The condition resulting from the absence or deficiency of LACTASE in the MUCOSA cells of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, and the inability to break down LACTOSE in milk for ABSORPTION. Bacterial fermentation of the unabsorbed lactose leads to symptoms that range from a mild indigestion (DYSPEPSIA) to severe DIARRHEA. Lactose intolerance may be an inborn error or acquired.
A measure of a patient's ability to break down lactose.
An enzyme complex that catalyzes the transfer of GALACTOSE from UDP GALACTOSE to GLUCOSE, forming LACTOSE. The enzyme complex is composed of a B subunit, ALPHA-LACTALBUMIN, which changes the substrate specificity of the A subunit, N-ACETYLLACTOSAMINE SYNTHASE, from N-ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE to glucose making lactose synthesis the preferred reaction.
Plasmids which determine the ability of a bacterium to ferment lactose.
An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of LACTOSE to D-GALACTOSE and D-GLUCOSE. Defects in the enzyme cause LACTOSE INTOLERANCE.
Galactosides in which the oxygen atom linking the sugar and aglycone is replaced by a sulfur atom.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Includes ortho-, meta-, and para-nitrophenylgalactosides.
Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of galactose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-galactosides.
A family of galactoside hydrolases that hydrolyze compounds with an O-galactosyl linkage. EC 3.2.1.-.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A slightly acid milk food produced by fermentation due to the combined action of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
A disaccharide consisting of one galactose and one glucose moiety in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.
Production or presence of gas in the gastrointestinal tract which may be expelled through the anus.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Phosphoric acid esters of galactose.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
A major protein fraction of milk obtained from the WHEY.
The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.
A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Bacterial repressor proteins that bind to the LAC OPERON and thereby prevent the synthesis of proteins involved in catabolism of LACTOSE. When lactose levels are high lac repressors undergo an allosteric change that causes their release from the DNA and the resumption of lac operon transcription.
A non-metabolizable galactose analog that induces expression of the LAC OPERON.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.
The multifunctional protein that contains two enzyme domains. The first domain (EC hydrolyzes glycosyl-N-acylsphingosine to a sugar and N-acylsphingosine. The second domain (EC hydrolyzes LACTOSE and is found in the intestinal brush border membrane. Loss of activity for this enzyme in humans results in LACTOSE INTOLERANCE.
Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.
General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A genus of fungus in the family Hypocreaceae, order HYPOCREALES. Anamorphs include TRICHODERMA.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A class of animal lectins that bind specifically to beta-galactoside in a calcium-independent manner. Members of this class are distiguished from other lectins by the presence of a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain. The majority of proteins in this class bind to sugar molecules in a sulfhydryl-dependent manner and are often referred to as S-type lectins, however this property is not required for membership in this class.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An ascomycetous yeast of the fungal family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
The major protein constituents of milk are CASEINS and whey proteins such as LACTALBUMIN and LACTOGLOBULINS. IMMUNOGLOBULINS occur in high concentrations in COLOSTRUM and in relatively lower concentrations in milk. (Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p554)
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which can be epimerized into UDPglucose for entry into the mainstream of carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a source of galactose in the synthesis of lipopolysaccharides, cerebrosides, and lactose.
A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Non-digestible food ingredients mostly of a carbohydrate base that improve human health by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of existing BACTERIA in the COLON.
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A galectin found abundantly in smooth muscle (MUSCLE, SMOOTH) and SKELETAL MUSCLE and many other tissues. It occurs as a homodimer with two 14-kDa subunits.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the formation of galactose 1-phosphate and ADP from ATP and D-galactose. Galactosamine can also act as the acceptor. A deficiency of this enzyme results in GALACTOSEMIA. EC
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A syndrome produced by severe protein deficiency, characterized by retarded growth, changes in skin and hair pigment, edema, and pathologic changes in the liver, including fatty infiltration, necrosis, and fibrosis. The word is a local name in Gold Coast, Africa, meaning "displaced child". Although first reported from Africa, kwashiorkor is now known throughout the world, but mainly in the tropics and subtropics. It is considered to be related to marasmus. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A multifunctional galactin initially discovered as a macrophage antigen that binds to IMMUNOGLOBULIN E, and as 29-35-kDa lectin that binds LAMININ. It is involved in a variety of biological events including interactions with galactose-containing glycoconjugates, cell proliferation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS.
A family of calcium-binding alpha-globulins that are synthesized in the LIVER and play an essential role in maintaining the solubility of CALCIUM in the BLOOD. In addition the fetuins contain aminoterminal cystatin domains and are classified as type 3 cystatins.
The A protein of the lactose synthase complex. In the presence of the B protein (LACTALBUMIN) specificity is changed from N-acetylglucosamine to glucose. EC
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of alpha D-glucose 1-phosphate to alpha D-glucose 6-phosphate. EC
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
A toxic lectin from the seeds of jequirity, Abrus precatorius L. Very active poison. Five different proteins have so far been isolated: Abrus agglutinin, the component responsible for: hemagglutinating activity, & abrins a-d, the toxic principals each consisting of two peptide chains are held together by disulfide bonds.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A rod-shaped bacterium isolated from milk and cheese, dairy products and dairy environments, sour dough, cow dung, silage, and human mouth, human intestinal contents and stools, and the human vagina.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.
A galectin found in the small and large intestine and the stomach. It occurs as a homodimer with two 36-kDa subunits and is localized to sites of cell adhesion where it may play role in assembly of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS.
Expulsion of milk from the mammary alveolar lumen, which is surrounded by a layer of milk-secreting EPITHELIAL CELLS and a network of myoepithelial cells. Contraction of the myoepithelial cells is regulated by neuroendocrine signals.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose cells occur singly, in pairs or short chains, in V or Y configurations, or in clumps resembling letters of the Chinese alphabet. Its organisms are found in cheese and dairy products as well as on human skin and can occasionally cause soft tissue infections.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
Parasitic plants that form a bushy growth on branches of host trees which are in the order Santalales. It includes the Christmas mistletoe family (VISCACEAE), the showy mistletoe family (LORANTHACEAE) and the catkin mistletoe family (Eremolepidaceae). The composition of toxins, lectins, tyramine, phenethylamines, and other compounds may be affected by the host.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A naturally occurring product of plants obtained following reduction of GALACTOSE. It appears as a white crystalline powder with a slight sweet taste. It may form in excess in the lens of the eye in GALACTOSEMIAS, a deficiency of GALACTOKINASE.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
A trisaccharide occurring in Australian manna (from Eucalyptus spp, Myrtaceae) and in cottonseed meal.
The thin, yellow, serous fluid secreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and immediately postpartum before lactation begins. It consists of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates.
Former Netherlands overseas territory in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. It had included the islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, St. Eustatius, and the southern part of St. Martin. The Netherlands Antilles dissolved on October 10, 2010. Aruba, Curacao and Sint Maarten became autonomous territories of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are under the direct administration of the Netherlands. (From US Department of State, Background Note)
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in rhinitis, in urinary incontinence, and in the treatment of ulcers. At high doses it has nicotinic effects resulting in neuromuscular blocking.
A genus of leguminous shrubs or trees, mainly tropical, yielding useful compounds such as ALKALOIDS and PLANT LECTINS.
The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Relating to the size of solids.
Glycosphingolipids which contain as their polar head group a lactose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in lactosylceramide beta-galactosidase, is the cause of lactosylceramidosis.
A device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Hydroxylated benzoic acid derivatives that contain mercury. Some of these are used as sulfhydryl reagents in biochemical studies.
An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.
Compounds that provide LUBRICATION between surfaces in order to reduce FRICTION.
Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of UDPgalactose from UTP and galactose-1-phosphate. It is present in low levels in fetal and infant liver, but increases with age, thereby enabling galactosemic infants who survive to develop the capacity to metabolize galactose. EC
Glucose in blood.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.
An autosomal recessive fructose metabolism disorder due to deficient fructose-1-phosphate aldolase (EC activity, resulting in accumulation of fructose-1-phosphate. The accumulated fructose-1-phosphate inhibits glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, causing severe hypoglycemia following ingestion of fructose. Prolonged fructose ingestion in infants leads ultimately to hepatic failure and death. Patients develop a strong distaste for sweet food, and avoid a chronic course of the disease by remaining on a fructose- and sucrose-free diet.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Allergic reaction to milk (usually cow's milk) or milk products. MILK HYPERSENSITIVITY should be differentiated from LACTOSE INTOLERANCE, an intolerance to milk as a result of congenital deficiency of lactase.
Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.
Hospital department that manages and supervises the dietary program in accordance with the patients' requirements.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A disorder with chronic or recurrent colonic symptoms without a clearcut etiology. This condition is characterized by chronic or recurrent ABDOMINAL PAIN, bloating, MUCUS in FECES, and an erratic disturbance of DEFECATION.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Derived proteins or mixtures of cleavage products produced by the partial hydrolysis of a native protein either by an acid or by an enzyme. Peptones are readily soluble in water, and are not precipitable by heat, by alkalis, or by saturation with ammonium sulfate. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly found in the alimentary tract of cows, sheep, and other ruminants. It occasionally is encountered in cases of human endocarditis. This species is nonhemolytic.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.
Lectin purified from peanuts (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA). It binds to poorly differentiated cells and terminally differentiated cells and is used in cell separation techniques.
A necessary enzyme in the metabolism of galactose. It reversibly catalyzes the conversion of UDPglucose to UDPgalactose. NAD+ is an essential component for enzymatic activity. EC
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
A frozen dairy food made from cream or butterfat, milk, sugar, and flavorings. Frozen custard and French-type ice creams also contain eggs.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.

Fecal coliform elevated-temperature test: a physiological basis. (1/1861)

The physiological basis of the Eijkman elevated-temperature test for differentiating fecal from nonfecal coliforms was investigated. Manometric studies indicated that the inhibitory effect upon growth and metabolism in a nonfecal coliform at 44.5 degrees C involved cellular components common to both aerobic and fermentative metabolism of lactose. Radioactive substrate incorporation experiments implicated cell membrane function as a principal focus for temperature sensitivity at 44.5 degrees C. A temperature increase from 35 to 44.5 degrees C drastically reduced the rates of [14C]glucose uptake in nonfecal coliforms, whereas those of fecal coliforms were essentially unchanged. In addition, relatively low levels of nonfecal coliform beta-galactosidase activity coupled with thermal inactivation of this enzyme at a comparatively low temperature may also inhibit growth and metabolism of nonfecal coliforms at the elevated temperature.  (+info)

Calorimetric studies on the stability of the ribosome-inactivating protein abrin II: effects of pH and ligand binding. (2/1861)

The effects of pH and ligand binding on the stability of abrin II, a heterodimeric ribosome-inactivating protein, and its subunits have been studied using high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry. At pH7.2, the calorimetric scan consists of two transitions, which correspond to the B-subunit [transition temperature (Tm) 319.2K] and the A-subunit (Tm 324.6K) of abrin II, as also confirmed by studies on the isolated A-subunit. The calorimetric enthalpy of the isolated A-subunit of abrin II is similar to that of the higher-temperature transition. However, its Tm is 2.4K lower than that of the higher-temperature peak of intact abrin II. This indicates that there is some interaction between the two subunits. Abrin II displays increased stability as the pH is decreased to 4.5. Lactose increases the Tm values as well as the enthalpies of both transitions. This effect is more pronounced at pH7.2 than at pH4.5. This suggests that ligand binding stabilizes the native conformation of abrin II. Analysis of the B-subunit transition temperature as a function of lactose concentration suggests that two lactose molecules bind to one molecule of abrin II at pH7.2. The presence of two binding sites for lactose on the abrin II molecule is also indicated by isothermal titration calorimetry. Plotting DeltaHm (the molar transition enthalpy at Tm) against Tm yielded values for DeltaCp (change in excess heat capacity) of 27+/-2 kJ.mol-1.K-1 for the B-subunit and 20+/-1 kJ.mol-1.K-1 for the A-subunit. These values have been used to calculate the thermal stability of abrin II and to surmise the mechanism of its transmembrane translocation.  (+info)

Structure-function analysis of the UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. Essential residues lie in a predicted active site cleft resembling a lactose repressor fold. (3/1861)

Mucin-type O-glycosylation is initiated by a family of UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (ppGaNTases). Based on sequence relationships with divergent proteins, the ppGaNTases can be subdivided into three putative domains: each putative domain contains a characteristic sequence motif. The 112-amino acid glycosyltransferase 1 (GT1) motif represents the first half of the catalytic unit and contains a short aspartate-any residue-histidine (DXH) or aspartate-any residue-aspartate (DXD)-like sequence. Secondary structure predictions and structural threading suggest that the GT1 motif forms a 5-stranded parallel beta-sheet flanked by 4 alpha-helices, which resembles the first domain of the lactose repressor. Four invariant carboxylates and a histidine residue are predicted to lie at the C-terminal end of three beta-strands and line the active site cleft. Site-directed mutagenesis of murine ppGaNTase-T1 reveals that conservative mutations at these 5 positions result in products with no detectable enzyme activity (D156Q, D209N, and H211D) or <1% activity (E127Q and E213Q). The second half of the catalytic unit contains a DXXXXXWGGENXE motif (positions 310-322) which is also found in beta1,4-galactosyltransferases (termed the Gal/GalNAc-T motif). Mutants of carboxylates within this motif express either no detectable activity, 1% or 2% activity (E319Q, E322Q, and D310N, respectively). Mutagenesis of highly conserved (but not invariant) carboxylates produces only modest alterations in enzyme activity. Mutations in the C-terminal 128-amino acid ricin-like lectin motif do not alter the enzyme's catalytic properties.  (+info)

Ontogeny of intestinal safety factors: lactase capacities and lactose loads. (4/1861)

We measured intestinal safety factors (ratio of a physiological capacity to the load on it) for lactose digestion in developing rat pups. Specifically, we assessed the quantitative relationships between lactose load and the series capacities of lactase and the Na+-glucose cotransporter (SGLT-1). Both capacities increased significantly with age in suckling pups as a result of increasing intestinal mass and maintenance of mass-specific activities. The youngest pups examined (5 days) had surprisingly high safety factors of 8-13 for both lactase and SGLT-1, possibly because milk contains lactase substrates other than lactose; it also, however, suggests that their intestinal capacities were being prepared to meet future demands rather than just current ones. By day 10 (and also at day 15), increased lactose loads resulted in lower safety factors of 4-6, values more typical of adult intestines. The safety factor of SGLT-1 in day 30 (weanling) and day 100 (adult) rats was only approximately 1.0. This was initially unexpected, because most adult intestines maintain a modest reserve capacity beyond nutrient load values, but postweaning rats appear to use hindgut fermentation, assessed by gut morphology and hydrogen production assays, as a built-in reserve capacity. The series capacities of lactase and SGLT-1 varied in concert with each other over ontogeny and as lactose load was manipulated by experimental variation in litter size.  (+info)

Transcription of the pcbAB, pcbC and penDE genes of Penicillium chrysogenum AS-P-78 is repressed by glucose and the repression is not reversed by alkaline pHs. (5/1861)

Glucose repressed transcription of the penicillin biosynthesis genes pcbAB, pcbC and penDE when added at inoculation time to cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum AS-P-78 but it had little repressive effect when added at 12 h and no effect when added at 24 or 36 h. A slight increase in the expression of pcbC and penDE (and to a smaller extent of pcbAB) was observed in glucose-grown cultures at pH 6.8, 7.4 and 8.0 as compared with pH 6.2, but alkaline pHs did not override the strong repression exerted by glucose. Transcription of the actin gene used as control was not significantly affected by glucose or alkaline pHs. Repression by glucose of the three penicillin biosynthetic genes was also observed using the lacZ reporter gene coupled to each of the three promoters in monocopy transformants with the constructions integrated at the pyrG locus. Glucose repression of the three genes encoding enzymes of penicillin biosynthesis therefore appears to be exerted by a regulatory mechanism independent from pH regulation.  (+info)

Lectins as membrane components of mitochondria from Ricinus communis. (6/1861)

1. Mitochondria were isolated from developing endosperm of Ricinus communis and were fractionated into outer membrane and inner membrane. The relative purity of the two membrane fractions was determined by marker enzymes. The fractions were also examined by negative-stain electron microscopy. 2. Membrane fractions were sequentially extracted in the following way. (a) Suspension in 0.5M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1; (b)suspension in 0.1M-EDTA (disodium salt)/0.05M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1; (c) sonication in 0.05M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1;(d)sonication in aq. Triton X-100 (0.1%). The membranes were pelleted by centrifugation at 100 000g for 15 min, between each step. Agglutination activity in the extracts was investigated by using trypsin-treated rabbit erythrocytes. 3. The addition of lactose to inner mitochondrial membrane resulted in the solubilization of part of the lectin activity, indicating that the protein was attached to the membrane via its carbohydrate-binding site. Pretreatment of the membranes with lactose before tha usual extraction procedure showed that lactose could extract lectins that normally required more harsh treatment of the membrane for solubilization. 4. Lectins extracted from inner membranes were purified by affinity chromatography on agarose gel. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of purified samples in sodium dodecyl sulphate indicated that at least part of the lectin present in inner mitochondrial membrane was identical with the R. communis agglutinin of mol.wt. 120 000.  (+info)

Amino acid substitutions in a conserved region in the stalk of the Newcastle disease virus HN glycoprotein spike impair its neuraminidase activity in the globular domain. (7/1861)

The ectodomain of the paramyxovirus haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein spike can be divided into two regions: a membrane-proximal, stalk-like structure and a terminal globular domain. The latter contains all the antibody recognition sites of the protein, as well as its receptor recognition and neuraminidase (NA) active sites. These two activities of the protein can be separated by monoclonal antibody functional inhibition studies and mutations in the globular domain. Herein, we show that mutation of several conserved residues in the stalk of the Newcastle disease virus HN protein markedly decrease its NA activity without a significant effect on receptor recognition. Thus, mutations in the stalk, distant from the NA active site in the globular domain, can also separate attachment and NA. These results add to an increasing body of evidence that the NA activity of this protein is dependent on an intact stalk structure.  (+info)

Effect of the hemolytic lectin CEL-III from Holothuroidea Cucumaria echinata on the ANS fluorescence responses in sensitive MDCK and resistant CHO cells. (8/1861)

The addition of CEL-III to sensitive MDCK cells preincubated with 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS) caused an increase in the fluorescence intensity of the probe. The increase in the ANS fluorescence caused by CEL-III was Ca2+-dependent and strongly inhibited by 0.1 M lactose, indicating that Ca2+-dependent binding of CEL-III to specific carbohydrate receptors on the plasma membrane is responsible for this phenomenon. In contrast, no significant effect of CEL-III on the ANS fluorescence was observed in CHO cells, which are highly resistant to CEL-III cytotoxicity. In MDCK cells, energy transfer from tryptophan residues to bound ANS molecules was observed in the presence of CEL-III, but not in CHO cells. Furthermore, the amount of ANS bound to MDCK cells increased as the concentration of CEL-III increased. Therefore, a simple interpretation is that the CEL-III-induced increase in ANS fluorescence is attributable to an increase of the hydrophobic region in the plasma membrane where ANS could bind. Immunoblotting analysis of proteins from cells treated with CEL-III indicated that CEL-III oligomers were irreversibly bound to the cells, and the amount of oligomer bound to MDCK cells was much greater than that bound to CHO cells under any conditions tested. The oligomerization may be accompanied by an enhancement of the hydrophobicity of CEL-III molecules, which in turn provides new ANS-binding sites. The difference in susceptibility of MDCK and CHO cells to CEL-III cytotoxicity may be due to a difference in oligomerization of bound CEL-III.  (+info)

Lactose monohydrate مناسب بیوشیمی Lactose monohydrate for biochemistry. CAS 10039-26-6, pH 4.0 - 6.5 (100 g/l, H₂O, 20 °C). Sucrose MSDS and product info below ...
Creative-Proteomics offer cas 64044-51-5 [1-13Cgal]lactose monohydrate. We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard products.
ZYRTEC (cetirizine HCI), an over the counter antihistamine for adults and children that helps relieve upper respiratory symptoms caused by allergy triggers such as dust, mold, and pet dander, tree pollen, weeds and grasses, has recently introduced several new over-the-counter products including adult tablets (10mg), ZYRTEK-D tablets and childrens chewables (5mg & 10mg) that contain lactose monohydrate (milk protein). Lactose monohydrate is listed as an inactive ingredient in each of these four products, but the package does not include a warning statement to consumers to indicate the inclusion of a milk protein. Lactose monohydrate is defined as a natural disaccharide, obtained from milk, which consists of one glucose and one galactose moiety ...
According to the 2007 study, Effects of Dietary Lactose on Long-term High-fat-diet-induced Obesity in Rats, the addition of lactose to a high-fat diet decreased body weight, body weight gain, fat accumulation, and the level of serum leptin.. In the study, four groups were observed over 84 days: A control diet group (Cont), a lactose diet group (Lac) in which corn starch in the control diet was replaced by lactose at 10% of the diet weight, a high-fat diet group (Fat) in which lard was added to the control diet to adjust the lipid energy ratio to 40% , and a lactose-added high-fat diet group (Fat+Lac) in which 10% lactose was added to the high-fat diet. The graphs below compares the weight of fats and the amount of serum leptin (a hormone that regulates long-term appetite) between the four groups at the end of the observation.. The graphs show there is no significant difference between the fat accumulation and serum leptin levels between the Cont and Lac group, but the Fat+Lac group does have ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Colorimetric calcium-response of β-lactosylated μ-oxo-bis-[5,15- meso-diphenylporphyrinatoiron(III)]. AU - Hasegawa, Teruaki. AU - Numata, Munenori. AU - Asai, Masayoshi. AU - Takeuchi, Masayuki. AU - Shinkai, Seiji. PY - 2005/8/8. Y1 - 2005/8/8. N2 - β-Lactosylated 5,15-meso-diphenylporphyrinatoiron(III) chloride was prepared by ironization of the corresponding free base porphyrin having acetylated lactoside-units followed by deacetylation with ammonia in a water-methanol mixture. The resultant 5,15-meso-bis(β-lactosylphenyl) porphyrinatoiron(III) chloride showed unique colorimetric response to calcium cation. This colorimetric response is calcium-specific and no other cations, such as sodium, potassium, or magnesium ions induced such colorimetric response. Lines of evidence including UV-vis spectra under different conditions and TEM images strongly indicate that interdigitations of the corresponding μ-oxo-dimers are responsible for this colorimetric change.. AB - ...
Higher intakes of milk and lactose are hypothesized to increase the risk of ovarian cancer. However, in this pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies that prospectively assessed the association between diet and ovarian cancer risk, no statistically significant associations were observed for milk or calcium intake. A weak, marginally significant positive association was observed for lactose and ovarian cancer risk, although lactose was highly correlated with milk and calcium intake within this pooled analysis (median r across studies ,0.83 and 0.90, respectively). For the lactose analysis, we were able to analyze the amount of lactose found in the equivalent of three or more servings of milk (750 g) per day due to the contribution of lactose from other food sources. If lactose is truly a causal factor, the accurate assessment of lactose intake per se would reduce measurement error compared with the use of milk consumption as a surrogate of lactose intake because the latter ignores other dietary ...
InCHi String: isomeric SMILES: C([[email protected]@H]1[[email protected]@H]([[email protected]@H]([[email protected]]([[email protected]@H](O1)O[[email protected]@H]2[[email protected]](O[[email protected]@H]([[email protected]@H]([[email protected]]2O)O)O)CO)O)O)O)O. canonical SMILES: C(C1C(C(C(C(O1)OC2C(OC(C(C2O)O)O)CO)O)O)O)O. IUPAC ...
Professor Miller claims that the careful work of University of Rochester biologist Professor Barry Hall is an experimental demonstration of the ability of Darwinian evolution to produce an irreducibly complex biochemical system. (Barry Hall himself never made such a claim.) I disagree. The fact that the artificial chemical inducer IPTG was added to the lactose-utilizing system effectively mitigated its irreducibility, turning the system into one that could be improved a step at a time. In his recent essay Miller wrote: Does Barry Halls ebg system fit the definition of irreducible complexity? Absolutely. The three parts of the evolved system are: (1) A lactose-sensitive ebg repressor protein that controls expression of the galactosidase enzyme; (2) The ebg galactosidase enzyme; (3) The enzyme reaction that induces the lac permease. Unless all three are in place, the system does not function, which is, of course, the key element of an irreducibly complex system. Millers claim is incorrect ...
Periparturient dairy cows do not exhibit hepatic insulin resistance, yet adipose-specific insulin resistance occurs in cows prone to high weight loss ...
The study results suggest a surface-bulk propagation of the amorphicity during milling in combination with a different amorphous structural conformation to that of the amorphous spray dried lactose.
To do it we exploited one of such genetic systems, existing in the complex of genes that form the Lac Operon shown in Figure 4. Namely, E. coli can survive by metabolizing either glucose or lactose - in the case of lack of glucose. Lactose- or glucose-metabolizing modes are the two stable state of the system. To perform experiments we use IPTG a structural analog of lactose that cannot be metabolized. Thus the input of our system are the external concentrations of Glucose and IPTG (Gluex and IPTGex respectively). Since lactose metabolism is more energy consuming, usually all the apparatus that takes care of the lactose metabolism is repressed. It is the promoter pLac constitutively shut off by the presence of the LacI protein, that inhibits the transcription of the downstream genes in the operon (this is how it works). When IPTG is in the environment, several concurrent processes take place in the cell. IPTG flows across the membrane and after some processing it is able to quench the repressor ...
To do it we exploited one of such genetic systems, existing in the complex of genes that form the Lac Operon shown in Figure 4. Namely, E. coli can survive by metabolizing either glucose or lactose - in the case of lack of glucose. Lactose- or glucose-metabolizing modes are the two stable state of the system. To perform experiments we use IPTG a structural analog of lactose that cannot be metabolized. Thus the input of our system are the external concentrations of Glucose and IPTG (Gluex and IPTGex respectively). Since lactose metabolism is more energy consuming, usually all the apparatus that takes care of the lactose metabolism is repressed. It is the promoter pLac constitutively shut off by the presence of the LacI protein, that inhibits the transcription of the downstream genes in the operon (this is how it works). When IPTG is in the environment, several concurrent processes take place in the cell. IPTG flows across the membrane and after some processing it is able to quench the repressor ...
It was found that Concanavalin A (Con A) accelerates the rates of hydrolysis of E. coli beta-galactosidase and yeast invertase by binding to the product (glucose) formed in the reaction. The effect of Con A can be made ...
For the selective isolation, cultivation and differentiation of coliforms and enteric pathogens based on the ability to ferment lactose. Lactose-fermenting organisms appear as red to pink colonies, others as colourless or transparent colonies.. ...
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OVERVIEW: What every clinician needs to know Pathogen name and classification Shigella is a nonmotile gram-negative bacillus that does not ferment lactose. It grows readily on standard media and can be easily isolated using selective media. It is a member of the Enterobacteriaceae family and is closely related to E. coli. Shigella contains a 220-kb…. ...
Lactose monohydrate, dibasic calcium phosphate (DCP) and microcrystalline cellulose phosphate (MCCP) were studied as diluents in the same quantity for..
How would you describe the regulation of lactose metabolism in the cells described in problem 5 that were able to grow on minimal media with lactose as a nutrient? ...
Preclinical studies report that 6-Sialyllactose (6SL) may have a role in a number of health benefits. This HMO can be added to much more than infant formula. Learn more today.
Lactose synthesis rate is an important factor in milk production and quality in mammals. Understanding the lactose synthesis mechanism is crucial for the improvement of milk quantity and quality. However, research on the temporal gene changes regarding lactose synthesis during the whole lactation is still limited. The objective of this study was to determine gene expression profiles related to lactose synthesis in sows during lactation, and further identify the critical steps or key factors in the lactose synthesis pathway. To determine the temporal change of factors related to lactose synthesis in sows, milk from eight multiparous Yorkshire sows (parity 3 to 6) was collected at 0 h, 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, day 2, 3, 4, 7, 14, and 21 after birth of the first piglet. Lactose content, prolactin and progesterone concentration, and gene or protein expression related to lactose synthesis were measured. The lactose yield increased gradually from D2 to D21 and reached a maximum at D14 (3-fold from D2) during
Evaluation of the C. perfringens lactose-inducible promoter system in C. ljungdahlii.In order to determine if the bgaR-PbgaL lactose-inducible system developed for C. perfringens (23) would function in C. ljungdahlii, it was transformed with the plasmid pAH2. This plasmid contains a β-glucuronidase reporter gene fusion downstream of the bgaR-PbgaL sequence, comprised of the ribosomal binding site and 13 codons of the 5′ end of the cpe gene (encoding CPE, a C. perfringens enterotoxin) fused in frame with gusA, an E. coli gene for β-glucuronidase (23).. The addition of lactose to fructose-grown, mid-log-phase cells of C. ljungdahlii containing the pAH2 plasmid increased the expression of β-glucuronidase (Fig. 2). Within 5 h of induction, a substantial increase in gusA expression was observed with the addition of 10 or 20 mM lactose (Fig. 2A, inset). However, even with only 1 mM lactose, expression of gusA was increased 8-fold (Fig. 2A). This pattern of expression of gusA was similar to that ...
When both glucose and lactose are present in the growth medium, the uptake of lactose is strongly inhibited by glucose because of an increase in the nonphosphorylated form of IIAGlc, an inhibitor of lac permease. Mechanism responsible for glucose-lactose diauxie in Escherichia coli - challenge to the cAMP model
I used this recipe as the perfect excuse to finally do something that had been intimidating me for a while: make cheese. Yes, thats right: actually make my own cheese in my own kitchen, using cheesecloth for its original intended purpose. Ironically, I would have never bothered with it had I not been lactose-intolerant, because making cheese had always sounded like so much trouble when its so easy to go to the store. I used a recipe from Smitten Kitchen. It was much easier than I thought, too. And as a bonus, I got to eat lactose-free ricotta, which so far can only be obtained by making it yourself. It tastes better when its rich, so if youre in Canada, I recommend that you use 1 cup of Natrels lactose-free cream and 3 cups of their lactose-free milk. Unfortunately, I dont have lactose-free cream here, so I used 4 cups of lactose-free whole milk. The ricotta was delicious in the tart, though it might be too bland to use as a spread on crackers. Nonetheless, I consider this a complete ...
Lactose-free dairy is a popular choice because of its perceived health benefits. Greater diversity of lactose-free options, added health benefits, liaising with healthcare professionals and more - all will become huge in the years to come. Based on the latest report from DSMs Global Insights Series on Lactose-Free Dairy, along with major global trends in food and drink and insights from experts in the field, we predict that these six trends will impact the lactose-free dairy market and we highlight how dairy producers can capitalize on this. Click here to view the trend report ...
Abstract: Whey is the co-product resulting after the production of cheese (cottage or cheddar), casein from milk. Acid, sweet and casein whey is resulted from precipitating the milk by rennet, microbes or mineral acids, respectively. The protein content is 0.75, 0.30 and 0.50%, the lactose content is 4.80, 4.60 and 4.70%, the ash content is 0.60, 0.80, 0.90% and pH value is 6.1, 4.6 and 4.4 for the sweet, acid and casein whey, respectively. Approximately, each 4 kg of raw milk produce 1 kg cheese and 3 kg whey. Whey can be fed to animals in a variety of forms, such as: Liquid whey, condensed whey, dried whey (partially delactosed whey) or as dried whey products. Liquid whey has been added to straw at ensiling as a rehydration medium. Sweet (cheddar cheese) whey may be more palatable than acid (cottage cheese) whey by ruminants. Many of the bacteria in the rumen apparently have a limited ability to ferment lactose. The most important aspect of whey feeding is gradual adaptation and provision of ...
PURPOSE: To examine by indirect immunofluorescence the distribution of an endogenous 16-kd S-lac lectin (soluble lactose binding lectin) during development of the chicken retina. METHODS: Cryosections of retinal tissue at different developmental stages and cultured retinal cells (either not permeabilized or permeabilized with acetone) were incubated with a rabbit antiserum that specifically reacts with the retinal 16-kd S-lac lectin. After incubation with a fluorescent-labeled secondary antibody, tissue sections and cultured cells were analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: Retina was weakly stained with the antiserum on early embryonic day 7, whereas on embryonic days 13 and 18 it showed a restricted granular staining in the outer retina. At embryonic day 18, in addition, there was widespread staining in all retinal layers. This pattern was maintained by postnatal day 5 and in the adult retina, although the intensity of the staining of the outer retina was weaker. In retinal cell ...
Lactose-free marble cheese gives these nachos all the melty, cheesy goodness anyone could want. Dip into lactose-free sour cream for even more creamy goodness. Normally served as a bar snack, nachos actually have enough protein and calories to count as a main course. __Ensure that all ingredients are lactose-free.__
: Lactose-free mascarpone by Mila: the lactose-free cream cheese by Mila offers enjoyment without regrets. It is easily recognizable by its orange packaging.
Lactose-free milk can be an easy solution for those incapable of digesting milk sugar. Learn more about lactose-free milk and how its made at DairyGood.
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André Lwoff, Jacques Monod, and François Jacob, the leaders of the French school of molecular biology, greatly contributed between 1937 and 1965 to its development and triumph. The main discovery of Lwoff was the elucidation of the mechanism of bacteriophage induction, the phenomenon of lysogeny, that led to the model of genetic regulation uncovered later by Jacob and Monod. Working on bacterial growth, Monod discovered in 1941 the phenomenon of diauxy and uncovered the nature of enzyme induction. By combining genetic and biochemical approaches, Monod brought to light the structure and functions of the Escherichia coli lactose system, comprising the genes necessary for lactose metabolism, i.e., β-galactosidase and lactose permease, a pump responsible for accumulation of galactosides into the cells. An additional genetic factor (the i gene) determines the inducibility and constitutivity of enzyme synthesis. Around the same time, François Jacob and Elie Wollman dissected the main events of bacterial
Wanted* (cross-posted) *Needed* An E.coli that has a high expression of the lac operon specifically high expression of the lac-permease and b-galactosidase proteins), and hence has unrestricted growth on lactose. However (and heres the cruncher) the strain must also have mutations in its pts carbohydrate system (specifically HPro and enz1) so it cannot utilise pts carbohydrates to any great extent compared to lactose and must also have mutations in its galactose permease system so it cannot readily use galactose as a carbohydrate source. That is does a strain exist that can preferentially use lactose over other common carbohydrates as a primary energy source? Where is this strain? (Sorry for the cross-post; a (polite) recommendation about appropriate groups would be appreciated.) Please reply by *mail* to jeffric at THANKYOUTHANKYOUTHANKYOUTHANKHELLOYOUTHANKYOUTHSNKYOU ...
RESULTS: The results showed that peanut pod concentration, incubation time and lactose (as inducer) were found to be the most effective factor for promoting enzyme production, followed by the C/N ratio. Peanut pod 70%w/w, C/N ratio 20, incubation time 72h, wheat straw as solid substrate and lactose concentration 1%w/w the best conditions determined by the Taguchi method ...
A system for drying a wet lactose product stream includes a disperser configured to disperse agglomerated lactose particulates in a wet lactose stream into a dispersed wet lactose stream. A back-mixed partial drying zone is configured to at least partially dry the dispersed wet lactose stream by recirculating a partially dried lactose stream with the dispersed wet lactose stream. A plug-flow secondary drying zone is configured to dry the partially dried lactose stream to generate a substantially dried lactose stream.
Notes: Sample opacity or turbidity presents no problem since the sensor system is electrochemical rather than spectrophotometric. Endogenous glucose, if present, should be determined as a sample blank, i.e. extract diluted pro-rata in water instead of ß-galactosidase. Incomplete hydrolysis may take place for lactose concentrations greater than 10 %W/V. For greater accuracy at these levels repeat hydrolysis using a 5µl sample and scale results as detailed in kit instructions.. ...
Chr. Hansen says its new lactose biosensor test kit can determine lactose concentration in all dairy products, including those with added flavours.
Explanation of A & R The function of (3-galactosidase enzyme in lactose metabolism is to form glucose by cleaving lactose. Thus if both glucose and lactose are present in the growth medium, activity of lac operon is not needed, and indeed, no p-galactosidase is formed until virtually all of the glucose in the culture medium is consumed. The lack of synthesis of p-galactosidase is a result of lack of synthesis of lac mRNA. No lac mRNA is made in the presence of glucose, because in addition to an inducer for inactivating the lac i repressor, another element (cAMP-CAP) is needed for initiating lac mRNA synthesis. The activity of this element is regulated by the concentration of glucose ...
Less than 70 percent of the adult human population is capable of digesting the milk sugar lactose. Not content to stop consuming dairy, humankind has...
Bonlacta is designed for high-temperature, short-time processing enabling lactose-free milk to become a mainstream reality for North American producers
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Meal-replacement diets using shakes can help make losing those unwanted pounds a little easier. If you have a difficult time tolerating milk, you may think these types of shakes and diets are out of the question. But there are lactose-free options that can help you lose, too.
Those of you whove seen the movie Spanglish might remember the sandwich Adam Sandler makes for Paz Vega; its presented as the best sandwich in the world. It turns out that The Kitchn posted the recipe very early on. Since I had bacon left over from a salad recipe, I figured this was a good way to use it. A sandwich is pretty easy to make in any kitchen, and this one was absolutely delicious. It was very filling and made for a great dinner - so great, in fact, that the Engineer bought more bacon so that I could make this again. I used pre-sliced lactose-free Gouda cheese, which was wonderful. I didnt toast the bread, but either way works. All we had was lemonaise, a mayonnaise flavoured with lemon and herbs; personally, I recommend plain mayonnaise, especially homemade (otherwise, use Hellmans). Im definitely hanging on to this recipe! Im giving you proportions for two sandwiches here, but feel free to make just one ...
Fructose-free and lactose-free cooking is a matter of habit - Thats why we want to help you find top recipes to suit your taste |
The Coliform Vials are a screening vial specific for coliform or-ganisms. The vial has broad inclusiv-ity and an assay time of 14-24 hours for most applications. The vial contains a peptone yeast extract base with lac-tose as a carbon source. The selec-tive agents include bile salts, sodium lauryl sulfate and other gram-positive inhibitors. Acidification of the medium due to the lactose utilization changes the pH indicator from a purple to a yel-low color. The color change is read by optical sensors in the instrument ...
The Coliform Vials are a screening vial specific for coliform or-ganisms. The vial has broad inclusiv-ity and an assay time of 14-24 hours for most applications. The vial contains a peptone yeast extract base with lac-tose as a carbon source. The selec-tive agents include bile salts, sodium lauryl sulfate and other gram-positive inhibitors. Acidification of the medium due to the lactose utilization changes the pH indicator from a purple to a yel-low color. The color change is read by optical sensors in the instrument ...
IN a recent letter, McKenzie et al. (1998) reported that the late-arising adaptive Lac+ revertants of our Escherichia coli strain, FC40, are not slow to grow on lactose medium and concluded that the mutants must therefore have arisen after plating on lactose. We had reached the same conclusion on different grounds, namely, that in FC40: (i) very few Lac+ revertant colonies appear within 2 days of plating on lactose; (ii) despite the absence of any measurable increase in cell numbers, revertant colonies accumulate from day 2 onward, at a constant rate for at least the next 5 days; (iii) the distribution of these colonies is Poisson, not Luria-Delbrück; and, (iv) their cells produce the same amount of β-galactosidase as early arising revertants (Cairns and Foster 1991; Foster 1994; Foster and Trimarchi 1994). In addition, our finding that adaptive, but not growth-dependent, reversion of FC40 requires functions of RecA, E. colis recombinase, led us to conclude that in this strain adaptive ...
lacZ. No transcription. Structural genes lacZ. lacY. lac A. No transcription. Presence of lactose. Transcription and translation. Active regulator protein. Inactive regulator protein (repressor). Allolactose. 12 When lactose is present, some of it is converted into allolactose,.... RNA polymerase lacO operator. Transcription and translation. Active regulator protein. Inactive regulator protein (repressor) ...
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... hence α-lactose and β-lactose refer to the anomeric form of the glucopyranose ring alone. Detection reactions for lactose are ... Lactose is not fermented by most yeast during brewing, which may be used to advantage. For example, lactose may be used to ... Another significant lactose use is in the pharmaceutical industry. Lactose is added to tablet and capsule drug products as an ... ISBN 978-0-8493-3829-8. "D-Lactose". The solubility of lactose in water is 189.049 g at 25 °C, 251.484 g at 40 °C and 372.149 g ...
Low-lactose and lactose-free versions of foods are often available to replace dairy-based foods for those with lactose ... most lactose-intolerant people can tolerate a certain level of lactose in their diets without ill effects. Because lactose ... Lactose intolerance is due to the lack of the enzyme lactase in the small intestines to break lactose down into glucose and ... Lactose intolerance is a common condition caused by a decreased ability to digest lactose, a sugar found in dairy products. ...
This form of lactose permease can bind lactose from outside the cell. The enzyme then everts and lactose is transported inward ... Lactose permease is a membrane protein which is a member of the major facilitator superfamily. Lactose permease can be ... Chaptal V, Kwon S, Sawaya MR, Guan L, Kaback HR, Abramson J (June 2011). "Crystal structure of lactose permease in complex with ... Abramson J, Smirnova I, Kasho V, Verner G, Kaback HR, Iwata S (August 2003). "Structure and mechanism of the lactose permease ...
... is an enzyme that generates lactose from glucose and UDP-galactose. It is classified under EC It ... Lactose+synthase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology v t e (Articles with ... Ramakrishnan B, Qasba PK (June 2001). "Crystal structure of lactose synthase reveals a large conformational change in its ... Ramakrishnan, Boopathy; Boeggeman, Elizabeth; Qasba, Pradman K. (2002-03-15). "Beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase and lactose ...
"55420 CLED Agar (Cystine-Lactose-Electrolyte Deficient Agar; Bromothymol-blue Lactose Cystine Agar)" (PDF). Fluka Analytical. ... CLED agar (cystine-lactose-electrolyte-deficient agar or medium) is a valuable non-inhibitory growth medium used in the ... Lactose-positive bacteria build yellow colonies. Bacteria which decarboxylate L-cystine cause an alkaline reaction and build ... It contains cystine and lactose and is electrolyte-deficient; the latter trait prevents the swarming of Proteus species. ...
The PTS Lactose-N,N'-Diacetylchitobiose (Lac) Family (TC# 4.A.3) includes several sequenced lactose porters of Gram-positive ... As of this edit, this article uses content from "4.A.3 The PTS Lactose-N,N'-Diacetylchitobiose-β-glucoside (Lac) Family", which ...
People who experience lactose intolerance usually avoid milk and other lactose-containing dairy products, which may cause mild ... For those with some degree of lactose intolerance, considering the amount of lactose in dairy products can be important to ... "Lactose Intolerance". National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, US National Institutes of Health. 2021 ... "Lactose intolerance". Genetics Home Reference. 8 February 2016. Archived from the original on 25 January 2016. Retrieved 12 ...
Lactose-reduced milk can also be produced via ultra filtration, which removes smaller molecules such as lactose and water while ... The lactose gives milk its sweet taste and contributes approximately 40% of whole cow's milk's calories. Lactose is a ... Bovine milk averages 4.8% anhydrous lactose, which amounts to about 50% of the total solids of skimmed milk. Levels of lactose ... Once the molecule is cleaved, there are no lactose ill effects. Forms are available with reduced amounts of lactose (typically ...
It is a component of lactose synthase[citation needed] This enzyme modifies the connection between two molecule UDP-galactose ... Hill RL, Brew K (1975). "Lactose synthetase". Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology. Advances in ...
Primary lactose intolerance is caused by decreasing levels of lactase brought on by age. Secondary lactose intolerance results ... Congenital lactose intolerance is an extremely rare genetic disorder in which little or no lactase is produced from birth. ... The unabsorbed lactose reaches the large intestine, where resident bacteria use it for fuel, releasing hydrogen, carbon dioxide ... Lactose intolerance List of allergens (food and non-food) Plant milk MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Food allergy Caffarelli C, Baldi ...
"Lactose intolerance". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2020-08-03. "Glucose-galactose malabsorption , Genetic and Rare ... Congenital lactase deficiency, a condition caused by a genetic mutation in which the body cannot digest lactose properly. ... Breath hydrogen tests are utilized to determine lactose, fructose, and/or sucrose intolerance. Small intestinal bacterial ... lactose, fructose, and sucrose). Dietary fiber and fat can be increased and fluid intake, especially fruit juice intake, ...
"Lactose Intolerance". NIDDK. June 2014. Archived from the original on 25 October 2016. Retrieved 25 October 2016. "Acid Reflux ... "Lactose Intolerance". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. Retrieved 27 July 2021. "Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) fact sheet". ... Conditions that are related to bloating include constipation, lactose intolerance, and acid reflux disease. All of these ... There are many causes of bloating, including: diet, irritable bowel syndrome, lactose intolerance, reflux, and constipation. ...
Gränzle, M.G. (2011). "Lactose and Oligosaccharides , Lactose: Derivatives". Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences (2nd ed.). Elsevier ...
This product is: purely vegetable , cholesterol-free , egg-free , lactose-free , free of milk protein , free of genetic ...
I'm Lactose'. Couples Therapy: Ep. 6: 'Playing By The Rules' Bonus Clips". VH1. October 31, 2012. Archived from the original on ... In 2014, it was further clarified that they were not lactose intolerant, and empathy for animals was the sole reason for their ... Another reason for their vegetarianism was thought to be lactose intolerance, as Stodden explained in a Couples Therapy bonus ...
"Lactose Intolerance". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. Retrieved 1 August 2021. "Lactose Intolerance". NIDDK. June 2014. ... The enzyme lactase is required for degradation of the milk sugar lactose and is present at high levels in infants, but in most ... Glycoside hydrolases are found in the intestinal tract and in saliva where they degrade complex carbohydrates such as lactose, ... populations will decrease after weaning or during infancy, potentially leading to lactose intolerance in adulthood. The enzyme ...
This gene is unique among the beta4GalT genes because it encodes an enzyme that participates both in glycoconjugate and lactose ... The shorter transcript encodes a protein which is cleaved to form the soluble lactose synthase. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... lactose. The two enzymatic forms result from alternate transcription initiation sites and post-translational processing. Two ...
"Lactose Free Technology: Real Goodness". Archived from the original on 2009-11-22. Retrieved 2009-11-22. "Dilea Zero Lactose". ... In 2001, Valio launched a lactose-free milk drink which is not sweet like HYLA milk but has the fresh taste of ordinary milk. ... Valio patented the chromatographic separation method to remove lactose. Valio also markets these products in Sweden, Estonia, ...
The frequency of lactose malabsorbers was 18.4% in members of Beja tribes over the age of 30, and 73.3% in members of Nilotic ... Lactose solution is then given to the subjects to drink, and blood glucose levels are checked at 20 minute intervals for an ... Lactose favors the intestinal absorption of calcium: it helps maintaining it in a soluble form. This can be advantageous in ... A lactose tolerance test may be conducted by asking test subjects to fast overnight, then sampling blood to establish a ...
"Lactose Against Intolerance!" How milkshake became a tool of protest". May 16, 2019. "Celebrating ... The milkshakes also have added fiber and other nutrients, and they have much less lactose, which makes the shakes appropriate ... for some lactose-intolerant people. The U.S. sales of milkshakes, malts, and floats rose 11% in 2006, according to the industry ...
The Lactose Operon. 1970. ISBN 978-0-317-11809-4. Collins, J. F. (1962). "Estimation of penicillinase in single bacterial cells ...
Chakelian, Anoosh (20 May 2019). ""Lactose Against Intolerance!" How milkshake became a tool of protest". New Statesman. ...
Retrieved 21 June 2022.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) Chakelian, Anoosh (16 May 2019). ""Lactose Against ...
Widya, Clarissa (26 November 2015). "Lactose Intolerant - Invite". (Articles with short description, Short ...
Lactose is derived from cow's milk and is a frequently used filler or binder in tablets and capsules. Magnesium stearate is the ... 2014). "Lactose and Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH. pp. 1-9. doi:10.1002/14356007.a15_ ...
The protein is part of a system whose main function is to catalyze the accumulation and transport of lactose and other beta- ... Lactose permease Crandall, M; Koch, A.L. (February 1971). "Temperature-Sensitive Mutants of Escherichia Coli Affecting Beta- ...
Carbohydrates are mainly lactose; several lactose-based oligosaccharides have been identified as minor components. The fat ... Breast milk is the primary source of nutrition for newborns, containing fat, protein, carbohydrates (lactose and human milk ...
He loves salami and likes plain (no butter, sour cream, etc.) baked potatoes; he is lactose intolerant. Mark also collects ...
Brewed with extra lactose. 8.5% abv (available in 16 oz. cans - Seasonal). Truckee River Red -Named in honor of the river that ...
He is lactose intolerant. Thayer, Suzi (March 6, 2018). "Boothbay's Matthew Forgues, Olympic hopeful in racewalking". Boothbay ...
Lactose is the sugar found in milk and foods made with milk. Read more. ... Lactose intolerance means that you cannot digest foods with lactose in them. ... Lactose intolerance means that you cannot digest foods with lactose in them. Lactose is the sugar found in milk and foods made ... Lactose intolerance is not serious. Eating less food with lactose, or using pills or drops to help you digest lactose usually ...
Lactose malabsorption in relation to health promotion : report on a WHO working group, Moscow, 10-11 June 1985  ...
Lactose intolerance is a common disorder and is due to the inability to digest lactose into its constituents, glucose and ... Tolerance of symptomatic lactose malabsorbers to lactose in milk chocolate. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003 May. 57(5):701-5. [QxMD ... The relationship between lactose tolerance test results and symptoms of lactose intolerance. Am J Gastroenterol. 1997 Jun. 92(6 ... Lactose intolerance and self-reported milk intolerance: relationship with lactose maldigestion and nutrient intake. Lactase ...
What are the differences between a lactose intolerance and a dairy allergy? Read on to find out how they differ. ... Lactose intolerance is not an allergy because it does not involve the immune system - it is an inability to digest lactose. ... Lactose intolerance vs. dairy allergy. The main difference between lactose intolerance and dairy allergy is that one is an ... Lactose intolerance. A person with lactose intolerance does not have an allergy, but rather they cannot digest the sugars ...
Horizon Organic Milk Lactose Free 2% Reduced Fat Half Gallon - 64 Fl. Oz. ... Horizon Organic Milk Lactose Free Vitamin D Half Gallon - 64 Fl. Oz. ...
... and key aspects of lactose intolerance with this short quiz ... Fast Five Quiz: Lactose Intolerance * Fast Five Quiz: How Much ... In the lactose tolerance test, serial blood glucose levels are measured after an oral lactose load. A fasting serum glucose ... Patients are administered lactose after an overnight fast, after which expired air samples are collected before and at 30- ... Imaging tests are not helpful in the diagnosis of primary lactose intolerance, but they may be helpful for excluding secondary ...
Check out these tips on dealing with lactose intolerance. ... If you have lactose intolerance, youre not alone. Lots of ... What Is Lactose Intolerance?. Lactose intolerance is when someone has trouble digesting lactose, a type of sugar found in milk ... In lactose intolerance, the body doesnt make enough lactase to break down lactose. Instead, undigested lactose sits in the gut ... How Is Lactose Intolerance Diagnosed?. If you might have lactose intolerance, the docto will ask your symptoms and diet. They ...
However, lactose intolerance has only been recognized in the last 50 years, and currently, lactose intolerance is defined as a ... The treatment for lactose intolerance mainly consists of reducing or eliminating the dietetic amount of lactose until the ... thus aiding in the digestion of lactose. The aim of this paper was to review the current knowledge about lactose intolerance ... the amount of ingested lactose. Several diagnostic tests are currently available for lactose intolerance, but the diagnosis ...
Lactose malabsorption in relation to health promotion : report on a WHO working group, Moscow, 10-11 June 1985  ...
Is the lactose in cows milk the same as the lactose in naproxen tablets ? Thanks?. Updated 23 May 2021 2 answers ... Lactose Intolerance - can you suddenly become lactose intolerant as an adult?. Updated 28 Nov 2013 2 answers ... Lactose Intolerance - How many lactaid or lactase pills do you take before eating dairy?. Updated 9 Jan 2010 1 answer ... Lactose Intolerance - does lactaid pills cause constipation?. Question posted by Haralson on 2 May 2015 ...
... you have lactose intolerance. Symptoms may include nausea, cramps and diarrhea. ... Understanding Lactose Intolerance Although it is possible to be lactose intolerant from birth, its very rare; the U.S. ... Lactose intolerance is an impairment of your bodys ability to produce lactase, an enzyme that digests lactose, a sugar found ... "lactose-free" or "lactose-reduced." And finally, some people with lactose intolerance report that they can eat fermented dairy ...
Gluten sensitivity and lactose intolerance have very similar symptoms, but there are ways to find out if one of these is ... Use lactose-free foods. The best way to treat lactose intolerance is to avoid lactose containing products. Avoiding most or all ... The blood lactose tolerance test will measure how well your body digests lactose. It is done by drinking a lactose solution and ... If you add lactose back to your diet and your symptoms worsen, you may have dual sensitivities and lactose is only part of the ...
Teens with lactose intolerance often need to limit or avoid dairy products. ... These recipes are especially for teens with lactose intolerance. ... Teens with lactose intolerance often need to limit or avoid ... About Recipes for Teens With Lactose Intolerance. These recipes are especially for teens with lactose intolerance. ...
Why does Lactose Free Breyers ice cream still cause my lactose intolerance symptoms of gas, bloating, stomach pain & nausea to ... ive cut out red meat and well as dairy as im lactose intolerant. what could possible be the cause of this?. 1 doctor answer • 1 ... If lactose intolerant, can bloating/stomach ache/nausea last for 24 hours after eating dairy? ... occur? Is it not truely Lactose Free then??. 1 doctor answer • 3 doctors weighed in ...
... Lactose Tolerance Test LDH LDH Isoenzymes Lipase Liver Function Test Liver Function Test ... These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Lactose Breath Hydrogen Test." Click on the image (or right ...
Say Soy!: Organic "Cheese" Options for the Lactose Intolerant. Dairy-free cheese alternatives that are good for the environment ... With some 30 to 50 million Americans suffering from various degrees of lactose intolerance, and an estimated three million of ... From pizzas to sauces to sandwiches to spreads, Bute Island has vegan and lactose-intolerant cheese lovers covered. ... And they are all excellent sources of calcium without cholesterol, saturated/trans-fats or lactose. ...
Lactose (India) (LACTOSEINDIA) - Business Standard News and more from Business Standard News ... Quick Links for Lactose (India):. * News. Announcements Brokerage Reports Business Earnings Sector ... Lactose (India) Ltd. (LACTOSEINDIA) - Corporate Action. Search Purpose:. Book Closure. Board Meeting. AGM. EGM. Dividend. Bonus ...
Lactose is the milk sugar present in your milk. The level in breastmilk stays almost the same and is a major part of the milk. ... Lactose overload is often seen in young babies when their mums make too much milk. They take large amounts of breastmilk and ... Lactose breaks down as the milk passes through your babys gut. However, if your baby is drinking large amounts of milk, the ... When this extra lactose reaches babys lower bowel, normal gut bacteria use it and release gas that causes wind and pain. Your ...
Formula: C12H24O12 •H20Formula Wt.: 360.31CAS: 64044-51-5Storage Code: Green general chemical storage Synonym: Milk sugar
The consumption volume of lactose free milk in Spain has increased consistently from around 344 thousand kilograms in 2017 to ... Market size of lactose-free products in Europe 2017, by country. *Italy: sales value of lactose-free products in Conad ... Premium Statistic Lactose-free milk average price in Spain 2017-2020. * Premium Statistic Lactose-free milk expenditure in ... Premium Statistic Lactose-free cheese consumption volume in Spain 2017-2020. * Basic Statistic Most missed products by lactose ...
Lactose, a by-product of dairy processing, is the weak link of the modern dairy industry. All other outputs of dairy processing ... In contrast, the lactose by-product referred to as ultrafiltration (UF) permeate, is a low value commodity and in many cases ... This will reduce the environmental impact of lactose disposal. Agropur, the receptor on this project, is a Canadian dairy- ... lactose streams are disposed of in lagoons or land spread. The goal of this project is to deliver yeast with an engineered ...
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Find Beckon Ice Cream Lactose Free Chocolate Chip Cookie Dough Ice Cream, 1 each at Whole Foods Market. Get nutrition, ...
Lactose intolerance, lactase enzyme, low lactose foods; other disaccharide intolerances. ... of those studied were unable to tolerate lactose, ranging from only 2% in Denmark to 100% in Zambia.. The lactose intolerance ... Lactose intolerance - a Darwinian perspective. Darwinian Medicine, a new interdisciplinary branch of medical science, considers ... In the case of lactose intolerance, it has shown a clear relationship between our ancestral environment and our ability to ...
Some data from the survey on Lactose Intolerance. Although lactose intolerance has been studied extensively throughout the ... One of the interesting observations in the testimonials was the number of families that mentioned lactose intolerance. Lactose ... There is no reason to believe that those in our survey had a different type of lactose intolerance than in the general public. ... So in designing the questions on health issues in the survey a set of questions targeting lactose intolerance were included. We ...
Salomé Chatriot - Lactose Oozing From a Breathing Singularity. In 2018 a sprawling turbo alternator awakened under Salomé ...
Launched in 1943, Medicina Clínica is a fortnightly journal aimed at the promotion of clinical research and practice among internal medicine and other specialists. The key characteristics of Medicina Clínica are the scientific and methodological rigor of its manuscripts, the topicality of its contents, and, especially, its practical focus with highly useful information for clinical practice. Medicina Clínica is predominantly interested in publishing original research manuscripts, which are rigorously selected according to their quality, originality, and interest, and also in continued medical education-oriented manuscripts, which are commissioned by the journal to relevant authors (Editorials, Reviews, and Diagnosis and Treatment). These manuscripts contain updated topics with a major clinical or conceptual relevance in modern medicine ...
Discover new ways to make your favorite dishes with our lactose-free recipes using LACTAID® Products. ... Dont limit your diet because of lactose intolerance. ... Make any recipe lactose-free Going lactose-free doesnt have to ...
HomeNutrition & HealthSwineLactose alternatives in diet of nursery pigs evaluated ...
  • Most patients who are lactose intolerant can ingest as much as 240 mL of milk without an exacerbation of their symptoms. (
  • Kids and teens are less likely to have it, but many people eventually become lactose intolerant in adulthood. (
  • Lactose Intolerance - can you suddenly become lactose intolerant as an adult? (
  • But as the Mayo Clinic explains, if you're lactose intolerant, the undigested lactase ferments in your colon and creates lactic acid. (
  • If You're Lactose Intolerant, Is Chocolate Off-Limits? (
  • Lactose intolerant. (
  • ive cut out red meat and well as dairy as im lactose intolerant. (
  • From pizzas to sauces to sandwiches to spreads, Bute Island has vegan and lactose-intolerant cheese lovers covered. (
  • If you are lactose intolerant, but would like to try or continue to use dotFIT products that contain lactose, a simple solution is to take a lactase supplement before consuming the product of your choice. (
  • If you are lactose intolerant, you may still be able to consume some dairy. (
  • However, many people who are lactose intolerant can comfortably consume cultured dairy products, including yogurt, buttermilk and cheese, in which the lactose has been broken down by bacterial action. (
  • Although rare, babies can be born with lactose intolerance (it occurs most often among premature infants because lactase increases in the fetus late in development) or you may become intolerant as you get older if your diet does not contain much milk. (
  • If you are lactose intolerant, avoid milk and milk products, other than cultured foods such as yogurt, buttermilk and cheese. (
  • Between 30 and 50 million Americans are lactose intolerant and certain ethnic and racial populations are more affected than others. (
  • Is My Dog Lactose Intolerant? (
  • Just like we can be lactose intolerant, so can our dogs. (
  • Therefore it is quite possible they are lactose intolerant, particularly if they experience an upset tummy or sickness after drinking milk. (
  • Gut recently told Newsweek that he had an upset stomach after eating ice cream and suspected he was lactose intolerant. (
  • In lactose intolerance, the body doesn't make enough lactase to break down lactose. (
  • Yeast do not have the lactase enzyme and cannot break down lactose. (
  • Lactose will not work at all unless you add lactase to it, yeast cannot break down lactose. (
  • Lactose intolerance is characterized by the inability to break down lactose in the small intestine. (
  • This is achieved through the intervention of lactase, an enzyme needed to break down lactose. (
  • It can last for about 4 weeks before the gut recovers and starts to break down lactose again. (
  • Consider consulting with a gastroenterologist and a nutritionist in the management of patients with suspected lactose intolerance. (
  • Visceral hypersensitivity and intolerance symptoms in lactose malabsorption. (
  • Lactose malabsorption and intolerance and peak bone mass. (
  • This typically occurs due to lactose malabsorption . (
  • Estimates suggest that roughly 2 in 3 of the world's population experience lactose malabsorption. (
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of identifying lactose maldigestion (LM) and fructose malabsorption (FM) on patients with and without IBS. (
  • Diets that exclude dairy may decrease gastrointestinal symptoms in symptomatic individuals who have lactose malabsorption or lactose intolerance. (
  • If people with lactose intolerance eat dairy products, the lactose from these foods pass into their intestines, which can lead to gas, cramps, a bloated feeling, and diarrhea. (
  • And finally, some people with lactose intolerance report that they can eat fermented dairy products. (
  • Research has shown that yogurts containing live cultures are well tolerated by people with lactose intolerance because the bacteria partially digest the lactose into glucose and galactose before the yogurt is consumed. (
  • If you are diagnosed with lactose intolerance, your doctor may suggest doing some experimenting to see which dairy foods you can tolerate with fewer symptoms, because these are often an important source of calcium and vitamin D in your diet. (
  • But they need to eat it with other foods that don't contain lactose and not eat too much dairy at once. (
  • In addition to "lactose," words to look for include whey, milk byproducts, fat-free dry milk powder, malted milk, buttermilk and dry milk solids, all of which may contain lactose. (
  • If you have a severe intolerance, make sure that any medications you take, prescription or over-the-counter, do not contain lactose. (
  • Real milk that does not contain lactose, making it easier to digest for those people who are unable to digest lactose. (
  • Lactaid Milk Lactose Free Reduced Fat - 96 Fl. (
  • Lactose Intolerance - does lactaid pills cause constipation? (
  • Lactose Intolerance - How many lactaid or lactase pills do you take before eating dairy? (
  • Lactaid® Milk is 100% real farm-fresh milk without that tough-on-your-stomach lactose. (
  • If you add lactaid, lactose will be broken down into glucose and galactose, which can be used by the yeast. (
  • Xiong L, Wang Y, Gong X, Chen M. Prevalence of lactose intolerance in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: data from a tertiary center in southern China. (
  • Instead, a person lacks an enzyme known as lactase , which breaks down a sugar - lactose - that naturally occurs in milk and dairy products, such as cheese and yogurt . (
  • Other possible remedies include taking lactase supplements, combining milk or milk products with other foods (which may reduce your symptoms), and eating hard cheeses and yogurt, which naturally have lower levels of lactose. (
  • A cross-design was used to detect the effects of low lactose milk, yogurt and cereal-effect among 68 selected LI children. (
  • The incidence of LI was 80.2% after the children took 25 g of lactose, and after taking a 250 ml of full milk, lactase-fermented milk, coinfected milk, yogurt, or milk with meal, the LI incidences were 21.1% (12/57), 0% (0/25), 6.1% (2/33), 8.6% (3/35) and 13.6% (3/22) respectively. (
  • Low lactose milks and yogurt could reduce the LI incidence among LI children significantly. (
  • Finding gifts (let alone cheeses) that are lactose-free can be a challenge and sometimes nearly impossible! (
  • This gift basket contains 2 pounds of lactose free cheeses, crackers and a jam, all packed in a reusable wicker basket ready for you to gift. (
  • Aged cheeses, such as Cheddar and Swiss may be better tolerated due to their lower lactose contents. (
  • Horizon Organic Milk Lactose Free 2% Reduced Fat Half Gallon - 64 Fl. (
  • Lucerne Milk Lactose Free - 64 Fl. (
  • Lactose-free milk is also a great way to get calcium in the diet without the problems. (
  • these may be labeled as "lactose-free" or "lactose-reduced . (
  • Do 'Lactose-Free' and 'Dairy-Free' Mean the Same Thing? (
  • Why does Lactose Free Breyer's ice cream still cause my lactose intolerance symptoms of gas, bloating, stomach pain & nausea to occur? (
  • Is it not truely Lactose Free then? (
  • With some 30 to 50 million Americans suffering from various degrees of lactose intolerance, and an estimated three million of us now eating animal-free (vegan) diets for humane, environmental and/or health reasons, the production of alternatives to dairy products has started to become big business. (
  • The consumption volume of lactose free milk in Spain has increased consistently from around 344 thousand kilograms in 2017 to approximately to over 400 million kilograms in 2020. (
  • Going lactose-free doesn't have to mean all new foods. (
  • It's a myth, by the way, that goat's milk is lactose-free. (
  • You also can buy lactose-free milk or milk that contains reduced amounts of lactose. (
  • If you miss the taste of dairy products, look into lactose-free, vegetarian alternatives such as milk and cheese made from soy, rice or almonds. (
  • Thankfully, Fort Wayne offers many delightful options for the lactose-free palette. (
  • Loving Café is a great vegan dining option, so their menu is lactose-free by definition. (
  • A vegan diet is completely free of dairy, and even the "creamy" dishes are made with lactose-free love. (
  • Their menu features a mix of creamy- and non-creamy dishes, so be sure to ask the staff which choices are lactose-free. (
  • Add Green Valley Creamery Lactose Free Organic , Sour Cream to Favorites. (
  • Green Valley Creamery Lactose Free Organic Sour Cream, 12 oz Patience has its rewards. (
  • We slowly culture our lactose-free sour cream for more than a day to give it its delicious sweet, tangy flavor and velvety texture. (
  • Made with only three ingredients (cream, cultures, and lactase enzyme), our lactose-free sour cream is sure to become a staple in your kitchen. (
  • In order to provide you with accurate and valuable pieces of information and reviews, we have conducted in-depth research for the best list of lactose free formulas of 2022. (
  • Enfamil Nutramigen Infant Formula, Hypoallergenic and Lactose Free Formula, Fast Relief from Severe. (
  • BRAIN SUPPORT: Nutramigen is a gentle, lactose free baby formula that has important nutrients found in breast milk such as omega-3 DHA, ARA, and. (
  • Lactose-free formulas are suitable. (
  • Farmacie Online Sicure Cialis dukan diet lactose free milk . (
  • Pharmacie en ligne France: de meilleurs prix, acheter des medicaments generiques de qualite securises a Paris, Lyon, Marseille dukan diet lactose free milk . (
  • Cialis works faster than other ED drugs and dukan diet lactose free milk . (
  • I used dairy but made it lactose-free, though you could of course replace the margarine with actual butter. (
  • Wunda is a pea milk alternative made with pea protein, meaning this plant-based milk alternative is free from gluten, lactose, soya, and nuts. (
  • Bonus: It's lactose free and vegan. (
  • Study and voltammetric determination of fipronil in bovine lactose-free milk by differential pulse voltammetry using a carbon paste electrode. (
  • A novel voltammetric screening method has been developed for the rapid determination of fipronil (FPN) residues in lactose -free milk samples with the use of a carbon - paste electrode (CPE) by differential- pulse voltammetry (DPV). (
  • In the presence of a lactose -free skim milk matrix, the values of LOD and LOQ were 0.331 mg L-1 and 1.10 mg L-1. (
  • Lactose-free Then he got an idea! (
  • Free from aluminum, lactose & gluten. (
  • Dairy recommendations include low-fat or fat-free milk, lactose-free milk, and fortified soy beverages. (
  • Lactose is the sugar found in milk and foods made with milk. (
  • Lactose intolerance is when someone has trouble digesting lactose , a type of sugar found in milk and other dairy foods. (
  • Lactose intolerance is an impairment of your body's ability to produce lactase, an enzyme that digests lactose, a sugar found in milk. (
  • Lactose intolerance is the inability to digest lactose, the sugar found in milk. (
  • A natural carbohydrate found in milk, lactose provides energy, promotes intestinal health and aids in mineral absorption in babies. (
  • But developing lactose intolerance in adulthood is much more common, as your small intestine stops producing enough lactase to break down the lactose in your food. (
  • Fast Five Quiz: Lactose Intolerance - Medscape - Mar 21, 2022. (
  • What Is Lactose Fermentation? (
  • The goal of this project is to deliver yeast with an engineered pathway that produce fumaric acid through the fermentation of the lactose. (
  • The undigested lactose instead passes to the large intestine, leading to two negative processes: osmotic imbalance and bacterial fermentation. (
  • Decreasing the lag time will reduce the extent of lactose fermentation and therefore produce fewer deleterious effects. (
  • Under a low magnification of 15X, this image depicted three colonies of Group-B, Neisseria meningitidis bacteria, which had been cultivated on a lactose-containing solid medium, revealing that no differential fermentation had taken place, which would have produced an acidic environment, turning the indicator yellow. (
  • No treatment can improve the body's ability to produce lactase, but symptoms of lactose intolerance can be controlled through diet. (
  • Gluten sensitivity and lactose intolerance have very similar symptoms, but there are ways to find out if one of these is affecting you. (
  • You are getting 100% farm-fresh, delicious milk with all the nutrients of milk and none of the lactose. (
  • This is real dairy, with all the richness and versatility you've been craving -- and none of the lactose. (
  • Severe lactose intolerance is rare, but people with severe symptoms may need to watch for small amounts of lactose hidden in many foods. (
  • Infants with lactose intolerance need to minimise lactose in their diet rather than totally cut it out, as they are likely to tolerate small amounts of lactose. (
  • People of Asian, African, Native American, and Hispanic backgrounds are more likely to develop lactose intolerance at a young age. (
  • In the United States, up to 75 percent of all adult African Americans and Native Americans, and 90 percent of Asian Americans, are prone to develop lactose intolerance. (
  • Some antibiotics can trigger temporary lactose intolerance because they affect how the intestine makes lactase. (
  • After a bout of infectious diarrhea, some people can develop a temporary lactose intolerance that usually improves after a few days or weeks. (
  • Infants and young children can have temporary lactose intolerance, usually after a tummy infection (viral gastroenteritis). (
  • They may also test your breath for excess amounts of exhaled hydrogen - another sign that lactose is fermenting in your colon. (
  • And while some of both the Rice Brand and Veggie line contain small amounts of cultured milk salt, dried skim milk protein and trace amounts of lactose, Galaxy also make two purely vegan varieties, usually found in the dairy sections of grocery or health food stores. (
  • However, if your baby is drinking large amounts of milk, the gut can't deal with so much lactose at once, and a lot of it isn't digested. (
  • Most dotFIT shakes contain only negligible amounts of lactose. (
  • A few prescription drugs, including some birth control pills and heartburn drugs, contain tiny amounts of lactose. (
  • A mutated LacY allows the uptake of lactose while LacZ produces large amounts of ß-galactosidase. (
  • Higher amounts of lactose were found on work surfaces than on undisturbed areas such as elevated shelving. (
  • Normally, when we eat something containing lactose, an enzyme in the small intestine called lactase breaks it down into simpler sugar forms called glucose and galactose . (
  • Taking this before you eat foods that contain dairy helps your body digest the lactose sugar in dairy and prevent pain, cramping, bloating, gas, and diarrhea. (
  • If your body can't digest that sugar, the lactose may ferment in your intestines and produce lactic acid. (
  • Lactose is the milk sugar present in your milk. (
  • In the case of lactose intolerance, it has shown a clear relationship between our ancestral environment and our ability to tolerate milk sugar. (
  • Lactose intolerance-the reduced ability to digest milk sugar (lactose)-is common, but should have no effect on your ability to comfortably use dotFIT foods or powdered shake mixes unless you have been diagnosed with "severe lactose intolerance. (
  • However, lactose enzyme tablets are available and can help break down any milk sugar you do consume. (
  • Instead, we have our engineered strain allow the host to uptake lactose, clearing the sugar from the colon. (
  • Lactose intolerance symptoms may be mild or severe depending on the degree of lactase deficiency and the amount of lactose sugar consumed. (
  • After weaning, their ability to digest lactose (the sugar in milk) greatly reduces. (
  • Avoid foods high in lactose, sugar, or caffeine as they can make diarrhea worse. (
  • Lactase is the enzyme that digests lactose, a sugar in milk. (
  • In the lactose tolerance test, serial blood glucose levels are measured after an oral lactose load. (
  • A fasting serum glucose level is obtained, after which 50 g of lactose is administered. (
  • Failure of blood glucose levels to increase by 20 mg/dL suggests lactose intolerance. (
  • Inflation will occur with glucose and sucrose, but not with lactose. (
  • How much glucose, lactose, sucrose are you putting in each flask? (
  • To do this, we have engineered the 'Nissle 1917' strain to release ß-galactosidase, an enzyme that cleaves lactose into glucose and galactose. (
  • E. coli are unable to uptake lactose in the presence of glucose, a phenomenon known as carbon catabolite repression. (
  • Catabolite repression is mediated by Enzyme IIA Glucose (IIAGluc), which inhibits the uptake of lactose in the presence of glucose by binding to LacY 4 . (
  • Previous research has identified various LacY mutations that prevent this inhibition and achieve increased uptake of lactose in the presence of glucose 5 . (
  • Humans cannot absorb lactose for use as a calorie source unless they can first break it down into its monosaccharide component sugars: glucose and galactose. (
  • N. meningitidis oxidizes glucose and maltose, but not lactose or sucrose. (
  • WheySmooth also contains lactase, which counters the tiny amount of lactose and should allow anyone to use the product comfortably. (
  • Furthermore, a severe allergic reaction to milk can be life threatening, whereas symptoms of lactose intolerance can be mild or more severe discomfort and pain. (
  • What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Lactose Intolerance? (
  • Symptoms of lactose intolerance may start within 15 minutes but they may also initiate after an hour, the classical symptoms are abdominal bloating, cramping pain and flatulence. (
  • These low levels of lactase result in difficulty digesting or absorbing lactose, which leads to digestive symptoms such as bloating , diarrhea , and gas . (
  • The University of Rochester notes some of the most common lactose intolerance symptoms, including abdominal pain or cramps, nausea, bloating, gas and diarrhea. (
  • This is called "lactase non-persistence" and can lead to lactose intolerance, which is characterized by gas, cramps, bloating, and diarrhea after consuming dairy products. (
  • High lactose levels raise the osmolarity of the colon, causing diarrhea. (
  • The National Library of Medicine also notes that about 65 percent of humans have a reduced ability to digest lactose after infancy, with the condition most common in people of East Asian, West African, Arab, Jewish, Greek and Italian descent. (
  • The lactose intolerance 'map' shows that it is primarily people whose ancestors came from places where dairy herds could be raised safely and economically, such as Europe, who have developed the ability to digest milk and maintain this ability throughout life. (
  • Clinical evaluation, biochemistry and genetic polymorphism analysis for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance in a population from northeastern Brazil. (
  • Delacour H, Leduc A, Loucano-Perdriat A, Plantamura J, Ceppa F. Diagnosis of genetic predisposition for lactose intolerance by high resolution melting analysis. (
  • Prevalence, cause and diagnosis of lactose intolerance in children aged 1-5 years: a systematic review of 1995-2015 literature. (
  • Imaging tests are not helpful in the diagnosis of primary lactose intolerance, but they may be helpful for excluding secondary causes. (
  • We asked about professional diagnosis of lactose intolerance, but additionally asked about personal conclusions that respondents had lactose intolerance even though they had not been given an "official" diagnosis. (
  • If you might have lactose intolerance, the docto will ask your symptoms and diet. (
  • Because teens need about 1,300 milligrams (mg) of calcium each day, experts recommend that even those with lactose intolerance include some dairy in their diet. (
  • A concern for both children and adults with lactose intolerance is getting enough calcium in a diet that includes little or no dairy products. (
  • An immune reaction causes dairy allergy, and a lack of the enzyme lactase causes lactose intolerance. (
  • Lactose intolerance is a relative or absolute absence of the enzyme lactase in the small intestine, which prevents metabolism of lactose, the primary carbohydrate found exclusively in mammalian milk. (
  • Occurs when your body doesn't produce enough of the enzyme lactase, which breaks down lactose in your gut. (
  • Other differences between lactose intolerance and milk allergy include the timing and severity of symptoms. (
  • For example, a milk allergy most often appears in the first year of life, while lactose intolerance typically appears later. (
  • Lactose intolerance is often confused with milk allergy, but they are not the same. (
  • Cows' milk allergy and lactose intolerance are often confused with each other because some of the gastrointestinal (gut) symptoms can appear similar, but they are not the same thing. (
  • The following table is a summary of some of the differences between cows' milk allergy and lactose intolerance. (
  • For more details see cows' milk allergy and lactose intolerance . (
  • However, lactose intolerance has only been recognized in the last 50 years, and currently, lactose intolerance is defined as a clinical syndrome characterized by pain, abdominal distention, flatulence, and diarrhoea that occur after lactose consumption. (
  • Lactose intolerance can also occur as a result of intestinal disorders, such as celiac disease , gastroenteritis or an inflammatory bowel disease such as Crohn's disease . (
  • However, lysis must occur only when lactose is present in the gut. (
  • When this extra lactose reaches baby's lower bowel, normal gut bacteria use it and release gas that causes wind and pain. (
  • Buy brands with live cultures, since the bacteria help digest lactose. (
  • Lactose that passes into the large intestine is then fermented by bacteria. (
  • If your symptoms are severe, your lactose intolerance treatment may include abstaining from dairy foods entirely. (
  • Symptoms usually develop between 30 minutes to two hours after ingesting milk products and can be mild or severe depending in part on how much lactose is consumed and the severity of the intolerance. (
  • In addition, gut microbes metabolize the lactose into methane gas, causing abdominal pain. (
  • Genetics of lactase persistence and lactose intolerance. (
  • And they are all excellent sources of calcium without cholesterol, saturated/trans-fats or lactose. (
  • Sometimes it decreases to the point where you are unable to deal with all of the lactose that you ingest. (
  • A dairy allergy involves an immune reaction by the body, whereas lactose intolerance is due to the inability to digest the sugars in milk products. (
  • Lactose intolerance is the inability to digest dairy products and is now one of the most common physical conditions affecting humankind. (
  • Patients are administered lactose after an overnight fast, after which expired air samples are collected before and at 30-minute intervals over the course of 3 hours to assess hydrogen gas concentrations. (
  • A rise in breath hydrogen concentration greater than 20 parts per million over the baseline after lactose ingestion suggests lactase deficiency. (
  • They might test the breath for hydrogen levels before and after you drink lactose. (
  • But undigested lactose in the colon breaks down and makes various gases, including hydrogen. (
  • Although your doctor can test for lactic acid in your stool or an excess of exhaled hydrogen to diagnose lactose intolerance, you'll probably notice other symptoms on your own. (
  • These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Lactose Breath Hydrogen Test. (
  • A hydrogen respiration test (HRT) method was used in screening lactose intolerance (LI) subjects after taking 25 g of lactose among 106 children aged from 10 to 11 years old in a primary school located in the suburban area of Beijing. (
  • A real downside to lactose intolerance is that if you quit eating all dairy, you will need to make up for shortfalls of these nutrients. (
  • A review from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) suggests children with lactose intolerance are missing out on essential nutrients by avoiding dairy products. (
  • Many foods, drinks, and digestive aids are available to help manage lactose intolerance. (
  • Persistent digestive symptoms may indicate something more serious than lactose intolerance. (
  • Abnormal gastrointestinal emptying can also affect the results of the lactose tolerance test. (
  • In the end, we want to express as much ß-galactosidase as we can to cleave as much lactose present in the large intestine. (
  • Dietary adjustment is the primary form of therapy for patients with lactose intolerance. (
  • The level of dietary control needed with lactose intolerance depends on how much lactose a person's body can handle. (
  • LacY is a membrane protein that actively transports lactose into the cell. (
  • Three expressed breast milk samples were collect- ed from 61 healthy lactating mothers in Cairo, Egypt, for determination of total protein, fat, lactose and zinc content, as well as vitamins C, A and E concentrations. (
  • ator at 4-6 °C for 24 hours before analysis, total protein, total fat, lactose, zinc and vi- and the third sample was stored in the tamins C, A and E concentrations. (
  • Goat milk has less lactose and a slightly different protein structure than cow's milk. (