Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Embryophyta: Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Bryophyta: A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.Bryopsida: A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Marsupialia: An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.City Planning: Comprehensive planning for the physical development of the city.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cetacea: An order of wholly aquatic MAMMALS occurring in all the OCEANS and adjoining seas of the world, as well as in certain river systems. They feed generally on FISHES, cephalopods, and crustaceans. Most are gregarious and most have a relatively long period of parental care and maturation. Included are DOLPHINS; PORPOISES; and WHALES. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp969-70)Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Ancient Lands: Geographical sites known to be extant in a remote period in the history of civilization, familiar as the names of ancient countries and empires.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Chlorophyta: A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.Pinnipedia: The suborder of aquatic CARNIVORA comprising the WALRUSES; FUR SEALS; SEA LIONS; and EARLESS SEALS. They have fusiform bodies with very short tails and are found on all sea coasts. The offspring are born on land.Remote Sensing Technology: Observation and acquisition of physical data from a distance by viewing and making measurements from a distance or receiving transmitted data from observations made at distant location.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Geographic Mapping: Creating a representation of areas of the earth or other celestial bodies, for the purpose of visualizing spatial distributions of various information.Carnivora: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Spatial Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Seals, Earless: The family Phocidae, suborder PINNIPEDIA, order CARNIVORA, comprising the true seals. They lack external ears and are unable to use their hind flippers to walk. It includes over 18 species including the harp seal, probably the best known seal species in the world.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Spatio-Temporal Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Water Quality: A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.Borneo: An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)ShrewsInsectivora: An order of insect eating MAMMALS including MOLES; SHREWS; HEDGEHOGS and tenrecs.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Social Planning: Interactional process combining investigation, discussion, and agreement by a number of people in the preparation and carrying out of a program to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community. It usually involves the action of a formal political, legal, or recognized voluntary body.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Agricultural Irrigation: The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Urban Renewal: The planned upgrading of a deteriorating urban area, involving rebuilding, renovation, or restoration. It frequently refers to programs of major demolition and rebuilding of blighted areas.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Amphibians: VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Hepatophyta: A plant division. They are simple plants that lack vascular tissue and possess rudimentary rootlike organs (rhizoids). Like MOSSES, liverworts have alternation of generations between haploid gamete-bearing forms (gametophytes) and diploid spore-bearing forms (sporophytes).Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Anthocerotophyta: A plant division that includes hornworts, named for the horn-like appearance of the spore-producing plant (sporophyte).Environment Design: The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.ArtiodactylaHydrotherapy: External application of water for therapeutic purposes.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Geological Processes: Events and activities of the Earth and its structures.Echidna: An oviparous burrowing mammal of the order Monotremata native to Australia, Tasmania, and New Guinea. It has hair mingled with spines on the upper part of the body and is adapted for feeding on ants.Dolphins: Mammals of the families Delphinidae (ocean dolphins), Iniidae, Lipotidae, Pontoporiidae, and Platanistidae (all river dolphins). Among the most well-known species are the BOTTLE-NOSED DOLPHIN and the KILLER WHALE (a dolphin). The common name dolphin is applied to small cetaceans having a beaklike snout and a slender, streamlined body, whereas PORPOISES are small cetaceans with a blunt snout and rather stocky body. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp978-9)Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Iguanas: Large herbivorous tropical American lizards.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)MonotremataBiomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Ecological and Environmental Processes: Ecosystem and environmental activities, functions, or events.Gross Domestic Product: Value of all final goods and services produced in a country in one year.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Macropodidae: A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Carbon Footprint: A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Streptophyta: A phylum of green plants comprising CHAROPHYCEAE (streptophyte green algae) and EMBRYOPHYTA (land plants).Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Sciuridae: A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.Opossums: New World marsupials of the family Didelphidae. Opossums are omnivorous, largely nocturnal and arboreal MAMMALS, grow to about three feet in length, including the scaly prehensile tail, and have an abdominal pouch in which the young are carried at birth.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Gymnosperms: Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Satellite Imagery: Composition of images of EARTH or other planets from data collected during SPACE FLIGHT by remote sensing instruments onboard SPACECRAFT. The satellite sensor systems measure and record absorbed, emitted, or reflected energy across the spectra, as well as global position and time.Equisetum: The only living genus of the order Equisetales, class Equisetopsida (Sphenopsida), division Equisetophyta (Sphenophyta); distantly related to ferns. It grows in moist places. The hollow, jointed, ridged stems contain SILICATES.Carnivory: The consumption of animal flesh.Panthera: Genus in the family FELIDAE comprised of big felines including LIONS; TIGERS; jaguars; and the leopard.Hibernation: The dormant state in which some warm-blooded animal species pass the winter. It is characterized by narcosis and by sharp reduction in body temperature and metabolic activity and by a depression of vital signs.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Arecaceae: The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Fur Seals: A group comprised of several species of eared seals found in two genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to SEA LIONS, they have an especially dense wooly undercoat.Chara: A genus of green plants in the family CHARACEAE, phylum STREPTOPHYTA. They have a strong garlic-like odor and are an important food source for waterfowl.LizardsAdaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Dentition: The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Groundwater: Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Paleodontology: The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.Hyaenidae: A family of large terrestrial carnivores possessing long legs, coarse guard hairs and a busy tail. It is comprised of hyenas and aardwolves.Arvicolinae: A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.PrimatesDNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Selaginellaceae: A plant family of the order Selaginellales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. Members contain bilobetin. The rarely used common name of resurrection plant is mainly used with CRATEROSTIGMA.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Viridiplantae: A monophyletic group of green plants that includes all land plants (EMBRYOPHYTA) and all green algae (CHLOROPHYTA and STREPTOPHYTA).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mustelidae: A family of terrestrial carnivores with long, slender bodies, long tails, and anal scent glands. They include badgers, weasels, martens, FERRETS; MINKS; wolverines, polecats, and OTTERS.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Carbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Whales: Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Mole Rats: Any of several burrowing rodents of the families MURIDAE and Bathyergidae, found in eastern Europe, Africa, and Asia. They have short limbs, small eyes with permanently closed lids, and no tail. Three genera SPALAX (Muridae), Heterocephalus (Bathyergidae) and Cryptomys (Bathyergidae) are used frequently as experimental animals in biomedical research. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed)Meteorology: The science of studying the characteristics of the atmosphere such as its temperature, density, winds, clouds, precipitation, and other atmospheric phenomena and aiming to account for the weather in terms of external influences and the basic laws of physics. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Brachyura: An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.South AmericaAnimal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Animal Shells: The hard rigid covering of animals including MOLLUSCS; TURTLES; INSECTS; and crustaceans.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.FiresLagomorpha: An order of small mammals comprising two families, Ochotonidae (pikas) and Leporidae (RABBITS and HARES). Head and body length ranges from about 125 mm to 750 mm. Hares and rabbits have a short tail, and the pikas lack a tail. Rabbits are born furless and with both eyes and ears closed. HARES are born fully haired with eyes and ears open. All are vegetarians. (From Nowak, Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p539-41)Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Sloths: Slow-moving exclusively arboreal mammals that inhabit the tropical forests of South and Central America.Livestock: Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Lycopodiaceae: The club-moss plant family of the order Lycopodiales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. The common name of clubmoss applies to several genera of this family. Despite the name this is not one of the true mosses (BRYOPSIDA).DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Anatomy, Comparative: The comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.ParaguayElephants: Large mammals in the family Elephantidae, with columnar limbs, bulky bodies, and elongated snouts. They are the only surviving members of the PROBOSCIDEA MAMMALS.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Wills: Legal documents that are declarations of individuals' wishes regarding the disposal of their property or estate after death; esp: written instruments, legally executed, by which dispositions are made of estates. LIVING WILLS are written declarations regarding prolongation of life by extraordinary means.Characeae: Family of slender threadlike aquatic plants, in the order CHARALES, phylum STREPTOPHYTA, that are closely related to LAND PLANTS.Diving: An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
Hoffman, R.S.; Smith, A.T. (2005). "Genus Lepus". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and ... Intensive cultivation of the land results in greater mortality of young hares (leverets). In the United Kingdom, hares are seen ... Kurta, Allen (1995). Mammals of the Great Lakes Region. University of Michigan Press. p. 104. ISBN 0-472-06497-5. Broekhuizen, ... Across Europe, over five million European hares are shot each year, making it probably the most important game mammal on the ...
A landing and processing of a Baird's beaked whale was filmed by the Environmental Investigation Agency on 7 August 2009. Meat ... Rice (1998). Marine Mammals of the World: Systematics and Distribution. Special Publication Number 4. The Society for Marine ... Large groups of animals, pods of up to 47 individuals have been observed off Kemp Land, Antarctica. Beachings in New Zealand ... ISBN 0-12-551340-2 National Audubon Society Guide to Marine Mammals of the World Reeves et al., 2002. ISBN 0-375-41141-0. ...
... observations on five groups near Enderby Land, Antarctica". Marine Mammal Science. 5 (1): 68-77. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.1989. ... When not subject to overheating (i.e. on cold days), speeds on land of 19-26 km/h (12-16 mph) have been recorded for short ... Crabeater seals have an atypical, serpentine gait when on ice or land, combining retractions of the foreflippers with ... Encyclopedia of marine mammals. London, UK: Academic Press. pp. 290-292. Fyler, C.A.; Reeder, T.W.; Berta, A.; Antonelis, G.; ...
European Miocene mammal biochronology. Pp. 25-38 in Rössner, G.E. and Heissig, K. (eds.). The Miocene Land Mammals of Europe. ... "European Land Mammal Mega-Zones (ELMMZ)" and the Miocene "Mammal Zones (MN-Zones)". Pp. 9-24 in Rössner, G.E. and Heissig, K. ( ... eds.). The Miocene Land Mammals of Europe. Munich: Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, 515 pp.. ... In biostratigraphy, MN 4 is one of the MN zones used to characterize the fossil mammal faunas of the Neogene of Europe. It is ...
7300 hectares of land in the Lake District of the Andes foothills in Patagonia are donated by Francisco Moreno as the first ... Marine Mammal Protection Act. - Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (also known as Ocean Dumping Act). - Noise ... the Oslo Convention on dumping waste at sea, later merged with the Paris Convention on land-based sources of marine pollution ... The last regular flight landed in 2003. - Fifth largest oil spill ever when the S.S. Atlantic Empress collides with Aegean ...
... should employ a fire regimen that burns a mosaic of land with no particular piece of land being burnt more often than once per ... Their monoestry is thought to arise from increased access to larger and more reliably available prey, such as small mammals and ... Northern Land Manager. North Land Manager, n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2013.. ... "Mammals." Parks Australia, 17 Dec. 2012. Web. 02 Dec. 2013. "Management Guidelines for Brush-tailed Mulgara Dasycercus Blythi ...
MammalsEdit. Land carnivoresEdit. bears, dogs, foxes, wolves, white wolves The hobbit Farmer Maggot has three guard-dogs called ... Miscellaneous mammalsEdit. apes, bats, vampire bats, elephants In The Father Christmas LettersEdit. Tolkien's The Father ... Marine mammalsEdit. dolphins, seals, whales In RoverandomEdit. (Roverandom is connected to the world of Middle-earth via ... Fictional mammal speciesEdit. Kine of ArawEdit. White oxen that lived near the inland Sea of Rhûn, called thus by the men of ...
Burbidge, Andrew A (2004). "4. Mammals". Threatened animals of Western Australia. Department of Conservation and Land ... Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 63. ... The population of the species is in decline, largely due to reduction of habitat through land clearing. Concern also exists ... "Lagorchestes leichardti". Australian Mammal Gould Print Images. Museum Victoria. Retrieved 2008-11-01. "Lagorchestes ...
This was the first evidence of land mammals having lived in Antarctica. Further fossils have subsequently been found, including ... "Fossil Land Mammal from Antarctica". Science. 218 (4569): 284-286. doi:10.1126/science.218.4569.284. PMID 17838631. Retrieved ... Graham Land is the closest part of Antarctica to South America. It lies within the section of the island chain that resides off ... Seymour Island is an island in the chain of 16 major islands around the tip of the Graham Land on the Antarctic Peninsula. ...
The categories in the 2016 competition were as follows: 1. Mammals 2. Birds 3. Reptiles, Amphibians and Fishes 4. Invertebrates ... 5. Plants and Fungi 6. Underwater 7. On Land 8. In the Skies 9. Urban 10. Detail 11. Impressions 12. Black and White 13. ...
"Land Mammals". Salmonier Nature Park, Department of the Environment, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Archived from the ... Lands drained by rivers that flow into the Atlantic Ocean are part of Labrador, the rest belongs to Quebec. Labrador's extreme ... The most common mammals on the tundra are the barren-ground caribou, Arctic wolf, Arctic fox, Arctic hare, lemmings, and voles ... "Atlas of Canada: Land and Freshwater Areas". Natural Resources Canada (Government of Canada). Archived from the original on ...
"Land Mammals". Kilda Organization. Retrieved 2013-05-15. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. Longmans, Greens. ... With only one other native mammal, the Soay sheep, which eats grasses and herbs, the St Kilda field mouse faces little ... Mammals portal Animals portal Biology portal Scotland portal. ...
"Land Mammals". National Trust for Scotland. 2003. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2015. " ... Long, John L. (2003). Introduced Mammals of the World: Their History, Distribution and Influence. Csiro Publishing. p. 527. " ... Kilda The Rare Breeds Survival Trust Mammals portal Animals portal Biology portal Scotland portal. ...
Promote a land-based society where as much of our food and resources as possible are produced locally." National Animal ... Embryonic and foetal forms of mammals, birds and reptiles are protected during the last third of their gestation or incubation ... "Managing Endangered Species on Military Lands". www.umich.edu. Retrieved 2017-09-05. Bexton, Steve. "Unusual Mortality of ... "Marine mammals harbor unique microbiotas shaped by and yet distinct from the sea" (PDF). Nature Communications. doi:10.1038/ ...
If this interpretation is correct, Tingamarra appears to be the only land-based placental mammal to have arrived to Australia ... and the Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary Land Mammal Biogeography from South America to Australia". Journal of Mammalian ... Tingamarra is believed to be a small (about 20 cm from head to tail) ground-dwelling mammal that ate insects and fruit. The age ... If it is correct, then these fossils are the oldest Australian mammal ones. By the shape of the found tooth, Tingamarra was ...
Times, Robert Reinhold, Special To The New York (1982-03-21). "ANTARCTICA YIELDS FIRST LAND MAMMAL FOSSIL". The New York Times ... In 1982, Askin also was a member of the research team that discovered the first mammal fossils in Antarctica, and she was ... Victoria Land, and the Transantarctic Mountains. Mount Askin in the Darwin Mountains is named after her. Askin has researched ... when in 1970 she conducted research in Victoria Land at the age of 21. The expedition resulted in the discovery of Antarctica's ...
Mammal Review 29(3): 141-173. Choudhury, A.U. (2004). Vanishing habitat threatens Phayre's leaf monkey. The Rhino Found. NE ... Now, however, this canal has been blocked at several places through embankments and land-fills to pave way for road transport ... ISBN 978-81-230-1617-7. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) "Island Directory Tables: Islands by Land Area". United ...
... may be the maximum weight possible for land mammals, and Paraceratherium was close to this limit. The reasons mammals cannot ... Paraceratherium is one of the largest known land mammals that have ever existed, but its exact size is unclear because of the ... Fortelius, M.; Kappelman, J. (1993). "The largest land mammal ever imagined". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 108: ... The incisors were separated from the row of cheek teeth by a large diastema (gap). This feature is found in mammals where the ...
The mammals of Cataduanes Island: Implications for the biogeography of small land-bridge islands in the Philippines. ... Philippine land mammals. Manila. Sanborn, C.C. 1952. Philippine Zoological Expedition 1946-1947. Fieldiana: Zoology 33: 89-158 ... The distribution and ecology of mammals on Leyte, Biliran, and Maripipi islands, Philippines. Fieldiana: Zoology 72: 1-62. ... posing serious threats to the native ecosystem and agricultural lands due to overgrazing. Hence, management programs are ...
The inland sea of the Cretaceous gradually vanished and mammals were beginning to dominate the land. During the Eocene the ... Local mammals diversified significantly during the Jurassic. The Morrison Formation is the best source of Jurassic mammal ... Saber-toothed cats, woolly mammoths, mastodons, and dire wolves roamed the land. Humans arrived across a land bridge between ... Thompson (1982); "Migrations of Mammals:", pages 84-85. Thompson (1982); "Large Mammal Extinctions:", page 85. Braden, Angela K ...
The largest land mammal ever imagined. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 108(1):85-101 Interscience. ... in C. M. Janis, K. M. Scott, and L. L. Jacobs (eds.), Evolution of Tertiary mammals of North America 595-605 M. Mendoza, C. M. ...
The chinchilla has the second-densest fur of any land mammal, exceeded only by the sea otter and is named after the Chincha ... Harding, Naomi (June 8, 2016). "Which land mammal has the thickest fur?". animalanswers.co.uk. Retrieved April 16, 2017. "What ... In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 1538-1599. The Johns Hopkins University Press, ... Mammals of South America. 2. University of Chicago Press. pp. 765-768. ISBN 9780226169576. ...
The largest land mammal extant today is the African bush elephant. The largest extinct land mammal known was once considered to ... The largest land animal classification is also dominated by mammals, with the African bush elephant being the most massive of ... Table of heaviest terrestrial animals The following is a list of the heaviest wild land animals, which are all mammals. The ... The largest land arthropod and the largest land invertebrate is the coconut crab (Birgus latro), up to 40 cm (1.3 ft) long and ...
"Late Holocene extinction of Puerto Rican native land mammals". Biology Letters. 3 (2): 193-196. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0585. PMC ... "Heteropsomys antillensis". Mammal Species of the World - Third Edition. Bucknell University. Retrieved 13 October 2013. Sources ...
... p.7 South American Land Mammal Ages at Fossilworks.org Moreno et al., 2015, pp.32-34 Moreno et al., 2015, pp.27-32 Moreno et al ... the South American land mammal ages, (SALMA). This subdivision is used throughout the continent to indicate certain geologic ... intervals based on the occurrences of specific land mammals. The invertebrate fauna of the Jimol Formation is similar to the ...
For a complete listing, see list of cities and towns in Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land MSA ... mammals, reptiles, and aquatic species. ... The land beneath Baytown consists of layers of sand and clay to ... Located within the Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land metropolitan area, it lies on the northern side of the Galveston Bay ... This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties ±water surface only; land in adjacent county ...
The Pacific Islands Region Marine Mammal Response Network responds to strandings and haul-outs of all marine mammals, including ... When on land, monk seals breed and haul-out to rest, give birth, and molt on sand, corals, and volcanic rock shorelines. They ... issues these regulations pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act to govern the taking of marine mammals incidental to the ... Of note, NOAAs partnership with Ke Kai Ola, a facility built by The Marine Mammal Center in Kona, Hawaii in 2014, has opened ...
Having twice the blood volume, 50% more red blood cells than land mammals their size, and a healthy supply of myoglobin (which ... Like all mammals, elephant seals must replace old skin and hair. They do this once per year, in late spring for juveniles and ... Life begins on land for northern elephant seals. Females give birth to 70-pound black-furred pups in December and January. ... Given that elephant seals do not eat or drink water for weeks or months at a time while on land, having a rebreather serves the ...
Northern fur seals prefer cold water and spend a lot of time far out at sea, only returning to land to breed. Most of their ... Mammals Northern Fur Seal. This is the largest of the fur seal family and was once widely hunted for its coat. This is the only ...
She confirmed her commitment to "welcome a new generation of young people into public land stewardship, into science". ... and Life of Mammals are among their favorites, but Ive never taken the time to develop an interest. ... Another is hiding somewhere in a culturally-significant and historical site on Yakama Nation land in Toppenish. Two more are ...
Image URL (for hotlinking/embedding): https://imgs.xkcd.com/comics/land_mammals.png Earths LAND MAMMALS By Weight [[A graph in ...
Trapped animals may not be released on public land and can only be released on private property with landowner permission. For ...
Asian land mammal age Mammal Paleogene zone North American land mammal age South American land mammal age According to ... The European Land Mammal Mega Zones (abbreviation: ELMMZ, more commonly known as European land mammal ages or ELMA) are zones ... European Land Mammal Mega Zones are often also confusingly referred to as ages, stages, or intervals. Mammal zones were, like ... There are 30 such Mammal Paleogene zones (MP1 to MP30, numbered from old to young). European Land Mammal Mega Zones most often ...
European land mammal age North American land mammal age South American land mammal age Biochronology Paleo Database. ... The Asian land mammal ages, acronym ALMA, establish a geologic timescale for prehistoric Asian fauna beginning 58.7 Mya during ...
The Largest Mammal on Land. Truly a majestic creature.. 5 years ago ...
Researchers identify largest carnivorous mammals ever to live on land. By Ashley Strickland, CNN ...
... as the official state land mammal in 1974; one of three mammal symbols of Mississippi. ... as official state land mammal in 1974 (along with Mississippis state water mammal, the bottlenose dolphin). In 1997 the red ... Official State Land Mammal of Mississippi. Mississippi designated the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) ... All State Mammals. An animal of graceful beauty and power, white-tailed deer are able to run up to 40 miles per hour, jump 9 ...
The Fastest Land Mammal is a Toddler Whos Been Asked Whats In Their Mouth #Truth ...
Can you name the Land Mammals for the Latin Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score ... Science Quiz / Land Mammals from the Latin. Random Science or Animal Quiz ... Can you name the Land Mammals for the Latin. by Hatty_mack ... Tags:Animal Quiz, Latin Quiz, animalia, mammal, mammalian. Top ...
3D Models > Animals > Mammal > Land compatible with Maya Showing 1-7 of 7 ...
Genuine Land Mammal Fossils for sale. Authenticity guaranteed. Every fossil we sell comes with a written lifetime certificate ... LAND MAMMALS LAND MAMMALS. Land Mammal Fossils For Sale. LATE TRIASSIC PERIOD TO PRESENT: 220 million years ago to present day ... This section is dedicated to LAND MAMMALS. Marine mammals such as whales, are featured in the MARINE VERTEBRATES SECTION. ... Land mammal fossils that are most common are teeth and bones. Rarely are fossil skeletons found in full articulation. Most ...
The Land Mammal Identification Course is an exciting opportunity to identify many British mammals through field signs, live- ... The Mammals of Derbyshire. Debbie has taught mammal courses for the Mammal Society, Field Studies Council, Chartered Institute ... conservation management and British mammals. She is the County Mammal Recorder for Derbyshire and co-author of the county atlas ...
Free video download of preview Rhino Mammal Land video clips ... Rhino Mammal Land Nature Stock Footage 4K video and Royalty ... Rhino Mammal Land Stock Footage. Viewing 1 to 40 of Rights Managed and Royalty Free Video Clips ...
A new method to study inshore whale cue distribution from land-based observations. Authors. *. Patricia Arranz,. Corresponding ... Sea Mammal Research Unit, University of St Andrews, East sands, St Andrews KY16 9LB, Scotland ... Sea Mammal Research Unit, University of St Andrews, East sands, St Andrews KY16 9LB, Scotland ... Sea Mammal Research Unit, University of St Andrews, East sands, St Andrews KY16 9LB, Scotland ...
Buy the Paperback Book Land Mammals And Sea Creatures by Jen Neale at Indigo.ca, Canadas largest bookstore. + Get Free ... This is the journey Land Mammals and Sea Creatures takes us on. I was given an advance reading copy of ,i,Land Mammals and Sea ... Land Mammals And Sea Creatures: A Novel. byJen Neale. Paperback , May 8, 2018. ... Title:Land Mammals And Sea Creatures: A NovelFormat:PaperbackProduct dimensions:288 pages, 8.5 × 5.5 × 0.65 inShipping ...
Land Mammals N. America Card. Tape them onto the deck of your kayak! Slip them into your pack! Keep them handy for backyard use ... Youre reviewing: Land Mammals N. America Card * *Let us know your thoughts. ...
"The Miocene Land Mammals of Europe" deals with all groups of European Tertiary land mammals occurring in the time span from 24 ... "European Land Mammal Mega-Zones (ELMMZ)" and the Miocene "Mammal-Zones (MN-Zones)" 9. 2 MEIN: European Miocene Mammal ... Miocene dispersals of land mammals between North America and Europe 473. Index of scientific and common names of mammals 485. ... The European Miocene Land Mammals in Systematic Order. 4 ZIEGLER: Order Marsupialia 49. 5 ZIEGLER: Order Insectivora 53. 6 VON ...
The land mammals of Mexico comprise 168 genera, 496 species, and 881 subspecies.... ... We provide an updated list of the Recent land mammals of Mexico and include information on the taxonomy of certain species, and ... List of recent land mammals from Mexico, 2014. By: Jose Ramirez-Pulido, Noe Gonzalez-Ruiz, Alfred L. Gardner, and Joaquin ... We provide an updated list of the Recent land mammals of Mexico and include information on the taxonomy of certain species, and ...
By Ezoic Ground Mammals 46 Comments The Tiger is one of the big four in the cat world. Tigers are native to Asia, and are a ... HomeOn the GroundGround MammalsBengal Tiger. Bengal Tiger. ... and may follow and take prey in the water as well as on land. ...
searching for South American land mammal age 5 found (48 total). alternate case: south American land mammal age. Hystricomorpha ... and marsupials found that Santa Rosa dates to the Mustersan South American Land Mammal Age, which is part of the Eocene. This ... this locality is slightly over 1 million years old (Ensenadan South American Land Mammal Age), making Carletonomys the oldest ... Mammalia: Litopterna) from the late middle Miocene (Laventan South American Land Mammal Age) of Quebrada Honda, Bolivia @ ...
SpeciesSealsWhalesNorth AmericaPlacental mammalsEvolution of mammIntroduced mammal speciesMammalianTaxaMiocene Land MammalsNeogeneSmall mammalsConservationWarm-blooded1997Terrestrial mammalReptilesTallestPhylogeneticOttersHerbivoresInsectsMammary glandsElephantsMorphologicalMonotremesEvolutionary historyDolphinsGeologicFossil mammalsGroup of mammalsSpecies of mammalsDinosaursVertebraeEcologyHabitatCarnivoresTeethPhylogeniesWild mammalsLargest mammalsCladeWildlifeLargeSearchCetaceansFlorida2018BiozonesCommonlySecretive1999EcosystemsPalaeontologicalCretaceousFaunasEndemicMarsupialsRaccoonPlatypusRegion'sAncestor
- Given that elephant seals do not eat or drink water for weeks or months at a time while on land, having a rebreather serves the important function of allowing elephant seals to reabsorb moisture from their exhalations. (lisamarun.com)
- Although northern elephant seals spend most of their time in the water, males, females, and juveniles each visit rookeries between Baja California and Point Reyes at different times so that some seals can be seen on land throughout the year. (lisamarun.com)
- The winter months may be the most active time for the seals on land: females give birth, males fight for dominance, and adults mate before heading back out to sea. (lisamarun.com)
- Otherwise, since northern elephant seals always fast while on land, they mainly lounge about to conserve energy. (lisamarun.com)
- Life begins on land for northern elephant seals. (lisamarun.com)
- Like all mammals, elephant seals must replace old skin and hair. (lisamarun.com)
- Since elephant seals essentially cut off circulation to their outer skin layers during their deep dives at sea, they must remain on land during their molts. (lisamarun.com)
- Most mammals are typically quadrupeds with the feet modified in many ways for terrestrial (running, hopping or leaping), fossorial (digging), arboreal (tree climbing) and aquatic living, but some have developed modified appendages such as the whales, manatees and dugongs, who have lost the rear appendages, modified the tail as horizontally flattened flukes for propulsion and modified the front appendages as flippers. (thecanadianencyclopedia.com)
- Numerous marine mammals are listed under the ESA including manatees, sea otters, and several pinnipeds (e.g., seals and sea lions) and cetaceans (e.g., whales and dolphins). (mmc.gov)
- Whales and dolphins are both marine mammals. (google.com)
- To do this, we will test whether seals and whales are more closely related to each other than either of them are to representative land mammals: dogs (land carnivores) or cows (land herbivores). (google.com)
- Walking whales: from land to water in eight million years. (andrewisles.com)
- Early whales such as Rodhocetus show many similarities with an early group of land mammals known as mesonychids , which are also close to the root of the hoofed mammals. (berkeley.edu)
- Examples of animals classified as mammals include elephants, dogs, whales and rhinoceroses. (reference.com)
- Bats, monkeys, whales and rodents are also considered mammals. (reference.com)
- Mammal species are mammals excluding whales and porpoises. (nationmaster.com)
- This native mammal of southwestern North America has expanded its range into Florida. (myfwc.com)
- From the largest land animal in North America to some of the highest bat species diversity in the United States, Grand Canyon is home to a far larger mammalian population than many people think. (nps.gov)
- Once among the most widely distributed mammals in North America, beavers were eliminated from much of their range in the late 1800s because of unregulated trapping. (maine.gov)
- Marsupials and placental mammals ( cats , dogs, you and me) did not evolve for another 70 million years. (earthlife.net)
- Live-young mammals are also called placental mammals, and their young are born live rather than in eggs. (reference.com)
- Placental mammals (crown Eutheria) appear in the fossil record after the Cretaceous-Palaeogene (K-Pg) mass extinction event 66 Ma ago, when an estimated 76% of all species became extinct [ 1 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- The evolution of mammals is known through a rich fossil record which has been studied by generations of palaeontologists for the last two centuries. (pfeil-verlag.de)
- Tracking such prehistoric giants is more than a curiosity: It sheds new light on the evolution of mammals as they diversified to fill habitats left vacant by the dinosaurs. (washingtontimes.com)
- Rose surveys the evolution of mammals, beginning with their origin from cynodont therapsids in the Mesozoic. (andrewisles.com)
- Hair aids mammals to maintain a constant body temperature which is also a mammalian characteristic. (paleodirect.com)
- Second, each student will then develop a cladogram which includes a selection of marine mammals and land mammals which represent the major mammalian orders. (google.com)
- Because climate change will likely outpace the response capacity of many mammals, mammalian vulnerability to climate change may be more extensive than previously anticipated. (pnas.org)
- Over 90 species of mammals call Grand Canyon National Park home, giving this park higher mammalian species diversity than Yellowstone. (nps.gov)
- A Fossil History of Southern African Land Mammals by Margaret Avery is a comprehensive listing of fossil land mammal taxa and palaeontological sites in sub-equatorial Africa south of 15° S latitude. (journals.co.za)
- Large taxa tend to show different scaling exponents compared to those of small taxa, suggesting that there would be a differential scaling between small and large mammals. (biologists.org)
- We focus on mammals because they are among the best-known taxa, and by degrading the available taxonomic and phylogenetic information in various ways we can simulate the more imperfect state of knowledge of less-known groups. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Although most assemblages had a structure indistinguishable from random samples, for some mammal taxa, up to 40% of island assemblages were phylogenetically overdispersed. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- A finer subdivision was established by Pierre Mein in 1975, who divided the Neogene in 17 zones, known as the MN zonation, indicated by the letters MN (Mammal Neogene) and a number. (wikipedia.org)
- Fossil mammals of Asia: neogene biostratigraphy and chronology. (andrewisles.com)
- It is fitting and proper that a volume on European Neogene mammal chronology is produced at this time, to ensure that new interpretations of vertebrate evolution and chronology are based on the most accurate and current data. (springer.com)
- Debbie Alston is an experienced natural history tutor and a Lecturer at the University of Derby, specialising in ecology, conservation management and British mammals. (field-studies-council.org)
- Fourth colloquium on conservation of mammals in the Southeastern United States. (springer.com)
- Sub-Saharan Africa is the region of focus as it contains the highest number of terrestrial mammals listed as vulnerable, endangered or critically endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. (environmentalevidence.org)
- Double screening will be carried out on all articles to locate studies that meet the specified inclusion criteria, for inclusion studies must contain spatially explicit quantitative data on illegal hunting of endangered terrestrial mammals as defined by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. (environmentalevidence.org)
- Conservation Land Management (CLM) is a quarterly magazine that is widely regarded as essential reading for all who are involved in land management for nature conservation, across the British Isles. (nhbs.com)
- The Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 protects native mammals, birds, and plants and their ecosystems. (mmc.gov)
- Additionally, the analysis did not provide evidence of higher mammal abundance in classified forests, which one would assume if conservation interventions aimed at reducing hunting were implemented. (ecologyandsociety.org)
- Land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) reflect and shape the global interplay between economic development and biodiversity conservation. (pnas.org)
- At this early stage, the mammals were inconspicuous animals, dominated by the reptiles and in particular, the dinosaurs. (rte.ie)
- But most importantly to us, a strange group of animals called the Mammal-like Reptiles. (earthlife.net)
- The Mammal-like Reptiles, or Therapsids, first appeared about 285 million years ago - near the beginning of the Permian (which is well before the dinosaurs). (earthlife.net)
- Warm-bloodedness is believed to have first evolved among the cynodonts, a late but successful group of mammal-like reptiles, from which the mammals evolved. (earthlife.net)
- The cynodonts were the only mammal-like reptiles to survive to the Jurassic. (earthlife.net)
- You will then use this phylogenetic tree to test our hypothesis that all marine mammals have a single common land mammal ancestor. (google.com)
- What does this phylogenetic tree structure suggest about the evolutionary history of marine mammals? (google.com)
- Phylogenetic diversity (PD) [ 14 , 15 ] is a biodiversity measure that takes into account the evolutionary relationships between species, and can be calculated for mammals because a phylogenetic super-tree is already available [ 16 , 17 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- We present a global-scale analysis of the emergent phylogenetic properties of mammal assemblages on islands, in which we compared the structure of 595 island assemblages with null models constructed under four alternative definitions of regional source pools. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Losos 1995 ), and, in this paper, we present a global analysis of patterns in the phylogenetic structure of island mammal assemblages. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Recently, the House added language to this year's defense authorization bill that outright exempts the Navy from two federal laws, the Endangered Species Act and Marine Mammal Protection Act, for any harm it causes sea otters off its Southern California bases. (nrdc.org)
- For years, the furry mammals were subject to a misguided "translocation" policy that removed any otters found off Southern California and transported them north of Point Conception. (nrdc.org)
- It wasn't until close of the Cretaceous and the final demise of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago that mammals shared the planet with flowering plants, insects, and birds as the dominant life forms. (paleodirect.com)
- By about 350 million years ago, the insects and plants had been dominating the land for around 50 million years, so there was plenty of food for adventurous fish to eat. (earthlife.net)
- WASHINGTON (AP) - They just needed some leg room: New research shows the great dinosaur die-off made way for mammals to explode in size _ some more massive than several elephants put together. (washingtontimes.com)
- Some common mammals in the U.S. are deer, bears, elephants, lions and dogs. (reference.com)
- This pattern, noted previously for several morphological traits in mammals, has been explained to occur as a result of mechanical constraints over bones due to the differential effect of gravity on small and large-sized forms. (biologists.org)
- If marine mammals share common morphological characteristics, what do your conclusions about their evolutionary history imply about these common characteristics? (google.com)
- 8 ] (see also [ 9 , 10 ]) analysed a data matrix of 4541 morphological characters from 46 extant and 40 fossil mammal species to reconstruct and date the last common ancestor of placentals. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- The monotremes are primitive egg-laying mammals. (enchantedlearning.com)
- mammals whose young are born at a relatively advanced stage (more advanced than the young of other mammals, the monotremes and marsupials). (enchantedlearning.com)
- These early mammals were more like small monotremes and probably laid eggs still. (earthlife.net)
- Egg-laying mammals are also called monotremes, and some examples are long-nosed spiny anteaters and platypuses. (reference.com)
- A total of 44 specialists from 11 countries describe the characters and Miocene evolutionary history of each land mammal group. (pfeil-verlag.de)
- To see how that changed, researchers funded by the National Science Foundation collected fossil data on the maximum sizes attained by all major groups of mammals on each continent throughout their evolutionary history. (washingtontimes.com)
- Go into detail here about what parts of the tree lead you to what conclusions about the evolutionary history of the marine mammals. (google.com)
- If Dolphins Are Mammals and All Mammals Have Hair, Why Aren't Dolphins Hairy? (mentalfloss.com)
- When it comes to being mammal, dolphins fit the bill in all respects. (mentalfloss.com)
- If you've gotten to pet one at an aquarium, though, you've noticed that dolphins lack the one thing all other mammals have: hair. (mentalfloss.com)
- The Asian land mammal ages, acronym ALMA, establish a geologic timescale for prehistoric Asian fauna beginning 58.7 Mya during the Paleogene and continuing through to the Miocene (Aquitanian) (23.03 Ma). (wikipedia.org)
- Within 25 million years of the dinosaurs' extinction _ fast, in geologic terms _ overall land mammals had reached a maximum size and then leveled off, an international team of scientists reports Friday in the journal Science. (washingtontimes.com)
- The European Tertiary and the initial research on fossil mammals are closely related to Georges Cuvier's investigation of Tertiary quadrupeds of the Montmartre in the early 19th Century. (pfeil-verlag.de)
- Since Cuvier's clear recognition of former time periods on earth, each with special faunas destroyed by succeeding catastrophes, collections of fossil mammals have increased immensey as well as our knowledge of them. (pfeil-verlag.de)
- Throughout the era of dinosaurs ruling the planet, mammals only existed as small shrew-like creatures. (paleodirect.com)
- Anyone who frequents natural history museums knows that the end of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago ushered in the age of mammals, and that some of them were gigantic. (washingtontimes.com)
- Mammals did coexist with dinosaurs, but small ones, ranging from about the size of a mouse to a maximum of a small dog. (washingtontimes.com)
- Among them the first dinosaurs and a few million years later, the first mammals. (earthlife.net)
- During the Jurassic the mammals remained small and mainly nocturnal, living beneath the 'metaphorical' feet of the great dinosaurs. (earthlife.net)
- Debbie has taught mammal courses for the Mammal Society, Field Studies Council, Chartered Institute for Ecology and Environmental Management (CIEEM) and local Wildlife Trusts. (field-studies-council.org)
- However, as far as we know, mammals were still playing a fairly insignificant role in the ecology of the time. (earthlife.net)
- Human predation and habitat destruction has placed several mammal species at risk of extirpation or extinction . (wikipedia.org)
- The difference between arboreal and terrestrial mammals is perhaps due to functional differences in dispersal ability, which habitat modification and a large impassable agricultural matrix in Madagascar may compound. (springer.com)
- This new tour will be split between two centres, with three nights in the heart of Bieszczady National Park and four nights in prime mammal habitat just outside. (naturetrek.co.uk)
- Here we propose an approach combining data on land‐cover change and species‐specific habitat preferences, population abundance and dispersal distance to estimate key parameters (extent of occurrence, maximum area of occupancy, population size and trend, and degree of fragmentation) and hence IUCN Red List categories. (globalmammal.org)
- However, the panthers have lost roughly 95% of their historic habitat, and their current range is now squeezed into a few protected areas such as Big Cypress National Preserve and Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge, as well as some private lands. (earthjustice.org)
- Carbon and oxygen analyses of enamel were performed on forty-six teeth of large mammals ( Equus germanicus , Mammuthus primigenius , Coelodonta antiquitatis , and Bison priscus ), coming from one doline in Boncourt (~ 80 ka, marine oxygen isotope stage MIS5a) and seven in Courtedoux (51-27 ka, late MIS3), in order to reconstruct the paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental conditions of the region. (cambridge.org)
- Smith said mammal teeth not only tend to preserve better than bones, but they correlate very well to body mass. (washingtontimes.com)
- Their teeth, like those of most land mammals, still show differentiation into several types. (berkeley.edu)
- We examined West Nile virus (WNV) seroprevalence in wild mammals along a forest-to-urban gradient in the US mid-Atlantic region. (cdc.gov)
- Several mammal species have been found to be naturally exposed to WNV, and it has been suggested that wild mammals could be used as indicators of transmission ( 2 - 4 ). (cdc.gov)
- WNV seroprevalence in wild mammals will be a useful indicator of WNV activity only if it differs between sites, if it reflects within-season transmission, and if other key confounding factors are accounted for. (cdc.gov)
- To test 4 hypotheses about the exposure of mammals to WNV, we examined WNV seroprevalence in wild mammals in the eastern United States. (cdc.gov)
- Wild mammals have always been an important resource for humankind, and concepts of economic goods provide an analytical framework to deduce relevant socioeconomic factors that shape wild mammal-human relationships and consequences for the spatial distribution patterns of wild mammals. (ecologyandsociety.org)
- We estimated the effects of the human population on wild mammals in a rural area in the Republic of Guinea, West Africa. (ecologyandsociety.org)
- Although human population density had a negative effect on wild mammals, the effect of market integration and food taboos were more important and not accounted for by human population density alone. (ecologyandsociety.org)
- 2002). It is therefore beyond doubt that wild mammals can be seen as an economic good. (ecologyandsociety.org)
- Using these criteria, wild mammals can be classified as common goods in many regions of the world. (ecologyandsociety.org)
- The mammals and birds of this diverse province are a rare mix of the temperate and subtropical, for Sichuan sits in a biological transition zone where the wildlife of the vast Palearctic realm merges with the Indomalayan fauna and flora to the south. (naturetrek.co.uk)
- Indeed, this is one the most diverse regions on Earth and is home to a superb variety of exciting and endemic birds, mammals and other wildlife. (naturetrek.co.uk)
- Sparsely populated and clothed in a patchwork of mixed woodlands, rolling hills and colourful meadows, this little-visited region of Eastern Europe still offers sanctuary to some of the continent's rarest wildlife, and has become one of Europe's last refuges for a near complete natural assemblage of large predatory mammals including Wolf, European Brown Bear and Eurasian Lynx. (naturetrek.co.uk)
- In addition to these extinct species, a large number of common living amphibian, reptile, bird, and mammal species first appear in Florida during the Blancan. (ufl.edu)
- craban ) were a large species of crow that inhabited the land of Dunland during the Third Age . (wikipedia.org)
- They use their large front limbs in locomotion on land. (nps.gov)
- The scaling of relative locomotor performance proved to be non-linear when the entire range of body masses was considered and showed a differential scaling between small and large mammals. (biologists.org)
- In contrast, maximum relative running speed in large mammals showed a strong negative relationship with body mass. (biologists.org)
- We related large mammal survey data via statistical models to detailed socioeconomic information about the human population in the same area. (ecologyandsociety.org)
- It suggests there's a deeper explanation of how large body size evolves in mammals," he said. (washingtontimes.com)
- These semi-aquatic mammals have webbed hind feet, large incisors, and a broad, flat tail. (maine.gov)
- One of the most elusive large mammals in the U.S., the Florida panther lives in the swamps and forests of southwestern Florida. (earthjustice.org)
- The American dog tick, D. variabilis , and the lone star tick, A. americanum , the two established vectors of Rickettsia rickettsi and Francisella tularensis to man in Eastern and Southeastern United States, were found abundantly throughout Land Between the Lakes and were associated with large numbers of deer and raccoons. (ajtmh.org)
- To determine if urbanization or other land cover influenced the distribution of RTMs we took a multi-scaled approach to examine the occurrence of RTMs and their associated vegetation in North-Central Florida. (springer.com)
- We acknowledge Kelly McPherson of the Alachua County Environmental Protection Department and Alachua County Forever, Andrea Christman of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Michael Stallings of the Putnam Land Conservancy and Benjamin Dow of Plum Creek Timber for facilitating site access and project logistics. (springer.com)
- All vertebrate fossil sites of the Bl1 interval in Florida derive from marine deposits, and no terrestrial mammals are known. (ufl.edu)
- Florida battles Giant African land snail infestation with. (dailymail.co.uk)
- The harbor seal is a commonly seen marine mammal species. (us-parks.com)
- The most commonly seen marine mammals are the pilot whale, minke whale, white-sided dolphin and harbour seal. (gc.ca)
- Abert's squirrel, also called the tassel-eared squirrel, is one of the most commonly seen mammals at Grand Canyon National Park. (nps.gov)
- doi:10.1126/science.1229237 )) performed a fossil-only dating analysis of mammals, concluding that the ancestor of placentals post-dated the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary, contradicting previous palaeontological and molecular studies that placed the ancestor in the Cretaceous. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Molecular and palaeontological studies have supported a Cretaceous origin of Placentalia, but the age of placental mammal ordinal level crown groups (the 'modern' orders) relative to the K-Pg event has been the subject of protracted debate [ 2 - 7 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- We provide an updated list of the Recent land mammals of Mexico and include information on the taxonomy of certain species, and where appropriate, the endemic and threatened status of all species listed. (usgs.gov)
- Assemblages on oceanic islands (those never attached to continental land masses) arise largely by colonization and endemic radiation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- and marsupials found that Santa Rosa dates to the Mustersan South American Land Mammal Age , which is part of the Eocene. (edwardbetts.com)
- There are three main subcategories of mammals: live-young, marsupials and egg-laying species. (reference.com)
- Examples of mammals that are marsupials include kangaroos and opossums. (reference.com)
- This action-packed tour will take us from the beautiful forests of Labahe to the high grasslands on the edge of the vast Tibetan Plateau, past Wolong - the largest Giant Panda reserve - and into the lush forests of Tangjiahe, one of the region's premier mammal-watching hotspots! (naturetrek.co.uk)
- We will stop en route to stretch our legs, and as we pass through the region's rolling countryside we may come across small flocks of White Stork feeding in roadside fields, perhaps a Great Grey Shrike perched on a fence-line or even an early Lesser-spotted Eagle soaring overhead. (naturetrek.co.uk)
- To repeat, we are trying to answer the question: Did marine mammals evolve from a single ancestor who returned to the ocean, or were there distinct return events from separate ancestors? (google.com)
- A plausible starting hypothesis is that modern marine mammals have a single common ancestor. (google.com)