A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria mainly isolated from milk and milk products. These bacteria are also found in plants and nonsterile frozen and dry foods. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS (group N), it is now recognized as a separate genus.
A 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis. It has been used as a food preservative in canned fruits and vegetables, and cheese.
A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. It is nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An ascomycetous yeast of the fungal family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
Milk modified with controlled FERMENTATION. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KAFFIR CORN.
A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Carrier of aroma of butter, vinegar, coffee, and other foods.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A species of thermophilic, gram-positive bacteria found in MILK and milk products.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.
Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. No endospores are produced. Its organisms are found in fermenting plant products and are nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.
Allosteric enzymes that regulate glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. These enzymes catalyze phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate to either fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1 reaction), or to fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-2 reaction).
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.
Salts and esters of CHOLIC ACID.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
A subclass of EXOPEPTIDASES that act on the free N terminus end of a polypeptide liberating a single amino acid residue. EC 3.4.11.
A species of rod-shaped, LACTIC ACID bacteria used in PROBIOTICS and SILAGE production.
A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
The application of knowledge to the food industry.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of alpha D-glucose 1-phosphate to alpha D-glucose 6-phosphate. EC 5.4.2.2.
A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.
An enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage to 3'-phosphomononucleotide and 3'-phospholigonucleotide end-products. It can cause hydrolysis of double- or single-stranded DNA or RNA. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.1.31.1.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.

Novel characteristic for distinguishing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis from subsp. cremoris. (1/1459)

Lactococcus lactis strains were examined for their ability to produce gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Results showed that strains of L. lactis subsp. lactis were able to produce this acid, whereas L. lactis subsp. cremoris were not. GABA production thus represents another effective characteristic for distinguishing L. lactis subsp. lactis from L. lactis subsp. cremoris.  (+info)

Mechanism of citrate metabolism in Lactococcus lactis: resistance against lactate toxicity at low pH. (2/1459)

Measurement of the flux through the citrate fermentation pathway in resting cells of Lactococcus lactis CRL264 grown in a pH-controlled fermentor at different pH values showed that the pathway was constitutively expressed, but its activity was significantly enhanced at low pH. The flux through the citrate-degrading pathway correlated with the magnitude of the membrane potential and pH gradient that were generated when citrate was added to the cells. The citrate degradation rate and proton motive force were significantly higher when glucose was metabolized at the same time, a phenomenon that could be mimicked by the addition of lactate, the end product of glucose metabolism. The results clearly demonstrate that citrate metabolism in L. lactis is a secondary proton motive force-generating pathway. Although the proton motive force generated by citrate in cells grown at low pH was of the same magnitude as that generated by glucose fermentation, citrate metabolism did not affect the growth rate of L. lactis in rich media. However, inhibition of growth by lactate was relieved when citrate also was present in the growth medium. Citrate did not relieve the inhibition by other weak acids, suggesting a specific role of the citrate transporter CitP in the relief of inhibition. The mechanism of citrate metabolism presented here provides an explanation for the resistance to lactate toxicity. It is suggested that the citrate metabolic pathway is induced under the acidic conditions of the late exponential growth phase to make the cells (more) resistant to the inhibitory effects of the fermentation product, lactate, that accumulates under these conditions.  (+info)

A general method for selection of alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase-deficient Lactococcus lactis mutants to improve diacetyl formation. (3/1459)

The enzyme acetolactate decarboxylase (Ald) plays a key role in the regulation of the alpha-acetolactate pool in both pyruvate catabolism and the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids, isoleucine, leucine, and valine (ILV). This dual role of Ald, due to allosteric activation by leucine, was used as a strategy for the isolation of Ald-deficient mutants of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis. Such mutants can be selected as leucine-resistant mutants in ILV- or IV-prototrophic strains. Most dairy lactococcus strains are auxotrophic for the three amino acids. Therefore, the plasmid pMC004 containing the ilv genes (encoding the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of IV) of L. lactis NCDO2118 was constructed. Introduction of pMC004 into ILV-auxotrophic dairy strains resulted in an isoleucine-prototrophic phenotype. By plating the strains on a chemically defined medium supplemented with leucine but not valine and isoleucine, spontaneous leucine-resistant mutants were obtained. These mutants were screened by Western blotting with Ald-specific antibodies for the presence of Ald. Selected mutants lacking Ald were subsequently cured of pMC004. Except for a defect in the expression of Ald, the resulting strain, MC010, was identical to the wild-type strain, as shown by Southern blotting and DNA fingerprinting. The mutation resulting in the lack of Ald in MC010 occurred spontaneously, and the strain does not contain foreign DNA; thus, it can be regarded as food grade. Nevertheless, its application in dairy products depends on the regulation of genetically modified organisms. These results establish a strategy to select spontaneous Ald-deficient mutants from transformable L. lactis strains.  (+info)

Characterization of the divergent sacBK and sacAR operons, involved in sucrose utilization by Lactococcus lactis. (4/1459)

The divergently transcribed sacBK and sacAR operons, which are involved in the utilization of sucrose by Lactococcus lactis NZ9800, were examined by transcriptional and gene inactivation studies. Northern analyses of RNA isolated from cells grown at the expense of different carbon sources revealed three sucrose-inducible transcripts: one of 3.2 kb containing sacB and sacK, a second of 3.4 kb containing sacA and sacR, and a third of 1.8 kb containing only sacR. The inactivation of the sacR gene by replacement recombination resulted in the constitutive transcription of the sacBK and sacAR operons in the presence of different carbon sources, indicating that SacR acts as a repressor of transcription.  (+info)

Membrane topology of the lactococcal bacteriocin ATP-binding cassette transporter protein LcnC. Involvement of LcnC in lactococcin a maturation. (5/1459)

Many non-lantibiotic bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria are produced as precursors with N-terminal leader peptides different from those present in preproteins exported by the general sec-dependent (type II) secretion pathway. These bacteriocins utilize a dedicated (type I) secretion system for externalization. The secretion apparatus for the lactococcins A, B, and M/N (LcnA, B, and M/N) from Lactococcus lactis is composed of the two membrane proteins LcnC and LcnD. LcnC belongs to the ATP-binding cassette transporters, whereas LcnD is a protein with similarities to other accessory proteins of type I secretion systems. This paper shows that the N-terminal part of LcnC is involved in the processing of the precursor of LcnA. By making translational fusions of LcnC to the reporter proteins beta-galactosidase (LacZ) and alkaline phosphatase (PhoA*), it was shown that both the N- and C-terminal parts of LcnC are located in the cytoplasm. As the N terminus of LcnC is required for LcnA maturation and is localized in the cytoplasm, we conclude that the processing of the bacteriocin LcnA to its mature form takes place at the cytosolic side of the cytoplasmic membrane.  (+info)

Hydrolysis of alphas1- and beta-casein-derived peptides with a broad specificity aminopeptidase and proline specific aminopeptidases from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris AM2. (6/1459)

Aminopeptidase hydrolysis of alpha(s)1 - and beta-casein-derived synthetic peptides containing non-consecutive and consecutive proline residues was characterised. Aminopeptidase P (Pep P) (EC 3.4.11.9) or post-proline dipeptidyl aminopeptidase (PPDA) (EC 3.4.14.5) along with lysine-paranitroanilide hydrolase (KpNA-H) (EC 3.4.11.1) activities are required in the degradation of peptides containing non-consecutive proline residues. However, both Pep P and PPDA along with KpNA-H are required for hydrolysis of peptides containing consecutive proline residues. The results demonstrate the mechanism by which combinations of purified general and proline specific aminopeptidases from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris AM2 hydrolyse peptides containing proline residues.  (+info)

Regulation of expression of the Lactococcus lactis histidine operon. (7/1459)

In Lactococcus lactis, the his operon contains all the genes necessary for histidine biosynthesis. It is transcribed from a unique promoter, localized 300 bp upstream of the first gene. The region corresponding to the untranslated 5' end of the transcript, named the his leader region, displays the typical features of the T box transcriptional attenuation mechanism which is involved in the regulation of many amino acid biosynthetic operons and tRNA synthetase genes in gram-positive bacteria. Here we describe the regulation of transcription of the his operon by the level of histidine in the growth medium. In the absence of histidine, two transcripts are present. One covers the entire operon, while the other stops at a terminator situated about 250 bp downstream of the transcription start point. DNA sequences implicated in regulation of the his operon were identified by transcriptional fusion with luciferase genes and site-directed mutagenesis. In addition to the previously defined sequences necessary for effective T-box-mediated regulation, new essential regions were identified. Eighteen percent of the positions of the his leader region were found to differ in seven distantly related strains of L. lactis. Analysis of the variable positions supports the folding model of the central part of the his leader region. Lastly, in addition to the T-box-mediated regulation, the operon is regulated at the level of initiation of transcription, which is repressed in the presence of histidine. An operator site, necessary for full repression, overlaps the terminator involved in the T box attenuation mechanism. The functionality of the operator is altered on plasmids with low and high copy numbers, suggesting that supercoiling may play a role in the expression of the his operon. The extents of regulation at the levels of initiation and attenuation of transcription are 6- to 8-fold and 14-fold, respectively. Together, the two levels of control allow a 120-fold range of regulation of the L. lactis operon by histidine.  (+info)

Disruption and analysis of the clpB, clpC, and clpE genes in Lactococcus lactis: ClpE, a new Clp family in gram-positive bacteria. (8/1459)

In the genome of the gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis MG1363, we have identified three genes (clpC, clpE, and clpB) which encode Clp proteins containing two conserved ATP binding domains. The proteins encoded by two of the genes belong to the previously described ClpB and ClpC families. The clpE gene, however, encodes a member of a new Clp protein family that is characterized by a short N-terminal domain including a putative zinc binding domain (-CX2CX22CX2C-). Expression of the 83-kDa ClpE protein as well as of the two proteins encoded by clpB was strongly induced by heat shock and, while clpC mRNA synthesis was moderately induced by heat, we were unable to identify the ClpC protein. When we analyzed mutants with disruptions in clpB, clpC, or clpE, we found that although the genes are part of the L. lactis heat shock stimulon, the mutants responded like wild-type cells to heat and salt treatments. However, when exposed to puromycin, a tRNA analogue that results in the synthesis of truncated, randomly folded proteins, clpE mutant cells formed smaller colonies than wild-type cells and clpB and clpC mutant cells. Thus, our data suggest that ClpE, along with ClpP, which recently was shown to participate in the degradation of randomly folded proteins in L. lactis, could be necessary for degrading proteins generated by certain types of stress.  (+info)

"Lactococcus lactis" is a species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found in nature, particularly in environments involving plants and dairy products. It is a catalase-negative, non-spore forming coccus that typically occurs in pairs or short chains.

"Lactococcus lactis" has significant industrial importance as it plays a crucial role in the production of fermented foods such as cheese and buttermilk. The bacterium converts lactose into lactic acid, which contributes to the sour taste and preservative qualities of these products.

In addition to its use in food production, "Lactococcus lactis" has been explored for its potential therapeutic applications. It can be used as a vector for delivering therapeutic proteins or vaccines to the gastrointestinal tract due to its ability to survive and colonize there.

It's worth noting that "Lactococcus lactis" is generally considered safe for human consumption, and it's one of the most commonly used probiotics in food and supplements.

Lactococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria commonly found in plants, dairy products, and the oral and intestinal microbiota of animals and humans. These bacteria are known for their ability to ferment lactose and other sugars into lactic acid, which makes them important in food production (such as cheese and buttermilk) and also contributes to their role in dental caries. Some species of Lactococcus can cause disease in humans, particularly in immunocompromised individuals or those with pre-existing conditions, but they are generally considered to be low-virulence pathogens.

Nisin is not a medical term, but a bacteriocin, which is a type of antimicrobial peptide produced by certain bacteria to inhibit the growth of other bacteria. Nisin is specifically produced by some strains of the bacterium Lactococcus lactis and has been shown to be effective against a variety of Gram-positive bacteria, including those that cause foodborne illnesses.

Nisin is commonly used as a food preservative to prevent the growth of harmful bacteria in processed foods such as dairy products, meats, and canned goods. It is also being studied for its potential use in medical applications, such as wound healing and the treatment of bacterial infections. However, it is not currently approved for use as a drug or medical treatment in many countries, including the United States.

I am not a doctor, but I can provide some information about the term "cheese" in a general and food science context. Cheese is a dairy product made from the curdled milk of various animals, most commonly cows, goats, or sheep. The process involves enzymes (such as rennet) to coagulate milk proteins (casein), which then separate from the liquid whey. The curds are then aged, treated, and processed in various ways to create different types of cheese with unique flavors, textures, and appearances.

However, if you are looking for a medical definition related to health issues or conditions, I would recommend consulting a reliable medical resource or speaking with a healthcare professional.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Bacteriophages, often simply called phages, are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria. They consist of a protein coat, called the capsid, that encases the genetic material, which can be either DNA or RNA. Bacteriophages are highly specific, meaning they only infect certain types of bacteria, and they reproduce by hijacking the bacterial cell's machinery to produce more viruses.

Once a phage infects a bacterium, it can either replicate its genetic material and create new phages (lytic cycle), or integrate its genetic material into the bacterial chromosome and replicate along with the bacterium (lysogenic cycle). In the lytic cycle, the newly formed phages are released by lysing, or breaking open, the bacterial cell.

Bacteriophages play a crucial role in shaping microbial communities and have been studied as potential alternatives to antibiotics for treating bacterial infections.

Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria as a defense mechanism against other competing bacterial strains. They primarily target and inhibit the growth of closely related bacterial species, although some have a broader spectrum of activity. Bacteriocins can be classified into different types based on their structural features, molecular masses, and mechanisms of action.

These antimicrobial peptides often interact with the cell membrane of target bacteria, causing pore formation, depolarization, or disrupting cell wall biosynthesis, ultimately leading to bacterial cell death. Bacteriocins have gained interest in recent years as potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics due to their narrow spectrum of activity and reduced likelihood of inducing resistance. They are being explored for use in food preservation, agricultural applications, and as therapeutic agents in the medical field.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Siphoviridae is a family of tailed bacteriophages, which are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria. The members of this family are characterized by their long, non-contractile tails, which are typically around 100-1000 nanometers in length. The tail fibers at the end of the tail are used to recognize and attach to specific receptors on the surface of bacterial cells.

The Siphoviridae family includes many well-known bacteriophages, such as the lambda phage that infects Escherichia coli bacteria. The genetic material of Siphoviridae viruses is double-stranded DNA, which is packaged inside an icosahedral capsid (the protein shell of the virus).

It's worth noting that Siphoviridae is one of the five families in the order Caudovirales, which includes all tailed bacteriophages. The other four families are Myoviridae, Podoviridae, Herelleviridae, and Ackermannviridae.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

Leuconostoc is a genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that belong to the family Leuconostocaceae. These bacteria are non-motile, non-spore forming, and occur as pairs or chains. They are catalase-negative and reduce nitrate to nitrite.

Leuconostoc species are commonly found in nature, particularly in plants, dairy products, and fermented foods. They play a significant role in the food industry, where they are used in the production of various fermented foods such as sauerkraut, pickles, and certain cheeses.

In clinical settings, Leuconostoc species can sometimes be associated with healthcare-associated infections, particularly in patients who have underlying medical conditions or who are immunocompromised. They can cause bacteremia, endocarditis, and device-related infections. However, these infections are relatively rare, and the majority of Leuconostoc species are considered to be non-pathogenic.

Lactobacillus is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic or microaerophilic, non-spore-forming bacteria. They are part of the normal flora found in the intestinal, urinary, and genital tracts of humans and other animals. Lactobacilli are also commonly found in some fermented foods, such as yogurt, sauerkraut, and sourdough bread.

Lactobacilli are known for their ability to produce lactic acid through the fermentation of sugars, which contributes to their role in maintaining a healthy microbiota and lowering the pH in various environments. Some species of Lactobacillus have been shown to provide health benefits, such as improving digestion, enhancing immune function, and preventing infections, particularly in the urogenital and intestinal tracts. They are often used as probiotics, either in food or supplement form, to promote a balanced microbiome and support overall health.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Fermentation is a metabolic process in which an organism converts carbohydrates into alcohol or organic acids using enzymes. In the absence of oxygen, certain bacteria, yeasts, and fungi convert sugars into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and various end products, such as alcohol, lactic acid, or acetic acid. This process is commonly used in food production, such as in making bread, wine, and beer, as well as in industrial applications for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Kluyveromyces is a genus of ascomycetous yeasts, which are commonly found in various environments such as plant material, food, and dairy products. These yeasts are often used in industrial applications, including the production of biofuels, enzymes, and single-cell proteins. Some species of Kluyveromyces have probiotic properties and can be found in the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans.

The genus Kluyveromyces is named after the Dutch microbiologist Albert J. Kluyver, who made significant contributions to the field of yeast research. The taxonomy of this genus has undergone several revisions, and some species previously classified as Kluyveromyces have been reassigned to other genera.

It is important to note that while Kluyveromyces species are generally considered safe for industrial use and human consumption, they can still cause infections in immunocompromised individuals or those with underlying medical conditions. Therefore, it is essential to handle these organisms with care and follow appropriate safety protocols when working with them.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Medically, "milk" is not defined. However, it is important to note that human babies are fed with breast milk, which is the secretion from the mammary glands of humans. It is rich in nutrients like proteins, fats, carbohydrates (lactose), vitamins and minerals that are essential for growth and development.

Other mammals also produce milk to feed their young. These include cows, goats, and sheep, among others. Their milk is often consumed by humans as a source of nutrition, especially in dairy products. However, the composition of these milks can vary significantly from human breast milk.

An operon is a genetic unit in prokaryotic organisms (like bacteria) consisting of a cluster of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule, which then undergoes translation to produce multiple proteins. This genetic organization allows for the coordinated regulation of genes that are involved in the same metabolic pathway or functional process. The unit typically includes promoter and operator regions that control the transcription of the operon, as well as structural genes encoding the proteins. Operons were first discovered in bacteria, but similar genetic organizations have been found in some eukaryotic organisms, such as yeast.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Lactose is a disaccharide, a type of sugar, that is naturally found in milk and dairy products. It is made up of two simple sugars, glucose and galactose, linked together. In order for the body to absorb and use lactose, it must be broken down into these simpler sugars by an enzyme called lactase, which is produced in the lining of the small intestine.

People who have a deficiency of lactase are unable to fully digest lactose, leading to symptoms such as bloating, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps, a condition known as lactose intolerance.

Cultured milk products are fermented dairy foods that contain live or active cultures of beneficial bacteria. The fermentation process involves the addition of specific strains of bacteria, such as lactic acid bacteria, to milk. This causes the milk to thicken and develop a tangy flavor.

Common cultured milk products include:

1. Yogurt: A fermented dairy product made from milk and bacterial cultures, including Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Yogurt is often consumed for its taste, nutritional value, and potential health benefits associated with probiotics.
2. Buttermilk: Traditionally, buttermilk was the thin, liquid byproduct of churning butter from cultured cream. Nowadays, most commercial buttermilk is made by adding bacterial cultures to low-fat or skim milk and allowing it to ferment. The result is a tangy, slightly thickened beverage.
3. Kefir: A fermented milk drink that originated in the Caucasus Mountains. It's made using kefir grains, which are symbiotic colonies of bacteria and yeast, to ferment milk. The final product is a carbonated, tangy beverage with a consistency similar to thin yogurt.
4. Cheese: While not all cheeses are cultured milk products, many types undergo a fermentation process using specific bacterial cultures. This helps develop the cheese's flavor, texture, and aroma during the aging process. Examples of cultured cheeses include cheddar, gouda, brie, and feta.
5. Sour cream: A dairy product made by fermenting cream with lactic acid bacteria, resulting in a thick, tangy condiment or topping.
6. Crème fraîche: Similar to sour cream but made from heavy cream instead of milk, crème fraîche has a richer texture and milder flavor. It's produced by allowing pasteurized cream to ferment naturally with bacterial cultures.
7. Cultured butter: This type of butter is made from cultured cream that has been allowed to ferment before churning. The fermentation process imparts a tangy, slightly cheesy flavor to the butter.
8. Viili and Fil Mjölk: These are traditional Nordic fermented milk products with a ropy texture due to specific bacterial cultures used in their production.

Acetoin is a chemical compound that is produced as a metabolic byproduct in certain types of bacteria, including some species of streptococcus and lactobacillus. It is a colorless liquid with a sweet, buttery odor and is used as a flavoring agent in the food industry. In addition to its use as a flavoring, acetoin has been studied for its potential antibacterial properties and its possible role in the development of biofilms. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential uses and implications of this compound.

Genetic conjugation is a type of genetic transfer that occurs between bacterial cells. It involves the process of one bacterium (the donor) transferring a piece of its DNA to another bacterium (the recipient) through direct contact or via a bridge-like connection called a pilus. This transferred DNA may contain genes that provide the recipient cell with new traits, such as antibiotic resistance or virulence factors, which can make the bacteria more harmful or difficult to treat. Genetic conjugation is an important mechanism for the spread of antibiotic resistance and other traits among bacterial populations.

Diacetyl is a volatile, yellow-green liquid that is a byproduct of fermentation and is used as a butter flavoring in foods. The chemical formula for diacetyl is CH3COCH3. It has a buttery or creamy taste and is often added to microwave popcorn, margarine, and other processed foods to give them a buttery flavor.

Diacetyl can also be found in some alcoholic beverages, such as beer and wine, where it is produced naturally during fermentation. In high concentrations, diacetyl can have a strong, unpleasant odor and taste.

There has been concern about the potential health effects of diacetyl, particularly for workers in factories that manufacture artificial butter flavorings. Some studies have suggested that exposure to diacetyl may increase the risk of developing lung disease, including bronchiolitis obliterans, a serious and sometimes fatal condition characterized by scarring and narrowing of the airways in the lungs. However, more research is needed to fully understand the health effects of diacetyl and to determine safe levels of exposure.

An open reading frame (ORF) is a continuous stretch of DNA or RNA sequence that has the potential to be translated into a protein. It begins with a start codon (usually "ATG" in DNA, which corresponds to "AUG" in RNA) and ends with a stop codon ("TAA", "TAG", or "TGA" in DNA; "UAA", "UAG", or "UGA" in RNA). The sequence between these two points is called a coding sequence (CDS), which, when transcribed into mRNA and translated into amino acids, forms a polypeptide chain.

In eukaryotic cells, ORFs can be located in either protein-coding genes or non-coding regions of the genome. In prokaryotic cells, multiple ORFs may be present on a single strand of DNA, often organized into operons that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that not all ORFs necessarily represent functional proteins; some may be pseudogenes or result from errors in genome annotation. Therefore, additional experimental evidence is typically required to confirm the expression and functionality of a given ORF.

Streptococcus thermophilus is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, non-spore forming bacterium that belongs to the Streptococcaceae family. It is a species of streptococcus that is mesophilic, meaning it grows best at moderate temperatures, typically between 30-45°C. S. thermophilus is commonly found in milk and dairy products and is one of the starter cultures used in the production of yogurt and other fermented dairy products. It is also used as a probiotic due to its potential health benefits, such as improving lactose intolerance and enhancing the immune system. S. thermophilus is not considered pathogenic and does not normally cause infections in humans.

Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that are present in food, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. This field examines how these microbes interact with food, how they affect its safety and quality, and how they can be controlled during food production, processing, storage, and preparation. Food microbiology also involves the development of methods for detecting and identifying pathogenic microorganisms in food, as well as studying the mechanisms of foodborne illnesses and developing strategies to prevent them. Additionally, it includes research on the beneficial microbes found in certain fermented foods and their potential applications in improving food quality and safety.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Food Industry" is not a term that has a medical definition. The food industry is a broad category that includes businesses involved in the production, processing, packaging, distribution, and sale of food products. This can include farms, fisheries, manufacturers of food products, grocery stores, restaurants, and more.

If you have any questions related to nutrition or dietary habits and their impact on health, I would be happy to help provide information based on medical knowledge.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Streptococcus Phages" is not a standard medical term. The term "Streptococcus" refers to a genus of gram-positive bacteria that can cause various infections in humans, such as strep throat and skin infections. A "phage," on the other hand, is a virus that infects and replicates within bacteria.

Therefore, if you are referring to bacteriophages that infect Streptococcus bacteria, then the term would be "Streptococcus phages" or more specifically, the name of the particular phage species that infect Streptococcus bacteria (e.g., Streptococcus phage C1, Streptococcus phage Φ29). However, it's important to note that there are many different types of bacteriophages that can infect various strains of Streptococcus bacteria, so the specific phage would need to be identified.

Genetic engineering, also known as genetic modification, is a scientific process where the DNA or genetic material of an organism is manipulated to bring about a change in its characteristics. This is typically done by inserting specific genes into the organism's genome using various molecular biology techniques. These new genes may come from the same species (cisgenesis) or a different species (transgenesis). The goal is to produce a desired trait, such as resistance to pests, improved nutritional content, or increased productivity. It's widely used in research, medicine, and agriculture. However, it's important to note that the use of genetically engineered organisms can raise ethical, environmental, and health concerns.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Pediococcus is a genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic cocci that typically occur in pairs or tetrads. These bacteria are catalase-negative and non-motile. They are commonly found in various environments such as plants, dairy products, and fermented foods. Some species of Pediococcus can cause food spoilage, while others are used in the production of fermented foods like sauerkraut and certain cheeses due to their ability to produce lactic acid. They are not typically associated with human diseases, but rarely can cause infection in immunocompromised individuals.

Bacterial chromosomes are typically circular, double-stranded DNA molecules that contain the genetic material of bacteria. Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA housed within a nucleus, bacterial chromosomes are located in the cytoplasm of the cell, often associated with the bacterial nucleoid.

Bacterial chromosomes can vary in size and structure among different species, but they typically contain all of the genetic information necessary for the survival and reproduction of the organism. They may also contain plasmids, which are smaller circular DNA molecules that can carry additional genes and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation.

One important feature of bacterial chromosomes is their ability to replicate rapidly, allowing bacteria to divide quickly and reproduce in large numbers. The replication of the bacterial chromosome begins at a specific origin point and proceeds in opposite directions until the entire chromosome has been copied. This process is tightly regulated and coordinated with cell division to ensure that each daughter cell receives a complete copy of the genetic material.

Overall, the study of bacterial chromosomes is an important area of research in microbiology, as understanding their structure and function can provide insights into bacterial genetics, evolution, and pathogenesis.

Dairy products are foods produced from the milk of animals, primarily cows but also goats, sheep, and buffalo. The term "dairy" refers to the place or process where these products are made. According to the medical definition, dairy products include a variety of foods such as:

1. Milk - This is the liquid produced by mammals to feed their young. It's rich in nutrients like calcium, protein, and vitamins A, D, and B12.
2. Cheese - Made from milk, it can vary greatly in texture, taste, and nutritional content depending on the type. Cheese is a good source of protein and calcium.
3. Yogurt - This is formed by bacterial fermentation of milk. It contains probiotics which are beneficial bacteria that can help maintain gut health.
4. Butter - Made from cream or churned milk, butter is high in fat and calories but also provides some essential nutrients like vitamin A.
5. Ice Cream - A frozen dessert made from cream, milk, sugar, and often egg yolks. While it can be a source of calcium and protein, it's also high in sugar and should be consumed in moderation.
6. Casein and Whey Proteins - These are proteins derived from milk that are often used as dietary supplements for muscle building and recovery after exercise.

Individuals who are lactose intolerant may have difficulty digesting dairy products due to the sugar lactose found in them. For such individuals, there are lactose-free versions of these products available or they can opt for plant-based alternatives like almond milk, soy milk, etc.

Phosphofructokinase (PFK) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in regulating glycolysis, which is the metabolic pathway responsible for the conversion of glucose into energy. PFK catalyzes the phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, using a molecule of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a source of energy. This reaction is a key regulatory step in glycolysis and is subject to allosteric regulation by various metabolites, such as ATP, ADP, and citrate, that signal the cell's energy status.

There are several isoforms of PFK found in different tissues, including PFK-1 (or muscle PFK) and PFK-2 (or liver PFK), which exhibit tissue-specific patterns of expression and regulation. Mutations in the genes encoding PFK can result in various inherited metabolic disorders, such as Tarui's disease, characterized by exercise intolerance, muscle cramps, and myoglobinuria.

Restriction mapping is a technique used in molecular biology to identify the location and arrangement of specific restriction endonuclease recognition sites within a DNA molecule. Restriction endonucleases are enzymes that cut double-stranded DNA at specific sequences, producing fragments of various lengths. By digesting the DNA with different combinations of these enzymes and analyzing the resulting fragment sizes through techniques such as agarose gel electrophoresis, researchers can generate a restriction map - a visual representation of the locations and distances between recognition sites on the DNA molecule. This information is crucial for various applications, including cloning, genome analysis, and genetic engineering.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

Industrial microbiology is not strictly a medical definition, but it is a branch of microbiology that deals with the use of microorganisms for the production of various industrial and commercial products. In a broader sense, it can include the study of microorganisms that are involved in diseases of animals, humans, and plants, as well as those that are beneficial in industrial processes.

In the context of medical microbiology, industrial microbiology may involve the use of microorganisms to produce drugs, vaccines, or other therapeutic agents. For example, certain bacteria and yeasts are used to ferment sugars and produce antibiotics, while other microorganisms are used to create vaccines through a process called attenuation.

Industrial microbiology may also involve the study of microorganisms that can cause contamination in medical settings, such as hospitals or pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities. These microorganisms can cause infections and pose a risk to patients or workers, so it is important to understand their behavior and develop strategies for controlling their growth and spread.

Overall, industrial microbiology plays an important role in the development of new medical technologies and therapies, as well as in ensuring the safety and quality of medical products and environments.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Cholates" is not a recognized medical term or abbreviation in physiology, pathology, or pharmacology. It seems like there might be a spelling mistake or a misunderstanding. If you meant to ask about "cholesterol," I would be happy to help provide information on that.

Cholesterol is a type of lipid (fat) that is essential for the normal functioning of our bodies. It plays crucial roles in maintaining cell membrane structure, producing certain hormones, and serving as a precursor for vitamin D and bile acids. However, high levels of cholesterol in the blood can increase the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.

If you have any questions or need more information about cholesterol or any other medical topic, please feel free to ask!

Bacteriolysis is the breaking down or destruction of bacterial cells. This process can occur naturally or as a result of medical treatment, such as when antibiotics target and destroy bacteria by disrupting their cell walls. The term "bacteriolysis" specifically refers to the breakdown of the bacterial cell membrane, which can lead to the release of the contents of the bacterial cell and ultimately result in the death of the organism.

Aminopeptidases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the removal of amino acids from the N-terminus of polypeptides and proteins. They play important roles in various biological processes, including protein degradation, processing, and activation. Aminopeptidases are classified based on their specificity for different types of amino acids and the mechanism of their action. Some of the well-known aminopeptidases include leucine aminopeptidase, alanyl aminopeptidase, and arginine aminopeptidase. They are widely distributed in nature and found in various tissues and organisms, including bacteria, plants, and animals. In humans, aminopeptidases are involved in several physiological functions, such as digestion, immune response, and blood pressure regulation.

Lactobacillus plantarum is a species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that belongs to the lactic acid bacteria group. It is a facultative anaerobe, meaning it can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. Lactobacillus plantarum is commonly found in a variety of environments, including fermented foods such as sauerkraut, kimchi, and sourdough bread, as well as in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and other animals.

Lactobacillus plantarum is known for its ability to produce lactic acid through the fermentation of carbohydrates, which can help to preserve food and inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria. It also produces various antimicrobial compounds that can help to protect against pathogens in the gut.

In addition to its use in food preservation and fermentation, Lactobacillus plantarum has been studied for its potential probiotic benefits. Probiotics are live bacteria and yeasts that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed, including improving digestive health, enhancing the immune system, and reducing the risk of certain diseases.

Research has suggested that Lactobacillus plantarum may have a range of potential health benefits, including:

* Improving gut barrier function and reducing inflammation in the gut
* Enhancing the immune system and reducing the risk of infections
* Alleviating symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other gastrointestinal disorders
* Reducing the risk of allergies and asthma
* Improving oral health by reducing plaque and preventing tooth decay

However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits of Lactobacillus plantarum and to determine its safety and effectiveness as a probiotic supplement.

Caseins are a group of phosphoproteins found in the milk of mammals, including cows and humans. They are the major proteins in milk, making up about 80% of the total protein content. Caseins are characterized by their ability to form micelles, or tiny particles, in milk when it is mixed with calcium. This property allows caseins to help transport calcium and other minerals throughout the body.

Caseins are also known for their nutritional value, as they provide essential amino acids and are easily digestible. They are often used as ingredients in infant formula and other food products. Additionally, caseins have been studied for their potential health benefits, such as reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and improving bone health. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits.

DNA transposable elements, also known as transposons or jumping genes, are mobile genetic elements that can change their position within a genome. They are composed of DNA sequences that include genes encoding the enzymes required for their own movement (transposase) and regulatory elements. When activated, the transposase recognizes specific sequences at the ends of the element and catalyzes the excision and reintegration of the transposable element into a new location in the genome. This process can lead to genetic variation, as the insertion of a transposable element can disrupt the function of nearby genes or create new combinations of gene regulatory elements. Transposable elements are widespread in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes and are thought to play a significant role in genome evolution.

Bacterial transformation is a natural process by which exogenous DNA is taken up and incorporated into the genome of a bacterial cell. This process was first discovered in 1928 by Frederick Griffith, who observed that dead virulent bacteria could transfer genetic material to live avirulent bacteria, thereby conferring new properties such as virulence to the recipient cells.

The uptake of DNA by bacterial cells typically occurs through a process called "competence," which can be either naturally induced under certain environmental conditions or artificially induced in the laboratory using various methods. Once inside the cell, the exogenous DNA may undergo recombination with the host genome, resulting in the acquisition of new genes or the alteration of existing ones.

Bacterial transformation has important implications for both basic research and biotechnology. It is a powerful tool for studying gene function and for engineering bacteria with novel properties, such as the ability to produce valuable proteins or degrade environmental pollutants. However, it also poses potential risks in the context of genetic engineering and biocontainment, as transformed bacteria may be able to transfer their newly acquired genes to other organisms in the environment.

Lactic acid, also known as 2-hydroxypropanoic acid, is a chemical compound that plays a significant role in various biological processes. In the context of medicine and biochemistry, lactic acid is primarily discussed in relation to muscle metabolism and cellular energy production. Here's a medical definition for lactic acid:

Lactic acid (LA): A carboxylic acid with the molecular formula C3H6O3 that plays a crucial role in anaerobic respiration, particularly during strenuous exercise or conditions of reduced oxygen availability. It is formed through the conversion of pyruvate, catalyzed by the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), when there is insufficient oxygen to complete the final step of cellular respiration in the Krebs cycle. The accumulation of lactic acid can lead to acidosis and muscle fatigue. Additionally, lactic acid serves as a vital intermediary in various metabolic pathways and is involved in the production of glucose through gluconeogenesis in the liver.

A cell wall is a rigid layer found surrounding the plasma membrane of plant cells, fungi, and many types of bacteria. It provides structural support and protection to the cell, maintains cell shape, and acts as a barrier against external factors such as chemicals and mechanical stress. The composition of the cell wall varies among different species; for example, in plants, it is primarily made up of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin, while in bacteria, it is composed of peptidoglycan.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Food Technology" is not a term that has a widely recognized medical definition. It is a multidisciplinary field involving aspects of food science, chemical engineering, and nutrition, among others, which deals with the production, preservation, and packaging of food products to make them safe, nutritious, and appealing.

However, if you're asking about how certain food technologies or food components might have medical implications, I could provide some information on that front. For example, there are various food technologies used in the processing and preparation of foods that can affect their nutritional content, safety, and potential health benefits or risks. Some examples include:

* Fortification: adding essential nutrients to foods to prevent deficiencies (e.g., adding folic acid to bread and cereals)
* Pasteurization: heating food to kill harmful bacteria and extend shelf life (e.g., milk, juice, and some prepared foods)
* Irradiation: exposing food to low levels of radiation to reduce or eliminate pathogens and extend shelf life (e.g., spices, herbs, and some fruits and vegetables)
* Food additives: substances added to food for various purposes, such as preservation, coloring, flavoring, or texturizing (e.g., artificial sweeteners, food dyes, and emulsifiers)

Each of these technologies and components can have potential medical implications, both positive and negative, depending on the specific application and individual factors. For example, fortification can help prevent nutrient deficiencies and improve public health, while certain food additives or processing methods may be associated with adverse health effects in some people.

If you have a more specific question about how a particular food technology or component might relate to medical issues, I'd be happy to try to provide more information based on the available evidence!

Streptococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, spherical bacteria that typically form pairs or chains when clustered together. These bacteria are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. They are non-motile and do not produce spores.

Streptococcus species are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals. Some strains are part of the normal flora of the body, while others can cause a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections to severe and life-threatening diseases such as sepsis, meningitis, and toxic shock syndrome.

The pathogenicity of Streptococcus species depends on various virulence factors, including the production of enzymes and toxins that damage tissues and evade the host's immune response. One of the most well-known Streptococcus species is Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A streptococcus (GAS), which is responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations, including pharyngitis (strep throat), impetigo, cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, and rheumatic fever.

It's important to note that the classification of Streptococcus species has evolved over time, with many former members now classified as different genera within the family Streptococcaceae. The current classification system is based on a combination of phenotypic characteristics (such as hemolysis patterns and sugar fermentation) and genotypic methods (such as 16S rRNA sequencing and multilocus sequence typing).

Phosphoglucomutase (PGM) is an enzyme involved in carbohydrate metabolism, specifically in the glycolysis and gluconeogenesis pathways. It catalyzes the reversible conversion of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) to glucose-1-phosphate (G1P), and vice versa.

In humans, there are three isoforms of phosphoglucomutase: PGM1, PGM2, and PGM3, which are encoded by different genes. These isoforms have distinct tissue distributions and functions. For example, PGM1 is widely expressed in various tissues, while PGM2 is primarily found in the brain and testis.

Phosphoglucomutase plays a crucial role in maintaining glucose homeostasis by interconverting G6P and G1P, which are precursors for glycogen synthesis and degradation, respectively. Deficiencies in phosphoglucomutase can lead to metabolic disorders such as muscle phosphorylase deficiency (McArdle disease) or type IV glycogen storage disease (GSD IV).

Bifidobacterium is a genus of Gram-positive, non-motile, often branching anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other animals, as well as in fermented foods. These bacteria play an important role in maintaining the health and balance of the gut microbiota by aiding in digestion, producing vitamins, and preventing the growth of harmful bacteria.

Bifidobacteria are also known for their probiotic properties and are often used as dietary supplements to improve digestive health, boost the immune system, and alleviate symptoms of various gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease.

There are over 50 species of Bifidobacterium, with some of the most common ones found in the human gut being B. bifidum, B. longum, B. breve, and B. adolescentis. These bacteria are characterized by their ability to ferment a variety of carbohydrates, including dietary fibers, oligosaccharides, and sugars, producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetate, lactate, and formate as end products.

Bifidobacteria have a complex cell wall structure that contains unique polysaccharides called exopolysaccharides (EPS), which have been shown to have prebiotic properties and can stimulate the growth of other beneficial bacteria in the gut. Additionally, some strains of Bifidobacterium produce antimicrobial compounds that inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria, further contributing to their probiotic effects.

Overall, Bifidobacterium is an important genus of beneficial bacteria that play a crucial role in maintaining gut health and promoting overall well-being.

Micrococcal Nuclease is a type of extracellular endonuclease enzyme that is produced by certain species of bacteria, including Micrococcus and Staphylococcus. This enzyme is capable of cleaving double-stranded DNA into smaller fragments, particularly at sites with exposed phosphate groups on the sugar-phosphate backbone.

Micrococcal Nuclease has a preference for cleaving DNA at regions rich in adenine and thymine (A-T) bases, and it can also degrade RNA. It is often used in molecular biology research as a tool to digest and remove unwanted nucleic acids from samples, such as during the preparation of plasmid DNA or chromatin for further analysis.

The enzyme has an optimum temperature of around 37°C and requires calcium ions for its activity. It is also relatively resistant to denaturation by heat, detergents, and organic solvents, making it a useful reagent in various biochemical and molecular biology applications.

L-Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme found in various tissues within the body, including the heart, liver, kidneys, muscles, and brain. It plays a crucial role in the process of energy production, particularly during anaerobic conditions when oxygen levels are low.

In the presence of the coenzyme NADH, LDH catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate, generating NAD+ as a byproduct. Conversely, in the presence of NAD+, LDH can convert lactate back to pyruvate using NADH. This reversible reaction is essential for maintaining the balance between lactate and pyruvate levels within cells.

Elevated blood levels of LDH may indicate tissue damage or injury, as this enzyme can be released into the circulation following cellular breakdown. As a result, LDH is often used as a nonspecific biomarker for various medical conditions, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), liver disease, muscle damage, and certain types of cancer. However, it's important to note that an isolated increase in LDH does not necessarily pinpoint the exact location or cause of tissue damage, and further diagnostic tests are usually required for confirmation.

Lactobacillaceae is a family of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic or microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria. They are non-spore forming and often occur in pairs or chains. Lactobacillaceae are commonly found in various environments such as the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and vagina of humans and animals, as well as in fermented foods like yogurt, sauerkraut, and sourdough bread.

These bacteria are known for their ability to produce lactic acid as a major end product of carbohydrate metabolism, which gives them the name "lactic acid bacteria." They play an essential role in maintaining a healthy microbiota and have been associated with various health benefits, such as improving digestion, enhancing immune function, and preventing harmful bacterial overgrowth.

Some well-known genera within the family Lactobacillaceae include Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, and Weissella. It is important to note that recent taxonomic revisions have led to some changes in the classification of these bacteria, and some genera previously classified within Lactobacillaceae are now placed in other families within the order Lactobacillales.

Lactococcus_lactis Lactococcus lactis uses Kok J, Buist G, Zomer AL, van Hijum SA, Kuipers OP (2005). "Comparative and ... Lactococcus lactis is of crucial importance for manufacturing dairy products, such as buttermilk and cheeses. When L. lactis ... Nakamura S, Morimoto YV, Kudo S (2015). "A lactose fermentation product produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, acetate, ... L. lactis subsp. lactis (formerly Streptococcus lactis) is used in the early stages for the production of many cheeses, ...
Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris was found to be a dominant bacterial strain producing polysaccharides that impart the ...
The exopolysaccharides of some strains of lactic acid bacteria, e.g., Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, contribute a ...
jugurti Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis Marinilabilia salmonicolor biovar Agarovorans Mesorhizobium ciceri ...
Lactococcus lactis was proposed as the State Microbe because of its crucial contribution to the cheese industry in Wisconsin. ... The proposed AB 556 simply stated that Lactococcus lactis is the State Microbe and should be included in the Wisconsin Blue ... "2009 Assembly Bill 556" (PDF). "2017 Wisconsin Dairy Data" (PDF). "Lactococcus lactis Wisconsin State Microbe". advanced.bact. ... Lactococcus lactis is vital for manufacturing cheeses such as Cheddar, Colby, cottage cheese, cream cheese, Camembert, ...
Steidler, Lothar; Rottiers, Pieter (2006-08-01). "Therapeutic Drug Delivery by Genetically Modified Lactococcus lactis". Annals ... Lactococcus lactis and Bacteroides ovatus. The usage of recombinant microbes (i.e. microorganisms designed to contain DNA from ... The L. lactis mechanism of microbial drug delivery described in the 2006 study of Braat et al. uses a form of recombinant L. ... L. lactis is considered by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS), as it is commonly ...
... an abortive infection mechanism from Lactococcus lactis". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 64 (12): 4748-56. Bibcode: ...
"Recombinant Lactococcus lactis fails to secrete bovine chymosine". Bioengineered. 5 (6): 363-370. doi:10.4161/bioe.36327. PMC ...
Lactococcus lactis, and Leuconostoc species. Buttermilk contains either Lactococcus lactis or L. bulgaricus. Other acidic ... Lactococcus lactis LA 103 and Streptococcus thermophillus LA 104 and reducing intestinal discomfort pursuant to Article 13(5) ... Pao cai contains L. pentosus, L. plantarum , Leuconostoc mesenteroides , L. brevis, L. lactis, and L. fermentum. A list of many ...
Beasley SS, Saris PE (August 2004). "Nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis strains isolated from human milk". Applied and ... and Lactococcus species, and later composed primarily of Veillonella, Prevotella, Leptotrichia, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, ...
"Recombinant expression of Laceyella sacchari thermitase in Lactococcus lactis". Protein Expression and Purification. 92 (2): ...
Zevaco C, Monnet V, Gripon JC (1990). "Intracellular X-prolyl dipeptidyl peptidase from Lactococcus lactis spp. lactis: ... "Identification of the active site serine of the X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase from Lactococcus lactis". FEBS Letters. 314 ... Ile The intracellular enzyme from Lactococcus lactis (190-kDa) is the type example of peptidase family S15. ... lactis DSM7290". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 40 (1): 82-9. doi:10.1007/bf00170433. PMID 7765315. Habibi-Najafi MB, ...
Streptococcus lactis has been renamed to Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis Food portal List of dairy products List of yogurt- ... "Transfer of Streptococcus lactis and related streptococci to the. genus Lactococcus gen. nov". Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 6 (2): ... Lactococcus, and Leuconostoc. The fermentation process increases the shelf life of the product while enhancing its taste and ...
A bacterial culture that produces lactic acid (Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis or L. lactis ssp. cremoris strains such as are ... a small amount of low CO2-producing citrate-fermenting lactococci or leuconostoc bacterial strains are added to the starter mix ...
Jørgensen CM, Hammer K, Martinussen J (2003). "CTP limitation increases expression of CTP synthase in Lactococcus lactis". J ...
"Secretion of Streptomyces tendae antifungal protein 1 by Lactococcus lactis". Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological ...
"Lactococcus lactis YfiA is necessary and sufficient for ribosome dimerization". Molecular Microbiology. 91 (2): 394-407. doi: ... Well-known coding regions that do not have AUG initiation codons are those of lacI (GUG) and lacA (UUG) in the E. coli lac ...
bulgaricus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactococcus lactis, and Leuconostoc species. Lactobacilli ... Kluyveromyces lactis, and Saccharomyces fragilis, as well as strains of yeast that do not metabolize lactose, including ...
A hypothetical protein from the pepX region of Lactococcus lactis. MIP family channels consist of homotetramers (e.g., GlpF of ...
The Putative Lactococcus lactis Holin (LLHol) Family (TC# 1.E.44) consists of just a few proteins from Lactococcus lactis ... The Putative Lactococcus lactis Holin (LLHol) Family", which is licensed in a way that permits reuse under the Creative Commons ... "1.E.44 The Putative Lactococcus lactis Holin (LLHol) Family". TCDB. Retrieved 2016-03-29. Portal: Biology As of this edit, this ...
These genes possibly originated from Lactococcus lactis and S. gallolyticus, respectively. Another instance of lateral gene ...
In contrast, Lactococcus lactis BCAT is a homodimer similar to the mammalian isoforms. Each subunit of the L. lactis BCAT is ... A study of BCAT from Lactococcus lactis by Yvon, Chambellon et al., found the ideal conditions for the bacterial isozyme as ... García-Cayuela T, Gómez de Cadiñanos LP, Peláez C, Requena T (October 2012). "Expression in Lactococcus lactis of functional ... isolated from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris NCDO 763". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 66 (2): 571-7. Bibcode: ...
The Lactococcus lactis Phage r1t Holin (r1t Holin) Family (TC# 1.E.18) is a family of putative pore-forming proteins that ... The Lactococcus lactis phage r1t genome includes two adjacent genes, orf48 and orf49, which encode Orf48 (TC# 1.E.18.1.1; 75 ... Portal: Biology As of this edit, this article uses content from "1.E.18 The Lactococcus lactis Phage r1t Holin (r1t Holin) ... "1.E.18 The Lactococcus lactis Phage r1t Holin (r1t Holin) Family". Transporter Classification Database. Retrieved 2016-03-28. ...
The problem of choosing the correct acceleration of dilution has been studied with Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis ... "Multi-omics approach to study the growth efficiency and amino acid metabolism in Lactococcus lactis at various specific growth ... "Steady state growth space study of Lactococcus lactis in D-stat cultures". Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. 96 (4): 487-96. doi:10.1007 ...
"Cell surface of Lactococcus lactis is covered by a protective polysaccharide pellicle". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 285 ( ...
"Use of Lactococcus lactis to enrich sourdough bread with g-aminobutyric acid". International Journal of Food Sciences and ...
... and nucleotide sequence of the tagatose 6-phosphate pathway gene cluster of the lactose operon of Lactococcus lactis". J. Biol ... "Characterization of the lactose-specific enzymes of the phosphotransferase system in Lactococcus lactis". J. Biol. Chem. 265 ( ...
Visser S, Robben AJ, Slangen CJ (1991). "Specificity of a cell-envelope-located proteinase (PIII-type) from Lactococcus lactis ... "Diversity of cell envelope proteinase specificity among strains of Lactococcus lactis and its relationship to charge ... to hydrolyse hemoglobin and oxidized insulin B chain This enzyme is associated with the cell envelope of Lactococcus lactis and ...
2001). "The complete genome sequence of the lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis IL1403". Genome Res. 11 (5): ...
It is made by fermenting whole milk with the bacterial culture Lactococcus lactis. Ymer is named after the primordial being ...
Lactococcus_lactis Lactococcus lactis uses Kok J, Buist G, Zomer AL, van Hijum SA, Kuipers OP (2005). "Comparative and ... Lactococcus lactis is of crucial importance for manufacturing dairy products, such as buttermilk and cheeses. When L. lactis ... Nakamura S, Morimoto YV, Kudo S (2015). "A lactose fermentation product produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, acetate, ... L. lactis subsp. lactis (formerly Streptococcus lactis) is used in the early stages for the production of many cheeses, ...
Lactococcus lactis Subspecies: Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris - Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis - Lactococcus lactis subsp ... Lactococcus lactis. Taxonavigation[edit]. Taxonavigation: Lactobacillales Prokaryota Superregnum: Bacteria Regnum: Bacteria ... Retrieved from "https://species.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lactococcus_lactis&oldid=5101713" ...
Among the bacterial systems available, the Gram-positive lactic bacterium, Lactococcus lactis, traditionally used in food ... Seigneurin-Berny, D. et al. (2016). Membrane Protein Production in Lactococcus lactis for Functional Studies. In: Mus-Veteau, I ... Morello E, Bermúdez-Humarán LG, Llull D, Solé V, Miraglio N, Langella P, Poquet I (2008) Lactococcus lactis, an efficient cell ... Pontes DS, de Azevedo MS, Chatel JM, Langella P, Azevedo V, Miyoshi A (2011) Lactococcus lactis as a live vector: heterologous ...
Learn about Lactococcus lactis at online-medical-dictionary.org ... Lactococcus lactis. Synonyms. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ... A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of ...
... produzido pela bactéria Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, um peptídeo estruturalmente composto por 34 aminoácidos, mostra um ... O peptídeo antimicrobiano retratado neste trabalho é a nisina, produzido pela bactéria Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, um ... Lactococcus lactis ATCC 11454 was developed in a rotatory shaker (30°C/36 h/100 rpm) in diluted skimmed milk and nisin ... O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir a nisina a partir de células de Lactococcus lactis utilizando soro de leite e leite ...
Crystal structure Complex between the Lactococcus lactis Fpg and an abasic site containing DNA ... Lactococcus lactis. Mutation(s): 1 Gene Names: mutM. EC: 3.2.2.23 (PDB Primary Data), 4.2.99.18 (UniProt). ... Crystallization and primary X-ray crystallographic studies of a complex between the Lactococcus lactis Fpg DNA-repair enzyme ... we present the high-resolution crystal structures of the wild-type and the P1G defective mutant of Fpg from Lactococcus lactis ...
Bonds between fibronectin and fibronectin-binding proteins on Staphylococcus aureus and Lactococcus lactis. ... These experiments were repeated using Lactococcus lactis constructs expressing fnbA and fnbB genes from S. aureus. A distinct ... By contrast, ectopic expression of FnBPA or FnBPB on the surface of L. lactis conferred fibronectin binding characteristics ... and Lactococcus lactis. Langmuir, 26(13). pp. 10764-10770. 10.1021/la100549u. Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/13322 ...
Bacteria Lactococcus lactis. Reference. LeBlanc DJ, Crow VL, Lee LN, Garon CF. Influence of the lactose plasmid on the ... metabolism of galactose by Streptococcus lactis. J Bacteriol. 1979 Feb137(2):878-84. p.880 left column bottom paragraphPubMed ...
lactis infection in waterfowl: first confirmation in animals.. 7(5). Goyache, J. et al. "Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ... "Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis infection in waterfowl: first confirmation in animals." vol. 7, no. 5, 2001. Export RIS ... Title : Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis infection in waterfowl: first confirmation in animals. Personal Author(s) : Goyache, J ... of an infection in animals caused by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, affecting waterfowl. ...
Lactococcus lactis. A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and ... Lactococcus lactisLactococcusNisinCheeseBacterial ProteinsMolecular Sequence DataBacteriophagesBacteriocinsGenes, Bacterial ... Lactococcus lactisLactococcusBacteriophagesSiphoviridaeLeuconostocLactobacillusKluyveromycesStreptococcus thermophilus ... Lactococcus. A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria mainly isolated from milk and milk products. These bacteria are also ...
BENEFITS KEY BENEFITS OF LACTOCOCCUS LACTIS STRAIN PLASMA (HEAT KILLED) Supports upper respiratory tract health Supports ... immune health Supports healthy immune function after intense exercise Supports mucosal immune health ABOUT LACTOCOCCUS LACTIS ... developed Lactococcus lactis strain Plasma (heat-killed) as a clinically researched probiotic. Heat-killed Lactococcus lactis ... The first part of the name (e.g. Lactococcus) indicates the genus. The second part (e.g. lactis) indicates the species. Lastly ...
A novel 51-kb conjugative transposon of Lactococcus lactis, designated Tn6098, encoding the capacity to utilize alpha- ... Conjugal transfer of Tn6098 was demonstrated from the plant-derived donor strain L. lactis KF147 to the recipient L. lactis ... Most dairy lactococcus strains are unable to use alpha-galactosides as a growth substrate, yet many of these strains are known ... A 15-bp direct repeat sequence (TTATACCATAATTAC) is present on either side of Tn6098 in the chromosome of L. lactis KF147. One ...
Lactococcus Lactis Cultured?. The NDC database has 3 products with the active ingredient Casein, Lactococcus Lactis Cultured. ... NDC Products with Casein, Lactococcus Lactis Cultured. NDC. Proprietary Name. Non-Proprietary Name. Dosage Form. Route Name. ...
lactis. They are of great nutritional value. Click and learn more. ... Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis also includes an arginine dehydrolase, which allows for the release of ammonia from arginine. ... Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. Ingredients:. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis probiotics powder. Appearance:. White to ...
What does Lactococcus lactis look like?. Lactic Acid Bacteria , Lactococcus lactis In terms of cell morphology, lactococci have ... Lactococcus lactis has two subspecies with few phenotype and genotype differences, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and subsp. ... What color is Lactococcus lactis?. Bacteria Collection: Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis Additional Information ... Where is Lactococcus lactis found in the wild?. Aside from its high use in industrial application, Lactococcus lactis can also ...
Hoefnagel, MHN, Hugenholtz, J, Westerhoff, HV & Snoep, JL 2000, Modelling pyruvate distribution in Lactococcus lactis: a ... Modelling pyruvate distribution in Lactococcus lactis: a kinetic model to support metabolic engineering strategies. In Hofmeyr ... Modelling pyruvate distribution in Lactococcus lactis: a kinetic model to support metabolic engineering strategies. Animating ... Modelling pyruvate distribution in Lactococcus lactis: a kinetic model to support metabolic engineering strategies. / Hoefnagel ...
name=UxuR regulon. species= Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis Il1403. (optional)size=2. ...
In the present work, Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 was used as an expression host to hyper-produce LLO under inducible conditions ... Expression of LLO in L. lactis has a number of benefits over E. coli which may facilitate both in vivo and in vitro ... Results: The constructed vector (pNZPnisA:CYTO-LLO) was expressed in L. lactis NZ9000 and was best induced at mid-log phase ... LLO production method described in this work provides an approach to efficient LLO production in the Gram-positive Lactococcus ...
A non-pathogenic lac.... click for more detailed meaning, definition, pronunciation and example sentences for lactococcus ... lactococcus lactis meaning. "lactococcus lactis" in a sentence. [Medicine]. A non-pathogenic lactococcus found in dairy ... The LAB that are known for producing the aromas in sour cream are Lactococcus lactis ssp . lactis biovar diacetyllactis. ... using a mouse model, the uk team has also found that a modified bacterium lactococcus lactis can be used to vaccinate against ...
Bacteria (Gram Positive) - Lactococcus Lactis - Protein purification - Netherlands - 2020. by JackDanielHorner , Nov 17, 2021 ...
Accordingly, Lactococcus lactis has been used as an antigen-delivering vector to develop a vaccine-induced mucosal response for ... T Recombinant Lactococcus Lactis Displaying Omp31 Antigen of Brucella melitensis Can Induce an Immunogenic Response in BALB/c ... Title : ( Recombinant Lactococcus Lactis Displaying Omp31 Antigen of Brucella melitensis Can Induce an Immunogenic Response in ... title = {Recombinant Lactococcus Lactis Displaying Omp31 Antigen of Brucella melitensis Can Induce an Immunogenic Response in ...
Variations in bile tolerance among Lactococcus lactis strains derived from different sources. by Shihori Takanashi, Ai Miura, ... Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis has been isolated from the intestines of marine fish and is a candidate probiotic for ... Here, we compared bile tolerance in L. lactis strains derived from different sources. Three L. lactis subsp. lactis strains ... Variations in bile tolerance among Lactococcus lactis strains derived from different sources.. Folia microbiologica. (2014-01- ...
Lactococcus lactis (Lister 1873) Schleifer et al. 1986 DSM No.: 20481, Type strain dsm-20481 dsm20481 dsm 20481 Lactococcus ...
Lactococcus lactis (Lister 1873) Schleifer et al. 1986 DSM No.: 20384 dsm-20384 dsm20384 dsm 20384 Lactococcus lactis ...
Huizenga, P.J. (2016) Whole genome sequencing of Lactococcus lactis WG2 using MinION. Research Project 1 (minor thesis), ...
Lactococcus Lactis Subsp. Lactococcus lactis subsp [11]. is a probiotic that has been used in the human diet since the 17th ... The health benefits of Lactococcus lactis subsp include a number of different areas: ... Lactococcus Lactis Subsp. cremoris Is an Efficacious Beneficial Bacterium that Limits Tissue Injury in the Intestine. iScience ...
... from Lactococcus lactis. AbiU confers resistance to phages from the three main industrially relevant lactococcal phage species ... AbiQ, an abortive infection mechanism from Lactococcus lactis.. Project description:Lactococcus lactis W-37 is highly resistant ... Project description:The natural plasmid pSRQ800 isolated from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis W1 conferred strong phage ... Project description:Lactococcus lactis, a gram-positive bacterium widely used by the dairy industry to manufacture cheeses, is ...
Characterization and structure analysis of a novel bacteriocin, lacticin Z, produced by Lactococcus lactis QU 14. In: ... A novel bacteriocin, lacticin Z, produced by Lactococcus lactis QU 14 isolated from a horses intestinal tract was identified. ... Characterization and structure analysis of a novel bacteriocin, lacticin Z, produced by Lactococcus lactis QU 14. / Iwatani, ... abstract = "A novel bacteriocin, lacticin Z, produced by Lactococcus lactis QU 14 isolated from a horses intestinal tract was ...
The brie and blue cashew products became dominated by Lactococcus, Pediococcus, and Weissella genera as the fermentation ... Bacteria were isolated and identified as Weissella cibaria, Leuconostoc citreum, and Lactococcus lactis (Table 2). The W. ... Lactococcus was present because it is also capable of lactic acid fermentation, thereby contributing to the acidity of the ... Common bacteria involved in fermenting milk are Streptococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Lactococcus spp. [5]. A popular ...
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and cremoris), acidified faster than its unpressurised equivalent. Faster acidification of HP- ... Utilization of amino acids and peptides and peptidase activities in proteinase- negative Lactococcus lactis FH 041. *Article ... The ability of the proteinase-negative Lactococcus lactis FH 041 to utilize amino acids and peptides, and its peptidase ... Lactococci count behaviour was similar to that of total bacteria count, reaching the same reductions. Psychrotrophic bacteria ...
  • L. lactis subsp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lactococcus lactis subsp. (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • We report the first description, confirmed by bacteriologic and molecular (polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) analysis, of an infection in animals caused by Lactococcus lactis subsp. (cdc.gov)
  • Lactococcus lactis has two subspecies with few phenotype and genotype differences, Lactococcus lactis subsp. (locke-movie.com)
  • lactis and subsp. (locke-movie.com)
  • lactis is preferred for making soft cheese while subsp. (locke-movie.com)
  • Regulon of UxuR in Lactococcus lactis subsp. (lbl.gov)
  • AbiV, a novel antiphage abortive infection mechanism on the chromosome of Lactococcus lactis subsp. (omicsdi.org)
  • ISS1 resulted in independent insertions in a 350-bp region of the chromosome of Lactococcus lactis subsp. (omicsdi.org)
  • Στην παρούσα μελέτη, το στέλεχος L. lactis subsp. (aua.gr)
  • In our study, L. lactis subsp. (aua.gr)
  • LeBlanc DJ, Crow VL, Lee LN, Garon CF. Influence of the lactose plasmid on the metabolism of galactose by Streptococcus lactis. (harvard.edu)
  • A 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis. (lookformedical.com)
  • Streptococcus lactis diacetilactis (ex Matuszewski et al. (locke-movie.com)
  • Lacticin Z showed homology to lacticin Q from L. lactis QU 5, aureocin A53 from Staphylococcus aureus A53, and mutacin BHT-B from Streptococcus rattus strain BHT. (elsevierpure.com)
  • As contagens de bactérias láticas do queijo de coalho dos produtores A e B foram na ordem de 106 e as maiores contagens (109 UFC/g) foram observadas no queijo do produtor C. Foram selecionadas 49 bactérias láticas típicas das três propriedades e os gêneros predominantes foram: Enterococcus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus e Leuconostoc. (bvsalud.org)
  • The lactic acid bacteria counts of coalho cheese from producers A and B were 106 and the highest counts (109 UFC/g) were found in cheese samples from producer C. Forty-nine lactic acid bacteria from three rural properties were selected and predominant genera was Enterococcus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus and Leuconostoc. (bvsalud.org)
  • lactis and cremoris), acidified faster than its unpressurised equivalent. (researchgate.net)
  • cremoris MG1363 was subjected to various stressful conditions in order to accomplish the phenotypic characterization of the adapted L. lactis cells. (aua.gr)
  • in the genome of L. lactis MG1363. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conjugal transfer of Tn6098 was demonstrated from the plant-derived donor strain L. lactis KF147 to the recipient L. lactis NZ4501, a derivative of the dairy model strain L. lactis MG1363. (ru.nl)
  • One copy of this sequence is also present in the L. lactis MG1363 chromosome and represents the sole integration site. (ru.nl)
  • Phenotypic characterization of all strains showed that the transconjugant has not only acquired the ability to grow well in soy milk, a substrate rich in alpha-galactosides, but also has retained the flavor-forming capabilities of the recipient strain L. lactis MG1363. (ru.nl)
  • Reverse transcription-PCR analysis confirmed that there were higher levels of transcription of a downstream open reading frame (ORF) in the phage-resistant integrants than in the phage-sensitive strain L. lactis MG1363. (omicsdi.org)
  • This gene was also found to confer phage resistance to L. lactis MG1363 when it was cloned into an expression vector. (omicsdi.org)
  • Low-temperature adaptation and cryoprotection were studied in the lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis MG1363. (rug.nl)
  • Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis a group of 7 kDa cold-induced proteins (CSPs) was identified that corresponds to a previously described family of csp genes of L. lactis MG1363. (rug.nl)
  • Fermentation-induced variation in heat and oxidative stress phenotypes of Lactococcus lactis MG1363 reveals transcriptome signatures for robustness. (uva.nl)
  • Lactococcus lactis is a gram-positive bacterium used extensively in the production of buttermilk and cheese, but has also become famous as the first genetically modified organism to be used alive for the treatment of human disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • lactis is added to milk, the bacterium uses enzymes to produce energy molecules (ATP), from lactose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among the bacterial systems available, the Gram-positive lactic bacterium, Lactococcus lactis , traditionally used in food fermentations, is nowadays widely used for large-scale production and functional characterization of bacterial and eukaryotic membrane proteins. (springer.com)
  • Total LLO yield (measured as total protein content) was 4.43-5.9 mg per litre culture and the haemolytic activity was still detectable after 8 months of storage at 4°C. Conclusion: The LLO production method described in this work provides an approach to efficient LLO production in the Gram-positive Lactococcus bacterium to yield a significant source of the protein for research and diagnostic applications. (ucc.ie)
  • These observations may indicate similar self-protection mechanisms of the bacterium under different stressful conditions that need to be further investigated in order to shed new light on the rational use of L. lactis in the food industry. (aua.gr)
  • IMMUSE Lactococcus lactis strain Plasma (LC Plasma), is a unique strain of lactic acid bacterium, a postbiotic discovered and patented by parent company, Kirin. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • L. lactis is one of the best characterized low GC Gram positive bacteria with detailed knowledge on genetics, metabolism and biodiversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteriophages specific to L. lactis cause significant economic losses each year by preventing the bacteria from fully metabolizing the milk substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lactose fermentation In one study that sought to prove that some fermentation produced by L. lactis can hinder motility in pathogenic bacteria, the motilities of Pseudomonas, Vibrio, and Leptospira strains were severely disrupted by lactose utilization on the part of L. lactis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nisin is a natural antimicrobial peptide used as food preservative produced by Lactococcus lactis , that inhibits the outgrowth of spores, the growth of a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. (usp.br)
  • The results showed that adding B. subtilis and L. lactis , particularly in MIX 300 , reduced the anaerobic heterotrophic bacterial microbiota and increased lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in fish. (ij-aquaticbiology.com)
  • On top of a microscope is a climate chamber, with inside a glass slide with a tiny growth chamber for the Lactococcus lactis bacteria. (rug.nl)
  • Of 20 bacteria isolated, 19 showed inhibition halos on the three pathogenic bacteria with diameter of 2 to 15 mm, and the largest halos were formed by Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis on S. enterica and S. aureus. (bvsalud.org)
  • A designed omp31 gene fused to the usp45 signal peptide and M6 cell wall anchor was sub cloned in the pNZ7021 expression vector, and a recombinant L. lactis displaying Omp31 was constructed. (ac.ir)
  • sIgA, serum IgA, IgM, and total IgG antibodies significantly increased in the mice immunized with live recombinant L. lactis expressing Omp31 and also serum IgM, and total IgG antibodies significantly increased in mice immunized with killed recombinant L. lactis expressing Omp31. (ac.ir)
  • Special strains of L.lactis support the immune system specifically. (avocadoninja.co.uk)
  • Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are a rare immune cell type found exclusively in L.lactis strains. (avocadoninja.co.uk)
  • Most dairy lactococcus strains are unable to use alpha-galactosides as a growth substrate, yet many of these strains are known to have beneficial industrial traits. (ru.nl)
  • Diversity in robustness of Lactococcus lactis strains during heat stress, oxidative stress, and spray drying stress. (uva.nl)
  • Bonds between fibronectin and fibronectin-binding proteins on Staphylococcus aureus and Lactococcus lactis. (duke.edu)
  • queijo, Lactococcus, Staphylococcus aureus. (bvsalud.org)
  • A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID . (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • The second part (e.g. lactis) indicates the species. (avocadoninja.co.uk)
  • The integration of Tn6098 into the genome of the recipient strain was confirmed by Illumina sequencing of the transconjugant L. lactis NIZO3921. (ru.nl)
  • Kirin Holdings Co, Ltd. developed Lactococcus lactis strain Plasma (heat-killed) as a clinically researched probiotic. (avocadoninja.co.uk)
  • The heated strain of Lactococcus lactis is both paraprobiotic and immunobiotic. (avocadoninja.co.uk)
  • Human studies have demonstrated that Lactococcus lactis strain Plasma (heat-killed) supports healthy working days and immunity during periods of high-intensity exercise. (avocadoninja.co.uk)
  • The cryptic plasmids from this strain were coelectroporated, along with the shuttle vector pSA3, into the plasmid-free host L. lactis LM0230. (omicsdi.org)
  • Strain-Dependent Transcriptome Signatures for Robustness in Lactococcus lactis . (uva.nl)
  • Para tanto as células de L. lactis foram desenvolvidas em agitador rotacional (30°C/36 h/100 rpm) e a atividade de nisina, os parâmetros de crescimento e os componentes do meio de cultivo foram analisados. (usp.br)
  • Dos 20 isolados, 19 apresentaram halos de inibição sobre as três bactérias patogênicas, com zonas de inibição de 2 a15 mm, e os maiores halos foram formados por Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis sobre S. enterica e S. aureus. (bvsalud.org)
  • Lactococcus lactis W-37 is highly resistant to phage infection. (omicsdi.org)
  • In addition to pSA3, erythromycin- and phage-resistant isolates carried pSRQ900, an 11-kb plasmid from L. lactis W-37. (omicsdi.org)
  • Samples were then analyzed for the presence of two Lactococcus lactis phage groups (936 and c2) and quantification was done by qPCR. (cdc.gov)
  • Lactococcus lactis ATCC 11454 was developed in a rotatory shaker (30°C/36 h/100 rpm) in diluted skimmed milk and nisin expression, growth parameters and media components were also studied. (usp.br)
  • Lactose fermentation by L. lactis produces acetate that reduces the intracellular pH of Salmonella, which in turn slows the rotation of their flagella. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with the results from comparative genomics (see references above), this resulted in L. lactis losing or downregulating genes that are dispensable in milk and the upregulation of peptide transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • These experiments were repeated using Lactococcus lactis constructs expressing fnbA and fnbB genes from S. aureus. (duke.edu)
  • Lactococcus lactis has been demonstrated to be a promising candidate for the delivery of functional proteins because of its noninvasive and nonpathogenic characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this chapter is to describe the different possibilities for the functional characterization of peripheral or intrinsic membrane proteins expressed in Lactococcus lactis . (springer.com)
  • Kunji ERS, Slotboom DJ, Poolman B (2003) Lactococcus lactis as host for overproduction of functional membrane proteins. (springer.com)
  • Monné M, Chan KW, Slotboom DJ, Kunji ERS (2005) Functional expression of eukaryotic membrane proteins in Lactococcus lactis. (springer.com)
  • Lactococcus lactis is of crucial importance for manufacturing dairy products, such as buttermilk and cheeses. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 15-bp direct repeat sequence (TTATACCATAATTAC) is present on either side of Tn6098 in the chromosome of L. lactis KF147. (ru.nl)
  • Many different expression systems of L. lactis have been developed and used for heterologous protein expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pontes DS, de Azevedo MS, Chatel JM, Langella P, Azevedo V, Miyoshi A (2011) Lactococcus lactis as a live vector: heterologous protein production and DNA delivery systems. (springer.com)
  • lactis infection in waterfowl: first confirmation in animals. (cdc.gov)
  • Molecular characterization of a new abortive infection system (AbiU) from Lactococcus lactis LL51-1. (omicsdi.org)
  • This study reports on the identification and characterization of a novel abortive infection system, AbiU, from Lactococcus lactis. (omicsdi.org)
  • AbiQ, an abortive infection mechanism from Lactococcus lactis. (omicsdi.org)
  • 2019. Pengaruh Pemberian Probiotik Lactococcus lactis dan Bifidobacterium terhadap Produksi Ayam Petelur yang Diinfeksi Escherichia coli. (unila.ac.id)
  • It is suggested that the L. lactis supernatant mainly affects Salmonella motility through disruption of flagellar rotation rather than through irreversible damage to morphology and physiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lactococcus lactis In terms of cell morphology, lactococci have spherical or ovoid-shaped cells and occur singly or in chains (Figure 1). (locke-movie.com)
  • Kinetic studies on α-acetolactic acid extra and intracellular oxidative décarboxylation to diacetyl by Lactococcus lactis ssp. (dairy-journal.org)
  • Based on its history in food fermentation, L. lactis has generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status, with few case reports of it being an opportunistic pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of SFSp as fermentation medium for l-lactic acid production generated maximum biomass concentration of 14.53 g/L. The utilisation of SFSp extracted from pre-harvest sago frond as substrate promote efficiency of l-lactic acid production associated to exceptional growth performance of L. lactis IO-1. (unimas.my)
  • This study aims to evaluate growth conditions for L. lactis as well as the effect in nisin production when utilizing milk whey and skimmed milk. (usp.br)
  • Milk whey, abyproduct from dairy industries, was utilized in two different ways (i) without filtration, autoclaved at 121°C for 30 min and (ii) filtrated (1.20 µm and 0.22 µm membrane filter), L. lactis was developed in a rotary shaker (30°C/36 h/100 rpm) and these cultures were transferred five times using 5 mL aliquots of broth culture for each new volume of the respective media. (usp.br)
  • The results showed that culture media composed by milk whey without filtration was better for L. lactis in its adaptation than milk whey without filtration. (usp.br)
  • L. lactis does not produce spores (nonsporulating) and are not motile (nonmotile). (wikipedia.org)
  • These results indicated that recombinants L. lactis induce both humoral and cellular immune responses in mice, and also vaccines based on L. lactis-derived live carriers are promising interventions against Brucella melitensis infections. (ac.ir)
  • Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was applied in order to evaluate the changes in the cellular composition of L. lactis adapted cells. (aua.gr)
  • Here we show that a combination therapy of low-dose anti-CD3 with a clinical-grade self-containing L. lactis , appropriate for human application, secreting human proinsulin and interleukin-10, cured 66% of mice with new-onset diabetes, which is comparable to therapy results with plasmid-driven L. lactis . (diabetesgeneeskunde.nl)
  • Results: The constructed vector (pNZPnisA:CYTO-LLO) was expressed in L. lactis NZ9000 and was best induced at mid-log phase with 0.2% v/v nisin for 4 h statically at 30°C. Purification of the His-tagged LLO was accomplished by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and functionality was confirmed through haemolytic assays. (ucc.ie)
  • Accordingly, Lactococcus lactis has been used as an antigen-delivering vector to develop a vaccine-induced mucosal response for having a safer vaccination against brucellosis. (ac.ir)
  • Heat-killed Lactococcus lactis JCM 5805 is sometimes called LC-Plasma and other times LC-Plasma in clinical studies. (avocadoninja.co.uk)
  • Here, we present the high-resolution crystal structures of the wild-type and the P1G defective mutant of Fpg from Lactococcus lactis bound to 14mer DNA duplexes containing either a tetrahydrofuran (THF) or 1,3-propanediol (Pr) AP site analogues. (rcsb.org)
  • By contrast, ectopic expression of FnBPA or FnBPB on the surface of L. lactis conferred fibronectin binding characteristics similar to those of S. aureus. (duke.edu)
  • The use of L. lactis in dairy factories is not without issues. (wikipedia.org)
  • L. lactis is mainly isolated from either the dairy environment, or plant material. (wikipedia.org)
  • This work aimed to investigate the effect of dietary Lactococcus lactis and Bacillus subtilis on the immune responses, intestinal microbiota, and resistance to pathogens of Oscar, Astronotus ocellatus . (ij-aquaticbiology.com)
  • The assessment of the immune changes induced by the L. lactis -based therapy revealed elevated frequencies of CD4 + Foxp3 + T cells in the pancreas-draining lymph nodes, pancreas, and peripheral blood of all treated mice, independent of metabolic outcome. (diabetesgeneeskunde.nl)
  • Transcriptome Analysis of a Spray Drying-Resistant Subpopulation Reveals a Zinc-Dependent Mechanism for Robustness in L. lactis SK11. (uva.nl)
  • The introduction of β-cell autoantigens via the gut through Lactococcus lactis ( L. lactis ) has been demonstrated to be a promising approach for diabetes reversal in NOD mice. (diabetesgeneeskunde.nl)
  • Use of non-growing Lactococcus lactis cell suspensions for production of volatile metabolites with direct relevance for flavour formation during dairy fermentations. (uva.nl)
  • de Ruyter PG, Kuipers OP, de Vos WM (1996) Controlled gene expression systems for Lactococcus lactis with the food-grade inducer nisin. (springer.com)
  • L. lactis cells are cocci that group in pairs and short chains, and, depending on growth conditions, appear ovoid with a typical length of 0.5 - 1.5 µm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental stresses comprised of acid (pH 5.5), osmotic (presence of 2% w/v NaCl), heat (45oC), and cold (20oC) stress, as well as responses of L. lactis cells during starvation (media without carbohydrate source). (aua.gr)
  • Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra revealed different groups of L. lactis cells corresponding to each stressful condition applied in the study for all characteristic spectral regions. (aua.gr)
  • This revealed that L. lactis cells overproducing CspD at 30 °C show a 2-10-fold increased survival after freezing compared to control cells. (rug.nl)
  • Where is Lactococcus lactis found in the wild? (locke-movie.com)
  • Aside from its high use in industrial application, Lactococcus lactis can also be found in the wild on plants and within the digestive tract of cows. (locke-movie.com)
  • Mierau I, Kleerebezem M (2005) 10 years of the nisin-controlled gene expression system (NICE) in Lactococcus lactis. (springer.com)
  • In the present work, Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 was used as an expression host to hyper-produce LLO under inducible conditions using the NICE (NIsin Controlled Expression) system. (ucc.ie)
  • Expression of LLO in L. lactis has a number of benefits over E. coli which may facilitate both in vivo and in vitro applications of this system. (ucc.ie)
  • Lactococcus lactis - Taxon details on National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). (wikimedia.org)
  • This study aims to determine the use of probiotics Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus casei. (unila.ac.id)
  • This study focuses on effective approach to maximise the concentration of sugar in the substrate and to identify the ideal concentration of sago frond sap (SFSp) as sole media to produce l-lactic acid and grow L. lactis IO-1. (unimas.my)
  • Biomarkers identified in this study can potentially be used in the future to tailor the L. lactis -based combination therapy for individual patients. (diabetesgeneeskunde.nl)