Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Acidosis, Lactic: Acidosis caused by accumulation of lactic acid more rapidly than it can be metabolized. It may occur spontaneously or in association with diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS; LEUKEMIA; or LIVER FAILURE.Acidosis, Respiratory: Respiratory retention of carbon dioxide. It may be chronic or acute.Acidosis, Renal Tubular: A group of genetic disorders of the KIDNEY TUBULES characterized by the accumulation of metabolically produced acids with elevated plasma chloride, hyperchloremic metabolic ACIDOSIS. Defective renal acidification of URINE (proximal tubules) or low renal acid excretion (distal tubules) can lead to complications such as HYPOKALEMIA, hypercalcinuria with NEPHROLITHIASIS and NEPHROCALCINOSIS, and RICKETS.Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.Lactobacillaceae: A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.Lactobacillales: An order of gram-positive bacteria in the class Bacilli, that have the ability to ferment sugars to lactic acid. They are widespread in nature and commonly used to produce fermented foods.Leuconostoc: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. It is nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.Pediococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. No endospores are produced. Its organisms are found in fermenting plant products and are nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Lactobacillus plantarum: A species of rod-shaped, LACTIC ACID bacteria used in PROBIOTICS and SILAGE production.Lactococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria mainly isolated from milk and milk products. These bacteria are also found in plants and nonsterile frozen and dry foods. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS (group N), it is now recognized as a separate genus.Lactococcus lactis: A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Lactobacillus acidophilus: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.Sodium Bicarbonate: A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.Lactobacillus delbrueckii: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic bacteria. capable of producing LACTIC ACID. It is important in the manufacture of fermented dairy products.Lactobacillus brevis: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria that is frequently used as starter culture in SILAGE fermentation, sourdough, and lactic-acid-fermented types of beer and wine.Streptococcus thermophilus: A species of thermophilic, gram-positive bacteria found in MILK and milk products.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Alkalosis: A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.Lactobacillus casei: A rod-shaped bacterium isolated from milk and cheese, dairy products and dairy environments, sour dough, cow dung, silage, and human mouth, human intestinal contents and stools, and the human vagina.Bifidobacterium: A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.Streptococcaceae: A family of gram-positive non-sporing bacteria including many parasitic, pathogenic, and saprophytic forms.Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cheese: A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Alkalosis, Respiratory: A state due to excess loss of carbon dioxide from the body. (Dorland, 27th ed)Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)MELAS Syndrome: A mitochondrial disorder characterized by focal or generalized seizures, episodes of transient or persistent neurologic dysfunction resembling strokes, and ragged-red fibers on muscle biopsy. Affected individuals tend to be normal at birth through early childhood, then experience growth failure, episodic vomiting, and recurrent cerebral insults resulting in visual loss and hemiparesis. The cortical lesions tend to occur in the parietal and occipital lobes and are not associated with vascular occlusion. VASCULAR HEADACHE is frequently associated and the disorder tends to be familial. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch56, p117)Lactobacillus fermentum: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria associated with DENTAL CARIES.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Hydrochloric Acid: A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Cultured Milk Products: Milk modified with controlled FERMENTATION. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KAFFIR CORN.Acid-Base Imbalance: Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Phenformin: A biguanide hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of METFORMIN. Although it is generally considered to be associated with an unacceptably high incidence of lactic acidosis, often fatal, it is still available in some countries. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Hypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Weissella: A genus of gram-positive, asporogenous, lactic acid bacteria, in the family LEUCONOSTOCACEAE.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Food Preservatives: Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.Lactate Dehydrogenases: Alcohol oxidoreductases with substrate specificity for LACTIC ACID.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Oenococcus: A genus of GRAM-POSITIVE COCCI in the family LEUCONOSTOCACEAE. It is the primary bacteria involved in carrying out malolactic conversion in winemaking.Gram-Positive Asporogenous Rods: A gram-positive, non-spore-forming group of bacteria comprising organisms that have morphological and physiological characteristics in common.Sodium Acetate: The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters: A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Meat Products: Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Nisin: A 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis. It has been used as a food preservative in canned fruits and vegetables, and cheese.Lactobacillus reuteri: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria found naturally in the human intestinal flora and BREAST MILK.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Silage: Fodder converted into succulent feed for livestock through processes of anaerobic fermentation (as in a silo).Gram-Positive Cocci: Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Yogurt: A slightly acid milk food produced by fermentation due to the combined action of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus.Acid Sensing Ion Channels: A family of proton-gated sodium channels that are primarily expressed in neuronal tissue. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and are implicated in the signaling of a variety of neurological stimuli, most notably that of pain in response to acidic conditions.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Sodium Lactate: The sodium salt of racemic or inactive lactic acid. It is a hygroscopic agent used intravenously as a systemic and urinary alkalizer.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Waste Products: Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Potassium Citrate: A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter: A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.Cacao: A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)PyruvatesMalatesTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sodium-Bicarbonate Symporters: Proteins that cotransport sodium ions and bicarbonate ions across cellular membranes.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Gastrointestinal Contents: The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Lactobacillus helveticus: A species of gram-positive bacteria isolated from MILK and cheese-starter cultures.Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.Propionibacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose cells occur singly, in pairs or short chains, in V or Y configurations, or in clumps resembling letters of the Chinese alphabet. Its organisms are found in cheese and dairy products as well as on human skin and can occasionally cause soft tissue infections.Acetobacter: A species of gram-negative bacteria of the family ACETOBACTERACEAE found in FLOWERS and FRUIT. Cells are ellipsoidal to rod-shaped and straight or slightly curved.Reticulum: The second stomach of ruminants. It lies almost in the midline in the front of the abdomen, in contact with the liver and diaphragm and communicates freely with the RUMEN via the ruminoreticular orifice. The lining of the reticulum is raised into folds forming a honeycomb pattern over the surface. (From Concise Veterinary Dictionary, 1988)Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Refrigeration: The mechanical process of cooling.Hypokalemia: Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)Flour: Ground up seed of WHEAT.Food Storage: Keeping food for later consumption.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Formates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Carbonic Anhydrases: A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Hyperkalemia: Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Fanconi Syndrome: A hereditary or acquired form of generalized dysfunction of the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE without primary involvement of the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS. It is usually characterized by the tubular wasting of nutrients and salts (GLUCOSE; AMINO ACIDS; PHOSPHATES; and BICARBONATES) resulting in HYPOKALEMIA; ACIDOSIS; HYPERCALCIURIA; and PROTEINURIA.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Propionates: Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.RNA, Transfer, Leu: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying leucine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.ButanonesIntestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Biodegradable Plastics: Organic polymeric materials which can be broken down by naturally occurring processes. This includes plastics created from bio-based or petrochemical-based materials.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)GlutaminaseBiotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Streptococcus bovis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly found in the alimentary tract of cows, sheep, and other ruminants. It occasionally is encountered in cases of human endocarditis. This species is nonhemolytic.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.CitratesFeminine Hygiene Products: Personal care items for women.Lactobacillus rhamnosus: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria used in PROBIOTICS.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Intracellular Fluid: The fluid inside CELLS.Humulus: A plant genus in the CANNABACEAE family. Best known for the buds of Humulus lupulus L. used in BEER.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Dichloroacetic Acid: A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains two CHLORINE atoms attached to its methyl group.Rhizopus: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, a common saprophyte and facultative parasite of mature fruits and vegetables. It may cause cerebral mycoses in diabetes and cutaneous infection in severely burned patients.Condiments: Aromatic substances added to food before or after cooking to enhance its flavor. These are usually of vegetable origin.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Lactic acid and uric acid levels may be normal. However, lactic acidosis may occur during fasting. Phosphorylase kinase ...
It was once believed that lactic acid build-up was the cause of muscle fatigue. The assumption was lactic acid had a "pickling ... R. Robergs; F. Ghiasvand; D. Parker (2004). "Biochemistry of exercise-induced metabolic acidosis". Am J Physiol Regul Integr ... producing lactic acid as a metabolic byproduct. Contrary to common belief, lactic acid accumulation doesn't actually cause the ... The impact of lactic acid on performance is now uncertain, it may assist or hinder muscle fatigue. Produced as a by-product of ...
The lactic acid produced is buffered by minerals in the shell, preventing acidosis. Red-eared sliders kept captive indoors ...
Glucose is then oxidized to pyruvate and under anaerobic condition is reduced to lactic acid. This reaction oxidizes NADH to ... NAD, thereby releasing a hydrogen ion, promoting acidosis. For this reason, fast glycolysis can not be sustained for long ... By oxidizing fatty acids, this spares glucose utilization and helps to maintain blood sugar level during exercise. Exercise for ... For instance, both epinephrine and growth hormone also stimulate adipocyte lipase, which increases non-esterified fatty acid ( ...
... producing lactic acid. This pathway is not inhibited by acidosis as happens with glycolysis of glucose. As of 2017 it was not ... As a result, the naked mole-rats feel no pain, even when they are exposed to acid or capsaicin. When they are injected with ... which would cause acid to build up in their body tissues. Naked mole-rats' substance P deficiency has also been tied to their ... allowing otherwise indigestible cellulose to be turned into volatile fatty acids. Naked mole-rats sometimes also eat their own ...
Characteristic features include developmental delay and a buildup of lactic acid in the blood (lactic acidosis). Increased ... Pyruvate carboxylase deficiency is an inherited disorder that causes lactic acid and to accumulate in the blood. High levels of ... Additionally, a loss of pyruvate carboxylase allows potentially toxic compounds such as lactic acid and ammonia to build up and ... In some cases, episodes of lactic acidosis are triggered by an illness or periods without food. Children with pyruvate ...
Due to the lack of oxygen, the cells perform lactic acid fermentation. Since oxygen, the terminal electron acceptor in the ... Boyd, JH; Walley, KR (August 2008). "Is there a role for sodium bicarbonate in treating lactic acidosis from shock?". Current ... If shock progresses anaerobic metabolism will begin to occur with an increased blood lactic acid as the result. While many ... Accumulating pyruvate is converted to lactate by lactate dehydrogenase and hence lactate accumulates (causing lactic acidosis ...
The onset of acidosis during periods of intense exercise is commonly attributed to accumulation of lactic acid. From this ... Therefore, anion-gap metabolic acidosis (lactic acidosis) may ensue in ethanol poisoning. ... LDH is measured by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) test (also known as the LDH test or lactic acid dehydrogenase test). ... This leads to the addition of seven amino acid acids to the normal LDH-H protein. The extension contains a peroxisomal ...
The Cori cycle (also known as the Lactic acid cycle), named after its discoverers, Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Cori,[1] ... "Metformin accumulation: lactic acidosis and high plasmatic metformin levels in a retrospective case series of 66 patients on ... Lactic acid fermentation converts pyruvate to lactate by lactate dehydrogenase. Most importantly, fermentation regenerates NAD+ ... However, normally before this happens the lactic acid is moved out of the muscles and into the liver.[3] ...
Most people with MELAS have a buildup of lactic acid in their bodies, a condition called lactic acidosis. Increased acidity in ... Mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is one of the family of mitochondrial ... Pavlakis SG, Phillips PC, DiMauro S, De Vivo DC, Rowland LP (1984). "Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, ... Hirano M, Pavlakis SG (1994). "Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes (MELAS): ...
Lactic acidosis A buildup of lactic acid in the body due to anaerobic use of glucose as a fuel. It is normal when exercising ... Its amino acid code (DNA triplet --> amino acid incorporation) is identical across all Terrestrial life except for a very few ... Amino acid a weak acid carbon compound containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. The nitrogenous amine group is ... as the lactic acid is oxidized as fuel when oxygen becomes available (generally after a period of deep breathing). Lactose a ...
A further effect of chronic lactic acidosis in GSD I is hyperuricemia, as lactic acid and uric acid compete for the same renal ... and lactic acid. Free fatty acids from triglycerides are converted to ketones, and to acetyl-CoA. Amino acids and lactic acid ... Lactic acidosis arises from impairment of gluconeogenesis. Lactic acid is generated both in the liver and muscle and is ... Uric acid competes with lactic acid and other organic acids for renal excretion in the urine. In GSD I increased availability ...
Researchers once attributed fatigue to a build-up of lactic acid in muscles.[49] However, this is no longer believed.[50][51] ... This reaction oxidizes NADH to NAD, thereby releasing a hydrogen ion, promoting acidosis. For this reason, fast glycolysis can ... lactic acid and the supply and utilisation of oxygen. Parts I-III" (PDF). Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 97 (679): 438-475. doi:10.1098/ ... Glucose is then oxidized to pyruvate and under anaerobic conditions is reduced to lactic acid. ...
The most common feature is a potentially life-threatening buildup of lactic acid (lactic acidosis), which can cause nausea, ... It is characterized by the buildup of a chemical called lactic acid in the body and a variety of neurological problems. Signs ... The significant energy change makes it a crucial point of regulation not only for the citric acid cycle, but also for the ... A congenital deficiency in 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activity is believed to lead to hypotonia, metabolic acidosis, and ...
With continued contractions under anaerobic conditions, the cells undergo lactic acidosis, or the production of lactic acid as ... While not an example of active inhibition, acidosis of the blood could aid in ending the seizure and also depress neuron firing ...
Acidification by lactic acid may allow recovery of force so that acidosis may protect against fatigue rather than being a cause ... The presence of lactic acid has an inhibitory effect on ATP generation within the muscle; though not producing fatigue, it can ... Once thought to be caused by lactic acid build-up, a more recent theory is that it is caused by tiny tears in the muscle fibers ... Since lactic acid disperses fairly rapidly, it could not explain pain experienced days after exercise. Humans are genetically ...
The most common feature is a potentially life-threatening buildup of lactic acid (lactic acidosis), which can cause nausea, ... Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency is characterized by the buildup of a chemical called lactic acid in the body and a variety of ... The PDHB gene encodes a precursor protein that has 359 amino acid residues and a final mature protein that has 329 amino acids ... In forming the entire PDH complex, the 289th beta residue, aspartic acid, interacts with the 276th residue of the E2 complex, a ...
The most common feature is a potentially life-threatening buildup of lactic acid (lactic acidosis), which can cause nausea, ... Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency is characterized by the buildup of a chemical called lactic acid in the body and a variety of ... Voet DJ, Voet JG, Pratt CW (2010). "Chapter 17, Citric Acid Cycle". Principles of Biochemistry (4th ed.). Wiley. p. 550. ISBN ...
The most common feature is a potentially life-threatening buildup of lactic acid (lactic acidosis), which can cause nausea, ... Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency is characterized by the buildup of a chemical called lactic acid in the body and a variety of ... in congenital lactic acidosis". American Journal of Human Genetics. 61 (6): 1318-26. doi:10.1086/301653. PMC 1716072 . PMID ... in congenital lactic acidosis". American Journal of Human Genetics. 61 (6): 1318-26. doi:10.1086/301653. PMC 1716072 . PMID ...
The most common feature is a potentially life-threatening buildup of lactic acid (lactic acidosis), which can cause nausea, ... Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency is characterized by the buildup of a chemical called lactic acid in the body and a variety of ... Endo H, Hasegawa K, Narisawa K, Tada K, Kagawa Y, Ohta S (Mar 1989). "Defective gene in lactic acidosis: abnormal pyruvate ... The PDHA1 subunit has been shown to be regulated by free fatty acids during bouts of exercise. The presence of free fatty acids ...
Because S. bovis is a lactic acid bacterium, fermentation of these carbohydrates to lactic acid can cause a dramatic decline in ... S. bovis is commonly found in the alimentary tract of cattle, sheep, and other ruminants, and may cause ruminal acidosis or ... S. bovis is a catalase-negative and oxidase-negative, nonmotile, nonsporulating, Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium that grows ... doi:10.1046/j.1344-3941.2002.00044.x. "Subacute Ruminal Acidosis". The Merck Veterinary Manual. Retrieved 2008-09-10. Horner, ...
... a high amount of ATP is produced and pH levels fall causing acidosis or more specifically lactic acidosis. Lactic acid build up ... the product from this metabolic mechanism builds up in what is called lactic acid fermentation. Lactate is produced more ... protein or individual amino acids are ingested as well. Branched-chain amino acids are important since they are most ... However, if too much protein and amino acid supplements is consumed it can be more harmful to the body than it is beneficial; ...
... excess lactic acid in blood) is a rare and potentially fatal side effect. It is characterized by the following symptoms: deep ... Diarrhea Nausea Vomiting Insomnia Abnormal dreams Dizziness Headache Rash Weakness Decreased appetite Serious Lactic acidosis ( ...
The lactic acidosis sometimes associated with Leigh syndrome is caused by the buildup of pyruvate, which is unable to be ... The pyruvate is either converted into alanine via alanine aminotransferase or converted into lactic acid by lactate ... The symptoms of lactic acidosis are treated by supplementing the diet with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) or sodium citrate, ... Laboratory findings of lactic acidosis or acidemia and hyperalaninemia (elevated levels of alanine in the blood) can also ...
GRACILE is an acronym for growth retardation, amino aciduria (amino acids in the urine), cholestasis, iron overload, lactic ... Other names for this syndrome include Finnish lethal neonatal metabolic syndrome (FLNMS); lactic acidosis, Finnish, with ...
When acidosis is present on blood tests, the first step in determining the cause is determining the anion gap. If the anion gap is high (>12 mEq/L), there are several potential causes. High anion gap metabolic acidosis is a form of metabolic acidosis characterized by a high anion gap (a medical value based on the concentrations of ions in a patient's serum). An anion gap is usually considered to be high if it is over 12 mEq/L. High anion gap metabolic acidosis is caused generally by acid produced by the body,. More rarely, high anion gap metabolic acidosis may be caused by ingesting methanol or overdosing on aspirin. The Delta Ratio is a formula that can be used to assess elevated anion gap metabolic acidosis and to evaluate whether mixed acid base disorder (metabolic acidosis) is present. The list of agents that cause high anion gap metabolic ...
... is a formula that can be used to assess elevated anion gap metabolic acidosis and to evaluate whether a mixed acid base disorder (metabolic acidosis) is present. The anion gap (AG) is calculated first and if an anion gap is present, results in either a high anion gap metabolic acidosis (HAGMA) or a normal anion gap acidosis (NAGMA). A low anion gap is usually an oddity of measurement, rather than a clinical concern. The equation for calculating the Delta Ratio is: (AG - 12) ___________ (24 - [HCO3¯]) and reflects either an increase in the anion gap or a decrease in the bicarbonate concentration ([HCO3¯]). The ratio gives one of four results: 1. < 0.4 due to a pure NAGMA 2. 0.4 - 0.8 due to a mixed NAGMA + HAGMA 3. 0.8 - 2.0 due to a pure HAGMA 4. >2.0 due to a mixed HAGMA + metabolic alkalosis (or pre-existing compensated respiratory acidosis) Results 2 and 4 are the ones which have mixed ...
... (dRTA) or Type 1 renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is the classical form of RTA, being the first described. Distal RTA is characterized by a failure of acid secretion by the alpha intercalated cells of the cortical collecting duct of the distal nephron. This failure of acid secretion may be due to a number of causes, and it leads to an inability to acidify the urine to a pH of less than 5.3. Because renal excretion is the primary means of eliminating acid from the body, there is consequently a tendency towards acidemia. This leads to the clinical features of dRTA: Normal anion gap metabolic acidosis/acidemia Hypokalemia Urinary stone formation (related to alkaline urine, hypercalciuria, and low urinary citrate). Nephrocalcinosis (deposition of calcium in the substance of the kidney) Bone demineralisation (causing rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults) The symptoms ...
... (RTA) is a medical condition that involves an accumulation of acid in the body due to a failure of the kidneys to appropriately acidify the urine. In renal physiology, when blood is filtered by the kidney, the filtrate passes through the tubules of the nephron, allowing for exchange of salts, acid equivalents, and other solutes before it drains into the bladder as urine. The metabolic acidosis that results from RTA may be caused either by failure to reabsorb sufficient bicarbonate ions (which are alkaline) from the filtrate in the early portion of the nephron (the proximal tubule) or by insufficient secretion of hydrogen ions (which are acidic) into the latter portions of the nephron (the distal tubule). Although a metabolic acidosis also occurs in those with renal insufficiency, the term RTA is reserved for individuals with poor urinary acidification in otherwise well-functioning ...
Metabolic acidosis is a cause of hyperkalemia because increase in hydrogen ions in the cells can displace potassium out of the cells, causing a rise of serum potassium levels. However, in organic acidosis such as lactic acidosis, ketoacidosis, the effect on serum potassium levels are absent possibly because of the presence of organic ion-hydrogen ion co-transporter into the cells that minimises the displacement of potassium out of the cells. Meanwhile, in respiratory acidosis, the effect on serum potassium level is small due to unknown mechanism.[12]. Insulin increases the uptake of potassium into the cells. Therefore, insulin deficiency can cause hyperkalemia. In addition to that, hyperglycemia, which causes hyperosmolality in extracellular fluid, increases water diffusion out of the cells, which in turns increases the intracellular potassium concentration and causes potassium to move ...
Acetylsalicylic acid is a weak acid, and very little of it is ionized in the stomach after oral administration. Acetylsalicylic acid is quickly absorbed through the cell membrane in the acidic conditions of the stomach. The increased pH and larger surface area of the small intestine causes aspirin to be absorbed more slowly there, as more of it is ionised. Owing to the formation of concretions, aspirin is absorbed much more slowly during overdose, and plasma concentrations can continue to rise for up to 24 hours after ingestion.[152][153][154] About 50-80% of salicylate in the blood is bound to albumin protein, while the rest remains in the active, ionized state; protein binding is concentration-dependent. Saturation of binding sites leads to more free salicylate and increased toxicity. The volume of distribution is 0.1-0.2 L/kg. Acidosis increases the volume of distribution because of enhancement of tissue penetration of ...
A diagnosis of peritonitis is based primarily on the clinical manifestations described above. Rigidity (involuntary contraction of the abdominal muscles) is the most specific exam finding for diagnosing peritonitis (+ likelihood ratio: 3.9). If focal peritonitis is detected, further work-up should be done. If diffuse peritonitis is detected, then urgent surgical consultation should be obtained, and may warrant surgery without further investigations. Leukocytosis, hypokalemia, hypernatremia, and acidosis may be present, but they are not specific findings. Abdominal X-rays may reveal dilated, edematous intestines, although such X-rays are mainly useful to look for pneumoperitoneum, an indicator of gastrointestinal perforation. The role of whole-abdomen ultrasound examination is under study and is likely to expand in the future. Computed tomography (CT or CAT scanning) may be useful in differentiating causes of abdominal pain. If reasonable doubt still persists, an exploratory peritoneal lavage ...
30 md/dL (increased) Creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL (increased) Cranial imaging is not used for diagnosis of this condition. However, if MRI is performed, it may show cortical restricted diffusion with unusual characteristics of reversible T2 hypointensity in the subcortical white matter. The major differential diagnosis is diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). In contrast to DKA, serum glucose levels in HHS are extremely high, usually greater than 40-50 mmol/L (600 mg/dL). Metabolic acidosis is absent or mild. A temporary state of confusion (delirium) is also more common in HHS than DKA. HHS also tends to affect older people more. DKA may have fruity breath, and rapid and deep breathing. DKA often has serum glucose level greater than 300 mg/dL (HHS is >600 mg/dL). DKA usually occurs in type 1 diabetics whereas HHS is more common in type 2 diabetics. DKA is characterized by a rapid onset, and HHS occurs gradually over a few days. DKA also is characterized by ketosis due to the breakdown of ...
... , gasping respiration or agonal breathing is an abnormal pattern of breathing and brainstem reflex characterized by gasping, labored breathing, accompanied by strange vocalizations and myoclonus. Possible causes include cerebral ischemia, extreme hypoxia (inadequate oxygen supply to tissue) or even anoxia (total depletion of oxygen). Agonal breathing is an extremely serious medical sign requiring immediate medical attention, as the condition generally progresses to complete apnea and heralds death. The duration of agonal respiration can be as brief as two breaths or last up to several hours. The term is sometimes (inaccurately) used to refer to labored, gasping breathing patterns accompanying organ failure (e.g. liver failure and renal failure), SIRS, septic shock, and metabolic acidosis (see Kussmaul breathing, or in general any labored breathing, including Biot's respirations and ataxic respirations). Correct usage would restrict the term to the last breaths before ...
... is a protein in humans that is encoded by the KLHL3 gene. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. This gene is ubiquitously expressed and encodes a full-length protein which has an N-terminal BTB domain followed by a BACK domain and six kelch-like repeats in the C-terminus. These kelch-like repeats promote substrate ubiquitination of bound proteins via interaction of the BTB domain with the CUL3 (cullin 3) component of a cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL) complex. Mutations in this gene cause pseudohypoaldosteronism type IID (PHA2D); a rare Mendelian syndrome featuring hypertension, hyperkalaemia and metabolic acidosis. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000146021 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000014164 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: Kelch-like 3 (Drosophila)". Retrieved 2012-04-26. "KLHL3 mutations cause familial hyperkalemic hypertension by ...
Stewart is best known for her role as Roberta Williams (wife of the late Melbourne gangland figure Carl Williams) in the first series of the Channel 9 TV production Underbelly[3] and as Billie Proudman in the popular comedy/drama, Offspring on Network Ten.[4] It was her award-winning performance in Underbelly in 2008 that first made Stewart a household name.[5] The portrayal of Roberta Williams drew praise from critics including Marcus Casey of 'The Daily Telegraph', who described it as 'one of the most compelling performances by an Australian actress in memory.'[6] Casey expanded that it was 'a brutally brave, ugly and compelling performance...She held nothing back, and was an emotional but controlled and screeching tornado who dominated the screen whenever the camera peered her way.'[6] The authenticity of Stewart's performance was praised by Michael Lallo in 'The Age', 'By any measure, it's the role of a lifetime. Stewart has ensured it's the standout performance of the series. Despite ...
Laktikasidemia (bahasa Inggris: lacticacidaemia, lactic acidosis) adalah simtoma tingginya rasio plasma asam laktat, yang dapat disebabkan oleh defisiensi enzim piruvat karboksilase di dalam mitokondria pada organ hati,[1] ketika tubuh diharuskan untuk memproduksi adenosina trifosfat tanpa oksigen,[2] yang dikenal dengan simtoma hipoksia. Laktikasidemia dapat disertai dengan peningkatan konsentrasi asam piruvat dan alanina dalam darah, dan defisiensi serupa pada otak dengan simtoma peningkatan rasio asam laktat dan asam piruvat di dalam zalir serebrospinal, yang dianggap merupakan bagian dari Leigh's encephalomyelopathy dengan defisiensi pada enzim piruvat dehidrogenase pada fibroblas.[3] ...
The Arneth count or Arneth index describes the nucleus of a type of white blood cell called a neutrophil in an attempt to detect disease. Neutrophils typically have two or three lobes. In general, older neutrophils have more lobes than younger neutrophils. The Arneth count determines the percentage of neutrophils with one, two, three, four, and five or more lobes. Individuals who have a larger percentage of neutrophils with fewer lobes have a left shift which can be indicative of disease processes such as infection, malignant tumors, hemolytic crises, myocardial infarction, acidosis, etc. Individuals with a larger percentage of neutrophils with more lobes have a right shift and most commonly have diseases such as vitamin B12 or folate deficiency, chronic uremia, liver disease, etc. The Arneth count is not commonly used in modern medicine, but is a frequent MCQ in PG entrance exams in India. It is named for Josef Arneth. Synd/252 at Who Named It? J. Arneth: Die neutrophilen weissen ...
Metabolic acidosis in short bowel syndrome: think D-lactic acid acidosis. Case Reports 2018;2018:bcr-2018-224221. ...
Here, we describe a case of D-lactic acid acidosis, a rarer complication of SBS, presenting with generalised weakness and ...
Leung, S., LeFrancois, D., & Eisen, L. A. (2011). Metformin-associated lactic acidosis precipitated by zoledronic acid-induced ... Metformin-associated lactic acidosis precipitated by zoledronic acid-induced acute kidney injury: A case of polypharmacy in an ... Metformin-associated lactic acidosis precipitated by zoledronic acid-induced acute kidney injury: A case of polypharmacy in an ... Leung, Sharon ; LeFrancois, Darlene ; Eisen, Lewis A. / Metformin-associated lactic acidosis precipitated by zoledronic acid- ...
If your doctor suspects that this is the case, youll probably have a lactic acid blood test. ... Lactic acid is perfectly safe at low levels, but it can cause major problems when it builds up. ... Symptoms of Lactic Acidosis. Higher-than-normal lactic acid levels can lead to a condition called lactic acidosis. If its ... If your lactic acid level is normal, you dont have lactic acidosis. Your cells are making enough oxygen. It also tells your ...
Lactic Acid. First, lets discuss the compound itself. Lactate is not lactic acid. Lactate is a carboxylate, whereas lactic ... Lactic acid and lactate typically get a bad rap from athletes, but what if I said that rather than slowing you down, lactate ... Cairns, S. P. (2006). Lactic Acid and Exercise Performance: Culprit or Friend? Sports Medicine, 36(4), 279-291. Juel, C., & ... With respect to exercise, what do you think of when I say, "Lactic Acid?". ...
Lactate and Lactic Acidosis. Product of anaerobic glycolysis which reflects type A (oxygen delivery) or type B (altered ... lactic acid has a pK value of about 4 so it is fully dissociated into lactate and H+ at body pH (i.e. it is a strong ion) ... lactic acidosis can occur due to: (i) excessive tissue lactate production (ii) impaired hepatic metabolism of lactate (large ... congenital forms of lactic acidosis with various enzyme defects - e.g. pyruvate carboxylase deficiency, glucose-6-phosphatase ...
Lactic acidosis refers to the abnormal build-up of lactic acid in the body. When this abnormal build-up occurs, it affects the ... Lactic Acidosis. Lactic acidosis refers to the abnormal build-up of lactic acid in the body. When this abnormal build-up occurs ... When lactic acid is not being adequately removed, the body becomes ill. The recommended treatment for lactic acidosis will be ... Persistent lactic acid build-up in the body will affect heart function and output, and can have a severe impact on organ ...
Metabolic acidosis happens when kidneys do not eliminate acid properly, and respiratory acidosis... ... Acidosis is the occurrence of body fluids containing an excessive amount of acid, states Healthline. ... What is lactic acidosis?. A: Lactic acidosis is a condition that is characterized by a buildup of lactic acid due to the poor ... How does one get rid of excess lactic acid?. A: An excess of lactic acid, also known as lactic acidosis, can be prevented ...
... lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is a condition that affects many of the bodys systems, particularly the ... Most people with MELAS have a buildup of lactic acid in their bodies, a condition called lactic acidosis. Increased acidity in ... mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes. *mitochondrial myopathy, lactic acidosis, ... Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is a condition that affects many of the ...
Lactic acid is a type of compound that is released when glucose has been broken down andoxidized. More acid is produced during ... What Is Lactic Acid?. Lactic acid is a type of compound that is released when glucose has been broken down and eventually ... Understanding Lactic Acid It is imperative for every athlete to learn all the dangers that the buildup of lactic acid may cause ... You Can Reduce Lactic Acid Through Diet You can also prevent the excess lactic acid, and by far its dangerous effects, by ...
Lactic acidosis due to lipoamide dehydrogenase (LAD) deficiency : Improvement after oral lipoic acid. / Matalon, Reuben; ... title = "Lactic acidosis due to lipoamide dehydrogenase (LAD) deficiency: Improvement after oral lipoic acid", ... Lactic acidosis due to lipoamide dehydrogenase (LAD) deficiency: Improvement after oral lipoic acid. ... Lactic acidosis due to lipoamide dehydrogenase (LAD) deficiency: Improvement after oral lipoic acid. Pediatric Research, 16(4 ...
Acidosis. Acidosis, Lactic. Acid-Base Imbalance. Metabolic Diseases. Abacavir. Riboflavin. Thiamine. Reverse Transcriptase ... Acidosis, Lactic Drug: d4T Drug: Abacavir Drug: Riboflavin and Thiamine (Supplementation) Phase 2 Phase 3 ... Have a venous lactic acid measurement above 2.1 mmol/L within the three months prior to enrollment and two consecutive ... The purpose of this study is to determine the best way to treat people on d4T (stavudine) with high levels of lactic acid. ...
acidosis - lactic acid buildup (see lactic acid).. age grouper - an amateur athlete who competes in an age bracket (such as Men ... Lactic acid buildup (technically called acidosis) can cause burning pain, especially in untrained muscles. Lactic acid ... much of the lactic acid is routed to the liver, where it is converted to glucose. A little lactic acid remains in muscle tissue ... cool-down - slow running or cycling done after a workout or competition to loosen muscles and rid the body of lactic acid.. ...
In 2004 Robergs et al. maintained that lactic acidosis during exercise is a "construct" or myth, pointing out that part of the ... lactic acid or (R)-lactic acid. A mixture of the two in equal amounts is called DL-lactic acid, or racemic lactic acid. Lactic ... Related carboxylic acids. acetic acid. glycolic acid. propionic acid. 3-hydroxypropanoic acid. malonic acid. butyric acid. ... Chemistry and production of lactic acid, lactide and poly(lactic acid) in Poly(Lactic acid). Hoboken: Wiley. p. 3. ISBN 978-0- ...
Elevated lactic acid is suggestive • Early on may lack sensitivity • Lactic acidosis is a late finding ... UGIB: Treatment • Octreotide or somatostatin to reduce splanchnic blood flow • Proton pump inhibitors • Decrease acid secretion ...
... enhances renal excretion of acids in cattle with acute ruminal lactic acidosis - Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences ... Hypertonic saline solution (NaCl 7.2%) enhances renal excretion of acids in cattle with acute ruminal lactic acidosis Journal ... Hypertonic saline solution (NaCl 7.2%) enhances renal excretion of acids in cattle with acute ruminal lactic acidosis. ... steers ; ruminal lactic acidosis ; hypertonic saline solution Divisions of PAS. Nauki Biologiczne i Rolnicze Coverage. 37-42 ...
ACIDOSIS IN FATIGUE IS NOT LACTIC ACID Robergs, R. A., & Ghiasvand, F. (2001). A reevaluation of the biochemical causes of ... CONTINUOUS ACTIVITY RECOVERY BEST FOR CLEARING LACTIC ACID Margaurucci, C., & Mansouri, M. (2000). Lactate clearance following ... Simoes, H. G., Campbell, C. S., & Kokubun, E. (1998). High and low lactic acidosis training: Effects upon aerobic and anaerobic ... skeletal muscle acidosis during intense exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(5), Supplement abstract 1565 ...
Lactic acidosis (excessive buildup of lactic acid). *Pancreatitis (inflammation of pancreas). *Hepatic steatosis (fatty liver) ...
Too much lactic acid in your blood (lactic acidosis). *Too much lactic acid is a serious but rare medical emergency that can ...
... and damage of C6 glioma cells and of primary cultured astrocytes were analyzed in vitro during incubation with arachidonic acid ... 0/Fatty Acids; 0/Lactates; 0/Steroids; 50-21-5/Lactic Acid; 506-32-1/Arachidonic Acid; 7440-23-5/Sodium ... Fatty Acids / pharmacology. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Lactates / biosynthesis. Lactic Acid. Neuroglia / drug effects, ... Acidosis / chemically induced*, pathology*. Arachidonic Acid / pharmacokinetics, pharmacology*. Astrocytes. Cell Survival. ...
... or metabolic acidosis with elevated lactic acid concentrations. Patients received a 96-hour infusion of Xigris at 24 mcg/kg/hr ... miscellaneous coagulation modifiers pentoxifylline, tranexamic acid, Trental, Amicar, anagrelide, Lysteda. Sepsis ceftriaxone, ... Drotrecogin alfa (activated) is a serine protease with the same amino acid sequence as human plasma-derived activated protein C ...
The origin of the cerebrospinal fluid lactate acidosis and the role of lactate in the pathophysiological cycle leading to ... Cerebrospinal fluid lactic acid levels in meningitis.. *G Controni, Wm J Rodriguez, +4 authors Wajiha Khan ... Measurement of lactic acid in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with infections of the central nervous system.. *Iizhak Brook, K ... Cerebrospinal fluid lactic acidosis in bacterial meningitis.. @article{Eross1981CerebrospinalFL, title={Cerebrospinal fluid ...
But this lactate or lactic acid can build up in your bloodstream faster than you can burn it off. The point when lactic acid ... How can intense exercise cause lactic acidosis?. ANSWER When you exercise, your body uses oxygen to break down glucose for ... From: Lactic Acidosis and Exercise: What You Need to Know WebMD Medical Reference ... What are the symptoms of lactic acidosis?. NEXT QUESTION: What medical conditions can cause lactic acidosis? ...
Mateos, M. K., Tulstrup, M., Quinn, M. C., Tuckuviene, R., Marshall, G. M., Gupta, R., Mayoh, C., Wolthers, B. O., Barbaro, P. M., Ruud, E., Sutton, R., Huttunen, P., Revesz, T., Trakymiene, S. S., Barbaric, D., Tedgård, U., Giles, J. E., Alvaro, F., Jonsson, O. G., Mechinaud, F. & 8 flere, Saks, K., Catchpoole, D., Kotecha, R. S., Dalla-Pozza, L., Chenevix-Trench, G., Trahair, T. N., MacGregor, S. & Schmiegelow, K., 19 maj 2020, I : Cancers. 12, 5, 1285.. Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift › Tidsskriftartikel › Forskning › peer review ...
Build-up of acid in your blood (lactic acidosis). Lactic acidosis must be treated in the hospital as it may cause death. Before ... Lactic Acidosis and Severe Hepatomegaly with Steatosis. Patients should be informed that lactic acidosis and severe ... Lactic Acidosis/Severe Hepatomegaly with Steatosis. Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal ... Lactic acidosis/severe hepatomegaly with steatosis [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. •. Hepatic toxicity [ ...
  • Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is a condition that affects many of the body's systems, particularly the brain and nervous system (encephalo-) and muscles (myopathy). (medlineplus.gov)
  • MALA is extremely rare when prescribed to a low-risk groups less inclined to develop lactic acidosis and avoided in those with alcoholism, heart failure and significant respiratory disease. (calpoison.org)
  • The two different subunits of LDH: LDHA also known as the M subunit of LDH, and LDHB also known as the H subunit of LDH both retain the same active site, and the same amino acids participating in the reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • LDHBx is generated by translation of the LDHB mRNA , but the stop codon is interpreted as an amino acid -encoding codon . (wikipedia.org)
  • This leads to the addition of seven amino acid acids to the normal LDH-H protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following the widespread amino acid screening programs of the 1950s and early 1960s using paper and ion-exchange column chromatography, numerous amino acidemias were discovered. (springer.com)
  • In these cases, the parent amino acid or its keto analogue accumulates. (springer.com)
  • (1) After the two early steps, namely transamination and oxidative decarboxylation, most of the amino acids are metabolized to so-called "organic acids. (springer.com)
  • The parent amino acids could easily be identified by the ninhydrin reaction, and keto acids could be identified as dinitrophenylhydrozones. (springer.com)
  • Serum amino acids were normal, but urinalysis demonstrated elevated levels of free dicarboxylic acids and derivatives, and long-chain 3-OH acyl CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) defect was considered. (aappublications.org)
  • The small intestine does more digesting and also absorbs the amino acids, fatty acids, glycerol and simple sugars that result. (drmyhill.co.uk)
  • Effect of Treatment of Metabolic Acidosis on Vascular Endothelial Function in Patients with CKD: A Pilot Randomized Cross-Over Study. (medscape.com)
  • The treatment of metabolic acidosis is based on control of the underlying pathophysiologic process and reversal of organ dysfunction. (hindawi.com)
  • aerobic - an intensity of exercise below the level that produces lactic acid faster than the body can dispose of it. (angelfire.com)
  • However, available evidence is inconclusive, and more studies are required to determine the potential benefit, if any, of bicarbonate therapy in the sepsis patient with acidosis. (hindawi.com)