I pre-initiation complex formation and stabilizes upstream binding factor at the ... Initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase I requires the formation of a complex composed of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) ... This gene encodes the largest SL1-specific TAF. Two transcripts encoding different isoforms have been identified. TAF1C has ... been shown to interact with UBTF. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000103168 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
... genes requires the assembly of a large multiprotein complex consisting of RNA polymerase II and general transcription factors ... 2003). "Hypoxia actively represses transcription by inducing negative cofactor 2 (Dr1/DrAP1) and blocking preinitiation complex ... The protein encoded by this gene is a corepressor of transcription that interacts with DR1 to enhance DR1-mediated repression. ... the formation of an active transcription complex by precluding the entry of TFIIA and/or TFIIB into the preinitiation complex. ...
... core factor), which bind promoter elements and form the preinitiation complex (PIC), which is in turn recognized by RNA pol. In ... composed of TBP and TBP-associated factors, or TAFs), transcription initiation factors, and UBF (upstream binding factor). RNA ... Association and maturation of rRNA and r-proteins result in the formation of the 40S (small) and 60S (large) subunits of the ... Proteins that are detained in the nucleolus are unable to diffuse and to interact with their binding partners. Targets of this ...
... complex not only activates cell cycle Cdks but also regulates gene expression because it is part of the transcription factor ... More specifically, associated CAK is involved in promoter clearance and progression of transcription from the preinitiation to ... When Cdk2 is inactive, the small L12 helix pushes the large PSTAIRE helix outwards. The PSTAIRE helix contains a residue, ... When CAK phosphorylates Cdk's threonine residue160, the T-loop flattens and interacts more closely with cyclin A. ...
B2 RNA inhibits transcription by binding to core Pol II. Through this interaction, B2 RNA assembles into preinitiation ... Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) expressed in mammalian testes and somatic cells form RNA-protein complexes with Piwi proteins. ... The p53 protein functions as a transcription factor with a crucial role in orchestrating the cellular stress response. In ... The miRNAs are involved in the large scale regulation of many protein coding genes, the Y RNAs are important for the initiation ...
"The DNA unwinding element binding protein DUE-B interacts with Cdc45 in preinitiation complex formation". Molecular and ... Activity of DUE can be modulated by transcription factors like ABF1. A common yeast model system that well-represents ... It is known that replication initiates in large initiation zone areas, associated with known proteins like the c-myc and β- ... This binding allows for further factor binding to create a pre-replicative complex (pre-RC). Pre-RC triggered to initiate when ...
... bound by a pioneer transcription factor giving it a head start towards assembling the transcription preinitiation complex. ... These large domains are scaffolds for further protein interactions and also modify the chromatin for other pioneer factors such ... The similarity to histone H1 explains how it is able to bind chromatin by interacting with the major groove of only the one ... Pioneer factors can function passively, by acting as a bookmark for the cell to recruit other transcription factors to specific ...
... the formation of ribosomal preinitiation complexes around the start codon and are an important input for post-transcription ... In mammals, eIF3 is the largest initiation factor, made up of 13 subunits (a-m). It has a molecular weight of ~800 kDa and ... eIF4G is a 175.5-kDa scaffolding protein that interacts with eIF3 and the Poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), as well as the other ... Several initiation factors form a complex with the small 40S ribosomal subunit and Met-tRNAiMet called the 43S preinitiation ...
It binds transcription factors (CAAT TF or CTFs) and thereby stabilizes the nearby preinitiation complex for easier binding of ... A deletion of the TATA box leads to a small decrease in enzymatic activity in the scutellum and roots, but a large decrease in ... This sequence was originally called Box A, which is now known to be the sequence that interacts with the homologue of the ... Formation of the preinitiation complex begins when the multi-subunit transcription factor II D (TFIID) binds to the TATA box at ...
... has been shown to interact with TATA binding protein and TBPL1. Transcription Factor II A Model organisms have been used ... structure of the preinitiation complex". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 93 (3 ... "Isolation of a cDNA encoding the largest subunit of TFIIA reveals functions important for activated transcription". Genes & ... "Transcription factor IIA derepresses TATA-binding protein (TBP)-associated factor inhibition of TBP-DNA binding". The Journal ...
The preinitiation complex (PIC) assembles in a stepwise fashion on the promoter of genes to initiate transcription. The TFIID ... Retinoblastoma protein has been shown to interact with: Abl gene Androgen receptor Apoptosis-antagonizing transcription factor ... Several methods for detecting the RB1 gene mutations have been developed including a method that can detect large deletions ... interacts with viral transforming proteins and cellular transcription factor E2F1". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (2): 720-8. doi:10.1074/ ...
The TATA-binding protein (TBP) is a general transcription factor that binds specifically to a DNA sequence called the TATA box. This DNA sequence is found about 30 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site in some eukaryotic gene promoters. TBP, along with a variety of TBP-associated factors, make up the TFIID, a general transcription factor that in turn makes up part of the RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex. As one of the few proteins in the preinitiation complex that binds DNA in a sequence-specific manner, it helps position RNA polymerase II over the transcription start site of the gene. However, it is estimated that only 10-20% of human promoters have TATA boxes. Therefore, TBP is probably not the only protein involved in positioning RNA polymerase II. TBP is involved in ...
Fukuda A، Tokonabe S، Hamada M، Matsumoto M، Tsukui T، Nogi Y، Hisatake K (April 2003). "Alleviation of PC4-mediated transcriptional repression by the ERCC3 helicase activity of general transcription factor TFIIH". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (17): 14827-31. PMID 12590132. doi:10.1074/jbc.M213172200. ...
Transcription begins with the binding of RNA polymerase, together with one or more general transcription factor, to a specific DNA sequence referred to as a "promoter" to form an RNA polymerase-promoter "closed complex". In the "closed complex" the promoter DNA is still fully double-stranded.[5]. RNA polymerase, assisted by one or more general transcription factors, then unwinds approximately 14 base pairs of DNA to form an RNA polymerase-promoter "open complex". In the "open complex" the promoter DNA is partly unwound and single-stranded. The exposed, single-stranded DNA is referred to as the "transcription bubble."[5]. RNA polymerase, assisted by one or more general transcription factors, then selects a ...
Transcription begins with the binding of RNA polymerase, together with one or more general transcription factor, to a specific DNA sequence referred to as a "promoter" to form an RNA polymerase-promoter "closed complex". In the "closed complex" the promoter DNA is still fully double-stranded.[5]. RNA polymerase, assisted by one or more general transcription factors, then unwinds approximately 14 base pairs of DNA to form an RNA polymerase-promoter "open complex". In the "open complex" the promoter DNA is partly unwound and single-stranded. The exposed, single-stranded DNA is referred to as the "transcription bubble."[5]. RNA polymerase, assisted by one or more general transcription factors, then selects a ...
Kershnar E., Wu S.-Y., Chiang C.-M. (1998). Immunoaffinity purification and functional characterization of human transcription factor IIH and RNA polymerase II from clonal cell lines that conditionally express epitope-tagged subunits of the multiprotein complexes.. J. Biol. Chem. 273: 34444 - 34453. PubMed DOI:10.1074/jbc.273.51.34444 ...
Transcription begins with the binding of RNA polymerase, together with one or more general transcription factor, to a specific DNA sequence referred to as a "promoter" to form an RNA polymerase-promoter "closed complex". In the "closed complex" the promoter DNA is still fully double-stranded.[5]. RNA polymerase, assisted by one or more general transcription factors, then unwinds approximately 14 base pairs of DNA to form an RNA polymerase-promoter "open complex". In the "open complex" the promoter DNA is partly unwound and single-stranded. The exposed, single-stranded DNA is referred to as the "transcription bubble."[5]. RNA polymerase, assisted by one or more general transcription factors, then selects a ...
Transcription begins with the binding of RNA polymerase, together with one or more general transcription factor, to a specific DNA sequence referred to as a "promoter" to form an RNA polymerase-promoter "closed complex". In the "closed complex" the promoter DNA is still fully double-stranded.[5]. RNA polymerase, assisted by one or more general transcription factors, then unwinds approximately 14 base pairs of DNA to form an RNA polymerase-promoter "open complex". In the "open complex" the promoter DNA is partly unwound and single-stranded. The exposed, single-stranded DNA is referred to as the "transcription bubble."[5]. RNA polymerase, assisted by one or more general transcription factors, then selects a ...
The DNA sequence that a transcription factor binds to is called a transcription factor-binding site or response element.[55]. Transcription factors interact with their binding sites using a combination of electrostatic (of which hydrogen bonds are a special case) and Van der Waals forces. Due to the nature of these chemical interactions, most transcription factors bind DNA in a sequence specific manner. However, not all bases in the transcription factor-binding site may actually interact with the transcription factor. In addition, some of these interactions may be weaker than others. Thus, transcription factors do not bind just one sequence but are capable of binding a subset of closely related sequences, each with a ...
Zinc finger transcription factors or ZF-TFs, are transcription factors composed of a zinc finger-binding domain and any of a variety of transcription-factor effector-domains that exert their modulatory effect in the vicinity of any sequence to which the protein domain binds.[1] Zinc finger protein transcription factors can be encoded by genes small enough to fit a number of such genes into a single vector, allowing the medical intervention and control of expression of multiple genes and the initiation of an elaborate cascade of events. In this respect, it is also possible to target a sequence that is common to multiple (usually functionally related) genes in order to control the transcription of all these genes with a single transcription factor. Also, it is ...
A primary transcript is the single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) product synthesized by transcription of DNA, and processed to yield various mature RNA products such as mRNAs, tRNAs, and rRNAs. The primary transcripts designated to be mRNAs are modified in preparation for translation. For example, a precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) is a type of primary transcript that becomes a messenger RNA (mRNA) after processing. There are several steps contributing to the production of primary transcripts. All these steps involve a series of interactions to initiate and complete the transcription of DNA in the nucleus of eukaryotes. Certain factors play key roles in the activation and inhibition of transcription, where they regulate primary transcript production. Transcription produces primary transcripts that are further modified by several processes. These ...
A nuclear run-on assay is conducted to identify the genes that are being transcribed at a certain time point. Approximately one million cell nuclei are isolated and incubated with labeled nucleotides, and genes in the process of being transcribed are detected by hybridization of extracted RNA to gene specific probes on a blot. Garcia-Martinez et al. (2004) developed a protocol for the yeast S. cerevisiae (Genomic run-on, GRO) that allows for the calculation of transcription rates (TRs) for all yeast genes to estimate mRNA stabilities for all yeast mRNAs. Alternative microarray methods have recently been developed, mainly PolII RIP-chip: RNA immunoprecipitation of RNA polymerase II with phosphorylated C-terminal domain directed antibodies and hybridization on a microarray slide or chip (the word chip in the name stems from "ChIP-chip" where a special Affymetrix genechip was required). A comparison of methods based on run-on and ChIP-chip has been made in yeast (Pelechano et ...
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বংশাণু সাধারণতঃ প্রোটিন তৈরির মাধ্যমে তাদের প্রকাশ ঘটায়, যেটি কিনা কোষের সবচেয়ে জটিল কাজগূলো সম্পাদনকারী অণু। প্রোটিন হল এমিনো এসিডের চেইন, আর বংশাণুর ডিএনএ ক্রম (আরএনএ অন্তবর্তীর মাধ্যমে) সুনির্দিষ্ট প্রোটিন ক্রম তৈরির জন্যে ব্যবহৃত হয়। এই প্রক্রিয়াটি বংশাণুর ডিএনএ ক্রমের সাথে মিল থাকা আরএনএ অণু তৈরির মাধ্যমে আরম্ভ হয়, যে প্রক্রিয়াটি প্রতিলিপিকরণ (transcription) নামে পরিচিত। ...
... but rather are part of the large transcription preinitiation complex that interacts with RNA polymerase directly. The most ... However, not all bases in the transcription factor-binding site may actually interact with the transcription factor. In ... This is also true with transcription factors: Not only do transcription factors control the rates of transcription to regulate ... transcription recruit coactivator or corepressor proteins to the transcription factor DNA complex Transcription factors are one ...
Step 2: Preinitiation complex formation. HSP70 interacting with GTFs was inhibited. Genes involved in steps 3 (initiation of ... A comprehensive resource of interacting protein regions for refining human transcription factor networks. PLoS One. 2010;5(2): ... into a large kinase-inactive complex (25). As RN7SK also directly interacts with TBP, this snRNA has great potential as a broad ... and also upregulated 2 genes that interact with TFIIB (NR4A2 and GMNN, a repressor of transcription factor binding). The APN ...
This particular subunit interacts with the largest TFIID subunit, as well as multiple transcription activators. The protein is ... that together participate in the assembly of the transcription preinitiation complex. TAFII55 binds to TAFII250 and inhibits ... Dantonel JC, Murthy KG, Manley JL, Tora L (September 1997). "Transcription factor TFIID recruits factor CPSF for formation of 3 ... "Association of Tat with purified HIV-1 and HIV-2 transcription preinitiation complexes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ...
... connects gene-specific transcription factors to the POL II preinitiation complex (14-16). Certain Mediator subunits directly ... USF1 directly interacts with MED17. We have previously reported that USF1 functions as a central hub of transcription factors ... In this regard, Mediator, a large multisubunit complex conserved across all eukaryotes, ... We showed that USF1, a key transcription factor for FASN activation, directly interacted with the Mediator subunit MED17 at the ...
... and other general transcription factors (GTFs) to form the pre-initiation complexes (PIC). The PIC places RNAP II at ... The CTD acts as a scaffold to interact with other transcription factors and coordinate transcription with other processes, such ... Rpb1 is the largest subunit of RNAP II and its C-terminal domain (CTD) plays a critical role in transcription regulation by ... Assembly and Architecture of the EBV B Cell Entry Triggering Complex * NLR-Associating Transcription Factor bHLH84 and Its ...
S4B, Table S8). We profiled the expression of general transcription factors and subunits of pre-initiation complexes that could ... 5B). Our dataset thus provides a direct measurement of the coordinate changes in expression of large complexes of interacting ... 2018a). Structure of activated transcription complex Pol II-DSIF-PAF-SPT6. Nature 560, 607-612. doi:10.1038/s41586-018-0440-4. ... 2018b). Structure of paused transcription complex Pol II-DSIF-NELF. Nature 560, 601-606. doi:10.1038/s41586-018-0442-2. ...
... of genes encoding mRNA involves the assembly of a functional preinitiation complex containing general transcription factors ( ... In vitro, the NC2 complex interacts with TBP and blocks its association with TFIIA and TFIIB (Goppelt et al. 1996; Mermelstein ... Burns, N., B. Grimwade, P. B. Ross-Macdonald, E. Y. Choi, K. Finberg et al., 1994 Large-scale analysis of gene expression, ... 2001 Yeast NC2 associates with the RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex and selectively affects transcription in vivo. Mol. ...
TATA-Box Binding Protein Associated Factor 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, TBP-class protein binding, involved in preinitiation complex assembly. IBA. -- ... Interacts with SV40 Large T antigen (PubMed:8647434). Interacts with herpes simplex virus 1 ICP4 (PubMed:8649420). ... Largest component and core scaffold of the TFIID basal transcription factor complex (PubMed:25412659, PubMed:27007846). ...
Among the factors associated with the basal transcription complex, p300 and the related CREB binding protein (CBP) (2) have ... For example, Tat interacts with the preinitiation complex through its basic domain in a Tat-responsive region (TAR)-independent ... both molecules are large nuclear phosphoproteins that respond to changes in cell growth (5) and integrate into diverse signal ... 1997) Association of Tat with purified HIV-1 and HIV-2 transcription preinitiation complexes. J. Biol. Chem. 272:6951-6958. ...
... and Pol II on the cis-linked promoter leading to preinitiation complex (PIC) formation and transcription1. In TFIID-dependent ... consequently enhancing its ability to interact with the promoter. A large Rap1-dependent DNA loop forms between the activator ... Transcription factor IIA mutations show activator-specific defects and reveal a IIA function distinct from stimulation of TBP- ... The electron density maps of the hydrated TFIID, the TFIID-TFIIA-DNA complex and the TFIID-TFIIA-Rap1-DNA Complex I and Complex ...
1997 An essential component of a C-terminal domain phosphatase that interacts with transcription factor IIF in Saccharomyces ... 1991 The non-phosphorylated form of RNA polymerase II preferentially associates with the preinitiation complex. Proc. Natl. ... 1991 CTD kinase large subunit is encoded by CTK1, a gene required for normal growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gene Expr. 1: ... 1993 Unusual charge configurations in transcription factors of the basic RNA polymerase II initiation complex. Proc. Natl. Acad ...
De MultiBac Protein Complex Production Platform in het EMBL ... of Human General Transcription Factor TFIID Core Complex Nature ... TFIID triggers pre-initiation complex formation, functions as a coactivator by interacting with transcriptional activators and ... Efficient production of large multicomponent protein complexes for structural studies using the baculovirus/insect cell system ... The first general transcription factor to bind gene promoters is transcription factor IID (TFIID). ...
The transcription elongation factor TFIIS is a component of RNA polymerase II preinitiation complexes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ... which was shown in yeast to interact closely with Rpb1, the large subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) [21]. Indeed, TFIIS ... Transcription factors IIS and IIF enhance transcription efficiency by differentially modifying RNA polymerase pausing dynamics ... Genomic binding of Pol III transcription machinery and relationship with TFIIS transcription factor distribution in mouse ...
The SAP30-YY1 complex also bridges the NSs protein with chromatin DNA, affecting cohesion and segregation of chromatin DNA as ... Through the cullin 1-Skp1-Fbox E3 ligase complex, the NSs protein promotes the degradation of at least two host proteins, the ... The nonstructural (NS) protein, which is a major virulence factor for Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), is encoded on the S- ... that RVFV NSs protein inhibits cellular general transcription activity by directly interacting with transcription factor (TF) ...
... but rather are part of the large transcription preinitiation complex that interacts with RNA polymerase directly. The most ... Availability of other cofactors/transcription factorsEdit. Most transcription factors do not work alone. Many large TF families ... However, not all bases in the transcription factor-binding site may actually interact with the transcription factor. In ... This is also true with transcription factors: Not only do transcription factors control the rates of transcription to regulate ...
Preinitiation complex[edit]. Main article: Transcription preinitiation complex. The preinitiation complex (PIC) is a large ... Mediator then encases all the transcription factors and Pol II. It interacts with enhancers, areas very far away (upstream or ... General transcription factor. General transcription factors (GTFs) or basal transcription factors are protein transcription ... ERCC2 is involved in transcription-coupled NER and is an integral member of the basal transcription factor BTF2/TFIIH complex. ...
The combination of the SSU with the three initiation factors and tRNAimet is termed the 43S preinitiation complex. The fourth ... Summary of Transcription. Although eukaryotic transcription is much more complex than prokaryotic transcription, initiation ... the larger contains two or three, the smaller just one) and large numbers of proteins (which are mostly structural). The large ... The E, P and A sites are formed by both ribosomal subunits: the tRNAs interact with mRNA in the SSU P and A sites, whilst the ...
... recruited to promoters and forms the pre-initiation complex with the assistance with Mediator and general transcription factors ... Gene-specific DNA-binding factors interact with RNAPII and with general transcription factors via a 20- to 30-protein molecular ... Deletion of the carboxyl-terminal domain of the large subunit affects early steps in transcription. J Biol Chem. 2000; 275: ... and transcription factors-mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), mitochondrial transcription factors B1 and B2 (TFB1M, ...
The Paf1 complex physically and functionally associates with transcription elongation factors in vivo. EMBO J. 21:1764-1774. ... We suspect that increased internal initiation and decreased preinitiation complexes and transcription at normal promoters in ... 30-containing HAT complex that interacts with the Spt16 subunit of the yeast CP (Cdc68/Pob3)-FACT complex. Genes Dev. 14:1196- ... It is inevitable that the large and complex Pol II elongation machinery will disrupt nucleosome-DNA interactions as it travels ...
The small or core MED complex is required for activation of RNA Pol II transcription. The large complex has been ... in modulating activated transcription via ssDNA binding and interaction with the general transcription factor complexes, ... and the hypophosphorylated RNA Pol II holoenzyme are recruited to form the preinitiation complex (PIC) ( 40,41 ) and (iii) ... Psi interacts with RNA Pol II machinery including the transcriptional Mediator complex The large scale DPiM Co-IP mass ...
Scientists have a new view of the cellular machinery that assembles directly on DNA and readies it for transcription into RNA, ... To accomplish these tasks, a bulky complex of proteins called the pre-initiation complex is assembled each time transcription ... Transcription animation: Watch as transcription factors and RNA polymerase II work together to transcribe DNA into RNA. ... "If we want to get at what is different between one gene and another, we have to start building up even larger complexes," she ...
A critical step in transcription is the recruitment and assembly of the preinitiation complex on the promoter (Roeder, 1998; ... The basal transcription factor TFIIA has been shown to enhance transcription by interacting with TBP and stabilising its ... Isolation of a cDNA encoding the largest subunit of TFIIA reveals functions important for activated transcription. Genes Dev 7 ... Ozer J, Lezina LE, Ewing J, Audi S, Lieberman PM (1998) Association of transcription factor IIA with TATA binding protein is ...
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5 is critical for integrity of the scanning preinitiation complex and accurate control ... One is Drosophila transcription factor protein GAGA (Q08605), regulating gene transcription and chromatin remodeling, etc [35 ... such as co-complex of PKs with their substrates, subcellular co-localization, interacting through modular docking sites, ... Beausoleil SA, Jedrychowski M, Schwartz D, Elias JE, Villen J, Li J, Cohn MA, Cantley LC, Gygi SP: Large-scale characterization ...
Rachez, C. and Freedman, L. P. (2001). Mediator complexes and transcription. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 13, 274-280. ... Central players in this elaborate process are sequence-specific transcription factors that activate and/or repress ... pre)initiation complex formation (reviewed by Hampsey and Reinberg, 1999; Rachez and Freedman, 2001) or to associate target ... interacts with nuclear receptors and can inhibit βFTZ-F1-dependent transcription. Mol. Cell 7, 753-765. ...
... a large multi-subunit protein complex [4], [5]. Mediator is thought to be required to bridge DNA-bound transcription factors ... Med3 and Med15/Gal11 and is thought to be the part of Mediator that interacts directly with transcription factors such as Gal4 ... require a carefully orchestrated series of events to initiate transcription. The formation of the pre-initiation complex and ... ZTF-8 Interacts with the 9-1-1 Complex and Is Required for DNA Damage Response and Double-Strand Break Repair in the Germline ...
  • 1) Is frequently studied by in vitro transcription, using defined templates and either extracts from nuclei or purified components. (psu.edu)
  • Influenza virus ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) are central to the viral life cycle and in adaptation to new host species. (sciencemag.org)
  • Control assays and synthetic DNA templates were designed to facilitate the assessment of the key experimental factors impacting your real-time PCR results. (bio-rad.com)