A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
A dideoxynucleoside analog that inhibits reverse transcriptase and has in vitro activity against HIV.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Nucleosides that have two hydroxy groups removed from the sugar moiety. The majority of these compounds have broad-spectrum antiretroviral activity due to their action as antimetabolites. The nucleosides are phosphorylated intracellularly to their 5'-triphosphates and act as chain-terminating inhibitors of viral reverse transcription.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
OXAZINES with a fused BENZENE ring.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
A potent and specific HIV protease inhibitor that appears to have good oral bioavailability.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. Didanosine is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase; ddI is then metabolized to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, its putative active metabolite.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Pyrimidinones are a class of organic compounds that are structurally related to pyrimidine and are used in the treatment of various medical conditions.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutation.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
Retroviral proteins coded by the pol gene. They are usually synthesized as a protein precursor (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into final products that include reverse transcriptase, endonuclease/integrase, and viral protease. Sometimes they are synthesized as a gag-pol fusion protein (FUSION PROTEINS, GAG-POL). pol is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
A potent HIV protease inhibitor. It is used in combination with other antiviral drugs in the treatment of HIV in both adults and children.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication at low concentrations, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal toxic side effect is axonal degeneration resulting in peripheral neuropathy.
Guanine is a nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA that plays a crucial role in the genetic code and regulation of gene expression.
An HIV protease inhibitor used in a fixed-dose combination with RITONAVIR. It is also an inhibitor of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.
An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.
The phosphate esters of DIDEOXYNUCLEOSIDES.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Cytidine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A pyrimidine nucleoside formed in the body by the deamination of CYTARABINE.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).
The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.

Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by combination of transcription inhibitor K-12 and other antiretroviral agents in acutely and chronically infected cells. (1/1109)

8-Difluoromethoxy-1-ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-7-[4-(2-methoxyp hen yl)-1- piperazinyl]-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (K-12) has recently been identified as a potent and selective inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transcription. In this study, we examined several combinations of K-12 and other antiretroviral agents for their inhibitory effects on HIV-1 replication in acutely and chronically infected cell cultures. Combinations of K-12 and a reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor, either zidovudine, lamivudine, or nevirapine, synergistically inhibited HIV-1 replication in acutely infected MT-4 cells. The combination of K-12 and the protease inhibitor nelfinavir (NFV) also synergistically inhibited HIV-1, whereas the synergism of this combination was weaker than that of the combinations with the RT inhibitors. K-12 did not enhance the cytotoxicities of RT and protease inhibitors. Synergism of the combinations was also observed in acutely infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The combination of K-12 and cepharanthine, a nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor, synergistically inhibited HIV-1 production in tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated U1 cells, a promonocytic cell line chronically infected with the virus. In contrast, additive inhibition was observed for the combination of K-12 and NFV. These results indicate that the combinations of K-12 and clinically available antiretroviral agents may have potential as chemotherapeutic modalities for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.  (+info)

Treatment with amprenavir alone or amprenavir with zidovudine and lamivudine in adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection. AIDS Clinical Trials Group 347 Study Team. (2/1109)

Amprenavir is a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile and good in vitro activity. Ninety-two lamivudine- and protease inhibitor-naive individuals with >/=50 CD4 cells/mm3 and >/=5000 HIV RNA copies/mL were assigned amprenavir (1200 mg) alone or with zidovudine (300 mg) plus lamivudine (150 mg), all given every 12 h. After a median follow-up of 88 days, the findings of a planned interim review resulted in termination of the amprenavir monotherapy arm. Among 85 subjects with confirmed plasma HIV RNA determination, 15 of 42 monotherapy versus 1 of 43 triple-therapy subjects had an HIV RNA increase above baseline or 1 log10 above nadir (P=.0001). For subjects taking triple therapy at 24 weeks, the median decrease in HIV RNA was 2.04 log10 copies/mL, and 17 (63%) of 27 evaluable subjects had <500 HIV RNA copies/mL. Treatment with amprenavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine together reduced the levels of HIV RNA significantly more than did amprenavir monotherapy.  (+info)

Functional analysis of mutations conferring lamivudine resistance on hepatitis B virus. (3/1109)

Two patterns of mutation are commonly observed in the polymerase gene of lamivudine [(-)2'-deoxy-3'-thiacytidine]-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV). The M539I substitution in the conserved YMDD motif occurs independently of other changes, whereas the M539V substitution is associated with an additional upstream change (L515M). These mutations were introduced into a common background and their effects on HBV DNA replication and lamivudine resistance studied. The L515M and M539V mutations provided only partial resistance while the M539I mutation conferred a high degree of lamivudine resistance. The combination of the L515M and M539V mutations gave an intermediate level of replication competence, compared with either mutation alone, and increased resistance to lamivudine. This probably accounts for these two mutations always being observed together. The M539I mutation reduced replication competence.  (+info)

The cost-effectiveness of treatment with lamivudine and zidovudine compared with zidovudine alone: a comparison of Markov model and trial data estimates. (4/1109)

In this paper, we present a Markov model for estimating the cost-effectiveness of combination therapy with lamivudine (LMV) and zidovudine (ZDV) compared with ZDV alone. We also compare the predictions of the Markov model for the impact of combination therapy on trial period costs with the actual impact of combination therapy on selected trial period costs estimated from data collected during the clinical trials. In the Markov model, disease stages were defined by CD4 cell count. Based on clinical trial data for patients with CD4 counts higher than 100 cells/mm3, the model assumed that the CD4 cell count level could be maintained above the level at the initiation of therapy for 6.5 months with monotherapy and for 18 months with combination therapy. After this period, transition rates for natural disease progression were used. Incremental lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years gained with LMV/ZDV compared with ZDV alone were estimated for cohorts of patients initiating antiretroviral therapy at four different CD4 cell count stages. Cost per life year gained varied from $10,000 to $18,000, and cost per quality-adjusted life year gained varied from $14,000 to $27,000. In both cases, the combination therapy was more cost-effective when started earlier in disease progression. These estimates were not sensitive to changes in key parameter values. In addition, the model was used to estimate the impact of combination therapy on healthcare costs during the trial period; these estimated costs were compared with data on the cost of resource use collected during the clinical trial for hospital stays, unscheduled visits, medications, and outpatient procedures. Both the Markov model estimates and the trial data estimates for the trial period showed cost savings in other medical costs, though these were not large enough to completely offset the increased cost for antiretroviral therapy. The model estimates were more conservative than the estimates based on the trial data.  (+info)

Susceptibility of lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus to other reverse transcriptase inhibitors. (5/1109)

The emergence of resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV), with mutations in the YMDD motif of the polymerase gene after treatment with lamivudine, is becoming an important clinical problem. In this study, susceptibility of wild-type and lamivudine-resistant HBV M552I, M552V, and L528M/M552V mutants to other reverse transcriptase inhibitors was investigated by transient transfection of full-length HBV DNA into human hepatoma cells. HBV DNA replication was monitored by Southern blot hybridization, which showed the presence of a single-stranded band (representative of the HBV replicative intermediates) in the drug-free, wild-type HBV-transfected cells. This band was diminished in the samples of wild-type HBV DNA treated with either lamivudine, adefovir, or lobucavir. The band intensities from the lamivudine-resistant mutants were not decreased by treatment with lamivudine, but were decreased by the treatments with adefovir or lobucavir. In contrast, penciclovir and nevirapine did not diminish the intensity of the single-stranded band of wild-type HBV or the lamivudine-resistant mutants. These results demonstrate that lamivudine-resistant HBV is susceptible to adefovir and lobucavir. Lamivudine-resistant HBV should be treated with adefovir or lobucavir, and combination therapy with lamivudine and adefovir/lobucavir may prevent the emergence of lamivudine-resistant HBV.  (+info)

Use of real-time PCR and fluorimetry to detect lamivudine resistance-associated mutations in hepatitis B virus. (6/1109)

Very rapid amplification of DNA by PCR in small volumes can be continuously monitored by the detection of the binding of probes with a rapid cycler with built-in fluorometric detection. Primers were designed to amplify approximately 100 bp of the polymerase gene of hepatitis B virus (HBV) spanning codon 550, where mutations associated with resistance to lamivudine invariably occur. Four hybridization probes were synthesized: one was 3' labelled with fluorescein and hybridized upstream of codon 550. The others were 5' labelled with Cy5 and 3' labelled with biotin and spanned codon 550. The Cy5-labelled oligonucleotides contained either wild-type (ATG) or mutant (GTG or ATT) sequences. A Cy5-labelled probe and either the fluorescein-labelled probe or Sybr Green 1 (a compound that fluoresces when bound to double-stranded DNA) were included in each PCR. After completion of the amplification by using a LightCycler (Idaho Technology), the temperature at which the Cy5 probe melted from the product was determined in a melt program that took ca. 3 min. Pre- and posttreatment samples from eight patients (five chronic and three transplant) who failed lamivudine treatment were amplified, and the presence of mutations in codon 550 was determined by ABI sequencing and by using the LightCycler; in some cases PCR products were also cloned, and multiple clones were sequenced. Concordant results were obtained in all cases. We found the LightCycler to be better at resolving the sequences of genomic mixtures; for example, two samples showed a sequence at codon 550 of (A/G)T(G/T), which was found by fluorimetry to be mixtures of GTG and ATT but no ATG, and this finding was confirmed by the sequencing of clones. However, this approach was not more sensitive than population sequencing for the detection of the presence of mixtures. Overall, this pilot study has demonstrated an approach that could be an extremely rapid and economical method for the detection of lamivudine resistance-associated mutations in HBV.  (+info)

Single-dose pharmacokinetics and safety of abacavir (1592U89), zidovudine, and lamivudine administered alone and in combination in adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection. (7/1109)

Abacavir (1592U89), a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor with in vitro activity against human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), has been evaluated for efficacy and safety in combination regimens with other nucleoside analogs, including zidovudine (ZDV) and lamivudine (3TC). To evaluate the potential pharmacokinetic interactions between these agents, 15 HIV-1-infected adults with a median CD4(+) cell count of 347 cells/mm3 (range, 238 to 570 cells/mm3) were enrolled in a randomized, seven-period crossover study. The pharmacokinetics and safety of single doses of abacavir (600 mg), ZDV (300 mg), and 3TC (150 mg) were evaluated when each drug was given alone or when any two or three drugs were given concurrently. The concentrations of all drugs in plasma and the concentrations of ZDV and its 5'-glucuronide metabolite, GZDV, in urine were measured for up to 24 h postdosing, and pharmacokinetic parameter values were calculated by noncompartmental methods. The maximum drug concentration (Cmax), the area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0-infinity), time to Cmax (Tmax), and apparent elimination half-life (t1/2) of abacavir in plasma were unaffected by coadministration with ZDV and/or 3TC. Coadministration of abacavir with ZDV (with or without 3TC) decreased the mean Cmax of ZDV by approximately 20% (from 1.5 to 1.2 microg/ml), delayed the median Tmax for ZDV by 0.5 h, increased the mean AUC0-infinity for GZDV by up to 40% (from 11.8 to 16.5 microg. h/ml), and delayed the median Tmax for GZDV by approximately 0.5 h. Coadministration of abacavir with 3TC (with or without ZDV) decreased the mean AUC0-infinity for 3TC by approximately 15% (from 5.1 to 4.3 microg. h/ml), decreased the mean Cmax by approximately 35% (from 1.4 to 0.9 microg/ml), and delayed the median Tmax by approximately 1 h. While these changes were statistically significant, they are similar to the effect of food intake (for ZDV) or affect an inactive metabolite (for GZDV) or are relatively minor (for 3TC) and are therefore not considered to be clinically significant. No significant differences were found in the urinary recoveries of ZDV or GZDV when ZDV was coadministered with abacavir. There was no pharmacokinetic interaction between ZDV and 3TC. Mild to moderate headache, nausea, lymphadenopathy, hematuria, musculoskeletal chest pain, neck stiffness, and fever were the most common adverse events reported by those who received abacavir. Coadministration of ZDV or 3TC with abacavir did not alter this adverse event profile. The three-drug regimen was primarily associated with gastrointestinal events. In conclusion, no clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions occurred between abacavir, ZDV, and 3TC in HIV-1-infected adults. Coadministration of abacavir with ZDV or 3TC produced mild changes in the absorption and possibly the urinary excretion characteristics of ZDV-GZDV and 3TC that were not considered to be clinically significant. Coadministration of abacavir with ZDV and/or 3TC was generally well tolerated and did not produce unexpected adverse events.  (+info)

Potent antiretroviral therapy of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection: partial normalization of T lymphocyte subsets and limited reduction of HIV-1 DNA despite clearance of plasma viremia. (8/1109)

Antiretroviral therapy commenced during primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection (PHI) may limit the extent of viral replication and prevent early loss of HIV-specific CD4 lymphocyte function. We studied the effect of current standard therapy (2 nucleoside analogues and a protease inhibitor) in 16 patients with symptomatic PHI. In the 13 patients who completed 1 year of treatment, plasma HIV RNA was <50 copies/mL and median CD4 cell counts were comparable to HIV-uninfected controls, with naive (CD45RA+CD62L+), primed (CD45RO+), and T cell receptor Vbeta subsets all within normal ranges. However, HIV-1 DNA levels in treated and untreated PHI patients were similar. Furthermore, CD8 cell counts remained elevated, including activated (CD38+HLA-DR+), replicating (Ki-67+), and cytotoxic (perforin+CD28-) lymphocytes. In conclusion, early antiretroviral therapy resulted in clearance of viremia and prevented loss of crucial CD4 subsets. The persistence of HIV-1 DNA together with increased CD8 T lymphocyte turnover and activation indicate continued expression of viral antigens.  (+info)

Lamivudine is an antiviral medication that is used to treat HIV/AIDS and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. It works by inhibiting the activity of the reverse transcriptase enzyme, which is essential for the replication of both HIV and HBV. Lamivudine is usually taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules, and it is often used in combination with other antiviral medications to increase its effectiveness and reduce the risk of drug resistance. Common side effects of lamivudine include nausea, headache, and fatigue. In rare cases, it can also cause more serious side effects such as liver damage or allergic reactions. Lamivudine is an important medication in the treatment of HIV/AIDS and chronic HBV infections, and it has been shown to be effective in reducing viral load and preventing the progression of these diseases. However, it is important to take the medication as prescribed and to monitor for any potential side effects.

Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) is a long-term infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It is characterized by persistent inflammation of the liver, which can lead to liver damage, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. CHB can develop in people who have been infected with HBV for more than six months. The virus can remain in the body for years or even decades, causing ongoing liver damage. Symptoms of CHB may include fatigue, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice. However, many people with CHB do not experience any symptoms and may not know they have the infection. CHB is typically diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of the virus and measure liver function. Treatment options for CHB include antiviral medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, liver transplantation. It is important to diagnose and treat CHB early to prevent liver damage and reduce the risk of complications.

Organophosphonates are a class of chemical compounds that contain a phosphorus atom bonded to an organic group. They are commonly used as insecticides, herbicides, and as a nerve agent in chemical warfare. In the medical field, organophosphonates are used as medications to treat conditions such as osteoporosis, Paget's disease, and certain types of cancer. They work by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme called alkaline phosphatase, which is involved in bone metabolism. Organophosphonates can also be used as a diagnostic tool to measure the activity of alkaline phosphatase in the body.

Antiviral agents are medications that are used to treat viral infections. They work by inhibiting the replication of viruses within host cells, thereby reducing the severity and duration of the infection. Antiviral agents can be classified into several categories, including nucleoside analogues, protease inhibitors, neuraminidase inhibitors, and entry inhibitors. They are commonly used to treat a variety of viral infections, including influenza, herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis B and C. Antiviral agents are an important tool in the management of viral infections and have been instrumental in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases.

Adenine is a nitrogenous base that is found in DNA and RNA. It is one of the four nitrogenous bases that make up the genetic code, along with guanine, cytosine, and thymine (in DNA) or uracil (in RNA). Adenine is a purine base, which means it has a double ring structure with a six-membered ring fused to a five-membered ring. It is one of the two purine bases found in DNA and RNA, the other being guanine. Adenine is important in the function of DNA and RNA because it forms hydrogen bonds with thymine (in DNA) or uracil (in RNA) to form the base pairs that make up the genetic code.

Anti-HIV agents, also known as antiretroviral drugs or ARVs, are medications used to treat and manage HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection. HIV is a virus that attacks the immune system, leading to a weakened immune response and an increased risk of developing opportunistic infections and certain types of cancer. Anti-HIV agents work by inhibiting the virus's ability to replicate and spread within the body. There are several classes of anti-HIV agents, including nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), protease inhibitors (PIs), integrase inhibitors (INIs), and entry inhibitors. The use of anti-HIV agents has revolutionized the treatment of HIV, allowing people living with the virus to live longer, healthier lives. However, it is important to note that anti-HIV agents are not a cure for HIV and must be taken consistently and correctly to be effective. Additionally, the development of drug resistance can occur if the virus is not adequately suppressed by the medication regimen, making it necessary to switch to alternative anti-HIV agents.

Zidovudine, also known by its brand name AZT, is an antiretroviral medication used to treat HIV/AIDS. It works by inhibiting the activity of the reverse transcriptase enzyme, which is essential for the replication of the HIV virus. Zidovudine is typically used in combination with other antiretroviral medications to help suppress the virus and prevent the progression of HIV/AIDS. It is usually taken orally in tablet form, and the dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the individual patient's condition and response to the medication. Zidovudine can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, headache, and fatigue. It may also interact with other medications, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting treatment with zidovudine.

Stavudine, also known by its brand name Zerit, is an antiretroviral medication used to treat HIV/AIDS. It is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), which means it works by blocking the enzyme reverse transcriptase, which is essential for the replication of HIV. By inhibiting this enzyme, stavudine slows down the replication of HIV and helps to control the virus in the body. Stavudine is typically used in combination with other antiretroviral medications to provide a more effective treatment for HIV/AIDS. It is usually taken orally in the form of tablets, although it can also be given by injection. Stavudine can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, and fatigue. It can also cause more serious side effects, such as liver damage, pancreatitis, and peripheral neuropathy (nerve damage). Because of these potential side effects, stavudine is typically only prescribed to people with HIV/AIDS who have not responded to other antiretroviral medications or who have certain other medical conditions that make them unable to tolerate other treatments.

Hepatitis B is a viral infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is transmitted through contact with infected blood or body fluids, such as semen, vaginal fluids, and saliva. Hepatitis B can range from a mild illness that resolves on its own to a chronic infection that can lead to serious liver damage, including cirrhosis and liver cancer. The severity of the infection depends on the age of the person infected, the immune system's response to the virus, and the presence of other liver diseases. Symptoms of hepatitis B can include fatigue, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, and yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice). In some cases, there may be no symptoms at all. Treatment for hepatitis B depends on the severity of the infection and the presence of any complications. Antiviral medications can help to control the virus and prevent liver damage, while a vaccine is available to prevent infection. It is important for people who are infected with hepatitis B to receive regular medical care and to follow their treatment plan to prevent complications and improve their quality of life.

Dideoxynucleosides are modified nucleosides that lack a hydroxyl group at the 3' position of their sugar moiety. They are used as inhibitors of DNA synthesis in the treatment of various viral infections, including HIV and hepatitis B and C. The most commonly used dideoxynucleoside is zidovudine (AZT), which is a component of many antiretroviral drug combinations used to treat HIV infection. Other dideoxynucleosides include stavudine (d4T), didanosine (ddI), and lamivudine (3TC). These drugs work by incorporating into the growing DNA chain and terminating the synthesis process, thereby inhibiting viral replication.

In the medical field, "DNA, Viral" refers to the genetic material of viruses, which is composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Viruses are infectious agents that can only replicate inside living cells of organisms, including humans. The genetic material of viruses is different from that of cells, as viruses do not have a cellular structure and cannot carry out metabolic processes on their own. Instead, they rely on the host cell's machinery to replicate and produce new viral particles. Understanding the genetic material of viruses is important for developing treatments and vaccines against viral infections. By studying the DNA or RNA (ribonucleic acid) of viruses, researchers can identify potential targets for antiviral drugs and design vaccines that stimulate the immune system to recognize and fight off viral infections.

Nevirapine is an antiretroviral medication used to treat HIV/AIDS. It is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) that works by blocking the enzyme reverse transcriptase, which is essential for the replication of HIV. Nevirapine is typically used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs to help suppress the virus and prevent the progression of HIV to AIDS. It is usually taken as a pill once a day, although the dosage and frequency may vary depending on the individual and the specific regimen being used.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infections refer to the presence of the HIV virus in the body. HIV is a retrovirus that attacks and weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to infections and diseases. HIV is transmitted through contact with infected bodily fluids, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. The most common modes of transmission include unprotected sexual contact, sharing needles or syringes, and from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. HIV infections can be diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of the virus or antibodies produced in response to the virus. Once diagnosed, HIV can be managed with antiretroviral therapy (ART), which helps to suppress the virus and prevent the progression of the disease to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). It is important to note that HIV is not the same as AIDS. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS, but not everyone with HIV will develop AIDS. With proper treatment and management, individuals with HIV can live long and healthy lives.

Alanine transaminase (ALT) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of amino acids in the liver. It is also known as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and is found in high concentrations in liver cells. When liver cells are damaged or destroyed, ALT is released into the bloodstream, where it can be measured in a blood test. Elevated levels of ALT in the blood are often an indication of liver damage or disease, such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, or fatty liver disease. ALT is also found in other tissues, including the heart, skeletal muscle, and kidneys, but in lower concentrations than in the liver. In these tissues, elevated levels of ALT can indicate injury or disease. Overall, ALT is an important biomarker for liver function and can be used to diagnose and monitor liver diseases.

Benzoxazines are a class of organic compounds that contain a benzene ring with an oxygen atom attached to a nitrogen atom. They are commonly used as dyes, pigments, and photoresists in various industries, including the pharmaceutical and medical fields. In the medical field, benzoxazines have been studied for their potential applications in drug discovery and development. Some benzoxazines have been shown to have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-cancer properties, making them potential candidates for the treatment of various diseases and conditions. For example, benzoxazines have been investigated as potential treatments for inflammatory bowel disease, where they have been shown to reduce inflammation and improve symptoms in animal models. They have also been studied for their potential use in the treatment of cancer, where they have been shown to inhibit the growth of cancer cells and induce apoptosis (cell death) in some cases. Overall, benzoxazines are a promising class of compounds with potential applications in the medical field, and ongoing research is exploring their potential uses in drug discovery and development.

Indinavir is an antiretroviral medication that is used to treat HIV/AIDS. It is a protease inhibitor, which means that it works by blocking the enzyme HIV uses to replicate itself. This helps to slow the progression of the disease and reduce the amount of virus in the body. Indinavir is typically used in combination with other antiretroviral medications to provide a more effective treatment regimen. It is usually taken orally in the form of tablets.

Didanosine, also known by its brand name Videx, is an antiretroviral medication used to treat HIV/AIDS. It is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), which means it works by blocking the enzyme reverse transcriptase, which is essential for the replication of the HIV virus. Didanosine is typically used in combination with other antiretroviral medications to help control the virus and prevent the progression of HIV to AIDS. It is usually taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules. Common side effects of didanosine include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and headache.

Pyrimidinones are a class of organic compounds that are derived from the pyrimidine ring. They are commonly used in the medical field as drugs and are known for their antifungal, antiviral, and anticancer properties. Some examples of pyrimidinones that are used in medicine include: * Allopurinol: used to treat gout and kidney stones * Cytarabine: used to treat leukemia and other types of cancer * Pentamidine: used to treat African sleeping sickness and leishmaniasis * Pyrimethamine: used to treat malaria * Trimethoprim: used to treat bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections and respiratory infections Pyrimidinones are also used as intermediates in the synthesis of other drugs and as research tools in the study of biological processes.

Nucleosides are organic compounds that are composed of a nitrogenous base (either adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, uracil, or hypoxanthine) and a pentose sugar (ribose or deoxyribose). They are the building blocks of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA, which are essential for the storage and transmission of genetic information in living organisms. In the medical field, nucleosides are often used as components of antiviral and anticancer drugs, as well as in the treatment of certain genetic disorders.

Oxazines are a class of organic compounds that contain a six-membered heterocyclic ring with two nitrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms. They are commonly used as dyes, pigments, and intermediates in the synthesis of other compounds. In the medical field, oxazines have been studied for their potential use as antiviral agents, anti-inflammatory agents, and as inhibitors of certain enzymes involved in cancer. Some specific examples of oxazines that have been studied in the medical field include oxazepam (a benzodiazepine used to treat anxiety and insomnia), oxazepam (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used to treat pain and inflammation), and oxazolone (an antiviral agent used to treat herpes simplex virus infections).

Hepatitis B antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. There are two types of hepatitis B antibodies: surface antibodies (anti-HBs) and core antibodies (anti-HBc). Surface antibodies are produced after the body has successfully cleared an HBV infection or has been vaccinated against the virus. They are the antibodies that provide protection against future HBV infections. A positive result for anti-HBs indicates that a person has developed immunity to the virus. Core antibodies are produced during the early stages of an HBV infection and can persist for years after the infection has resolved. A positive result for anti-HBc indicates that a person has been infected with HBV in the past, but it does not necessarily mean that they are currently infected or immune to the virus. In the medical field, hepatitis B antibodies are commonly tested as part of routine blood tests to screen for HBV infection and to determine the effectiveness of vaccination against the virus. They are also used to monitor the progression of chronic HBV infection and to assess the response to antiviral therapy.

Antiretroviral therapy, highly active (HAART) is a combination of medications used to treat HIV/AIDS. It involves taking multiple antiretroviral drugs at the same time to suppress the virus and prevent it from multiplying in the body. HAART has been shown to significantly improve the health and lifespan of people living with HIV/AIDS, and has made it possible for many individuals to achieve viral suppression and maintain undetectable levels of the virus in their blood. The use of HAART has revolutionized the treatment of HIV/AIDS and has helped to reduce the transmission of the virus.

"Gene Products, pol" refers to a group of proteins that are produced by the polymerase (pol) genes. These proteins are involved in various cellular processes, including DNA replication, repair, and transcription. In the medical field, the term "Gene Products, pol" may be used in the context of genetic disorders or diseases that are caused by mutations in the pol genes, such as certain types of cancer or inherited disorders that affect the immune system. Additionally, the term may be used in the context of gene therapy, where the goal is to replace or repair defective pol genes in order to treat or prevent these diseases.

Nelfinavir is an antiretroviral medication used to treat HIV/AIDS. It is a protease inhibitor, which means it works by blocking the enzyme HIV uses to replicate itself. Nelfinavir is typically used in combination with other antiretroviral medications to help control the virus and prevent the progression of HIV/AIDS. It is usually taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules. Nelfinavir can cause side effects such as nausea, diarrhea, and liver problems, and it may interact with other medications. It is important to take nelfinavir exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider to ensure its effectiveness and to minimize the risk of side effects.

Zalcitabine, also known by its brand name Hivid, is a medication used to treat HIV/AIDS. It is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), which means it works by blocking the enzyme reverse transcriptase, which is essential for the replication of the HIV virus. Zalcitabine is typically used in combination with other antiretroviral medications to help control the virus and prevent the progression of HIV/AIDS. It is usually taken by mouth, although it can also be given by injection. Zalcitabine can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, and fatigue. It can also increase the risk of certain types of cancer, including liver cancer and certain types of leukemia. Therefore, it is important to carefully monitor patients taking zalcitabine and to follow the recommended dosage and monitoring guidelines.

Guanine is a nitrogenous base that is found in DNA and RNA. It is one of the four nitrogenous bases that make up the genetic code, along with adenine, cytosine, and thymine (in DNA) or uracil (in RNA). Guanine is a purine base, which means it has a double ring structure consisting of a six-membered pyrimidine ring fused to a five-membered imidazole ring. It is one of the two purine bases found in DNA and RNA, the other being adenine. Guanine plays a critical role in the structure and function of DNA and RNA, as it forms hydrogen bonds with cytosine in DNA and with uracil in RNA, which helps to stabilize the double helix structure of these molecules.

Lopinavir is an antiretroviral medication used to treat HIV/AIDS. It is a protease inhibitor, which means it works by blocking the enzyme that the virus uses to replicate itself. Lopinavir is usually taken in combination with another antiretroviral medication to increase its effectiveness and reduce the risk of drug resistance. It is typically prescribed to people with HIV who have not yet developed resistance to other antiretroviral medications. Lopinavir is available in tablet form and is usually taken twice a day with food.

HIV Reverse Transcriptase is an enzyme that is produced by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It plays a critical role in the replication of the virus within infected cells. The enzyme converts the viral RNA genome into a complementary DNA (cDNA) molecule, which can then be integrated into the host cell's genome. This process is known as reverse transcription and is a key step in the viral life cycle. HIV Reverse Transcriptase inhibitors are a class of antiretroviral drugs that target this enzyme and are used in the treatment of HIV infection.

Ritonavir is an antiretroviral medication used to treat HIV/AIDS. It is a protease inhibitor, which means it works by blocking the enzyme HIV uses to replicate itself in the body. Ritonavir is often used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs to increase their effectiveness and reduce the risk of drug resistance. It is typically taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules. Ritonavir can also be used to treat other viral infections, such as hepatitis C, and to prevent organ transplant rejection.

CD4 lymphocyte count is a laboratory test that measures the number of CD4 cells, a type of white blood cell, in a person's blood. CD4 cells, also known as T cells, are an important part of the immune system and play a key role in fighting off infections and diseases. A low CD4 lymphocyte count is a sign that a person's immune system is weakened, which can make them more susceptible to infections and certain types of cancer. This condition is commonly seen in people with HIV/AIDS, as the virus attacks and destroys CD4 cells. In addition to being used to monitor the progression of HIV/AIDS, CD4 lymphocyte count is also used to monitor the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is used to treat HIV/AIDS. As a person's CD4 count increases while on ART, it is a sign that their immune system is improving and they are responding well to treatment. Overall, CD4 lymphocyte count is an important diagnostic and monitoring tool in the medical field, particularly in the management of HIV/AIDS.

Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) is a type of cytokine, which is a signaling protein produced by immune cells in response to viral infections or other stimuli. IFN-alpha has antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory effects, and is used in the treatment of various medical conditions, including viral infections such as hepatitis B and C, certain types of cancer, and autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. IFN-alpha is typically administered as an injection or infusion, and can cause a range of side effects, including flu-like symptoms, fatigue, and depression.

Dideoxynucleotides are modified nucleotides that lack a hydroxyl group at the 3' carbon of the deoxyribose sugar. They are used as chain terminators in DNA sequencing reactions. In these reactions, dideoxynucleotides are incorporated into the growing DNA strand instead of the regular deoxynucleotides. Since they cannot be extended further, they act as chain terminators, allowing the sequence of the DNA to be determined by identifying the order of the incorporated dideoxynucleotides. Dideoxynucleotides are also used in the treatment of certain viral infections, such as HIV, by inhibiting viral DNA replication.

In the medical field, recurrence refers to the reappearance of a disease or condition after it has been treated or has gone into remission. Recurrence can occur in various medical conditions, including cancer, infections, and autoimmune diseases. For example, in cancer, recurrence means that the cancer has come back after it has been treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or other treatments. Recurrence can occur months, years, or even decades after the initial treatment. In infections, recurrence means that the infection has returned after it has been treated with antibiotics or other medications. Recurrence can occur due to incomplete treatment, antibiotic resistance, or other factors. In autoimmune diseases, recurrence means that the symptoms of the disease return after they have been controlled with medication. Recurrence can occur due to changes in the immune system or other factors. Overall, recurrence is a significant concern for patients and healthcare providers, as it can require additional treatment and can impact the patient's quality of life.

Liver cirrhosis is a chronic liver disease characterized by the replacement of healthy liver tissue with scar tissue, leading to a loss of liver function. This scarring, or fibrosis, is caused by a variety of factors, including chronic alcohol abuse, viral hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and autoimmune liver diseases. As the liver becomes increasingly damaged, it becomes less able to perform its many functions, such as filtering toxins from the blood, producing bile to aid in digestion, and regulating blood sugar levels. This can lead to a range of symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, abdominal pain, jaundice, and confusion. In advanced cases, liver cirrhosis can lead to liver failure, which can be life-threatening. Treatment options for liver cirrhosis depend on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, liver transplantation.

RNA, Viral refers to the genetic material of viruses that are composed of RNA instead of DNA. Viral RNA is typically single-stranded and can be either positive-sense or negative-sense. Positive-sense RNA viruses can be directly translated into proteins by the host cell's ribosomes, while negative-sense RNA viruses require a complementary positive-sense RNA intermediate before protein synthesis can occur. Viral RNA is often encapsidated within a viral capsid and can be further protected by an envelope made of lipids and proteins derived from the host cell. RNA viruses include a wide range of pathogens that can cause diseases in humans and other organisms, such as influenza, hepatitis C, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus responsible for COVID-19).

Cytidine triphosphate (CTP) is a nucleotide that plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including DNA and RNA synthesis, energy metabolism, and the synthesis of important biomolecules such as phospholipids and sphingolipids. CTP is composed of three components: a cytidine base, a ribose sugar, and three phosphate groups. It is synthesized from cytidine diphosphate (CDP) and ATP through the action of the enzyme CTP synthase. In the context of DNA and RNA synthesis, CTP is a building block for the synthesis of the nucleic acids. It is used to synthesize the RNA nucleotide cytidine monophosphate (CMP), which is then used to synthesize RNA. In the synthesis of DNA, CTP is used to synthesize the DNA nucleotide thymidine triphosphate (TTP), which is then used to synthesize DNA. In energy metabolism, CTP is involved in the synthesis of ATP through a process called the creatine kinase reaction. In this reaction, CTP is converted to creatine phosphate, which is then used to synthesize ATP. Overall, CTP is a vital molecule in many biological processes and plays a crucial role in maintaining cellular function.

Arabinofuranosyluracil, also known as araU or ara-U, is a nucleoside that is a component of DNA and RNA. It is a modified form of uracil, with an arabinofuranosyl group attached to the nitrogen atom at position 5 of the pyrimidine ring. In DNA, araU is incorporated into the sugar-phosphate backbone as araU dT, where dT is thymidine. In RNA, araU is incorporated into the sugar-phosphate backbone as araU A, where A is adenine.

Immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as viruses, bacteria, and toxins. They are Y-shaped molecules that recognize and bind to specific antigens, which are molecules found on the surface of pathogens. There are five main classes of immunoglobulins: IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE. Each class has a unique structure and function, and they are produced by different types of immune cells in response to different types of pathogens. Immunoglobulins play a critical role in the immune response by neutralizing pathogens, marking them for destruction by other immune cells, and activating the complement system, which helps to destroy pathogens. They are also used in medical treatments, such as immunoglobulin replacement therapy for patients with primary immunodeficiencies, and in the development of vaccines and monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of various diseases.

2-Aminopurine is a nucleobase that is structurally similar to adenine, but with an amino group (-NH2) replacing the hydrogen atom at the 2-position of the pyrimidine ring. It is not a naturally occurring nucleobase in DNA or RNA, but it can be incorporated into nucleic acids by chemical modification or enzymatic incorporation. In the medical field, 2-aminopurine has been used as a fluorescent probe for studying DNA and RNA structure and dynamics. It can also be used as a substitute for adenine in DNA synthesis, which can be useful for studying the effects of different nucleobases on DNA replication and repair. Additionally, 2-aminopurine has been used as a mutagen in genetic studies, as it can cause mutations when incorporated into DNA during replication.

Anti-Retroviral Agents (ARVs) are medications used to treat and manage HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infections. These drugs work by inhibiting the replication of the HIV virus in the body, thereby reducing the amount of virus in the blood and preventing the progression of the disease to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). ARVs are typically used in combination therapy, also known as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which involves taking multiple ARVs at the same time to increase the effectiveness of treatment and reduce the risk of drug resistance. ARVs are available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquids, and are typically taken once or twice a day, depending on the specific medication and the patient's individual needs. While ARVs can significantly improve the quality of life and life expectancy of people living with HIV, they are not a cure for the disease and must be taken indefinitely to maintain viral suppression.

Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are a group of water-soluble polymers that are commonly used in the medical field as solvents, dispersants, and stabilizers. They are made by polymerizing ethylene oxide and have a hydroxyl (-OH) group at each end of the molecule. PEGs are used in a variety of medical applications, including as a carrier for drugs and other therapeutic agents, as a lubricant for medical devices, and as an ingredient in various medical products such as ointments, creams, and lotions. They are also used in diagnostic imaging agents, such as contrast agents for X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PEGs are generally considered to be safe for use in humans, although high doses or prolonged exposure may cause irritation or allergic reactions. They are also used in food and personal care products, and are generally recognized as safe for these applications as well.

Do not prescribe lamivudine/zidovudine, abacavir/lamivudine, or abacavir/lamivudine/zidovudine to patients taking emtricitabine ... "3TC (lamivudine, Epivir)". Catie. 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2022. "Epivir- lamivudine tablet, film coated Epivir- lamivudine ... Lamivudine/zidovudine (with zidovudine) Abacavir/lamivudine (with abacavir) Abacavir/lamivudine/zidovudine (with zidovudine and ... Lamivudine may be included as part of post-exposure prevention in those who have been potentially exposed to HIV. Lamivudine is ...
Dolutegravir/lamivudine/tenofovir alafenamide. Gilead announced a Phase III clinical trial evaluating a single-tablet regimen ... "Tentative Approval: Dolutegravir, Lamivudine, and Tenofovir Alafenamide Tablets" (PDF). US Food and Drug Administration. 30 ...
3TC is also called lamivudine. From 1998 to 2000, Wainberg was President of the International AIDS Society. He was Co-Chair of ...
Lamivudine was the first approved oral nucleoside analogue. While effective and potent, lamivudine has been replaced by newer, ... Lamivudine as a single treatment is contraindicated in patients coinfected with HIV, as resistance develops rapidly, but it can ... Lamivudine is generally safe and well tolerated. Many patients develop resistance, which is correlated with longer treatment ... It is preferred to adefovir both in lamivudine-resistant patients and as initial treatment since it is both more potent and ...
Lamivudine is not toxic to mitochondria in vivo. Individuals who had been taking didanosine combined with stavudine exhibited ... 1997). "Effect of lamivudine on morphology and function of mitochondria in patients with chronic hepatitis B." Hepatology. 26 ( ... Lamivudine has reverse chirality compared to didanosine, stavudine, zidovudine, and natural nucleosides. Mitochondrial DNA ... 2008). "Changes in metabolic toxicity after switching from stavudine/didanosine to tenofovir/lamivudine--a Staccato trial ...
"Antiviral and Cellular Metabolism Interactions between Dexelvucitabine and Lamivudine". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. ...
Lamivudine/raltegravir, a combination with lamivudine, is also available. Raltegravir was initially approved only for use in ...
Abacavir/dolutegravir/lamivudine, a combination with abacavir and lamivudine is also available. As of 2019, the World Health ... Ciccullo A, Baldin G, Borghetti A, Di Giambenedetto S (April 2020). "Dolutegravir plus lamivudine for the treatment of HIV-1 ... August 2021). "HIV Treatment with the Two-Drug Regimen Dolutegravir Plus Lamivudine in Real-world Clinical Practice: A ...
Other examples include 2-hydroxytetrahydrothiophene and the anti-HIV drug Lamivudine. Another class of isolable hemithioacetals ... "Enantioselective enzymatic synthesis of the anti-viral agent lamivudine (3TC™)". Tetrahedron Letters. 36 (38): 6961-6964. doi: ...
Lamivudine, also called 3TC, has the trade name Zeffix and Epivir. It is approved for the treatment of both HIV and hepatitis B ... Sarafianos, SG; Das, K; Clark Jr, AD; Ding, J; Boyer, PL; Hughes, SH; Arnold, E (1999). "Lamivudine (3TC) resistance in HIV-1 ... Emtricitabine, also called FTC, has the trade name Emtriva (formerly Coviracil). Structurally similar to lamivudine, it is ... It is also used in a combination tablet as doravirine/lamivudine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Delstrigo). Elsulfavirine, sold ...
2007) Formulation and evaluation of ethosomes for transdermal delivery of lamivudine. AAPS Pharm Sci Tech., 21;8: E111. Mao X, ...
2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (lamivudine, 3TC) was discovered by Bernard Belleau. The history of lamivudine can be traced back ... Lamivudine was developed as the sulfur analogue of zalcitabine (see table 2). It was initially synthesized as a racemic mixture ... Lamivudine is the negative enantiomer and is a pyrimidine nucleoside analogue. The 3' carbon of the ribose ring of 2'- ... It is similar in many ways to lamivudine and is active against both HIV-1 and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Carbocyclic analogues of ...
Mark Wainberg, 71, Canadian medical researcher, co-discoverer of lamivudine, asthma. Sheila Abdus-Salaam, 65, American judge, ...
March 2006). "A comparison of entecavir and lamivudine for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B". The New England Journal of ... March 2006). "Entecavir versus lamivudine for patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B". The New England Journal of ... June 2006). "Entecavir for treatment of lamivudine-refractory, HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B". Gastroenterology. 130 (7): ... Other nucleoside and nucleotide analogues include lamivudine, telbivudine, adefovir dipivoxil, and tenofovir. Entecavir reduces ...
One patent covers compounds intended to treat hepatitis B in synergy with lamivudine; another relates to recyclable packaging ...
Katz LH, Fraser A, Gafter-Gvili A, Leibovici L, Tur-Kaspa R (February 2008). "Lamivudine prevents reactivation of hepatitis B ... Gan SI, Devlin SM, Scott-Douglas NW, Burak KW (October 2005). "Lamivudine for the treatment of membranous glomerulopathy ... These include antiviral medications lamivudine, adefovir, tenofovir disoproxil, tenofovir alafenamide, telbivudine, and ...
In 1992, they first published on lamivudine (3TC) in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. This drug became one of the most ... Lamivudine, and Telbivudine. In 2018, Schinazi received the Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur, the French Legion of Honor, with ...
Due to its known safety profile and extensive use in pregnant patients, zidovudine-lamivudine is the preferred choice as the ... For women who are coinfected with hepatitis B, tenofovir with either emtricitabine or lamivudine is the preferred NRTI backbone ... Premature newborns should only receive zidovudine, lamivudine, and/or nevirapine based on toxicity testing. Newborns who were ...
"A Phase II Open-Label Exploratory Study of Saquinavir + Zidovudine + Lamivudine in HIV Infected Patients". Hoffmann-La Roche. ... in addition to providing clinical data leading to FDA approval of lamivudine, indinavir, ritonavir and saquinavir.[citation ...
It is sold both by itself and together as lamivudine/zidovudine and abacavir/lamivudine/zidovudine. It can be used by mouth or ... AZT has been used for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in combination with another antiretroviral drug called lamivudine. ...
Peginterferon Alfa-2a, lamivudine, and the combination for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(26):2682- ... "Early" is superior to "deferred" pre-emptive lamivudine therapy for hepatitis B patients undergoing chemotherapy. ...
August 2005). "A 1-year trial of telbivudine, lamivudine, and the combination in patients with hepatitis B e antigen-positive ... December 2007). "Telbivudine versus lamivudine in patients with chronic hepatitis B". The New England Journal of Medicine. 357 ... Clinical trials have shown it to be significantly more effective than lamivudine or adefovir, and less likely to cause ... that telbivudine put patients at greater risk for myopathy and peripheral neuropathy than the comparator drug lamivudine. FDA ...
Tyrrell's research into viral hepatitis lead to the development of the oral antiviral drug lamivudine. This treatment enabled ...
... than lamivudine combined with the two drugs. Very common (> 10%) side effects include dizziness, elevated liver enzymes, ... "Novel nucleoside analogue FNC is effective against both wild-type and lamivudine-resistant HBV clinical isolates". Antiviral ... transcriptase inhibitor showed good drug combination features and better inhibition on drug-resistant strains than lamivudine ...
It is structurally related to lamivudine and emtricitabine, and, like these, is an analogue of cytidine. It was first developed ... In vitro, apricitabine is effective against NRTI-(lamivudine and zidovudine)-resistant virus strains, including M184V and ... and upper respiratory infection-similar to those of lamivudine; apricitabine was not associated with abnormal lipase levels, ... results from simultaneous provision of the drug alongside two other marketed drugs when compared to those drugs with lamivudine ...
It is very similar to lamivudine (3TC) and cross-resistance between the two is near-universal.[medical citation needed] US ...
AZT plus lamivudine or AZT plus lamivudine plus indinavir. Just like Study 035, patients couldn't be in the study if they had ... 97 patients were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: indinavir monotherapy, AZT and lamivudine, or all three agents. ... September 1997). "Treatment with indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine in adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection ... and none of the thirty patients in AZT and lamivudine group got below 500 copies. This study took a look at clinical efficiency ...
... and Lamivudine in Adults with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Prior Antiretroviral Therapy". New England Journal of ...
"High throughput LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of lamivudine, stavudine and nevirapine in human plasma". ...
The main benefit of adefovir over lamivudine (the first NRTI approved for the treatment of HBV) is that it takes a much longer ... "Long-term therapy with adefovir dipivoxil in hepatitis B e antigen-negative patients developing resistance to lamivudine". ...
Lamivudine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Lamivudine comes as a tablet and oral solution (liquid) to take by mouth. Lamivudine (Epivir) is usually taken once or twice a ... Lamivudine controls HIV and hepatitis B infection and but does not cure them. Continue to take lamivudine even if you feel well ... Before taking lamivudine,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to lamivudine, any other medications, or any of ...
AVAC is an international non-profit organization that leverages its independent voice and global partnerships to accelerate ethical development and equitable delivery of effective HIV prevention options, as part of a comprehensive and integrated pathway to global health equity. Find more at www.prepwatch.org and www.stiwatch.org.. ...
Doravirine, lamivudine, and tenofovir is a combination medicine used to treat HIV, the virus that can cause acquired ... lamivudine, and tenofovir are antiviral medicines that prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from multiplying in your body ... What is doravirine, lamivudine, and tenofovir? What is doravirine, lamivudine, and tenofovir?. Doravirine, lamivudine, and ... doravirine, lamivudine, and tenofovir doravirine, lamivudine, and tenofovir. Pronunciation: DOR a VIR een, la MIV ue deen, and ...
Lamivudine, and Zidovudine) may treat, side effects, dosage, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and ... Lamivudine. Lamivudine is a synthetic nucleoside analogue. Intracellularly, lamivudine is phosphorylated to its active 5- ... Lamivudine. Lamivudine did not affect male or female fertility in rats at doses up to 4,000 mg per kg per day, associated with ... Lamivudine. The chemical name of lamivudine is (2R,cis)-4-amino-1-(2-hydroxymethyl-1,3- oxathiolan-5-yl)-(1H)-pyrimidin-2-one. ...
Lamivudine is usually taken twice daily. It is usually given in combination with at least two other antiretroviral agents to ... Lamivudine - Dosage and How to Use. How should Lamivudine be used?. Lamivudine is usually taken twice daily. It is usually ... Missing doses makes Lamivudine less effective and may also make the virus resistant to Lamivudine and other possible ...
... Data Presented at 54th ... Lamivudine-resistant HBV (confirmed "YMDD" mutation) was detected in patients a median of 21.3 months prior to initiating ... Study 460i is a single-center, open-label study of Hepsera in chronic hepatitis B patients with lamivudine-resistant HBV and co ... Changes in serum creatinine were observed very commonly in patients with pre- and post-transplantation lamivudine-resistant ...
Assessment of the relative potency of emtricitabine and lamivudine. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2003;34:243-5, author reply 5- ... Lack of Effect of Lamivudine on Ebola Virus Replication Lisa Hensley, Julie Dyall, Gene G. Olinger, and Peter B. Jahrling. ...
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  • Trizivir (abacavir sulfate, lamivudine, and zidovudine) is a type of antiviral medication called a reverse transcriptase inhibitor used to treat HIV , which causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( AIDS ). (rxlist.com)
  • Serious and sometimes fatal hypersensitivity reactions, with multiple organ involvement, have occurred with abacavir, a component of TRIZIVIR (abacavir, lamivudine, and zidovudine). (rxlist.com)
  • Simplification to Abacavir/Lamivudine + Atazanavir Maintains Viral Suppression and Improves Bone and Renal Biomarkers in ASSURE, a Randomized, Open Label, Non-Inferiority Trial. (aidshealth.org)
  • Epivir contains a higher dose of lamivudine than Epivir-HBV. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Treatment with Epivir-HBV in patients infected with HIV may cause the HIV virus to be less treatable with lamivudine and other medicines. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Lamivudine (Epivir) is used along with other medications to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adults and children 3 months of age and older. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Lamivudine (Epivir-HBV) is used to treat hepatitis B infection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Lamivudine (Epivir) is usually taken once or twice a day with or without food. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Lamivudine (Epivir-HBV) is usually taken once a day. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Combivir is a combination of lamivudine (Epivir) and zidovudine (Retrovir), both components are active against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and inhibit the activity of reverse transcriptase blocking the production of DNA and new viruses. (modafinia.com)
  • What is the most important information I should know about doravirine, lamivudine, and tenofovir? (cigna.com)
  • Doravirine, lamivudine, and tenofovir are antiviral medicines that prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from multiplying in your body. (cigna.com)
  • Doravirine, lamivudine, and tenofovir is a combination medicine used to treat HIV, the virus that can cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (cigna.com)
  • Doravirine, lamivudine, and tenofovir may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (cigna.com)
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking doravirine, lamivudine, and tenofovir? (cigna.com)
  • You should not use this medicine if you are allergic to doravirine, lamivudine, or tenofovir. (cigna.com)
  • Some drugs should not be used together with doravirine, lamivudine, and tenofovir. (cigna.com)
  • You may be more likely to have a broken bone while using doravirine, lamivudine, and tenofovir. (cigna.com)
  • How should I take doravirine, lamivudine, and tenofovir? (cigna.com)
  • If you also take a medicine called rifabutin, you may need to take an extra dose of doravirine (Pifeltro) about 12 hours after you take the doravirine, lamivudine, and tenofovir combination (Delstrigo). (cigna.com)
  • Tenofovir combined with lamivudine and efavirenz has proven excellent efficacy, but there is little experience when given with NVP. (uni-frankfurt.de)
  • Providing you the best range of avonza tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, lamivudine, efavirenz tablets, lamivudine and zidovudine tablets and pletoz 50 with effective & timely delivery. (tradebeyondborders.in)
  • It is a combination of three different drugs, tenofovir, lamivudine and efavirenz. (tradebeyondborders.in)
  • These agents are classified according to their chemical structures: the three nucleoside analogues include lamivudine, telbivudine and entecavir, whereas the two nucleotide analogues include adefovir dipivoxil, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), [ 2 ] and the newly approved tenofovir alafenamide (TAF). (medscape.com)
  • Switching to the 2-drug regimen of dolutegravir/lamivudine (DTG/3TC) fixed-dose combination is noninferior to continuing a 3-drug regimen through 48 weeks in a randomized clinical trial (SALSA). (viivexchange.com)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to lamivudine, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in lamivudine tablets or oral solution. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Each white to off-white, modified capsule-shaped, biconvex, film-coated tablets with deep breakline in between 'J' and '59' on one side and deep breakline on the other side, contains 150 mg of lamivudine and 300 mg of zidovudine. (rxhealthmed.ca)
  • Assessment of the relative potency of emtricitabine and lamivudine. (cdc.gov)
  • Lamivudine is in a class of medications called nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Lamivudine and zidovudine belong to a class of medications called nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). (rxhealthmed.ca)
  • Lamivudine controls HIV and hepatitis B infection and but does not cure them. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Lamivudine is also used sometimes in combination with other medications to treat healthcare workers or other individuals exposed to HIV infection after accidental contact with HIV-contaminated blood, tissues, or other body fluids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The study enrolled 35 patients with controlled HIV infection (mean baseline HIV RNA serum level of 2.88 log(10) copies/mL by Roche Amplicor Monitor PCR) who were receiving lamivudine 150 mg twice daily as part of their combination anti-HIV treatment regimen for a median of 42.3 months prior to enrollment. (gilead.com)
  • Lamivudine and zidovudine are used in combination to treat HIV infection by preventing reverse transcriptase from working properly. (rxhealthmed.ca)
  • However, in these reports, the main infection genotype is D. Furthermore, if lamivudine improves survival, prognostic factors fof fulminant hepatitis B may differ from those reported previously. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The aim of this study was to clarify the prognostic factors and the efficacy of lamivudine for fulminant hepatitis B in Japan, where the main infection genotype is B. Methods: This study was a retrospective cohort study. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Conclusion: This study suggests the efficacy of lamivudine for fulminant hepatitis B in the area where the main infection genotype is B. We consider that lamivudine is worth administering to patients with fulminant hepatitis B. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Although lamivudine does not cure HIV, it may decrease your chance of developing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and HIV-related illnesses such as serious infections or cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Lamivudine-resistant HBV (confirmed "YMDD" mutation) was detected in patients a median of 21.3 months prior to initiating treatment with Hepsera. (gilead.com)
  • Aggravation of chronic liver disease hepatitis B is possible when treatment with Combivir is finished as its virus causative agent becomes resistant to lamivudine. (modafinia.com)
  • Suboptimal responses to lamivudine or telbivudine plus adefovir (LAM/LdT+ADV) rescue therapy are common in patients with LAM-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. (e-cmh.org)
  • The widespread use of antiviral agents with low genetic barriers to resistance, such as lamivudine (LAM), adefovir (ADV), telbivudine (LdT), and clevudine (approved in South Korea), as initial treatment is one of the main causes of the high prevalence of genotypic resistance to NUCs among patients with CHB in Asian countries [ 10 ]. (e-cmh.org)
  • The recommended dose for adults and adolescents 12 years of age and older, weighing at least 30 kg, is one tablet (150 mg of lamivudine and 300 mg of zidovudine) twice daily. (rxhealthmed.ca)
  • For adults weighing less than 30 kg (70 pounds), children below 12 years of age, and people with reduced kidney function, it is recommended that lamivudine and zidovudine be taken separately so each medication dose can be adjusted as needed. (rxhealthmed.ca)
  • The development of resistance - which emerges in up to 90 percent of immunocompromised HBV-infected patients after four years of therapy with lamivudine - can lead to progression of chronic hepatitis B," said Dr. Benhamou. (gilead.com)
  • Study 460i is a single-center, open-label study of Hepsera in chronic hepatitis B patients with lamivudine-resistant HBV and co-infected with HIV. (gilead.com)
  • Chronic hepatitis B treatment: the cost-effectiveness of interferon compared to lamivudine. (bvsalud.org)
  • To perform a cost-effectiveness evaluation from the perspective of the Brazilian National Health System of alternatives strategies (i.e., conventional interferon , pegylated interferon , and lamivudine ) for the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B who present elevated aminotransferase levels and no evidence of cirrhosis at the beginning of treatment . (bvsalud.org)
  • BOSTON, Oct 28, 2003 (BUSINESS WIRE) -- Gilead Sciences (Nasdaq:GILD) today announced that treatment with its once-daily, oral antiviral agent Hepsera(R) (adefovir dipivoxil 10 mg) was associated with sustained reductions in levels of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA through 144 weeks (approximately three years) among patients chronically infected with lamivudine-resistant HBV and co-infected with HIV. (gilead.com)
  • Results: Lamivudine was administered to 10 patients. (elsevierpure.com)
  • There were no differences in clinical features at the time of the diagnosis of fulminant hepatitis B between patients treated with and without lamivudine. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Survival rates of patients treated with and without lamivudine were 70% and 26%, respectively. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The survival rates of patients treated with and without lamivudine, who were in a state of systemic inflammatory response syndrome, were 50% and 9%, and in patients aged ≥45 years, 50% and 8%, respectively. (elsevierpure.com)
  • For HBeAg negative patients , it was observed that interferon (48 weeks) compared with long-term lamivudine presented an increase of 0.45 discounted life -years gained and ICER of US$15,766.90 per life -year gained. (bvsalud.org)
  • For HBeAg negative patients , conventional interferon (48 weeks) compared to lamivudine provided more life -years gained at a favorable ICER. (bvsalud.org)
  • Le succès de cette étape nécessite également le rapprochement entre pédiatres et médecins d'adultes pour une prise en charge optimal des patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • If you miss doses or stop taking lamivudine, your condition may become more difficult to treat. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Missing doses makes Lamivudine less effective and may also make the virus resistant to Lamivudine and other possible antiretroviral agents. (singhealth.com.sg)
  • Objective: The efficacy of lamivudine for fulminant hepatitis B has been reported in Europe and West Asia. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Lamivudine treatment improves the prognosis of fulminant hepatitis B'. Together they form a unique fingerprint. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Lamivudine treatment improves the prognosis of fulminant hepatitis B . Internal Medicine , 47 (14), 1293-1299. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Separately zidovudine and lamivudine may not be so effective as their combination which makes it more difficult for HIV to produce high resistant strains. (modafinia.com)
  • The effectiveness of the medication depends on the right amount of lamivudine and zidovudine in the bloodstream. (rxhealthmed.ca)
  • Your doctor may test you to see if you have HBV before you begin your treatment with lamivudine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ce constat relève la nécessité de mettre en route les politiques de sensibilisation pour cibler les populations clés et amener le plus grand nombre au dépistage de l'infection par le Virus de l'Immunodéficience Humaine si l'on veut diminuer la courbe de transmission. (bvsalud.org)
  • Talk to your doctor about the risks of taking lamivudine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cost - effectiveness acceptability curve for HBeAg positive (pegylated interferon vs. conventional interferon ) and negative (conventional interferon vs. lamivudine ) showed that conventional interferon was cost -effective until three times the gross domestic product per capita. (bvsalud.org)
  • Your doctor will examine you and order lab tests regularly for several months after you stop taking lamivudine to see if your HBV has worsened. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Age (≥45 years), systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and non-admimistration of lamivudine were associated with fatal outcomes. (elsevierpure.com)