Lamivudine: A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Stavudine: A dideoxynucleoside analog that inhibits reverse transcriptase and has in vitro activity against HIV.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Dideoxynucleosides: Nucleosides that have two hydroxy groups removed from the sugar moiety. The majority of these compounds have broad-spectrum antiretroviral activity due to their action as antimetabolites. The nucleosides are phosphorylated intracellularly to their 5'-triphosphates and act as chain-terminating inhibitors of viral reverse transcription.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Nevirapine: A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Benzoxazines: OXAZINES with a fused BENZENE ring.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Indinavir: A potent and specific HIV protease inhibitor that appears to have good oral bioavailability.Didanosine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. Didanosine is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase; ddI is then metabolized to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, its putative active metabolite.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.PyrimidinonesNucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Oxazines: Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutation.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Gene Products, pol: Retroviral proteins coded by the pol gene. They are usually synthesized as a protein precursor (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into final products that include reverse transcriptase, endonuclease/integrase, and viral protease. Sometimes they are synthesized as a gag-pol fusion protein (FUSION PROTEINS, GAG-POL). pol is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Nelfinavir: A potent HIV protease inhibitor. It is used in combination with other antiviral drugs in the treatment of HIV in both adults and children.Zalcitabine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication at low concentrations, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal toxic side effect is axonal degeneration resulting in peripheral neuropathy.GuanineLopinavir: An HIV protease inhibitor used in a fixed-dose combination with RITONAVIR. It is also an inhibitor of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.HIV Reverse Transcriptase: A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.Ritonavir: An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Interferon-alpha: One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.Dideoxynucleotides: The phosphate esters of DIDEOXYNUCLEOSIDES.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.HIV Protease Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Cytidine Triphosphate: Cytidine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Arabinofuranosyluracil: A pyrimidine nucleoside formed in the body by the deamination of CYTARABINE.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.2-Aminopurine: A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).Therapeutic Equivalency: The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.

Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by combination of transcription inhibitor K-12 and other antiretroviral agents in acutely and chronically infected cells. (1/1109)

8-Difluoromethoxy-1-ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-7-[4-(2-methoxyp hen yl)-1- piperazinyl]-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (K-12) has recently been identified as a potent and selective inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transcription. In this study, we examined several combinations of K-12 and other antiretroviral agents for their inhibitory effects on HIV-1 replication in acutely and chronically infected cell cultures. Combinations of K-12 and a reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor, either zidovudine, lamivudine, or nevirapine, synergistically inhibited HIV-1 replication in acutely infected MT-4 cells. The combination of K-12 and the protease inhibitor nelfinavir (NFV) also synergistically inhibited HIV-1, whereas the synergism of this combination was weaker than that of the combinations with the RT inhibitors. K-12 did not enhance the cytotoxicities of RT and protease inhibitors. Synergism of the combinations was also observed in acutely infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The combination of K-12 and cepharanthine, a nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor, synergistically inhibited HIV-1 production in tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated U1 cells, a promonocytic cell line chronically infected with the virus. In contrast, additive inhibition was observed for the combination of K-12 and NFV. These results indicate that the combinations of K-12 and clinically available antiretroviral agents may have potential as chemotherapeutic modalities for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.  (+info)

Treatment with amprenavir alone or amprenavir with zidovudine and lamivudine in adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection. AIDS Clinical Trials Group 347 Study Team. (2/1109)

Amprenavir is a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile and good in vitro activity. Ninety-two lamivudine- and protease inhibitor-naive individuals with >/=50 CD4 cells/mm3 and >/=5000 HIV RNA copies/mL were assigned amprenavir (1200 mg) alone or with zidovudine (300 mg) plus lamivudine (150 mg), all given every 12 h. After a median follow-up of 88 days, the findings of a planned interim review resulted in termination of the amprenavir monotherapy arm. Among 85 subjects with confirmed plasma HIV RNA determination, 15 of 42 monotherapy versus 1 of 43 triple-therapy subjects had an HIV RNA increase above baseline or 1 log10 above nadir (P=.0001). For subjects taking triple therapy at 24 weeks, the median decrease in HIV RNA was 2.04 log10 copies/mL, and 17 (63%) of 27 evaluable subjects had <500 HIV RNA copies/mL. Treatment with amprenavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine together reduced the levels of HIV RNA significantly more than did amprenavir monotherapy.  (+info)

Functional analysis of mutations conferring lamivudine resistance on hepatitis B virus. (3/1109)

Two patterns of mutation are commonly observed in the polymerase gene of lamivudine [(-)2'-deoxy-3'-thiacytidine]-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV). The M539I substitution in the conserved YMDD motif occurs independently of other changes, whereas the M539V substitution is associated with an additional upstream change (L515M). These mutations were introduced into a common background and their effects on HBV DNA replication and lamivudine resistance studied. The L515M and M539V mutations provided only partial resistance while the M539I mutation conferred a high degree of lamivudine resistance. The combination of the L515M and M539V mutations gave an intermediate level of replication competence, compared with either mutation alone, and increased resistance to lamivudine. This probably accounts for these two mutations always being observed together. The M539I mutation reduced replication competence.  (+info)

The cost-effectiveness of treatment with lamivudine and zidovudine compared with zidovudine alone: a comparison of Markov model and trial data estimates. (4/1109)

In this paper, we present a Markov model for estimating the cost-effectiveness of combination therapy with lamivudine (LMV) and zidovudine (ZDV) compared with ZDV alone. We also compare the predictions of the Markov model for the impact of combination therapy on trial period costs with the actual impact of combination therapy on selected trial period costs estimated from data collected during the clinical trials. In the Markov model, disease stages were defined by CD4 cell count. Based on clinical trial data for patients with CD4 counts higher than 100 cells/mm3, the model assumed that the CD4 cell count level could be maintained above the level at the initiation of therapy for 6.5 months with monotherapy and for 18 months with combination therapy. After this period, transition rates for natural disease progression were used. Incremental lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years gained with LMV/ZDV compared with ZDV alone were estimated for cohorts of patients initiating antiretroviral therapy at four different CD4 cell count stages. Cost per life year gained varied from $10,000 to $18,000, and cost per quality-adjusted life year gained varied from $14,000 to $27,000. In both cases, the combination therapy was more cost-effective when started earlier in disease progression. These estimates were not sensitive to changes in key parameter values. In addition, the model was used to estimate the impact of combination therapy on healthcare costs during the trial period; these estimated costs were compared with data on the cost of resource use collected during the clinical trial for hospital stays, unscheduled visits, medications, and outpatient procedures. Both the Markov model estimates and the trial data estimates for the trial period showed cost savings in other medical costs, though these were not large enough to completely offset the increased cost for antiretroviral therapy. The model estimates were more conservative than the estimates based on the trial data.  (+info)

Susceptibility of lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus to other reverse transcriptase inhibitors. (5/1109)

The emergence of resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV), with mutations in the YMDD motif of the polymerase gene after treatment with lamivudine, is becoming an important clinical problem. In this study, susceptibility of wild-type and lamivudine-resistant HBV M552I, M552V, and L528M/M552V mutants to other reverse transcriptase inhibitors was investigated by transient transfection of full-length HBV DNA into human hepatoma cells. HBV DNA replication was monitored by Southern blot hybridization, which showed the presence of a single-stranded band (representative of the HBV replicative intermediates) in the drug-free, wild-type HBV-transfected cells. This band was diminished in the samples of wild-type HBV DNA treated with either lamivudine, adefovir, or lobucavir. The band intensities from the lamivudine-resistant mutants were not decreased by treatment with lamivudine, but were decreased by the treatments with adefovir or lobucavir. In contrast, penciclovir and nevirapine did not diminish the intensity of the single-stranded band of wild-type HBV or the lamivudine-resistant mutants. These results demonstrate that lamivudine-resistant HBV is susceptible to adefovir and lobucavir. Lamivudine-resistant HBV should be treated with adefovir or lobucavir, and combination therapy with lamivudine and adefovir/lobucavir may prevent the emergence of lamivudine-resistant HBV.  (+info)

Use of real-time PCR and fluorimetry to detect lamivudine resistance-associated mutations in hepatitis B virus. (6/1109)

Very rapid amplification of DNA by PCR in small volumes can be continuously monitored by the detection of the binding of probes with a rapid cycler with built-in fluorometric detection. Primers were designed to amplify approximately 100 bp of the polymerase gene of hepatitis B virus (HBV) spanning codon 550, where mutations associated with resistance to lamivudine invariably occur. Four hybridization probes were synthesized: one was 3' labelled with fluorescein and hybridized upstream of codon 550. The others were 5' labelled with Cy5 and 3' labelled with biotin and spanned codon 550. The Cy5-labelled oligonucleotides contained either wild-type (ATG) or mutant (GTG or ATT) sequences. A Cy5-labelled probe and either the fluorescein-labelled probe or Sybr Green 1 (a compound that fluoresces when bound to double-stranded DNA) were included in each PCR. After completion of the amplification by using a LightCycler (Idaho Technology), the temperature at which the Cy5 probe melted from the product was determined in a melt program that took ca. 3 min. Pre- and posttreatment samples from eight patients (five chronic and three transplant) who failed lamivudine treatment were amplified, and the presence of mutations in codon 550 was determined by ABI sequencing and by using the LightCycler; in some cases PCR products were also cloned, and multiple clones were sequenced. Concordant results were obtained in all cases. We found the LightCycler to be better at resolving the sequences of genomic mixtures; for example, two samples showed a sequence at codon 550 of (A/G)T(G/T), which was found by fluorimetry to be mixtures of GTG and ATT but no ATG, and this finding was confirmed by the sequencing of clones. However, this approach was not more sensitive than population sequencing for the detection of the presence of mixtures. Overall, this pilot study has demonstrated an approach that could be an extremely rapid and economical method for the detection of lamivudine resistance-associated mutations in HBV.  (+info)

Single-dose pharmacokinetics and safety of abacavir (1592U89), zidovudine, and lamivudine administered alone and in combination in adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection. (7/1109)

Abacavir (1592U89), a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor with in vitro activity against human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), has been evaluated for efficacy and safety in combination regimens with other nucleoside analogs, including zidovudine (ZDV) and lamivudine (3TC). To evaluate the potential pharmacokinetic interactions between these agents, 15 HIV-1-infected adults with a median CD4(+) cell count of 347 cells/mm3 (range, 238 to 570 cells/mm3) were enrolled in a randomized, seven-period crossover study. The pharmacokinetics and safety of single doses of abacavir (600 mg), ZDV (300 mg), and 3TC (150 mg) were evaluated when each drug was given alone or when any two or three drugs were given concurrently. The concentrations of all drugs in plasma and the concentrations of ZDV and its 5'-glucuronide metabolite, GZDV, in urine were measured for up to 24 h postdosing, and pharmacokinetic parameter values were calculated by noncompartmental methods. The maximum drug concentration (Cmax), the area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0-infinity), time to Cmax (Tmax), and apparent elimination half-life (t1/2) of abacavir in plasma were unaffected by coadministration with ZDV and/or 3TC. Coadministration of abacavir with ZDV (with or without 3TC) decreased the mean Cmax of ZDV by approximately 20% (from 1.5 to 1.2 microg/ml), delayed the median Tmax for ZDV by 0.5 h, increased the mean AUC0-infinity for GZDV by up to 40% (from 11.8 to 16.5 microg. h/ml), and delayed the median Tmax for GZDV by approximately 0.5 h. Coadministration of abacavir with 3TC (with or without ZDV) decreased the mean AUC0-infinity for 3TC by approximately 15% (from 5.1 to 4.3 microg. h/ml), decreased the mean Cmax by approximately 35% (from 1.4 to 0.9 microg/ml), and delayed the median Tmax by approximately 1 h. While these changes were statistically significant, they are similar to the effect of food intake (for ZDV) or affect an inactive metabolite (for GZDV) or are relatively minor (for 3TC) and are therefore not considered to be clinically significant. No significant differences were found in the urinary recoveries of ZDV or GZDV when ZDV was coadministered with abacavir. There was no pharmacokinetic interaction between ZDV and 3TC. Mild to moderate headache, nausea, lymphadenopathy, hematuria, musculoskeletal chest pain, neck stiffness, and fever were the most common adverse events reported by those who received abacavir. Coadministration of ZDV or 3TC with abacavir did not alter this adverse event profile. The three-drug regimen was primarily associated with gastrointestinal events. In conclusion, no clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions occurred between abacavir, ZDV, and 3TC in HIV-1-infected adults. Coadministration of abacavir with ZDV or 3TC produced mild changes in the absorption and possibly the urinary excretion characteristics of ZDV-GZDV and 3TC that were not considered to be clinically significant. Coadministration of abacavir with ZDV and/or 3TC was generally well tolerated and did not produce unexpected adverse events.  (+info)

Potent antiretroviral therapy of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection: partial normalization of T lymphocyte subsets and limited reduction of HIV-1 DNA despite clearance of plasma viremia. (8/1109)

Antiretroviral therapy commenced during primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection (PHI) may limit the extent of viral replication and prevent early loss of HIV-specific CD4 lymphocyte function. We studied the effect of current standard therapy (2 nucleoside analogues and a protease inhibitor) in 16 patients with symptomatic PHI. In the 13 patients who completed 1 year of treatment, plasma HIV RNA was <50 copies/mL and median CD4 cell counts were comparable to HIV-uninfected controls, with naive (CD45RA+CD62L+), primed (CD45RO+), and T cell receptor Vbeta subsets all within normal ranges. However, HIV-1 DNA levels in treated and untreated PHI patients were similar. Furthermore, CD8 cell counts remained elevated, including activated (CD38+HLA-DR+), replicating (Ki-67+), and cytotoxic (perforin+CD28-) lymphocytes. In conclusion, early antiretroviral therapy resulted in clearance of viremia and prevented loss of crucial CD4 subsets. The persistence of HIV-1 DNA together with increased CD8 T lymphocyte turnover and activation indicate continued expression of viral antigens.  (+info)

  • if you have ever had an allergic reaction to any medicine that contains abacavir or lamivudine (Combivir, Epivir, Triumeq, Trizivir, Ziagen). (wellspan.org)
  • In the recent post on the approval of generic Combivir - and the lack of availability of generic Epivir (lamivudine, 3TC), which was both anticipated and likely to be more useful - I speculated there were several possible causes of this surprising turn of events. (jwatch.org)
  • Methods for the direct, lamivudine fass positive selection of recombinant plasmids in Bacillus subtilis have also been described, which are based upon pBD124, which encodes resistance to chloramphenicol as well as a wild type thyA protein which confers trimethoprim-sensitivity upon a thyA-thyB Bacillus subtilis host. (beechwoodjuniorschool.co.uk)
  • Lamivudine/IFN combination did not prevent the emergence of YMDD lamivudine resistance. (unicampania.it)
  • In order to get more than one Register Reward coupon when purchasing more than one of the same qualifying items, lamivudine ymdd the items must be rung up in separate transactions. (marmarismaviyolculuk.com)
  • Lamivudine (LAM) plus adefovir (ADV) combination therapy has been accepted as one of the best treatments for LAM-resistant chronic hepatitis B (CHB). (e-cmh.org)
  • The advertising and detailing of these mixtures have been directed toward promoting their use both in hospitals as initial therapy before an etiologic diagnosis is reached and to practicing physicians for use in mild or poorly defined cases, lamivudine nursing responsibilities in which diagnosis may be difficult and in which bacteriologic confirmation seems not worth bothering about or is impossible to obtain? (marmarismaviyolculuk.com)
  • Dosing of lamivudine is adjusted in accordance with renal function. (medlibrary.org)
  • No additional dosing of lamivudine is required after routine (4-hour) hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.Although there are insufficient data to recommend a specific dose adjustment of lamivudine in pediatric patients with renal impairment, a reduction in the dose and/or an increase in the dosing interval should be considered. (medlibrary.org)
  • The renal clearance of lamivudine is 0.22 plus or minus to 0.06L/h/kg. (myapplepharma.com)
  • Lamivudine is phosphorylated into dynamic 5' triphosphate metabolite intracellularly (lamivudine triphosphate 3TC-TP. (myapplepharma.com)
  • a adição Resposta-Guiada de adefovir à terapia lamivudine-baseada mantem não somente a supressão viral a longo prazo em pacientes crônicos Chineses da hepatite B com cirrose de fígado compensada, a pesquisa sugere, mas igualmente melhora a função de fígado. (news-medical.net)
  • Especificamente, os pacientes com respostas virological completas e parciais ao lamivudine, definido como níveis de HBV de 60 IU/mL ou abaixo e entre 60 IU/mL e 2000 IU/mL, de respectivamente, foram dados o adefovir além do que lamivudine em curso na semana 48. (news-medical.net)
  • Os pesquisadores indicam, contudo, que estas mudanças eram atribuíveis à terapia do lamivudine apenas nos participantes com respostas completas e parciais, mas à combinação de lamivudine e ao adefovir em pacientes inadequados da resposta. (news-medical.net)
  • Assim, os pacientes com uma resposta completa ou parcial ao lamivudine podem tirar proveito da adição de adefovir, para dizer os autores, mas, notando que os níveis do ADN de HBV não diminuíram marcada a semana 24 48 em pacientes parciais da resposta, propor o serviço adicional imediato do adefovir na semana 24. (news-medical.net)
  • The aim of this study was to assess the patterns of lamivudine (LAM)-resistant mutations and the influence on biochemical and virological responses to adefovir (ADV) add-on LAM combination therapy in patients with LAM-resistant chronic hepatitis B (CHB). (wiley.com)
  • In a prospective cohort study, 29 participants with lamivudine-resistant HBV were treated with adefovir (Hepsera) alone, while 23 continued lamivudine and added adefovir. (hivandhepatitis.com)
  • To achieve a complete virological response and reduce the risk of adefovir-resistant mutants in lamivudine-resistant patients, rescue therapy is preferable at early evidence of genotypic resistance,' the authors concluded. (hivandhepatitis.com)
  • Lamivudine-resistant chronic hepatitis B: an observational study on adefovir in monotherapy or in combination with lamivudine. (hivandhepatitis.com)
  • The dosage of lamivudine should be reduced for people who weigh less than 50 kilograms (110 pounds). (thebody.com)
  • A pharmaceutical composition in solid dosage unit form comprising a therapeutically effective amount of a new Lamivudine polymorphic form in combination with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier is also disclosed along with a pharmaceutical composition useful for treating HIV infections in humans. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the virological efficacy of maintenance therapy with atazanavir with ritonavir combined with lamivudine in treatment experienced HIV positive patients with full and stable virological suppression. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Virological breakthrough was preceded by 2 to 4 months by the emergence of quasispecies variants bearing amino acid substitutions at RT position 204, i.e., within the YMDD catalytic motif (rtM204V/I). Three patients had a gradual switch from a YMDD variant population at baseline to a 100% lamivudine-resistant variant population, whereas the remaining patient had a fluctuating pattern of resistance variant dynamics. (asm.org)
  • Dolutegravir and lamivudine performed well in a small study with high rates of virological suppression over 96 weeks. (eatg.org)
  • One person with virological failure developed the M184V mutation, which confers resistance to lamivudine, and also the R263R/K mutation, potentially limiting the effectiveness of dolutegravir. (eatg.org)
  • Changes in serum alanine aminotransferase levels in telbivudine versus lamivudine treatment for chronic hepatitis B: A meta-analysis. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Lamivudine has been used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B at a lower dose than for treatment of HIV/AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Presents a letter to the editor about a case of reactivation of chronic hepatitis B in a patient treated long-term with lamivudine. (ebscohost.com)
  • Lamivudine for the Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B. Dienstag, Jules L. (ebscohost.com)
  • Lamivudine treats HIV and chronic hepatitis B infections. (rxwiki.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the safety and anti-HBV activity of ACH-126, 443 (beta-L-Fd4C) in comparison to lamivudine or placebo in treatment naive adults with chronic Hepat. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Objective: To evaluate the risk and predictors of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients of the large HEPNET.Greece cohort study who received long-term oral antivirals starting with lamivudine monotherapy. (ebscohost.com)
  • As reported in the January 31, 2008 advance online edition of the Journal of Hepatology , Italian investigators compared treatment efficacy, factors predicting response, and HBV mutations in chronic hepatitis B patients with lamivudine resistant virus. (hivandhepatitis.com)
  • In conclusion, the mutational pattern during selection of lamivudine resistant HBV strains differs between genotypes A and D. This may have consequences for a salvage regimen initiated for treatment of lamivudine resistant HBV. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of the study is to establish if human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected adult subjects with current virologic suppression on a 3-drug tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) based regimen (TBR) remain suppressed upon switching to a two-drug regimen of dolutegravir (DTG) 50 milligram (mg) + lamivudine (3TC) 300 mg. (centerwatch.com)
  • Pedro Cahn, M.D., principal investigator for the GEMINI study programme , said: "The Week 96 data from the GEMINI studies demonstrate that the clinical benefits of dolutegravir plus lamivudine we saw at Week 48 are sustainable, allowing us to use these two drugs while still getting efficacy non-inferior to that of a dolutegravir-based 3-drug regimen. (biospace.com)
  • No significant differences in safety were seen among the three regimens, although the low-dose lamivudine regimen appeared to be better tolerated than the others. (annals.org)
  • Lamivudine can cause serious damage to the liver and a condition called lactic acidosis. (rxwiki.com)
  • Rarely, lamivudine-HBV has caused severe (sometimes fatal) liver problems and a buildup of lactic acid in the blood (lactic acidosis). (kaiserpermanente.org)
  • Forty-one patients carrying lamivudine resistant HBV were enrolled. (nih.gov)
  • Resistance to lamivudine may be associated with resistance, reduced sensitivity, or enhanced sensitivity to other antivirals. (bmj.com)
  • The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Science Citation Index, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database, and China Biomedical Database were searched to identify RCTs that evaluated the incidence of YMDD-motif mutation to lamivudine therapy and lamivudine plus OMTR therapies in CHB patients. (hindawi.com)
  • The current data suggest that lamivudine does not directly inhibit EBOV RNA polymerase or replication of the virus. (cdc.gov)