A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
A rod-shaped bacterium isolated from milk and cheese, dairy products and dairy environments, sour dough, cow dung, silage, and human mouth, human intestinal contents and stools, and the human vagina.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.
A species of rod-shaped, LACTIC ACID bacteria used in PROBIOTICS and SILAGE production.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria found naturally in the human intestinal flora and BREAST MILK.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria used in PROBIOTICS.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria that is frequently used as starter culture in SILAGE fermentation, sourdough, and lactic-acid-fermented types of beer and wine.
Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria associated with DENTAL CARIES.
A species of gram-positive bacteria isolated from MILK and cheese-starter cultures.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic bacteria. capable of producing LACTIC ACID. It is important in the manufacture of fermented dairy products.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms and a decrease in lactobacilli. It remains unclear whether the initial pathogenic event is caused by the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Milk modified with controlled FERMENTATION. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KAFFIR CORN.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.
A slightly acid milk food produced by fermentation due to the combined action of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. No endospores are produced. Its organisms are found in fermenting plant products and are nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
A thin-walled distention of the alimentary tract protruding just outside the body cavity in the distal end of the neck (esophagus), used for the temporary storage of food and water.
A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A species in the genus GARDNERELLA previously classified as Haemophilus vaginalis. This bacterium, also isolated from the female genital tract of healthy women, is implicated in the cause of bacterial vaginosis (VAGINOSIS, BACTERIAL).
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. It is nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Propane is a colorless, odorless, and chemically simple hydrocarbon (C3H8), commonly used as a fuel for heating, cooking, and engines, which exists as a gas at room temperature but can be liquefied under pressure and stored in cylinders or tanks.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A species of gram-negative bacteria isolated from MILK, cheese, and compressed yeast.
Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.
Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria mainly isolated from milk and milk products. These bacteria are also found in plants and nonsterile frozen and dry foods. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS (group N), it is now recognized as a separate genus.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
Glyceraldehyde is a triose sugar, a simple monosaccharide (sugar) that contains three carbon atoms, with the molecular formula C3H6O3, and it exists in two structural forms, namely D-glyceraldehyde and L-glyceraldehyde, which are diastereomers of each other, and it is a key intermediate in several biochemical pathways, including glycolysis and gluconeogenesis.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
A species of thermophilic, gram-positive bacteria found in MILK and milk products.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Nutritional supplements combining PROBIOTICS (bacteria) and PREBIOTICS (sugars).
Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.
A sugar alcohol formed by the reduction of ribose.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
An enzyme that activates phenylalanine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.20.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, cocci to short rod-shaped ARCHAEA, in the family METHANOBACTERIACEAE, order METHANOBACTERIALES. They are found in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or other anoxic environments.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
An order of gram-positive bacteria in the class Bacilli, that have the ability to ferment sugars to lactic acid. They are widespread in nature and commonly used to produce fermented foods.

Phenotypic and phylogenetic characterization of a novel Lactobacillus species from human sources: description of Lactobacillus iners sp. nov. (1/2525)

Eleven strains of a hitherto undescribed Gram-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod-shaped bacterium from human sources and medical care products were characterized by phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. The phenotypic properties of the bacterium were consistent with its assignment to the genus Lactobacillus but it was readily distinguished from all currently described species of this genus by its biochemical characteristics and by SDS-PAGE analysis of its cellular proteins. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that the unknown bacterium was a member of rRNA group I Lactobacillus which includes Lactobacillus delbrueckii, the type species of the genus, and close relatives. Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus johnsonii were the nearest phylogenetic relatives of the unknown bacterium, but 16S rRNA sequence divergence values of > 4% clearly showed that it represents a distinct species. Based on both phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium should be classified in the genus Lactobacillus, as Lactobacillus iners sp. nov. The type strain of Lactobacillus iners is CCUG 28746T.  (+info)

The influence of a diet rich in wheat fibre on the human faecal flora. (2/2525)

The effect on the faecal flora of adding wheat fibre to a controlled diet in four healthy volunteers for a 3-week period has been observed. No change in the concentration of the bacteria in the bacterial groups counted was found, although there was a slight increase in total output associated with increased faecal weight. The predominant organisms in all subjects were non-sporing anaerobes, but the dominant species in each subject was different and was unaffected by changing the diet. Similarly, the concentration of faecal beta-glucuronidase detected in two subjects was unaltered and the concentration of clostridia able to dehydrogenate the steroid nucleus found in one subject was unaltered. It is suggested that the faecal microflora is not primarily controlled by the presence of undigested food residues in the large bowel.  (+info)

A new hydrolase specific for taurine-conjugates of bile acids. (3/2525)

Through the investigation of the bile acid-deconjugation activities of human intestinal anaerobes, a new enzyme was discovered in Peptostreptococcus intermedius which hydrolyzed specifically the taurine-conjugates, but not the glycine-conjugates of bile acids. However, the enzymes in Streptococcus faecalis and Lactobacillus brevis hydrolyzed chiefly the glycine-conjugates.  (+info)

Temperature and pH conditions that prevail during fermentation of sausages are optimal for production of the antilisterial bacteriocin sakacin K. (4/2525)

Sakacin K is an antilisterial bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sake CTC 494, a strain isolated from Spanish dry fermented sausages. The biokinetics of cell growth and bacteriocin production of L. sake CTC 494 in vitro during laboratory fermentations were investigated by making use of MRS broth. The data obtained from the fermentations was used to set up a predictive model to describe the influence of the physical factors temperature and pH on microbial behavior. The model was validated successfully for all components. However, the specific bacteriocin production rate seemed to have an upper limit. Both cell growth and bacteriocin activity were very much influenced by changes in temperature and pH. The production of biomass was closely related to bacteriocin activity, indicating primary metabolite kinetics, but was not the only factor of importance. Acidity dramatically influenced both the production and the inactivation of sakacin K; the optimal pH for cell growth did not correspond to the pH for maximal sakacin K activity. Furthermore, cells grew well at 35 degrees C but no bacteriocin production could be detected at this temperature. L. sake CTC 494 shows special promise for implementation as a novel bacteriocin-producing sausage starter culture with antilisterial properties, considering the fact that the temperature and acidity conditions that prevail during the fermentation process of dry fermented sausages are optimal for the production of sakacin K.  (+info)

Cell surface-associated lipoteichoic acid acts as an adhesion factor for attachment of Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells. (5/2525)

The influence of pH on the adhesion of two Lactobacillus strains to Caco-2 human intestinal cells was investigated. One strain, Lactobacillus johnsonii La1, was adherent at any pH between 4 and 7. The other one, L. acidophilus La10, did not attach to this cell line under the same experimental conditions. On the basis of these results, we used the monoclonal antibody technique as a tool to determine differences on the surface of these bacteria and to identify a factor for adhesion. Mice were immunized with live La1, and the hybridomas produced by fusion of spleen cells with ONS1 cells were screened for the production of antibodies specific for L. johnsonii La1. A set of these monoclonal antibodies was directed against a nonproteinaceous component of the L. johnsonii La1 surface. It was identified as lipoteichoic acid (LTA). This molecule was isolated, chemically characterized, and tested in adhesion experiments in the same system. The adhesion of L. johnsonii La1 to Caco-2 cells was inhibited in a concentration-dependent way by purified LTA as well as by L. johnsonii La1 culture supernatant that contained LTA. These results showed that the mechanism of adhesion of L. johnsonii La1 to human Caco-2 cells involves LTA.  (+info)

Binding of Cob(II)alamin to the adenosylcobalamin-dependent ribonucleotide reductase from Lactobacillus leichmannii. Identification of dimethylbenzimidazole as the axial ligand. (6/2525)

The ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase (RTPR) from Lactobacillus leichmannii catalyzes the reduction of nucleoside 5'-triphosphates to 2'-deoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphates and uses coenzyme B12, adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl), as a cofactor. Use of a mechanism-based inhibitor, 2'-deoxy-2'-methylenecytidine 5'-triphosphate, and isotopically labeled RTPR and AdoCbl in conjunction with EPR spectroscopy has allowed identification of the lower axial ligand of cob(II)alamin when bound to RTPR. In common with the AdoCbl-dependent enzymes catalyzing irreversible heteroatom migrations and in contrast to the enzymes catalyzing reversible carbon skeleton rearrangements, the dimethylbenzimidazole moiety of the cofactor is not displaced by a protein histidine upon binding to RTPR.  (+info)

Allosteric control of three B12-dependent (class II) ribonucleotide reductases. Implications for the evolution of ribonucleotide reduction. (7/2525)

Three separate classes of ribonucleotide reductases are known, each with a distinct protein structure. One common feature of all enzymes is that a single protein generates each of the four deoxyribonucleotides. Class I and III enzymes contain an allosteric substrate specificity site capable of binding effectors (ATP or various deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates) that direct enzyme specificity. Some (but not all) enzymes contain a second allosteric site that binds only ATP or dATP. Binding of dATP to this site inhibits the activity of these enzymes. X-ray crystallography has localized the two sites within the structure of the Escherichia coli class I enzyme and identified effector-binding amino acids. Here, we have studied the regulation of three class II enzymes, one from the archaebacterium Thermoplasma acidophilum and two from eubacteria (Lactobacillus leichmannii and Thermotoga maritima). Each enzyme has an allosteric site that binds ATP or various deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates and that regulates its substrate specificity according to the same rules as for class I and III enzymes. dATP does not inhibit enzyme activity, suggesting the absence of a second active allosteric site. For the L. leichmannii and T. maritima enzymes, binding experiments also indicate the presence of only one allosteric site. Their primary sequences suggest that these enzymes lack the structural requirements for a second site. In contrast, the T. acidophilum enzyme binds dATP at two separate sites, and its sequence contains putative effector-binding amino acids for a second site. The presence of a second site without apparent physiological function leads to the hypothesis that a functional site was present early during the evolution of ribonucleotide reductases, but that its function was lost from the T. acidophilum enzyme. The other two B12 enzymes lost not only the function, but also the structural basis for the site. Also a large subgroup (Ib) of class I enzymes, but none of the investigated class III enzymes, has lost this site. This is further indirect evidence that class II and I enzymes may have arisen by divergent evolution from class III enzymes.  (+info)

Characterization of a prolidase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CNRZ 397 with an unusual regulation of biosynthesis. (8/2525)

Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CNRZ 397 (Lb. bulgaricus) is characterized by a high level of peptidase activities specific to proline-containing peptides. A prolidase (PepQ, EC 3.4.13.9) was purified to homogeneity and characterized as a strict dipeptidase active on X-Pro dipeptides, except Gly-Pro and Pro-Pro. The values for Km and Vmax were, respectively, 2.2 mM and 0.33 mmol min(-1) mg(-1), with Leu-Pro as the substrate. The enzyme exhibited optimal activity at 50 degrees C and pH 6.0, and required the presence of Zn2+. Size exclusion chromatographies and SDS-PAGE analysis led to the conclusion that this prolidase was a homodimer. Antibodies raised against the purified protein allowed the detection of PepQ among several Lactobacillus species but not lactococci. The pepQ gene and the upstream region were isolated and sequenced. The deduced peptide sequence showed that PepQ belongs to the M24 family of metallopeptidases. The pepR1 gene is located immediately upstream of pepQ and its product is homologous to the transcription factor CcpA, which is involved in catabolite repression of catabolic operons from Gram-positive bacteria. The pepR1-pepQ intergenic region contains a consensus catabolite-responsive element (CRE) which could be a target for PepR1 protein. Moreover, in contrast to other proline-specific enzymes from Lb. bulgaricus, PepQ biosynthesis was shown to be dependent on the composition of the culture medium, but not on the peptide concentration. A possible regulation mechanism is discussed.  (+info)

Lactobacillus is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic or microaerophilic, non-spore-forming bacteria. They are part of the normal flora found in the intestinal, urinary, and genital tracts of humans and other animals. Lactobacilli are also commonly found in some fermented foods, such as yogurt, sauerkraut, and sourdough bread.

Lactobacilli are known for their ability to produce lactic acid through the fermentation of sugars, which contributes to their role in maintaining a healthy microbiota and lowering the pH in various environments. Some species of Lactobacillus have been shown to provide health benefits, such as improving digestion, enhancing immune function, and preventing infections, particularly in the urogenital and intestinal tracts. They are often used as probiotics, either in food or supplement form, to promote a balanced microbiome and support overall health.

Lactobacillus casei is a species of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that belongs to the genus Lactobacillus. These bacteria are commonly found in various environments, including the human gastrointestinal tract, and are often used in food production, such as in the fermentation of dairy products like cheese and yogurt.

Lactobacillus casei is known for its ability to produce lactic acid, which gives it the name "lactic acid bacterium." This characteristic makes it an important player in maintaining a healthy gut microbiome, as it helps to lower the pH of the gut and inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria.

In addition to its role in food production and gut health, Lactobacillus casei has been studied for its potential probiotic benefits. Probiotics are live bacteria and yeasts that are beneficial to human health, particularly the digestive system. Some research suggests that Lactobacillus casei may help support the immune system, improve digestion, and alleviate symptoms of certain gastrointestinal disorders like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, more research is needed to fully understand its potential health benefits and applications.

Lactobacillus acidophilus is a species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that naturally occurs in the human body, particularly in the mouth, intestines, and vagina. It is a type of lactic acid bacterium (LAB) that converts sugars into lactic acid as part of its metabolic process.

In the intestines, Lactobacillus acidophilus helps maintain a healthy balance of gut flora by producing bacteriocins, which are natural antibiotics that inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria. It also helps in the digestion and absorption of food, produces vitamins (such as vitamin K and some B vitamins), and supports the immune system.

Lactobacillus acidophilus is commonly used as a probiotic supplement to help restore or maintain a healthy balance of gut bacteria, particularly after taking antibiotics or in cases of gastrointestinal disturbances. It can be found in fermented foods such as yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut, and some cheeses.

It's important to note that while Lactobacillus acidophilus has many potential health benefits, it should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment or advice from a healthcare professional.

Lactobacillus plantarum is a species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that belongs to the lactic acid bacteria group. It is a facultative anaerobe, meaning it can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. Lactobacillus plantarum is commonly found in a variety of environments, including fermented foods such as sauerkraut, kimchi, and sourdough bread, as well as in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and other animals.

Lactobacillus plantarum is known for its ability to produce lactic acid through the fermentation of carbohydrates, which can help to preserve food and inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria. It also produces various antimicrobial compounds that can help to protect against pathogens in the gut.

In addition to its use in food preservation and fermentation, Lactobacillus plantarum has been studied for its potential probiotic benefits. Probiotics are live bacteria and yeasts that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed, including improving digestive health, enhancing the immune system, and reducing the risk of certain diseases.

Research has suggested that Lactobacillus plantarum may have a range of potential health benefits, including:

* Improving gut barrier function and reducing inflammation in the gut
* Enhancing the immune system and reducing the risk of infections
* Alleviating symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other gastrointestinal disorders
* Reducing the risk of allergies and asthma
* Improving oral health by reducing plaque and preventing tooth decay

However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits of Lactobacillus plantarum and to determine its safety and effectiveness as a probiotic supplement.

Lactobacillus reuteri is a species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that belongs to the lactic acid bacteria group. It is commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and other animals, as well as in some fermented foods.

Lactobacillus reuteri has been studied for its potential probiotic benefits, including its ability to inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria, stimulate the immune system, and promote digestive health. It produces several antimicrobial compounds, such as lactic acid, reuterin, and bacteriocins, which help maintain a healthy balance of microorganisms in the gut.

Lactobacillus reuteri has also been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects, which may be beneficial in treating conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and eczema. Additionally, it may help prevent dental cavities by inhibiting the growth of harmful oral bacteria.

It's worth noting that while Lactobacillus reuteri has shown promise in various studies, more research is needed to fully understand its potential health benefits and safety.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that belongs to the genus Lactobacillus. It is a rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract and is also present in some fermented foods like yogurt and cheese.

L. rhamnosus is known for its ability to produce lactic acid, which helps maintain a healthy balance of microflora in the gut and inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria. It has been studied for its potential probiotic benefits, including improving digestive health, enhancing immune function, and alleviating symptoms of certain gastrointestinal disorders like irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease.

L. rhamnosus is also known to adhere well to the intestinal epithelium, which allows it to persist in the gut for longer periods compared to other lactobacilli species. This property has made it a popular strain for use in various probiotic supplements and functional foods. However, it is important to note that while L. rhamnosus has shown promise in several clinical studies, more research is needed to fully understand its potential health benefits and safety profile.

Lactobacillus brevis is a species of gram-positive, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that belongs to the lactic acid bacteria group. It is commonly found in various environments such as plants, soil, and fermented foods like sauerkraut, pickles, and sourdough bread. Lactobacillus brevis is also part of the normal microbiota of the human gastrointestinal tract and vagina.

This bacterium is known for its ability to produce lactic acid as a metabolic end-product, which contributes to the preservation and fermentation of food. Lactobacillus brevis can also produce other compounds with potential health benefits, such as bacteriocins, which have antibacterial properties against certain pathogenic bacteria.

In some cases, Lactobacillus brevis has been investigated for its probiotic potential, although more research is needed to fully understand its effects on human health. It's important to note that while some strains of Lactobacillus brevis may have beneficial properties, others can cause infections in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions.

Probiotics are defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host." They are often referred to as "good" or "friendly" bacteria because they help keep your gut healthy. Probiotics are naturally found in certain foods such as fermented foods like yogurt, sauerkraut, and some cheeses, or they can be taken as dietary supplements.

The most common groups of probiotics are lactic acid bacteria (like Lactobacillus) and bifidobacteria. They can help restore the balance of bacteria in your gut when it's been disrupted by things like illness, medication (such as antibiotics), or poor diet. Probiotics have been studied for their potential benefits in a variety of health conditions, including digestive issues, skin conditions, and even mental health disorders, although more research is needed to fully understand their effects and optimal uses.

Lactobacillus fermentum is a species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that belongs to the lactic acid bacteria group. It is commonly found in various environments such as plant material, dairy products, and the human gastrointestinal tract.

Lactobacillus fermentum is known for its ability to produce lactic acid through the fermentation of carbohydrates, which can help lower the pH of the environment and inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria. It also produces various antimicrobial compounds such as bacteriocins, which can further contribute to its probiotic properties.

Lactobacillus fermentum has been studied for its potential health benefits, including its ability to enhance immune function, improve gut health, and reduce symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is also being investigated for its potential role in preventing urogenital infections and reducing the risk of certain types of cancer.

However, it's important to note that while some studies suggest potential health benefits of Lactobacillus fermentum, more research is needed to fully understand its effects and safety profile. As with any probiotic supplement, it's recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before taking Lactobacillus fermentum or any other probiotics.

Lactobacillus helveticus is a species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that belongs to the lactic acid bacteria group. It is commonly found in various environments such as dairy products, plants, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals, including humans.

L. helveticus has been widely used in the food industry for the production of fermented dairy products like cheese and yogurt due to its ability to produce lactic acid, break down proteins, and contribute to flavor development. It is also known for its potential health benefits when consumed as a probiotic, including improving gut health, boosting the immune system, and reducing symptoms of lactose intolerance.

In addition, L. helveticus has been studied for its potential role in mental health, with some research suggesting that it may help reduce anxiety and improve cognitive function. However, more research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms behind these effects and their clinical relevance.

"Lactobacillus delbrueckii" is a species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in various environments, including the human gastrointestinal tract and fermented foods. These bacteria are facultative anaerobes, which means they can grow in both the presence and absence of oxygen.

"Lactobacillus delbrueckii" is named after the German microbiologist Werner Delbrück, who made significant contributions to the study of lactic acid bacteria. This species includes several subspecies that have different characteristics and are associated with different ecological niches.

One subspecies, "Lactobacillus delbrueckii bulgaricus," is commonly used in the production of yogurt and other fermented dairy products. It produces lactic acid as a byproduct of metabolism, which gives yogurt its tangy flavor and helps to preserve it.

Another subspecies, "Lactobacillus delbrueckii delbrueckii," has been isolated from various sources, including human saliva, feces, and fermented foods. It is known for its ability to produce bacteriocins, which are protein molecules that can inhibit the growth of other bacteria.

Overall, "Lactobacillus delbrueckii" is an important species of lactic acid bacteria that has a wide range of applications in industry and human health.

Fermentation is a metabolic process in which an organism converts carbohydrates into alcohol or organic acids using enzymes. In the absence of oxygen, certain bacteria, yeasts, and fungi convert sugars into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and various end products, such as alcohol, lactic acid, or acetic acid. This process is commonly used in food production, such as in making bread, wine, and beer, as well as in industrial applications for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

Bifidobacterium is a genus of Gram-positive, non-motile, often branching anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other animals, as well as in fermented foods. These bacteria play an important role in maintaining the health and balance of the gut microbiota by aiding in digestion, producing vitamins, and preventing the growth of harmful bacteria.

Bifidobacteria are also known for their probiotic properties and are often used as dietary supplements to improve digestive health, boost the immune system, and alleviate symptoms of various gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease.

There are over 50 species of Bifidobacterium, with some of the most common ones found in the human gut being B. bifidum, B. longum, B. breve, and B. adolescentis. These bacteria are characterized by their ability to ferment a variety of carbohydrates, including dietary fibers, oligosaccharides, and sugars, producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetate, lactate, and formate as end products.

Bifidobacteria have a complex cell wall structure that contains unique polysaccharides called exopolysaccharides (EPS), which have been shown to have prebiotic properties and can stimulate the growth of other beneficial bacteria in the gut. Additionally, some strains of Bifidobacterium produce antimicrobial compounds that inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria, further contributing to their probiotic effects.

Overall, Bifidobacterium is an important genus of beneficial bacteria that play a crucial role in maintaining gut health and promoting overall well-being.

The vagina is the canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of the uterus) to the outside of the body. It also is known as the birth canal because babies pass through it during childbirth. The vagina is where sexual intercourse occurs and where menstrual blood exits the body. It has a flexible wall that can expand and retract. During sexual arousal, the vaginal walls swell with blood to become more elastic in order to accommodate penetration.

It's important to note that sometimes people use the term "vagina" to refer to the entire female genital area, including the external structures like the labia and clitoris. But technically, these are considered part of the vulva, not the vagina.

Antibiosis is a type of interaction between different organisms in which one organism, known as the antibiotic producer, produces a chemical substance (known as an antibiotic) that inhibits or kills another organism, called the susceptible organism. This phenomenon was first discovered in bacteria and fungi, where certain species produce antibiotics to inhibit the growth of competing species in their environment.

The term "antibiosis" is derived from Greek words "anti" meaning against, and "biosis" meaning living together. It is a natural form of competition that helps maintain the balance of microbial communities in various environments, such as soil, water, and the human body.

In medical contexts, antibiosis refers to the use of antibiotics to treat or prevent bacterial infections in humans and animals. Antibiotics are chemical substances produced by microorganisms or synthesized artificially that can inhibit or kill other microorganisms. The discovery and development of antibiotics have revolutionized modern medicine, saving countless lives from bacterial infections that were once fatal.

However, the overuse and misuse of antibiotics have led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which can no longer be killed or inhibited by conventional antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance is a significant global health concern that requires urgent attention and action from healthcare providers, policymakers, and the public.

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a condition that occurs when there's an imbalance or overgrowth of bacteria in the vagina. It's not technically considered a sexually transmitted infection (STI), but certain activities such as unprotected sex can increase the risk of developing BV. The normal balance of bacteria in the vagina is disrupted, leading to symptoms such as abnormal vaginal discharge with a strong fishy odor, burning during urination, and itching or irritation around the outside of the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis is diagnosed through a pelvic examination and laboratory tests to identify the type of bacteria present in the vagina. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, either in the form of pills or creams that are inserted into the vagina. It's important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have bacterial vaginosis, as it can increase the risk of complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease and preterm labor during pregnancy.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

Cultured milk products are fermented dairy foods that contain live or active cultures of beneficial bacteria. The fermentation process involves the addition of specific strains of bacteria, such as lactic acid bacteria, to milk. This causes the milk to thicken and develop a tangy flavor.

Common cultured milk products include:

1. Yogurt: A fermented dairy product made from milk and bacterial cultures, including Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Yogurt is often consumed for its taste, nutritional value, and potential health benefits associated with probiotics.
2. Buttermilk: Traditionally, buttermilk was the thin, liquid byproduct of churning butter from cultured cream. Nowadays, most commercial buttermilk is made by adding bacterial cultures to low-fat or skim milk and allowing it to ferment. The result is a tangy, slightly thickened beverage.
3. Kefir: A fermented milk drink that originated in the Caucasus Mountains. It's made using kefir grains, which are symbiotic colonies of bacteria and yeast, to ferment milk. The final product is a carbonated, tangy beverage with a consistency similar to thin yogurt.
4. Cheese: While not all cheeses are cultured milk products, many types undergo a fermentation process using specific bacterial cultures. This helps develop the cheese's flavor, texture, and aroma during the aging process. Examples of cultured cheeses include cheddar, gouda, brie, and feta.
5. Sour cream: A dairy product made by fermenting cream with lactic acid bacteria, resulting in a thick, tangy condiment or topping.
6. Crème fraîche: Similar to sour cream but made from heavy cream instead of milk, crème fraîche has a richer texture and milder flavor. It's produced by allowing pasteurized cream to ferment naturally with bacterial cultures.
7. Cultured butter: This type of butter is made from cultured cream that has been allowed to ferment before churning. The fermentation process imparts a tangy, slightly cheesy flavor to the butter.
8. Viili and Fil Mjölk: These are traditional Nordic fermented milk products with a ropy texture due to specific bacterial cultures used in their production.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria as a defense mechanism against other competing bacterial strains. They primarily target and inhibit the growth of closely related bacterial species, although some have a broader spectrum of activity. Bacteriocins can be classified into different types based on their structural features, molecular masses, and mechanisms of action.

These antimicrobial peptides often interact with the cell membrane of target bacteria, causing pore formation, depolarization, or disrupting cell wall biosynthesis, ultimately leading to bacterial cell death. Bacteriocins have gained interest in recent years as potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics due to their narrow spectrum of activity and reduced likelihood of inducing resistance. They are being explored for use in food preservation, agricultural applications, and as therapeutic agents in the medical field.

I apologize, but "bread" is a common food item and not a medical term. It is typically made from flour, water, yeast, and salt, and is baked at high temperatures. There is no medical definition for bread. If you have any specific concerns about bread or its ingredients in relation to your health, I would be happy to try to help address those.

According to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), yogurt is defined as a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. The bacteria used must belong to the species Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Other bacteria may be added for flavor or other purposes, but these two are essential for the product to be called yogurt. Additionally, yogurt must contain a certain amount of live and active cultures at the time of manufacture, and it must not contain more than specific amounts of whey, non-milk fat, and stabilizers.

It's important to note that this definition is specific to the United States and may vary in other countries.

Pediococcus is a genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic cocci that typically occur in pairs or tetrads. These bacteria are catalase-negative and non-motile. They are commonly found in various environments such as plants, dairy products, and fermented foods. Some species of Pediococcus can cause food spoilage, while others are used in the production of fermented foods like sauerkraut and certain cheeses due to their ability to produce lactic acid. They are not typically associated with human diseases, but rarely can cause infection in immunocompromised individuals.

Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that are present in food, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. This field examines how these microbes interact with food, how they affect its safety and quality, and how they can be controlled during food production, processing, storage, and preparation. Food microbiology also involves the development of methods for detecting and identifying pathogenic microorganisms in food, as well as studying the mechanisms of foodborne illnesses and developing strategies to prevent them. Additionally, it includes research on the beneficial microbes found in certain fermented foods and their potential applications in improving food quality and safety.

The term "crop" in the context of avian anatomy refers to a thin-walled, expandable portion of the digestive tract that functions as a storage site for food. It is located between the esophagus and the stomach (proventriculus) in birds. The crop serves as a temporary reservoir where ingested food can be stored and softened by the addition of water and digestive enzymes before being passed on to the proventriculus for further digestion and absorption. This allows birds to consume large quantities of food at once, which can then be gradually processed and utilized over an extended period.

I am not a doctor, but I can provide some information about the term "cheese" in a general and food science context. Cheese is a dairy product made from the curdled milk of various animals, most commonly cows, goats, or sheep. The process involves enzymes (such as rennet) to coagulate milk proteins (casein), which then separate from the liquid whey. The curds are then aged, treated, and processed in various ways to create different types of cheese with unique flavors, textures, and appearances.

However, if you are looking for a medical definition related to health issues or conditions, I would recommend consulting a reliable medical resource or speaking with a healthcare professional.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Lactobacillaceae is a family of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic or microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria. They are non-spore forming and often occur in pairs or chains. Lactobacillaceae are commonly found in various environments such as the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and vagina of humans and animals, as well as in fermented foods like yogurt, sauerkraut, and sourdough bread.

These bacteria are known for their ability to produce lactic acid as a major end product of carbohydrate metabolism, which gives them the name "lactic acid bacteria." They play an essential role in maintaining a healthy microbiota and have been associated with various health benefits, such as improving digestion, enhancing immune function, and preventing harmful bacterial overgrowth.

Some well-known genera within the family Lactobacillaceae include Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, and Weissella. It is important to note that recent taxonomic revisions have led to some changes in the classification of these bacteria, and some genera previously classified within Lactobacillaceae are now placed in other families within the order Lactobacillales.

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, also known as the digestive tract, is a continuous tube that starts at the mouth and ends at the anus. It is responsible for ingesting, digesting, absorbing, and excreting food and waste materials. The GI tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), large intestine (cecum, colon, rectum, anus), and accessory organs such as the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. The primary function of this system is to process and extract nutrients from food while also protecting the body from harmful substances, pathogens, and toxins.

Gardnerella vaginalis is a gram-variable, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium that is part of the normal microbiota of the human vagina. However, an overgrowth of this organism can lead to a condition known as bacterial vaginosis (BV), which is characterized by a shift in the balance of vaginal flora, resulting in a decrease in beneficial lactobacilli and an increase in Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic bacteria. This imbalance can cause symptoms such as abnormal vaginal discharge with a fishy odor, itching, and burning. It's important to note that while G. vaginalis is commonly associated with BV, its presence alone does not necessarily indicate the presence of the condition.

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) refers to the specific regions of DNA in a cell that contain the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Ribosomes are complex structures composed of proteins and rRNA, which play a crucial role in protein synthesis by translating messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins.

In humans, there are four types of rRNA molecules: 18S, 5.8S, 28S, and 5S. These rRNAs are encoded by multiple copies of rDNA genes that are organized in clusters on specific chromosomes. In humans, the majority of rDNA genes are located on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22.

Each cluster of rDNA genes contains both transcribed and non-transcribed spacer regions. The transcribed regions contain the genes for the four types of rRNA, while the non-transcribed spacers contain regulatory elements that control the transcription of the rRNA genes.

The number of rDNA copies varies between species and even within individuals of the same species. The copy number can also change during development and in response to environmental factors. Variations in rDNA copy number have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

A "colony count" is a method used to estimate the number of viable microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, in a sample. In this technique, a known volume of the sample is spread onto the surface of a solid nutrient medium in a petri dish and then incubated under conditions that allow the microorganisms to grow and form visible colonies. Each colony that grows on the plate represents an individual cell (or small cluster of cells) from the original sample that was able to divide and grow under the given conditions. By counting the number of colonies that form, researchers can make a rough estimate of the concentration of microorganisms in the original sample.

The term "microbial" simply refers to microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Therefore, a "colony count, microbial" is a general term that encompasses the use of colony counting techniques to estimate the number of any type of microorganism in a sample.

Colony counts are used in various fields, including medical research, food safety testing, and environmental monitoring, to assess the levels of contamination or the effectiveness of disinfection procedures. However, it is important to note that colony counts may not always provide an accurate measure of the total number of microorganisms present in a sample, as some cells may be injured or unable to grow under the conditions used for counting. Additionally, some microorganisms may form clusters or chains that can appear as single colonies, leading to an overestimation of the true cell count.

Leuconostoc is a genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that belong to the family Leuconostocaceae. These bacteria are non-motile, non-spore forming, and occur as pairs or chains. They are catalase-negative and reduce nitrate to nitrite.

Leuconostoc species are commonly found in nature, particularly in plants, dairy products, and fermented foods. They play a significant role in the food industry, where they are used in the production of various fermented foods such as sauerkraut, pickles, and certain cheeses.

In clinical settings, Leuconostoc species can sometimes be associated with healthcare-associated infections, particularly in patients who have underlying medical conditions or who are immunocompromised. They can cause bacteremia, endocarditis, and device-related infections. However, these infections are relatively rare, and the majority of Leuconostoc species are considered to be non-pathogenic.

The intestines, also known as the bowel, are a part of the digestive system that extends from the stomach to the anus. They are responsible for the further breakdown and absorption of nutrients from food, as well as the elimination of waste products. The intestines can be divided into two main sections: the small intestine and the large intestine.

The small intestine is a long, coiled tube that measures about 20 feet in length and is lined with tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase its surface area and enhance nutrient absorption. The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place.

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is a wider tube that measures about 5 feet in length and is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from digested food, forming stool, and eliminating waste products from the body. The large intestine includes several regions, including the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus.

Together, the intestines play a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being by ensuring that the body receives the nutrients it needs to function properly.

Bacterial adhesion is the initial and crucial step in the process of bacterial colonization, where bacteria attach themselves to a surface or tissue. This process involves specific interactions between bacterial adhesins (proteins, fimbriae, or pili) and host receptors (glycoproteins, glycolipids, or extracellular matrix components). The attachment can be either reversible or irreversible, depending on the strength of interaction. Bacterial adhesion is a significant factor in initiating biofilm formation, which can lead to various infectious diseases and medical device-associated infections.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Propane" is not a medical term. It is a chemical compound commonly used as a fuel for heating, cooking, and engines. Propane is a gas at room temperature and pressure, but it can be liquefied under moderate pressure and stored in cylinders or tanks.

If you have any questions about a medical term or concept, I'd be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Lactic acid, also known as 2-hydroxypropanoic acid, is a chemical compound that plays a significant role in various biological processes. In the context of medicine and biochemistry, lactic acid is primarily discussed in relation to muscle metabolism and cellular energy production. Here's a medical definition for lactic acid:

Lactic acid (LA): A carboxylic acid with the molecular formula C3H6O3 that plays a crucial role in anaerobic respiration, particularly during strenuous exercise or conditions of reduced oxygen availability. It is formed through the conversion of pyruvate, catalyzed by the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), when there is insufficient oxygen to complete the final step of cellular respiration in the Krebs cycle. The accumulation of lactic acid can lead to acidosis and muscle fatigue. Additionally, lactic acid serves as a vital intermediary in various metabolic pathways and is involved in the production of glucose through gluconeogenesis in the liver.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but 'Lactobacillus leichmannii' is not a currently valid species name in the genus Lactobacillus. It was previously used to refer to a particular species of lactic acid bacteria, but recent taxonomic revisions have led to its renaming. The organism that was once known as 'Lactobacillus leichmannii' is now classified as Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus.

Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore forming rod that produces lactic acid as one of its major end products. It's commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract and is often used in various industrial applications, including food production and probiotics.

Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique is a type of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based method used in molecular biology for DNA fingerprinting and genetic diversity analysis. This technique utilizes random primers of arbitrary nucleotide sequences to amplify random segments of genomic DNA. The amplified products are then separated by electrophoresis, and the resulting banding patterns are analyzed.

In RAPD analysis, the randomly chosen primers bind to multiple sites in the genome, and the intervening regions between the primer binding sites are amplified. Since the primer binding sites can vary among individuals within a species or among different species, the resulting amplicons will also differ. These differences in amplicon size and pattern can be used to distinguish between individuals or populations at the DNA level.

RAPD is a relatively simple and cost-effective technique that does not require prior knowledge of the genome sequence. However, it has some limitations, such as low reproducibility and sensitivity to experimental conditions. Despite these limitations, RAPD remains a useful tool for genetic analysis in various fields, including forensics, plant breeding, and microbial identification.

A germ-free life refers to an existence in which an individual is not exposed to or colonized by any harmful microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. This condition is also known as "sterile" or "aseptic." In a medical context, achieving a germ-free state is often the goal in certain controlled environments, such as operating rooms, laboratories, and intensive care units, where the risk of infection must be minimized. However, it is not possible to maintain a completely germ-free life outside of these settings, as microorganisms are ubiquitous in the environment and are an essential part of the human microbiome. Instead, maintaining good hygiene practices and a healthy immune system is crucial for preventing illness and promoting overall health.

Lactococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria commonly found in plants, dairy products, and the oral and intestinal microbiota of animals and humans. These bacteria are known for their ability to ferment lactose and other sugars into lactic acid, which makes them important in food production (such as cheese and buttermilk) and also contributes to their role in dental caries. Some species of Lactococcus can cause disease in humans, particularly in immunocompromised individuals or those with pre-existing conditions, but they are generally considered to be low-virulence pathogens.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

A metagenome is the collective genetic material contained within a sample taken from a specific environment, such as soil or water, or within a community of organisms, like the microbiota found in the human gut. It includes the genomes of all the microorganisms present in that environment or community, including bacteria, archaea, fungi, viruses, and other microbes, whether they can be cultured in the lab or not. By analyzing the metagenome, scientists can gain insights into the diversity, abundance, and functional potential of the microbial communities present in that environment.

rRNA (ribosomal RNA) is not a type of gene itself, but rather a crucial component that is transcribed from genes known as ribosomal DNA (rDNA). In cells, rRNA plays an essential role in protein synthesis by assembling with ribosomal proteins to form ribosomes. Ribosomes are complex structures where the translation of mRNA into proteins occurs. There are multiple types of rRNA molecules, including 5S, 5.8S, 18S, and 28S rRNAs in eukaryotic cells, each with specific functions during protein synthesis.

In summary, 'Genes, rRNA' would refer to the genetic regions (genes) that code for ribosomal RNA molecules, which are vital components of the protein synthesis machinery within cells.

Bacterial typing techniques are methods used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains or isolates based on their unique characteristics. These techniques are essential in epidemiological studies, infection control, and research to understand the transmission dynamics, virulence, and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens.

There are various bacterial typing techniques available, including:

1. **Bacteriophage Typing:** This method involves using bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to identify specific bacterial strains based on their susceptibility or resistance to particular phages.
2. **Serotyping:** It is a technique that differentiates bacterial strains based on the antigenic properties of their cell surface components, such as capsules, flagella, and somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens.
3. **Biochemical Testing:** This method uses biochemical reactions to identify specific metabolic pathways or enzymes present in bacterial strains, which can be used for differentiation. Commonly used tests include the catalase test, oxidase test, and various sugar fermentation tests.
4. **Molecular Typing Techniques:** These methods use genetic markers to identify and differentiate bacterial strains at the DNA level. Examples of molecular typing techniques include:
* **Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE):** This method uses restriction enzymes to digest bacterial DNA, followed by electrophoresis in an agarose gel under pulsed electrical fields. The resulting banding patterns are analyzed and compared to identify related strains.
* **Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST):** It involves sequencing specific housekeeping genes to generate unique sequence types that can be used for strain identification and phylogenetic analysis.
* **Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS):** This method sequences the entire genome of a bacterial strain, providing the most detailed information on genetic variation and relatedness between strains. WGS data can be analyzed using various bioinformatics tools to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene deletions or insertions, and other genetic changes that can be used for strain differentiation.

These molecular typing techniques provide higher resolution than traditional methods, allowing for more accurate identification and comparison of bacterial strains. They are particularly useful in epidemiological investigations to track the spread of pathogens and identify outbreaks.

Bacterial load refers to the total number or concentration of bacteria present in a given sample, tissue, or body fluid. It is a measure used to quantify the amount of bacterial infection or colonization in a particular area. The bacterial load can be expressed as colony-forming units (CFU) per milliliter (ml), gram (g), or other units of measurement depending on the sample type. High bacterial loads are often associated with more severe infections and increased inflammation.

The cecum is the first part of the large intestine, located at the junction of the small and large intestines. It is a pouch-like structure that connects to the ileum (the last part of the small intestine) and the ascending colon (the first part of the large intestine). The cecum is where the appendix is attached. Its function is to absorb water and electrolytes, and it also serves as a site for the fermentation of certain types of dietary fiber by gut bacteria. However, the exact functions of the cecum are not fully understood.

Glyceraldehyde is a triose, a simple sugar consisting of three carbon atoms. It is a clear, colorless, sweet-tasting liquid that is used as a sweetener and preservative in the food industry. In the medical field, glyceraldehyde is used in research and diagnostics, particularly in the study of carbohydrate metabolism and enzyme function.

Glyceraldehyde is also an important intermediate in the glycolytic pathway, which is a series of reactions that convert glucose into pyruvate, producing ATP and NADH as energy-rich compounds. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate in this pathway.

In addition, glyceraldehyde has been studied for its potential role in the development of diabetic complications and other diseases associated with carbohydrate metabolism disorders.

Carbohydrate metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, which is then used for energy or stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. This process involves several enzymes and chemical reactions that convert carbohydrates from food into glucose, fructose, or galactose, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to cells throughout the body.

The hormones insulin and glucagon regulate carbohydrate metabolism by controlling the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. Insulin is released from the pancreas when blood sugar levels are high, such as after a meal, and promotes the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. Glucagon, on the other hand, is released when blood sugar levels are low and signals the liver to convert stored glycogen back into glucose and release it into the bloodstream.

Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism can result from genetic defects or acquired conditions that affect the enzymes or hormones involved in this process. Examples include diabetes, hypoglycemia, and galactosemia. Proper management of these disorders typically involves dietary modifications, medication, and regular monitoring of blood sugar levels.

Streptococcus thermophilus is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, non-spore forming bacterium that belongs to the Streptococcaceae family. It is a species of streptococcus that is mesophilic, meaning it grows best at moderate temperatures, typically between 30-45°C. S. thermophilus is commonly found in milk and dairy products and is one of the starter cultures used in the production of yogurt and other fermented dairy products. It is also used as a probiotic due to its potential health benefits, such as improving lactose intolerance and enhancing the immune system. S. thermophilus is not considered pathogenic and does not normally cause infections in humans.

Streptococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, spherical bacteria that typically form pairs or chains when clustered together. These bacteria are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. They are non-motile and do not produce spores.

Streptococcus species are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals. Some strains are part of the normal flora of the body, while others can cause a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections to severe and life-threatening diseases such as sepsis, meningitis, and toxic shock syndrome.

The pathogenicity of Streptococcus species depends on various virulence factors, including the production of enzymes and toxins that damage tissues and evade the host's immune response. One of the most well-known Streptococcus species is Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A streptococcus (GAS), which is responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations, including pharyngitis (strep throat), impetigo, cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, and rheumatic fever.

It's important to note that the classification of Streptococcus species has evolved over time, with many former members now classified as different genera within the family Streptococcaceae. The current classification system is based on a combination of phenotypic characteristics (such as hemolysis patterns and sugar fermentation) and genotypic methods (such as 16S rRNA sequencing and multilocus sequence typing).

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Synbiotics are a combination of probiotics and prebiotics that work together to improve the survival, engraftment, and metabolic activity of the probiotic microorganisms in the gut. Probiotics are live beneficial bacteria or yeasts that are introduced into the body, often through food or supplements, with the aim of improving health. Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients that stimulate the growth and/or activity of these probiotic microorganisms.

The synergistic effect of combining both probiotics and prebiotics in a single product is believed to provide greater health benefits compared to using either one alone. The prebiotics serve as a food source for the probiotics, helping them to grow and multiply in the gut. This can lead to improved gut microbiota composition, enhanced immune function, and better overall health.

Examples of synbiotic products include yogurts with added prebiotic fibers or supplements containing specific strains of probiotic bacteria along with a prebiotic ingredient such as inulin or fructooligosaccharides (FOS). It is important to note that not all combinations of probiotics and prebiotics are considered synbiotics, as they must be shown to have a synergistic effect on the host's health.

Teichoic acids are complex polymers of glycerol or ribitol linked by phosphate groups, found in the cell wall of gram-positive bacteria. They play a crucial role in the bacterial cell's defense against hostile environments and can also contribute to virulence by helping the bacteria evade the host's immune system. Teichoic acids can be either linked to peptidoglycan (wall teichoic acids) or to membrane lipids (lipoteichoic acids). They can vary in structure and composition among different bacterial species, which can have implications for the design of antibiotics and other therapeutics.

Ribitol is a sugar alcohol, specifically a pentitol, that is a reduced form of the pentose sugar ribose. It is found in some fruits and vegetables, and it can also be produced synthetically. In biochemistry, ribitol plays a role as a component of certain coenzymes and as a constituent of the structural polysaccharides in the cell walls of some bacteria. It has been used in research and medical applications, such as in the study of bacterial metabolism and in the development of potential drugs.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

A bacterial genome is the complete set of genetic material, including both DNA and RNA, found within a single bacterium. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the bacterium to grow, reproduce, and survive in its environment. The bacterial genome typically includes circular chromosomes, as well as plasmids, which are smaller, circular DNA molecules that can carry additional genes. These genes encode various functional elements such as enzymes, structural proteins, and regulatory sequences that determine the bacterium's characteristics and behavior.

Bacterial genomes vary widely in size, ranging from around 130 kilobases (kb) in Mycoplasma genitalium to over 14 megabases (Mb) in Sorangium cellulosum. The complete sequencing and analysis of bacterial genomes have provided valuable insights into the biology, evolution, and pathogenicity of bacteria, enabling researchers to better understand their roles in various diseases and potential applications in biotechnology.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

Gram-positive bacteria are a type of bacteria that stain dark purple or blue when subjected to the Gram staining method, which is a common technique used in microbiology to classify and identify different types of bacteria based on their structural differences. This staining method was developed by Hans Christian Gram in 1884.

The key characteristic that distinguishes Gram-positive bacteria from other types, such as Gram-negative bacteria, is the presence of a thick layer of peptidoglycan in their cell walls, which retains the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining process. Additionally, Gram-positive bacteria lack an outer membrane found in Gram-negative bacteria.

Examples of Gram-positive bacteria include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Bacillus subtilis. Some Gram-positive bacteria can cause various human diseases, while others are beneficial or harmless.

Phenylalanine-tRNA ligase, also known as Phe-tRNA synthetase, is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in protein synthesis. Its primary function is to catalyze the attachment of the amino acid phenylalanine to its corresponding transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule. This reaction forms a phenylalanine-tRNA complex, which is then used in the translation process to create proteins according to the genetic code. The systematic name for this enzyme is phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (EC 6.1.1.20). Any defects or mutations in the Phe-tRNA ligase can lead to various medical conditions, including neurological disorders and impaired growth.

Medically, "milk" is not defined. However, it is important to note that human babies are fed with breast milk, which is the secretion from the mammary glands of humans. It is rich in nutrients like proteins, fats, carbohydrates (lactose), vitamins and minerals that are essential for growth and development.

Other mammals also produce milk to feed their young. These include cows, goats, and sheep, among others. Their milk is often consumed by humans as a source of nutrition, especially in dairy products. However, the composition of these milks can vary significantly from human breast milk.

In medical terms, the mouth is officially referred to as the oral cavity. It is the first part of the digestive tract and includes several structures: the lips, vestibule (the space enclosed by the lips and teeth), teeth, gingiva (gums), hard and soft palate, tongue, floor of the mouth, and salivary glands. The mouth is responsible for several functions including speaking, swallowing, breathing, and eating, as it is the initial point of ingestion where food is broken down through mechanical and chemical processes, beginning the digestive process.

Medical definitions typically do not include terms like "meat products" as they are too broad and not specific to medical conditions or treatments. However, in a general food science or nutrition context, "meat products" could be defined as:

Processed or unprocessed foods that contain meat or meat derivatives as the primary ingredient. This can include various types of muscle tissue from mammals, birds, fish, and other animals, along with any accompanying fat, skin, blood vessels, and other tissues. Meat products may be fresh, cured, smoked, or cooked, and they may also contain additional ingredients like salt, sugar, preservatives, and flavorings. Examples of meat products include beef jerky, bacon, sausages, hot dogs, and canned meats.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Caco-2 cells are a type of human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line that is commonly used in scientific research, particularly in the field of drug development and toxicology. These cells are capable of forming a monolayer with tight junctions, which makes them an excellent model for studying intestinal absorption, transport, and metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotic compounds.

Caco-2 cells express many of the transporters and enzymes that are found in the human small intestine, making them a valuable tool for predicting drug absorption and bioavailability in humans. They are also used to study the mechanisms of drug transport across the intestinal epithelium, including passive diffusion and active transport by various transporters.

In addition to their use in drug development, Caco-2 cells are also used to study the toxicological effects of various compounds on human intestinal cells. They can be used to investigate the mechanisms of toxicity, as well as to evaluate the potential for drugs and other compounds to induce intestinal damage or inflammation.

Overall, Caco-2 cells are a widely used and valuable tool in both drug development and toxicology research, providing important insights into the absorption, transport, metabolism, and toxicity of various compounds in the human body.

"Lactococcus lactis" is a species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found in nature, particularly in environments involving plants and dairy products. It is a catalase-negative, non-spore forming coccus that typically occurs in pairs or short chains.

"Lactococcus lactis" has significant industrial importance as it plays a crucial role in the production of fermented foods such as cheese and buttermilk. The bacterium converts lactose into lactic acid, which contributes to the sour taste and preservative qualities of these products.

In addition to its use in food production, "Lactococcus lactis" has been explored for its potential therapeutic applications. It can be used as a vector for delivering therapeutic proteins or vaccines to the gastrointestinal tract due to its ability to survive and colonize there.

It's worth noting that "Lactococcus lactis" is generally considered safe for human consumption, and it's one of the most commonly used probiotics in food and supplements.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Bacterial RNA refers to the genetic material present in bacteria that is composed of ribonucleic acid (RNA). Unlike higher organisms, bacteria contain a single circular chromosome made up of DNA, along with smaller circular pieces of DNA called plasmids. These bacterial genetic materials contain the information necessary for the growth and reproduction of the organism.

Bacterial RNA can be divided into three main categories: messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA). mRNA carries genetic information copied from DNA, which is then translated into proteins by the rRNA and tRNA molecules. rRNA is a structural component of the ribosome, where protein synthesis occurs, while tRNA acts as an adapter that brings amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis.

Bacterial RNA plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including gene expression, protein synthesis, and regulation of metabolic pathways. Understanding the structure and function of bacterial RNA is essential for developing new antibiotics and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

The intestinal mucosa is the innermost layer of the intestines, which comes into direct contact with digested food and microbes. It is a specialized epithelial tissue that plays crucial roles in nutrient absorption, barrier function, and immune defense. The intestinal mucosa is composed of several cell types, including absorptive enterocytes, mucus-secreting goblet cells, hormone-producing enteroendocrine cells, and immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages.

The surface of the intestinal mucosa is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells, which are joined together by tight junctions to form a protective barrier against harmful substances and microorganisms. This barrier also allows for the selective absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. The intestinal mucosa also contains numerous lymphoid follicles, known as Peyer's patches, which are involved in immune surveillance and defense against pathogens.

In addition to its role in absorption and immunity, the intestinal mucosa is also capable of producing hormones that regulate digestion and metabolism. Dysfunction of the intestinal mucosa can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and food allergies.

The digestive system is a complex group of organs and glands that process food. It converts the food we eat into nutrients, which the body uses for energy, growth, and cell repair. The digestive system also eliminates waste from the body. It is made up of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and other organs that help the body break down and absorb food.

The GI tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus. Other organs that are part of the digestive system include the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, and salivary glands.

The process of digestion begins in the mouth, where food is chewed and mixed with saliva. The food then travels down the esophagus and into the stomach, where it is broken down further by stomach acids. The digested food then moves into the small intestine, where nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream. The remaining waste material passes into the large intestine, where it is stored until it is eliminated through the anus.

The liver, pancreas, and gallbladder play important roles in the digestive process as well. The liver produces bile, a substance that helps break down fats in the small intestine. The pancreas produces enzymes that help digest proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. The gallbladder stores bile until it is needed in the small intestine.

Overall, the digestive system is responsible for breaking down food, absorbing nutrients, and eliminating waste. It plays a critical role in maintaining our health and well-being.

Microbial interactions refer to the various ways in which different microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites, influence each other's growth, survival, and behavior in a shared environment. These interactions can be categorized into several types:

1. Commensalism: One organism benefits from the interaction while the other is neither harmed nor benefited (e.g., certain gut bacteria that feed on host-derived nutrients without affecting the host's health).
2. Mutualism: Both organisms benefit from the interaction (e.g., the partnership between rhizobia bacteria and leguminous plants, where the bacteria fix nitrogen for the plant, and the plant provides carbohydrates for the bacteria).
3. Parasitism: One organism benefits at the expense of the other, causing harm or disease to the host (e.g., the malaria parasite infecting human red blood cells).
4. Competition: Both organisms struggle for limited resources, like nutrients or space, leading to a negative impact on one or both parties (e.g., different bacterial species competing for limited iron sources in the environment).
5. Amensalism: One organism is harmed or inhibited while the other remains unaffected (e.g., antibiotic-producing bacteria inhibiting the growth of nearby susceptible bacteria).
6. Synergism: Multiple organisms work together to produce a combined effect greater than the sum of their individual effects (e.g., certain bacterial and fungal communities in soil that enhance plant growth and nutrient uptake).
7. Antagonism: One organism inhibits or kills another through various mechanisms, such as the production of antibiotics or enzymes (e.g., some bacteria producing bacteriocins to inhibit the growth of closely related species).

Understanding microbial interactions is crucial for developing strategies in areas like infectious disease control, probiotic applications, and managing microbial communities in various ecosystems, including the human body.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Base composition in genetics refers to the relative proportion of the four nucleotide bases (adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine) in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine pairs with cytosine, so the base composition is often expressed in terms of the ratio of adenine + thymine (A-T) to guanine + cytosine (G-C). This ratio can vary between species and even between different regions of the same genome. The base composition can provide important clues about the function, evolution, and structure of genetic material.

Methanobrevibacter is a genus of archaea (single-celled microorganisms) that are methanogens, meaning they produce methane as a metabolic byproduct. These organisms are commonly found in the digestive tracts of animals, including humans, where they help break down organic matter and recycle nutrients. They are strict anaerobes, requiring an environment free of oxygen to survive and grow. Some species within this genus have been associated with dental diseases such as periodontitis. However, more research is needed to fully understand their role in human health and disease.

Nucleic acid hybridization is a process in molecular biology where two single-stranded nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) with complementary sequences pair together to form a double-stranded molecule through hydrogen bonding. The strands can be from the same type of nucleic acid or different types (i.e., DNA-RNA or DNA-cDNA). This process is commonly used in various laboratory techniques, such as Southern blotting, Northern blotting, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and microarray analysis, to detect, isolate, and analyze specific nucleic acid sequences. The hybridization temperature and conditions are critical to ensure the specificity of the interaction between the two strands.

Lactobacillales is an order of predominantly gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic or aerotolerant, rod-shaped bacteria. They are non-spore forming and often occur in pairs or chains. Lactobacillales are commonly found in various environments such as plants, sewage, dairy products, and the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of humans and animals.

They are known for their ability to produce lactic acid as a major metabolic end product, hence the name "lactic acid bacteria." This characteristic makes them essential in food fermentation processes, including the production of yogurt, cheese, sauerkraut, and other fermented foods.

Within Lactobacillales, there are several families, including Aerococcaceae, Carnobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Leuconostocaceae, and Streptococcaceae. Many species within these families have significant roles in human health and disease, either as beneficial probiotics or as pathogenic agents causing various types of infections.

2014 "Lactobacillus backi" Bohak et al. 2006 Lactobacillus bombicola Praet et al. 2015 Lactobacillus colini Zhang et al. 2017 ... 2018 Lactobacillus pasteurii Cousin et al. 2013 Lactobacillus porci Kim et al. 2018 Lactobacillus psittaci Lawson et al. 2001 " ... Data related to Lactobacillus at Wikispecies Lactobacillus at Milk the Funk Wiki Lactobacillus at BacDive - the Bacterial ... 2010 Lactobacillus fornicalis Dicks et al. 2000 Lactobacillus gallinarum Fujisawa et al. 1992 Lactobacillus gasseri Lauer and ...
... , Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Lactobacillus johnsonii ... Lactobacillus crispatus is a common, rod-shaped species of genus Lactobacillus and is a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) producing ... "Genomic Comparisons of Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus iners Reveal Potential Ecological Drivers of Community ... "A taxonomic note on the genus Lactobacillus: Description of 23 novel genera, emended description of the genus Lactobacillus ...
... is a species in the genus Lactobacillus identified in 1980 by François Gasser and his associates. It is ... "Lactobacillus gasseri" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Lactobacillus gasseri at BacDive - the Bacterial ... Lactobacillus gasseri produces gassericin A, a bacteriocin. Johnson, J. L.; Phelps, C. F.; Cummins, C. S.; London, J.; Gasser, ... Lactobacillus gasseri sp. nov., a new species of the subgenus Thermobacterium." Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie: I. Abt. ...
... (Neo-Latin 'vinegar-tolerating milk-bacillus') is a species of gram positive bacteria in the genus ... Type strain of Lactobacillus acetotolerans at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short ... Entani, Etsuzo; Masai, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ken-Ichiro (October 1986). "Lactobacillus acetotolerans, a New Species from Fermented ... Lactobacillus. Discovered in rice wine vinegar, it has a very high tolerance for acetic acid. It can tolerate an acetic acid ...
... with Recognition of Lactobacillus gallinarum sp. nov. and Lactobacillus johnsonii sp. nov. and Synonymy of Lactobacillus ... Lactobacillus johnsonii is a species in the genus Lactobacillus identified in 1980 by John L. Johnson, an American ... "Lactobacillus johnsonii" at the Encyclopedia of Life Type strain of Lactobacillus johnsonii at BacDive - the Bacterial ... Johnson, J. L.; Phelps, C. F.; Cummins, C. S.; London, J.; Gasser, F. (1980). "Taxonomy of the Lactobacillus acidophilus Group ...
Weiss, N; Schillinger, U; Kandler, O (1983). "Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus leichmannii and Lactobacillus bulgaricus, ... and Description of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis comb. nov. and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus comb. nov ... Lactobacillus delbrueckii is a species of bacteria in the family Lactobacillaceae. It is part of the microbiota of the lower ... "Lactobacillus delbrueckii". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Retrieved July 2, 2021. H. Benninga ...
described lactobacillus vaccination as a means to systemically boost a diminished pool of lactobacillus-specific vaginal ... The incidence of aberrant lactobacilli fell from 17% to 3%, while that of normal lactobacilli rose from 31% to 72% during the ... It has not been clarified by what mechanism the lactobacilli used in the vaccines ("aberrant" lactobacilli) fail to confer ... rod-shaped lactobacilli can grow and exert its defense functions against pathogenic microorganisms. Lactobacillus vaccines are ...
Lactobacillus at MedlinePlus Lactobacillus acidophilus at University of Maryland Medical Center Lactobacillus acidophilus from ... Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus jensenii, and Lactobacillus iners. In experiments, L. acidophilus seemed to decrease ... Lactobacillus acidophilus is part of the vaginal microbiota along with other species in the genus including Lactobacillus ... of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei used as probiotic agent in vivo Pictures and research on Lactobacillus ...
... is a species of bacteria that falls within the Lactobacillus genus. Species within this genus are typically ... bulgaricus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. indicus, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii. Scientists were also able to determine ... Lactobacillus porci was first discovered in Korea from a pig's small intestine. Scientists used phenotypic and phylogenetic ... Kim, Ji-Sun; Choe, Hanna; Kim, Kyung Mo; Lee, Yu-Ri; Rhee, Moon-Soo; Park, Doo-Sang (26 April 2019). "Lactobacillus porci sp. ...
... is a lactic-acid producing, rod-shaped bacterium of the genus Lactobacillus. It is most commonly used ... Lactobacillus helveticus Type strain of Lactobacillus helveticus at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase (Articles ... Taverniti, Valentina; Guglielmetti, Simone (2012-11-19). "Health-Promoting Properties of Lactobacillus helveticus". Frontiers ... "Effect of powdered fermented milk with Lactobacillus helveticus on subjects with high-normal blood pressure or mild ...
... and other Lactobacillus species that produce hydrogen peroxide, (most notably L. crispatus), have been ... "Behavioral Predictors of Colonization with Lactobacillus crispatus or Lactobacillus jensenii after Treatment for Bacterial ... Lactobacillus jensenii is a normal inhabitant of the lower reproductive tract in healthy women. L. jensenii makes up 23% of ... Bloodstream infection by Lactobacilli is rare but often fatal, with 30% of endocarditis cases caused by the genus resulting in ...
... is a species in the genus Lactobacillus. It is a Gram-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic ... "Lactobacillus iners" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Lactobacillus iners at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... "Genomic Comparisons of Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus iners Reveal Potential Ecological Drivers of Community ... "Phenotypic and phylogenetic characterization of a novel Lactobacillus species from human sources: description of Lactobacillus ...
"Lactobacillus thermophilus" is a gram-positive, non-motile, non-sporulating rod-shaped bacterium. It belongs to the genus ... Lactobacillus thermophilus' has never been validly published. The sequence entry M58832 derives from ATCC 8317, and exhibits ... "Taxonomy Browser (Lactobacillus sp. "thermophilus")". NCBI Taxonomy. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. ... Charlton, David B. (1932-09-01). "Studies on Lactobacillus thermophilus". Journal of Dairy Science. 15 (5): 393-399. doi: ...
Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Lactobacillus johnsonii ... with recognition of Lactobacillus gallinarum sp. nov. and Lactobacillus johnsonii sp. nov. and synonymy of Lactobacillus ... with recognition of Lactobacillus gallinarum sp. nov. and Lactobacillus johnsonii sp. nov. and synonymy of Lactobacillus ... Lactobacillus gallinarum is a species in the genus Lactobacillus. Its type strain is ATCC 33199. L. gallinarum is a native ...
"Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens at BacDive - the ... "Lactobacillus kefirgranum sp. nov. and Lactobacillus parakefir sp. nov., Two New Species from Kefir Grains". International ... Chen, Y.P.; Hsiao, P.J.; Hong, W.S.; Dai, T.Y.; Chen, M.J. (2012). "Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 isolated from milk kefir ... Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens is a species of slime-forming, homofermentative, rod-shaped lactic acid bacteria first isolated ...
... is a bacterium created by the German chemical company BASF. This bacterium has been added to ...
... differs from the rest of the L. bulgaricus strains because it was isolated from the leaves of ... The study "Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus B-30892 can inhibit cytotoxic effects and adhesion of pathogenic ... Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is a bacterial subspecies traditionally isolated from European yogurts. ... Antonio MA, Hawes SE, Hillier SL (December 1999). "The identification of vaginal Lactobacillus species and the demographic and ...
The emrB-Lactobacillus RNA motif is a conserved RNA structure that was discovered by bioinformatics.emrB-Lactobacillus motifs ... First, emrB-Lactobacillus RNAs are also located nearby to their upstream genes. Regulation of an upstream gene is unusual in ... emrB-Lactobacillus RNAs are generally located in the 5′ untranslated regions of genes that encode EmrB, a kind of transporter. ... Second, some emrB-Lactobacillus RNAs are located nearby to transposase genes. The presence of these genes could suggest that ...
... is a subspecies of Lactobacillus delbrueckii that is generally used to measure the ... "The microbiological assay of vitamin B12 with Lactobacillus leichmannii". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 181 (2): 635-644. ...
Lactobacillus bulgaricus is one of over 200 published species in the Lactobacillus genome complex (LGC)[not verified in body] ... Type strain of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase "Lactobacillus ... Voting for the National Microbe took place in these stations and the children have selected the Lactobacillus (Lactobacillus ... Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus has adapted to defend against cold stress. The way most cells react to the cold is ...
Lactobacillus spp. convert tryptophan to indole-3-aldehyde (I3A) through unidentified enzymes [125]. Clostridium sporogenes ...
Lactobacillus is the most researched single strain of probiotic bacteria. It is sold to consumers for gut health either as a ... Dempsey E, Corr SC (2022). "Lactobacillus spp. for Gastrointestinal Health: Current and Future Perspectives". Frontiers in ... Lactobacillus, and Prevotella, and an increase in Bacteroidetes and Clostridium. Sustained periods of dysbiosis lead to ... "G-CSF-mediated inhibition of JNK is a key mechanism for Lactobacillus rhamnosus-induced suppression of TNF production in ...
Some experts suggest that miso is a source of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Miso is relatively high in salt which could contribute ... Ehrlich, Steven D. (2011-05-24). "Lactobacillus acidophilus". University of Maryland Medical Center (UMMC). Retrieved 2013-11- ...
"Lactobacillus spp. attenuate antibiotic-induced immune and microbiota dysregulation in honey bees". Communications Biology. 3 ( ...
Lactobacillus spp., Bacteroides spp. and the fungi Candida spp. are all capable of such a high level of phenotypic plasticity. ...
Lactobacillus spp., Methanobacterium spp., Brevundimonas bullata, Paracoccus spp. and Luteimonas aestuarri have also been ...
Lactobacillus spp. convert tryptophan to indole-3-aldehyde (I3A) through unidentified enzymes [125]. Clostridium sporogenes ...
"Lactobacillus Plantarum 299v". Probi AB. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-07-19. "ProViva Frågor och ... "Documentation of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v". Probi AB. 2004. Archived from the original (DOC) on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007- ... "Lactobacillus acidophilus". University of Maryland Medical Center. 2002-04-01. Archived from the original on 2007-08-26. ... "Lactobacillus acidophilus". University of Maryland Medical Center. 2002-04-01. Archived from the original on 2007-08-26. ...
Lactobacillus spp. convert tryptophan to indole-3-aldehyde (I3A) through unidentified enzymes [125]. Clostridium sporogenes ...
Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. Recent studies have explored mode of action of proteobiotics and their potential ... Lactobacillus acidophilus-derived proteobiotics down-regulate virulence genes in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, ... Yun, B.; Oh, S.; Griffiths, M.W. (2014). "Lactobacillus acidophilus modulates the virulence of Clostridium difficile". Journal ... Medellin-Peña, Maira J.; Griffiths, Mansel W. (2009-02-15). "Effect of Molecules Secreted by Lactobacillus acidophilus Strain ...
2014 "Lactobacillus backi" Bohak et al. 2006 Lactobacillus bombicola Praet et al. 2015 Lactobacillus colini Zhang et al. 2017 ... 2018 Lactobacillus pasteurii Cousin et al. 2013 Lactobacillus porci Kim et al. 2018 Lactobacillus psittaci Lawson et al. 2001 " ... Data related to Lactobacillus at Wikispecies Lactobacillus at Milk the Funk Wiki Lactobacillus at BacDive - the Bacterial ... 2010 Lactobacillus fornicalis Dicks et al. 2000 Lactobacillus gallinarum Fujisawa et al. 1992 Lactobacillus gasseri Lauer and ...
... with recognition of Lactobacillus gallinarum sp. nov. and Lactobacillus johnsonii sp. nov. and synonymy of Lactobacillus ... Murina F, Graziottin A, Vicariotto F, De Seta F. Can Lactobacillus fermentum LF10 and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA02 in a slow- ... Preston K, Krumian R, Hattner J, de Montigny D, Stewart M, Gaddam S. Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei ... A Taxonomic Note on the Genus Lactobacillus: Description of 23 Novel Genera, Emended Description of the Genus Lactobacillus ...
Supplements of the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum JDFM216 may boost cognitive performance and balance ability - for mice at ...
hypothetical protein lb338_phage_195 [Lactobacillus phage Lb338-1] hypothetical protein lb338_phage_195 [Lactobacillus phage ... Genome of a virulent bacteriophage Lb338-1 that lyses the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei cheese strain. [Gene. 2009] Genome ... hypothetical protein lb338_phage_195 [Lactobacillus phage Lb338-1]. NCBI Reference Sequence: YP_002790874.1 ... of a virulent bacteriophage Lb338-1 that lyses the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei cheese strain.. Alemayehu D, Ross RP, ...
... J Appl Microbiol. 1998 May;84(5): ... The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the isolate was phylogenetically a member of the genus Lactobacillus and ...
Find patient medical information for Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG oral on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, ... Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG Capsule, Sprinkle - Uses, Side Effects, and More Generic Name(S): lactobacillus rhamnosus gg. ... How to use Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG Capsule, Sprinkle. Follow all directions on the product package. Refer to the label ... Does Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG Capsule, Sprinkle interact with other drugs you are taking? ...
Crystal structure of putative methyltransferase from Lactobacillus brevis ... Crystal structure of putative methyltransferase from Lactobacillus brevis. Chang, C., Xu, X., Cui, H., Savchenko, A., Edwards, ... Crystal structure of putative methyltransferase from Lactobacillus brevis. *PDB DOI: https://doi.org/10.2210/pdb3KWP/pdb ...
Lactobacillus lindneri HybriScan™I,FastScan Lactobacillus brevis; find Millipore-86827 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, ... Lactobacilli Basics, Testing & Identification. Information about lactobacilli, rod-shaped, Gram-positive, fermentative, ... We also offer an rRNA-based molecular biology method to detect Lactobacillus. ... I Lactobacillus lindneri suitable for microbiology; Synonyms: ... The lactobacillus organtroph belongs to the lactic acid ...
Learn about Lactobacillus sakei at online-medical-dictionary.org ... Lactobacillus sakei. A species of Lactobacillus that occurs in ...
Lactobacillus reuteri is used as probiotic culture in food and feed applications; however, strain specific properties of L. ... Lactobacillus reuteri is used as probiotic culture in food and feed applications; however, strain specific properties of L. ... Survival and persistence of Lactobacillus plantarum 4.1 and Lactobacillus reuteri 3S7 in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. ... After weaning, Lactobacillus and Prevotella spp. replaced Ruminococcaceae and Bacteroides as the most abundant bacterial genera ...
Based on previous observations, we hypothesized that the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum interacts with cranberry polyphenols ... The growth of lactobacilli on glucose, HMO, and XG are reported in Figure S2. Accordingly, Lactobacillus johnsonii ATCC 33200 ... A taxonomic note on the genus Lactobacillus: Description of 23 novel genera, emended description of the genus Lactobacillus ... This article belongs to the Special Issue An Update on Lactobacillus). Download keyboard_arrow_down Download PDF Download PDF ...
"Lactobacillus gasseri causing Fourniers gangrene." Scand J Infect Dis, vol. 36, no. 6-7, 2004, pp. 501-03. Pubmed, doi:10.1080 ... Tleyjeh, I. M., Routh, J., Qutub, M. O., Lischer, G., Liang, K. V., & Baddour, L. M. (2004). Lactobacillus gasseri causing ... Lactobacillus gasseri causing Fourniers gangrene. Scand J Infect Dis. 2004;36(6-7):501-3. ... Lactobacillus gasseri causing Fourniers gangrene. Scand J Infect Dis. 2004;36(6-7):501-503. ...
There is evidence that probiotic lactobacilli, in addition to essential vitamins, such as vitamin A and D, have ... In ovo co-administration of vitamins (A and D) and probiotic lactobacilli modulates immune responses in broiler chickens * ... RA (90 µmol/egg) and VitD (0.6 μg/egg) were administered in ovo, either alone or in combination with lactobacilli (107 CFU/egg ... ABSTRACT: There is evidence that probiotic lactobacilli, in addition to essential vitamins, such as vitamin A and D, have ...
Enhance bird health and productivity with Asahi Groups patent for Lactobacillus plantarum cells to combat enteritis and ... Asahi Group files patent for agent or composition with lactobacillus plantarum for bird health. Brought to you by ... According to GlobalDatas company profile on Asahi Group, Lactobacilli-based drug compositions was a key innovation area ... has filed a patent for an agent or composition containing Lactobacillus plantarum cells to prevent enteritis, suppress ...
Bacteria of Lactobacillus sp. are very useful to humans. However, the biology and genomic diversity of their (bacterio)phage ... Knowledge on Lactobacillus phage diversity should broaden to develop efficient phage control strategies. To this end, organic ... Isolation and characterisation of novel phages infecting Lactobacillus plantarum and proposal of a new genus, "Silenusvirus". ... Isolation and characterisation of novel phages infecting Lactobacillus plantarum and proposal of a new genus, "Silenusvirus" ...
TITLE: Cocoa Powder as Delivery Medium for Probiotic Lactobacillus Strains AUTHORS: Giovanni Ricci, Francesca Borgo, Chiara ... ABSTRACT: Three Lactobacillus strains previously isolated from artisanal Italian cheeses and identified by species-specific PCR ... M. G. Fortina, G. Ricci, D. Mora, C. Parini and P. L. Manachini, "Specific Identification of Lactobacillus helveticus by PCR ... Finally, we showed that cocoa powder represents a good delivery medium for lactobacilli: it could be considered a novel ...
Identification of Lactobacillus spp. from broiler litter in Brazil Identificação de Lactobacillus spp. de cama de frango no ... Ten different Lactobacillus species were identified: L. plantarum, L.casei subsp. pesudoplantarum, L. delbrueckii subsp. ... Foram isoladas dez espécies diferentes de Lactobacillus: L. plantarum, L. casei subsp. pseudoplantarum, L. delbrueckii subsp. ... Isolation of Lactobacillus species was carried out as follows: 5g of each sample broiler litter were added to 50 ml of MRS ...
Supplementation with the - commercially available - beneficial bacteria Lactobacillus reuteri ... beneficial bacteria Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 6475 boosts testosterone synthesis and sperm production. Medical scientists at ... Researchers came across Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 6475 once upon a time in the breast milk of a Finnish woman. The bacteria ... Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 6475 also boosted the production of sperm cells. In addition, it prevented the animals testes from ...
Isolation of Probiotic Lactobacillus Species with Gelatin Binding Property from Curd and Analysis of its Probiotic Attributes. ... HomeProjectsIsolation of Probiotic Lactobacillus Species with Gelatin Binding Property from Curd and Analysis of its Probiotic ... So we isolated a gelatin (denatured collagen) binding Lactobacillus species from local curd for analyzing its probiotic ... conditioned media of the isolated Lactobacillus inhibited Chromobacterviolaceum growth, whereas the same when diluted inhibit ...
SUMMARY The infectivity of Lactobacillus lactis bacteriophage LL-H was shown to be calcium-dependent. Of 10 different divalent ... Effect of Cadmium on the Infection of Lactobacillus lactis by Bacteriophage LL-H * T. Alatossava1, T. Juvonen2 and R.-L. ... Alatossava T., Pyhtila M. J. 1980; Characterization of a new Lactobacillus lactis bacteriophage. IRCS Medical Science 8:297-298 ... Watanabe K., Takesue S. 1972; The requirement for calcium in infection with Lactobacillus phage. Journal of General Virology 17 ...
Lactobacillus Rhamnosus, after being extensively researched, is starting to gain high recognition for its systemic immune ... Lactobacillus rhamnosus 20 billion CFU. Other Ingredients: Vegetarian capsule (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, water), InTactic ...
Synbiotic (Lactobacillus Pentosus GSSK2 And Isomalto-Oligosaccharides) Supplementation Modulates Pathophysiology And Gut ... elevated population of Lactobacillus spp., Akkermansia spp., Faecalibacterium spp., Roseburia spp. and decreased ...
Bacteriocin-like Substance Produced by Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius CRL1384 with Anti-Listeria and Anti- ... Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius CRL1384 was isolated from the crop of a broiler chick and it was selected because of ... Bacteriocin-like Substance Produced by Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius CRL1384 with Anti-Listeria and Anti- ... Bacteriocin-like Substance Produced by Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius CRL1384 with Anti-Listeria and Anti- ...
Redox balance in Lactobacillus reuteri DSM20016 : Roles of iron-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases in glucose/glycerol metabolism ... In this study, diversity of alcohol dehydrogenases in Lactobacillus species was investigated with a focus on L. reuteri. Nine ... In this study, diversity of alcohol dehydrogenases in Lactobacillus species was investigated with a focus on L. reuteri. Nine ... Lactobacillus reuteri, a heterofermentative bacterium, metabolizes glycerol via a Pdu (propanediol-utilization) pathway ...
The aim of this work was to study the effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus casei and yogurt on prevention of P. ... Effect of Lactobacillus casei and yogurt administration on prevention of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in young mice. . ... Alvarez, Gladis Susana; Herrero, Claudia; Bru Chauve, Elena Magdalena; Perdigon, Gabriela del Valle; Effect of Lactobacillus ...
Effect Of Alcohol Consumption On Rodent Periodontal Health And Improvement By The Probiotic Lactobacillus Reuteri. Almohareb, ... on periodontal health and to investigate the potential of the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) to counteract the ...
LACTOBACILLUS, LACTOBACILLUS SAKEI, MEAT PRODUCTS, NUCLEIC ACIDS, PCR, RAPD, TYPING, Hygiene and toxicology, Microbiological ... Hyytia-Trees E, Lyhs U, Korkeala H, Bjorkroth J. Characterisation of ropy slime-producing Lactobacillus sakei using repetitive ... Hyytia-Trees, E, Lyhs, U, Korkeala, H & Bjorkroth, J 1999, Characterisation of ropy slime-producing Lactobacillus sakei using ... Eighteen previously characterised Lactobacillus sakei strains exhibiting varying slime production capabilities in vacuum- ...
Lactobacillus acidophilus is one of the most widely known probiotic strains, and theres a reason why. Keep reading to learn ... Health Benefits of Lactobacillus Acidophilus. L. acidophilus can be taken as a probiotic supplement for a direct supply to your ... What is Lactobacillus Acidophilus?. The most important thing to understand about L. acidophilus is that it occurs naturally in ... Lactobacillus acidophilus is a cornerstone of a healthy gut. Many foods and supplements can help you maintain a balanced gut, ...
Lactobacillus plantarum modulate gut microbiota and intestinal immunity in cyclophosphamide-treated mice model. * Mendeley ... To investigate the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum on an immunosuppressed mouse model, we employed cyclophosphamide treatment ... However, our understanding regarding intricate relationship between Lactobacillus plantarum and GM on regulation of immune ... Our results demonstrated that the administration of Lactobacillus plantarum had significant immunoenhancing effects in the ...
Apricots, Lactobacillus, and Hops As fun as it is to talk about being inspired by astrophysics, architecture, travel, and art ( ... OYL-605 Omega Lactobacillus Blend. ECY34 East Coast Yeast Dirty Dozen. Water Profile. ----------------. Profile: Washington, ... Correct, it goes in right before to Lactobacillus (I wouldnt want to disrupt the enzymes in the mash by lowering the pH that ... I opted for 100% Lactobacillus followed by a big pitch of Brettanomyces. The acidity came form a package of Omegas Lacto Blend ...
  • Aerotolerance of lactobacilli is manganese-dependent and has been explored (and explained) in Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (previously Lactobacillus plantarum). (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on previous observations, we hypothesized that the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum interacts with cranberry polyphenols and dietary oligosaccharides to synergistically impact its physiology. (mdpi.com)
  • has filed a patent for an agent or composition containing Lactobacillus plantarum cells to prevent enteritis, suppress inflammation, improve feed efficiency, and combat enteric viruses in birds. (just-drinks.com)
  • The patent application (Publication Number: US20230398159A1) discloses an agent or composition containing viable or dead cells of a specific Lactobacillus plantarum strain (International Accession No. NITE BP-03418) as an active ingredient. (just-drinks.com)
  • To this end, organic waste samples were screened for phages against two wine-related Lactobacillus plantarum strains. (biorxiv.org)
  • Ten different Lactobacillus species were identified: L. plantarum, L.casei subsp. (scielo.br)
  • Foram isoladas dez espécies diferentes de Lactobacillus: L. plantarum, L. casei subsp. (scielo.br)
  • O Lactobacillus plantarum é eficaz na prevenção de sintomas gastrointestinais em crianças que tomam antibióticos? (bvs.br)
  • Effect of Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum on Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans Clinical Isolates from Children with Early Childhood Caries. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this study, three probiotic Lactobacilli strains ( Lactobacillus plantarum 8014, L. plantarum 14917, and Lactobacillus salivarius 11741) were tested on S. mutans and C. albicans clinical isolates using a multispecies biofilm model simulating clinical cariogenic conditions. (bvsalud.org)
  • ABSTRACT: Three Lactobacillus strains previously isolated from artisanal Italian cheeses and identified by species-specific PCR as L. helveticus, L. paracasei and L. rhamnosus, were evaluated for the presence of functional traits, such as acidifying activity, cell surface hydrophobicity, antibiotic resistance, survival in low pH and in presence of bile salts, in comparison with two commercially available probiotic strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and L. rhamnosus GG). (scirp.org)
  • Lactobacillus Rhamnosus, after being extensively researched, is starting to gain high recognition for its systemic immune enhancing abilities which help to boost the intestinal immunity to help fight off unwanted bacteria strains. (blueskyvitamin.com)
  • Eighteen previously characterised Lactobacillus sakei strains exhibiting varying slime production capabilities in vacuum-packaged meat products were analysed using repetitive element sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR). (dtu.dk)
  • Trenkwalder, who was not involved in the study, noted that Lactobacillus strains "are established in Parkinson's disease constipation treatment, with randomized controlled trials showing a significant improvement in constipation. (medscape.com)
  • Supplementation with the - commercially available - beneficial bacteria Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 6475 boosts testosterone synthesis and sperm production. (ironmagazine.com)
  • Researchers came across Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 6475 once upon a time in the breast milk of a Finnish woman. (ironmagazine.com)
  • When he also gave the mice Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 6475, the mice stayed strong. (ironmagazine.com)
  • Poutahidis believes that giving Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 6475 reduces the chance of overweight because it boosts the production of anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 by immune cells, and reduces the synthesis of pro-inflammatory signal proteins such as interleukin-6 and interleukin-17. (ironmagazine.com)
  • Half of the rats in each group were given Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 6475 in their food. (ironmagazine.com)
  • This was not only because Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 6475 made the testes larger, but also because the probiotic increased the number of testosterone producing Leydig cells. (ironmagazine.com)
  • Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 6475 also boosted the production of sperm cells. (ironmagazine.com)
  • They suspect that Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 6475 boosts the testosterone level via the deactivation of that signal protein. (ironmagazine.com)
  • Ultimately, dietary Lactobacillus reuteri or other probiotic supplementation may provide an alternative natural approach to prevention of male hypogonadism, absent the controversy and side-effect risks of testosterone replacement therapy. (ironmagazine.com)
  • Lactobacillus reuteri, a heterofermentative bacterium, metabolizes glycerol via a Pdu (propanediol-utilization) pathway involving dehydration to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) followed by reduction to 1,3-propandiol (1,3-PDO) with concomitant generation of an oxidized cofactor, NAD+ that is utilized to maintain cofactor balance required for glucose metabolism and even for oxidation of 3-HPA by a Pdu oxidative branch to 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP). (lu.se)
  • In this study, diversity of alcohol dehydrogenases in Lactobacillus species was investigated with a focus on L. reuteri. (lu.se)
  • Effect Of Alcohol Consumption On Rodent Periodontal Health And Improvement By The Probiotic Lactobacillus Reuteri. (tufts.edu)
  • Abstract: Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic alcohol consumption, in high and low doses, on periodontal health and to investigate the potential of the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) to counteract the deleterious effect of alcohol on periodontal health. (tufts.edu)
  • The aim of this work was to study the effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus casei and yogurt on prevention of P. aeruginosa lung infection in young mice (3 weeks old). (conicet.gov.ar)
  • Abacateiro), and the peel of the fruits of Citrus limon L. (Limoeiro) and Sicana odorífera L. (Cruá) against Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 7469). (bvsalud.org)
  • Lactobacillus is a genus of gram-positive, aerotolerant anaerobes or microaerophilic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) is a type of probiotic ("good" bacteria) found in the human gut, mouth, and vagina, and also in certain foods. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Probiotics contain different types of micro-organisms such as yeast (saccharomyces boulardii) and bacteria (such as lactobacillus, bifidobacterium). (webmd.com)
  • Bacteria of Lactobacillus sp. (biorxiv.org)
  • These bacteria can colonize the small intestine of chicks, being ileum the segment with greater Lactobacillus diversity (5). (scielo.br)
  • The best place to start in understanding gut-friendly bacteria is with Lactobacillus acidophilus (also known as L. acidophilus ). (physicianschoice.com)
  • 1986 Lactobacillus acidophilus (Moro 1900) Hansen and Mocquot 1970 (Approved Lists 1980) "Lactobacillus alvi" Kim et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is extremely rare, but people with damaged heart valves should stop taking probiotics like Lactobacillus acidophilus before dental procedures or surgical procedures. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What is Lactobacillus Acidophilus? (physicianschoice.com)
  • Lactobacillus species constitute a significant component of the human and animal microbiota at a number of body sites, such as the digestive system, and the female genital system. (wikipedia.org)
  • In women of European ancestry, Lactobacillus species are normally a major part of the vaginal microbiota. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most lactobacilli are aerotolerant and some species respire if heme and menaquinone are present in the growth medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lactobacillus species are all homofermentative, do not express pyruvate formate lyase, and most species do not ferment pentoses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus Lactobacillus comprises the following species: Lactobacillus acetotolerans Entani et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • A species of Lactobacillus that occurs in fermented meat and fish. (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • Lactobacillus species are a bacterial group with morphologic, metabolic and physiologic common characteristics. (scielo.br)
  • AL1, Salinicoccus carnicancri and Lactobacillus crispatus were the most abundant bacterial species in personal exposure samples of inhalable dust. (cdc.gov)
  • Settled dust had a moderate relative abundance of these species as well as Staphylococcus lentus and Lactobacillus salivarius. (cdc.gov)
  • Normally in women of reproductive age, Lactobacillus species is the predominant constituent of normal vaginal flora. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Bacteriocin-like Substance Produced by Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. (scialert.net)
  • Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. (scialert.net)
  • a taxonomic revision of the genus assigned lactobacilli to 25 genera (see § Taxonomy below). (wikipedia.org)
  • Also note that the Lactobacillus genus was split up into 25 different genera in April 2020. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Three weeks after weaning, Prevotella and Lactobacillus were among the dominant bacterial genera. (frontiersin.org)
  • ABSTRACT: There is evidence that probiotic lactobacilli, in addition to essential vitamins, such as vitamin A and D, have immunomodulatory properties that enhance immune response of neonatal chickens against infections. (doaj.org)
  • The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the isolate was phylogenetically a member of the genus Lactobacillus and formed a distinct subline within the Lact. (nih.gov)
  • Knowledge on Lactobacillus phage diversity should broaden to develop efficient phage control strategies. (biorxiv.org)
  • The requirement for calcium in infection with Lactobacillus phage. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • 1992 Lactobacillus gasseri Lauer and Kandler 1980 Lactobacillus gigeriorum Cousin et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scholars@Duke publication: Lactobacillus gasseri causing Fournier's gangrene. (duke.edu)
  • We report the first case of Fournier's gangrene caused by a low-virulence organism, Lactobacillus gasseri. (duke.edu)
  • 2017 Lactobacillus crispatus (Brygoo and Aladame 1953) Moore and Holdeman 1970 (Approved Lists 1980) Lactobacillus delbrueckii (Leichmann 1896) Beijerinck 1901 (Approved Lists 1980) Lactobacillus equicursoris Morita et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2014 Lactobacillus helveticus (Orla-Jensen 1919) Bergey et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lactobacillus colonizes avian enteric tract since the first day of life. (scielo.br)
  • To determine the effectiveness of Lactobacillus rhamnosusGG (LGG), as an adjunct with intravenous ceftriaxone, compared with a placebo in defervescence and toxemia resolution in children with enteric fever. (who.int)
  • 1925 (Approved Lists 1980) Lactobacillus hominis Cousin et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1970 (Approved Lists 1980) "Lactobacillus jinshani" Yu et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lactobacillus forms biofilms in the vaginal and gut microbiota, allowing them to persist during harsh environmental conditions and maintain ample populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lactobacilli are among the most common probiotic found in food such as yogurt, and it is diverse in its application to maintain human well-being, as it can help treat diarrhea, vaginal infections, and skin disorders such as eczema. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome of a virulent bacteriophage Lb338-1 that lyses the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei cheese strain. (nih.gov)
  • The infectivity of Lactobacillus lactis bacteriophage LL-H was shown to be calcium-dependent. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Characterization of a new Lactobacillus lactis bacteriophage. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Lactobacillus exhibits a mutualistic relationship with the human body, as it protects the host against potential invasions by pathogens, and in turn, the host provides a source of nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1999 Lactobacillus intestinalis (ex Hemme 1974) Fujisawa et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Supplements of the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum JDFM216 may boost cognitive performance and balance ability - for mice at least - says a new study from Korea. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Identification of Lactobacillus spp. (scielo.br)
  • from broiler litter in Brazil Identification of Lactobacillus spp. (scielo.br)
  • A recent study has revealed that plasmids encode the genes which are required for adaptation of lactobacilli to the given environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present study evaluated the effects of in ovo administration of retinoic acid (RA), 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 (VitD), and a lactobacilli cocktail on cytokine gene expression, antibody responses and spleen cell subsets in chickens. (doaj.org)
  • According to GlobalData's company profile on Asahi Group , Lactobacilli-based drug compositions was a key innovation area identified from patents. (just-drinks.com)
  • Lactobacilli are homofermentative, i.e. hexoses are metabolised by glycolysis to lactate as major end product, or heterofermentative, i.e. hexoses are metabolised by the Phosphoketolase pathway to lactate, CO2 and acetate or ethanol as major end products. (wikipedia.org)