Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase: A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Ribonucleotide ReductasesRibosome Subunits, Large: The largest ribonucleoprotein component of RIBOSOMES. It contains the domains which catalyze formation of the peptide bond and translocation of the ribosome along the MESSENGER RNA during GENETIC TRANSLATION.Hydrogenase: An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of FERREDOXIN and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis.Ribosome Subunits, Large, Eukaryotic: The large subunit of the 80s ribosome of eukaryotes. It is composed of the 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5.8S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 50 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Replication Protein C: A DNA-binding protein that consists of 5 polypeptides and plays an essential role in DNA REPLICATION in eukaryotes. It binds DNA PRIMER-template junctions and recruits PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and DNA POLYMERASES to the site of DNA synthesis.Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Glucose-1-Phosphate Adenylyltransferase: An ATP-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the addition of ADP to alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate to form ADP-glucose and diphosphate. The reaction is the rate-limiting reaction in prokaryotic GLYCOGEN and plant STARCH biosynthesis.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.RNA, Ribosomal, 28S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Calpain: Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.22.4.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Glyceric AcidsSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Haloarcula marismortui: A species of halophilic archaea distinguished by its production of acid from sugar. This species was previously called Halobacterium marismortui.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Glutamine-Hydrolyzing): An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and glutamine. This enzyme is important in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines. EC 6.3.5.5.Ribosome Subunits, Large, Bacterial: The large subunit of the eubacterial 70s ribosome. It is composed of the 23S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 37 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Nucleotidyltransferases: A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.RNA, Ribosomal, 5.8S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5.8S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Chlamydomonas: A genus GREEN ALGAE in the order VOLVOCIDA. It consists of solitary biflagellated organisms common in fresh water and damp soil.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.RNA, Fungal: Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Transcription Factors, TFII: The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.Polyporales: An order of fungi in the phylum BASIDIOMYCOTA having macroscopic basidiocarps. The members are characterized by their saprophytic activities as decomposers, particularly in the degradation of CELLULOSE and LIGNIN. A large number of species in the order have been used medicinally. (From Alexopoulos, Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp504-68)Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Mycological Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Carboxy-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Holoenzymes: Catalytically active enzymes that are formed by the combination of an apoenzyme (APOENZYMES) and its appropriate cofactors and prosthetic groups.Replication Protein A: A single-stranded DNA-binding protein that is found in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. It is required for DNA REPLICATION; DNA REPAIR; and GENETIC RECOMBINATION.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Cyanobacteria: A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)RNA, Ribosomal, 23S: Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Spinacia oleracea: A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Fruiting Bodies, Fungal: The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Nickel: A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.Carbamyl Phosphate: The monoanhydride of carbamic acid with PHOSPHORIC ACID. It is an important intermediate metabolite and is synthesized enzymatically by CARBAMYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA) and CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (GLUTAMINE-HYDROLYZING).Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Debaromyces: A genus of ascomycetous yeast in the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES. Debaryomyces hansenni is a salt-tolerant marine species.Euglena gracilis: A species of fresh-water, flagellated EUKARYOTES in the phylum EUGLENIDA.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit: The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Agaricales: An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Cytochrome b Group: Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) with protoheme (HEME B) as the prosthetic group.Saccharomycetales: An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Ganoderma: A genus of fungi in the family Ganodermataceae, order POLYPORALES, containing a dimitic hyphal system. It causes a white rot, and is a wood decomposer. Ganoderma lucidum (REISHI) is used in traditional Chinese medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Glutamate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 2 molecules of glutamate from glutamine plus alpha-ketoglutarate in the presence of NADPH. EC 1.4.1.13.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.RNA, Protozoan: Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.PseudouridineCell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Volcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Endodeoxyribonucleases: A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Chlorophyta: A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).RNA Precursors: RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.Iron-Sulfur Proteins: A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Nitrophenylgalactosides: Includes ortho-, meta-, and para-nitrophenylgalactosides.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Polyribosomes: A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Protein Phosphatase 2: A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.Models, Structural: A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.2S Albumins, Plant: A major class of water-soluble seed storage proteins. Many proteins from this class are major PLANT ALLERGENS.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Thiocapsa roseopersicina: A species of THIOCAPSA which is facultatively aerobic and chemotrophic and which can utilize thiosulfate. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.Pneumocystis jirovecii: A species of PNEUMOCYSTIS infecting humans and causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA. It also occasionally causes extrapulmonary disease in immunocompromised patients. Its former name was Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis.Transcription Factor TFIIH: A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Ligases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.DNA Primase: A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Ammonia): An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. This enzyme is specific for arginine biosynthesis or the urea cycle. Absence or lack of this enzyme may cause CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE I DEFICIENCY DISEASE. EC 6.3.4.16.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
... subunit. Their small subunit has a 16S RNA subunit (consisting of 1540 nucleotides) bound to 21 proteins. The large subunit is ... subunit. Their 40S subunit has an 18S RNA (1900 nucleotides) and 33 proteins.[20][21] The large subunit is composed of a 5S RNA ... Ribosomes consist of two major components: the small ribosomal subunit, which reads the RNA, and the large subunit, which joins ... a larger subunit which binds to the tRNA, the amino acids, and the smaller subunit. ...
... the large ribosomal subunit (LSU) itself is composed of two RNA moieties, the 5S rRNA and another larger RNA known as 23S rRNA ... It is a structural and functional component of the large subunit of the ribosome in all domains of life (bacteria, archaea, and ... In prokaryotes, the 5S rRNA gene is typically located in the rRNA operons downstream of the small and the large subunit rRNA, ... Ban N, Nissen P, Hansen J, Moore P, Steitz T (2000). "The complete atomic structure of the large ribosomal subunit at 2.4 Å ...
Table of E.coli large 50S ribosomal subunit proteins[edit]. Subunit No.. Subunit name. E.coli protein. Pfam family with E.coli ... Table of Human large 60S ribosomal subunit proteins[edit]. Subunit No.. Subunit name. Human protein. Pfam family with Human ... other bacteria and Archaea have a 30S small subunit and a 50S large subunit, whereas humans and yeasts have a 40S small subunit ... Table of E.coli small 30S ribosomal subunit proteins[edit]. Subunit No.. Subunit name. E.coli protein. Pfam family with E.coli ...
LSG1: large subunit GTPase 1 homolog. * MB21D2: encoding protein Mab-21 domain containing 2 ...
... one in the small subunit and two in the large subunit. The small subunit contains the glutamine binding site and catalyses the ... The C-terminal domain of the small subunit of CPSase has glutamine amidotransferase activity. The large subunit has two ... Carbamoyl phosphate synthase (CPSase) is a heterodimeric enzyme composed of a small and a large subunit (with the exception of ... The large subunit in bacterial CPSase has four structural domains: the carboxy phosphate domain 1, the oligomerisation domain, ...
... subunit B4 (RPB4) - encoded by the POLR2D gene is the fourth-largest subunit and may have a stress protective ... RPB2 (POLR2B) - the second-largest subunit that in combination with at least two other polymerase subunits forms a structure ... RPB3 (POLR2C) - the third-largest subunit. Exists as a heterodimer with another polymerase subunit, POLR2J forming a core ... Many subunit-subunit interactions are known. DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1 - an enzyme that in humans is encoded ...
The typical calpain proteins are heterodimers consisting of an invariant small subunit and variable large subunits. The large ... This gene encodes a large subunit. It is an atypical calpain in that it lacks the calmodulin-like calcium-binding domain and ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 8 (2): 85-95. doi: ... It therefore cannot heterodimerize with the small subunit. It is similar in organization to calpains 5 and 6. This gene is ...
Move these two large substrates into their proper locations and conformations.. *Activate the Asn amide nitrogen atom for the ... The catalytically active subunit of the OST is called STT3. Two paralogs exist in eukaryotes, termed STT3A and STT3B. STT3A is ... "Photocross-linking of nascent chains to the STT3 subunit of the oligosaccharyltransferase complex". J. Cell Biol. 161 (4): 715 ...
... rapid taxonomic classification of fungal large-subunit rRNA genes". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 78 (5): 1523-1533. ... Larger FST values imply that the level of genetic differentiation between sub-populations within a total population is more ... Therefore, in order for individual sub-populations to remain healthy, they must either have a large population size or have a ... If outbreeding is limited and the population is large enough selective pressure acting on each generation may be able to ...
Yu W, Andersson B, Worley KC, Muzny DM, Ding Y, Liu W, Ricafrente JY, Wentland MA, Lennon G, Gibbs RA (1997). "Large-scale ... Kee Y, Yoo JS, Hazuka CD, Peterson KE, Hsu SC, Scheller RH (1998). "Subunit structure of the mammalian exocyst complex". Proc. ... Hsu SC, Hazuka CD, Roth R, Foletti DL, Heuser J, Scheller RH (1998). "Subunit composition, protein interactions, and structures ... Wang S, Hsu SC (2004). "Immunological characterization of exocyst complex subunits in cell differentiation". Hybrid. ...
The subunits are usually homogeneous, or heterogeneous with two variant subunit types. Because of the large size of hemocyanin ... Each subunit weighs about 75 kilodaltons (kDa). Subunits may be arranged in dimers or hexamers depending on species; the dimer ... In the large complexes there is a variety of variant chains, all about the same length; pure components do not usually self- ... Each hexamer complex was arranged together to form a larger complex of dozens of hexamers. In one study, cooperative binding ...
It is composed of two nonidentical subunits; one large subunit and 4 small ones. Exonuclease VII catalyses exonucleolytic ... The large subunit also contains an N-terminal OB-fold domain that binds to nucleic acids. Chase, J.W.; Richardson, C.C. (1974 ... Vales LD, Rabin BA, Chase JW (August 1982). "Subunit structure of Escherichia coli exonuclease VII". J. Biol. Chem. 257 (15): ...
Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% ... Piatyszek MA, Denslow ND, O'Brien TW (1988). "RNA binding proteins of the large subunit of bovine mitochondrial ribosomes". ... "The large subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Analysis of the complement of ribosomal proteins present". J Biol ... This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. Sequence analysis identified two transcript variants that encode different isoforms. A ...
β': The β' subunit is the largest subunit, and is encoded by the rpoC gene.[24] The β' subunit contains part of the active ... β: The β subunit is the second-largest subunit, and is encoded by the rpoB gene. The β subunit contains the rest of the active ... subunits of 36 kDa, a beta (β) subunit of 150 kDa, a beta prime subunit (β′) of 155 kDa, and a small omega (ω) subunit. A sigma ... α: The α subunit is the third-largest subunit and is present in two copies per molecule of RNAP, αI and αII (one and two). Each ...
At the September 1930 Reichstag elections, the Nazis won 18.3% of the votes and became the second-largest party in the ... In 1934, Hitler founded a separate body for the chairman, Chancellery of the Führer, with its own sub-units. ... The votes that the Nazis received in the 1932 elections established the Nazi Party as the largest parliamentary faction of the ... the party began counting membership at 500 to give the impression they were a much larger party).[37][38] Among the party's ...
CPSase large subunit N-terminal domain. crystal structure of the biotin carboxylase subunit of pyruvate carboxylase ... CPSase small subunit N-terminal domain. inactivation of the amidotransferase activity of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase by the ...
This gene encodes the largest subunit of TFIID. This subunit binds to core promoter sequences encompassing the transcription ... Transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 1, also known as transcription initiation factor TFIID 250 kDa subunit (TAFII-250 ... "Isolation of a cDNA encoding the largest subunit of TFIIA reveals functions important for activated transcription". Genes Dev. ... This subunit contains two independent protein kinase domains at the N and C-terminals, but also possesses acetyltransferase ...
CAP-D3 is a subunit of condensin II, a large protein complex involved in chromosome condensation. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Condensin-2 complex subunit D3 (CAP-D3) also known as non-SMC condensin II complex subunit D3 (NCAPD3) is a protein that in ... 2004). "Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (33): 12130-5. ... 1997). "Large-scale concatenation cDNA sequencing". Genome Res. 7 (4): 353-8. doi:10.1101/gr.7.4.353. PMC 139146 . PMID 9110174 ...
LSU rRNA: the large subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid. "Escherichia coli 16S ribosomal RNA". "Halobacterium salinarum 18S ... Small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (SSU rRNA) is the smallest of the two major RNA components of the ribosome. Associated ... with a number of ribosomal proteins, the SSU rRNA forms the small subunit of the ribosome. SSU rRNA sequences are widely used ...
Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% ... Koc EC, Burkhart W, Blackburn K, Moyer MB, Schlatzer DM, Moseley A, Spremulli LL (Nov 2001). "The large subunit of the ... This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein, a part of which was originally isolated by its ability to recognize tyrosinase in an ...
The roughly barrel-shaped AdiC subunit of approx. 45 Å diameter consists of 12 transmembrane helices, TMS1 and TMS6 being ... TM1-TM10 surround a large cavity exposed to the extracellular solution. These ten helices comprise two inverted structural ... The Amino acid-Polyamine-organoCation (APC) superfamily is the second largest superfamily of secondary carrier proteins ...
Koc EC, Burkhart W, Blackburn K, Moyer MB, Schlatzer DM, Moseley A, Spremulli LL (November 2001). "The large subunit of the ... a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and transmembrane proteins: a bioinformatics assessment". Genome Research ...
as inferred from large subunit ribosomal RNA sequencing. European Journal of Protistology 31:402. Edgcomb VP, Simpson AG, ...
A large subunit of 104 amino acids and a smaller one of 27 amino acids. Subunits are linked by a disulfide bond. Phospholipase ... The presence of Ca2+ induces the large subunit of IpTxi to hydrolyze the Sn2 fatty acyl bond from the membrane of the ... activity on the large subunit. The molecular weight of the toxin is 15 kDa. Like IpTxa, IpTxi acts on RyR. When an action ... It corresponds to the II-III loop of the α1s subunit. three cysteine residues that form disulfide bridges to stabilize the ...
... based on large subunit nuclear rDNA sequences". Mycologia. 97 (4): 888-900. doi:10.3852/mycologia.97.4.888. PMID 16457358. CS1 ...
1997). "Large-scale concatenation cDNA sequencing". Genome Res. 7 (4): 353-8. doi:10.1101/gr.7.4.353. PMC 139146 . PMID 9110174 ... Mumby SM, Heukeroth RO, Gordon JI, Gilman AG (1990). "G-protein alpha-subunit expression, myristoylation, and membrane ...
These results indicate that, in structural studies of subunit interaction, dN246R1 or dN305R1 can be considered as suitable ... which retains full enzymic activity and affinity for the small subunit (R2). Treatment of R1 with trypsin produces a 120K ... Using purified bacterially expressed herpes simplex virus type 1 ribonucleotide reductase large subunit (R1) and the ... The unique N terminus of the herpes simplex virus type 1 large subunit is not required for ribonucleotide reductase activity * ...
... compared with 14-16 subunits in plants and the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and forms the smallest known PSI. The LHCI is ... harvesting complex from the salt-tolerant green alga Dunaliella salina has a core configuration composed of only seven subunits ... Structure of a green algal photosystem I in complex with a large number of light-harvesting complex I subunits. Nat. Plants 5, ... It is composed of only 7 subunits, compared with 14-16 subunits in plants and the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and forms the ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Ribonucleotide reductase large subunit, C-terminal (IPR000788) *Ribonucleotide reductase, class I , alpha subunit (IPR013346) ... Ribonucleotide reductase is an oligomeric enzyme composed of a large subunit (700 to 1000 residues) and a small subunit (300 to ... Ribonucleotide reductase large subunit, C-terminal (IPR000788). Short name: RNR_lg_C ... Structure-function studies of the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase from Escherichia coli.. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 16 91- ...
Wickerhamomyces anomalus isolate Lev6 large subunit ribosomal RNA gene, partial ... Wickerhamomyces anomalus isolate Lev6 large ... Wickerhamomyces anomalus isolate Lev6 large subunit ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. GenBank: MG576227.1 ...
ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, large subunit [Oscillatoria acuminata PCC 6304]. * This record was replaced or removed. ... Be aware that a NCBI nonredundant RefSeq protein (WP_) can be annotated on large numbers of bacterial genomes that encode that ...
PDB format files are not available for large structures. Please use PDBx/mmCIF or PDBML/XML files. ...
... ribosomal large subunit export from cell nucleus, ribosomal large subunit export out of nucleus, ribosomal large subunit ... The directed movement of a ribosomal large subunit from the nucleus into the cytoplasm.. Synonyms. 50S ribosomal subunit export ... Gene Ontology Term: ribosomal large subunit export from nucleus. GO ID. GO:0000055 Aspect. Biological Process. Description. ... ribosomal large subunit-nucleus export View GO Annotations in other species in AmiGO ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
The large ribosomal subunit has a role in protein folding both in vitro and in vivo. The large ribosomal subunit provides a ... The large ribosomal subunit (50S) is approximately twice as massive as the small ribosomal subunit (30S). The model of Hm 50S, ... 50S, roughly equivalent to the 60S ribosomal subunit in eukaryotic cells, is the larger subunit of the 70S ribosome of ... At tertiary structure level, the large subunit rRNA is a single gigantic domain while the small subunit contains three ...
Chaperonin Structure - The Large Multi-Subunit Protein Complex. by Mateusz Banach 1,2, Katarzyna Stąpor 2,3 and Irena Roterman ... The structural changes are reported to be a large deviation from the 7-fold symmetry of Gro-EL rings [14]. The possible protein ... The multi sub-unit protein structure representing the chaperonins group is analyzed with respect to its hydrophobicity ... The ΔH̃ profile of the chain O as calculated for the Gro-ES fragment reveals rather large fragments of hydrophobicity ...
The RNA polymerase II large subunit contains tandem copies of the sequence Pro Thr Ser Pro Ser Tyr Ser at its carboxyl terminus ... Functional redundancy and structural polymorphism in the large subunit of RNA polymerase II Cell. 1987 Sep 11;50(6):909-15. doi ... The RNA polymerase II large subunit contains tandem copies of the sequence Pro Thr Ser Pro Ser Tyr Ser at its carboxyl terminus ... Cells containing an RNA polymerase II large subunit with less than 10 complete heptapeptide repeats are inviable, those ...
... help/subunit_structure target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Subunit structurei. Heterodimer of a large subunit and a small subunit. ... DNA polymerase II large subunitUniRule annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic ... Exodeoxyribonuclease large subunitUniRule annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic ... tr,A0A0N8VKF5,A0A0N8VKF5_9EURY DNA polymerase II large subunit OS=Acidiplasma cupricumulans GN=polC PE=3 SV=1 ...
The 60S subunit is the large subunit of eukaryotic 80S ribosomes. It is structurally and functionally related to the 50S ... However, the 60S subunit is much larger than the prokaryotic 50S subunit and contains many additional protein segments, as well ... Characteristic features of the large subunit, shown below in the "Crown View", include the central protuberance (CP) and the ... The complete atomic structure of the large ribosomal subunit at 2.4 A resolution. Science. 2000 Aug 11;289(5481):905-20. PMID ...
Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1. Details. Name. Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1. ... lcl,BSEQ0010208,Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1 (SLC7A5) ... lcl,BSEQ0010207,Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1 ... Prasad PD, Wang H, Huang W, Kekuda R, Rajan DP, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: Human LAT1, a subunit of system L amino acid ...
A protein kinase that phosphorylates the C-terminal repeat domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. J M Lee and A L ... The unique C-terminal repeat domain (CTD) of the largest subunit (IIa) of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II consists of multiple ... The CTD can be phosphorylated at multiple serine and threonine residues, generating a form of the largest subunit (II0) with ... A protein kinase that phosphorylates the C-terminal repeat domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II ...
Cloned DNA probes containing genes coding for the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcA) of corn and of ... Isolation and sequence of the gene for the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase from the cyanobacterium ... Isolation and sequence of the gene for the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase from the cyanobacterium ... Isolation and sequence of the gene for the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase from the cyanobacterium ...
1996 The large subunit of replication factor C (Rfc1p/Cdc44p) is required for DNA replication and DNA repair in Saccharomyces ... The RFC1 gene encodes the large subunit of the yeast clamp loader (RFC) that is a component of eukaryotic DNA polymerase ... Characterization of the Repeat-Tract Instability and Mutator Phenotypes Conferred by a Tn3 Insertion in RFC1, the Large Subunit ... Characterization of the Repeat-Tract Instability and Mutator Phenotypes Conferred by a Tn3 Insertion in RFC1, the Large Subunit ...
... large subunit connection domain superfamily including the families contained in it. Additional information provided includes ... large subunit connection domain [. 48107]. Superfamily: Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, large subunit connection domain [. ... and a large chain (carB) that provides CPSase activity. The large subunit consists of four structural units: the ... Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, large subunit connection domain superfamily. SCOP classification Root: SCOP hierarchy in ...
slo channel subunits in the avian cochlea. The pore-forming α subunit of BK channels in hair cells is encoded by the slo mRNA, ... β Subunits Modulate Alternatively Spliced, Large Conductance, Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels of Avian Hair Cells. ... 1999) The beta subunit increases the Ca2+ sensitivity of large conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channels by retaining the ... β Subunits Modulate Alternatively Spliced, Large Conductance, Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels of Avian Hair Cells ...
Requirement of Heavy Neurofilament Subunit in the Development of Axons with Large Calibers. Gregory A. Elder, Victor L. ... Requirement of Heavy Neurofilament Subunit in the Development of Axons with Large Calibers ... It is interesting to note that this effect is particularly prevalent in the large myelinated axons. The largest caliber axons ... The NF-M subunit (Levy et al., 1987; Myers et al., 1987; Napolitano et al., 1987; Zopf et al., 1987) may contain variable ...
... enzyme with either the small or the large subunit of wild-type Mn-RRase located the mutational defect on the large subunit. ... Temperature-sensitive mutants of Corynebacterium ammoniagenes ATCC 6872 with a defective large subunit of the manganese- ...
... inferred from large ribosomal subunit (26S) rRNA gene DNA sequences.(Report) by Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Sciences ... This Relationship is inferred from a maximum parsimony analysis using large ribosomal subunit (26S) rRNA gene DNA sequences. ... MLA style: "The phylogenetic position of subfamily Monotropoideae (Ericaceae) inferred from large ribosomal subunit (26S) rRNA ... APA style: The phylogenetic position of subfamily Monotropoideae (Ericaceae) inferred from large ribosomal subunit (26S) rRNA ...
Our data indicate that P. ovale was overlooked in Cambodia until now, and call for the implementation of larger prevalence ... Using a species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene, we ... f LARGE SEQUENCE HETEROGENEITY OF THE SMALL SUBUNIT RIBOSOMAL RNA GENE OF PLASMODIUM OVALE IN CAMBODIA * SANDRA INCARDONA1, ... LARGE SEQUENCE HETEROGENEITY OF THE SMALL SUBUNIT RIBOSOMAL RNA GENE OF PLASMODIUM OVALE IN CAMBODIA ...
P150 is part of the large subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 with sequence homology to cen ... P150 is part of the large subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 with sequence homology to centrosomin A. A ...
  • Although structures have been reported for the small subunits of the two enzymes, the first structures of oxidized and reduced forms of the large subunit of IPM isomerase (ox-MJ0499 and red-MJ0499, respectively) from M. jannaschii are reported here at 1.8 and 2.7 Å resolution, respectively, together with the structure of the large subunit of homoaconitase (MJ1003) at 2.5 Å resolution. (elsevier.com)
  • We have previously determined at 4.9 Å resolution the architecture of the porcine (Sus scrofa) 39S subunit, which is highly homologous to the human mitoribosomal large subunit. (sparrho.com)
  • Here we present the complete atomic structure of the porcine 39S large mitoribosomal subunit determined in the context of a stalled translating mitoribosome at 3.4 Å resolution by cryo-electron microscopy and chemical crosslinking/mass spectrometry. (sparrho.com)
  • Here we report that the assembly of the small mitoribosomal subunit in Trypanosoma brucei involves a large number of factors and proceeds through the formation of assembly intermediates, which we analyzed by using cryo-electron microscopy. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cells evolved a dedicated machinery for maturation of the small subunit of the mitoribosome, including the formation of three distinct and well-structured assembly intermediates. (sciencemag.org)
  • Isolation and analysis of a cDNA clone encoding the small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from wheat. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Isolation and expression analysis of cDNA clones encoding a small and a large subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from sugar beet. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Kirkeby, S & Pedersen, AML 2018, ' Modifications of cholera toxin subunit B binding to human large intestinal epithelium: an immunohistochemical study ', Microbial Pathogenesis , bind 124, s. 332-336. (ku.dk)
  • The three effector caspases are expressed as dimeric zymogens and each monomer contains a short pro-domain, a large subunit (p20), an intersubunit linker (L) and a small subunit (p10). (iucr.org)
  • Allosteric sites of the large subunit of the spinach leaf ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase. (nii.ac.jp)