A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.
An order of gram-positive bacteria in the class Bacilli, that have the ability to ferment sugars to lactic acid. They are widespread in nature and commonly used to produce fermented foods.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. It is nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. No endospores are produced. Its organisms are found in fermenting plant products and are nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
A species of rod-shaped, LACTIC ACID bacteria used in PROBIOTICS and SILAGE production.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria mainly isolated from milk and milk products. These bacteria are also found in plants and nonsterile frozen and dry foods. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS (group N), it is now recognized as a separate genus.
A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic bacteria. capable of producing LACTIC ACID. It is important in the manufacture of fermented dairy products.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria that is frequently used as starter culture in SILAGE fermentation, sourdough, and lactic-acid-fermented types of beer and wine.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A species of thermophilic, gram-positive bacteria found in MILK and milk products.
A rod-shaped bacterium isolated from milk and cheese, dairy products and dairy environments, sour dough, cow dung, silage, and human mouth, human intestinal contents and stools, and the human vagina.
A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.
A family of gram-positive non-sporing bacteria including many parasitic, pathogenic, and saprophytic forms.
Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria associated with DENTAL CARIES.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
Acidosis caused by accumulation of lactic acid more rapidly than it can be metabolized. It may occur spontaneously or in association with diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS; LEUKEMIA; or LIVER FAILURE.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Milk modified with controlled FERMENTATION. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KAFFIR CORN.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.
A genus of gram-positive, asporogenous, lactic acid bacteria, in the family LEUCONOSTOCACEAE.
Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
A genus of GRAM-POSITIVE COCCI in the family LEUCONOSTOCACEAE. It is the primary bacteria involved in carrying out malolactic conversion in winemaking.
A gram-positive, non-spore-forming group of bacteria comprising organisms that have morphological and physiological characteristics in common.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).
A 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis. It has been used as a food preservative in canned fruits and vegetables, and cheese.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria found naturally in the human intestinal flora and BREAST MILK.
Fodder converted into succulent feed for livestock through processes of anaerobic fermentation (as in a silo).
Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
A slightly acid milk food produced by fermentation due to the combined action of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus.
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Alcohol oxidoreductases with substrate specificity for LACTIC ACID.
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.
Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.
The sodium salt of racemic or inactive lactic acid. It is a hygroscopic agent used intravenously as a systemic and urinary alkalizer.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
A species of gram-positive bacteria isolated from MILK and cheese-starter cultures.
Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.
A species of gram-negative bacteria of the family ACETOBACTERACEAE found in FLOWERS and FRUIT. Cells are ellipsoidal to rod-shaped and straight or slightly curved.
A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.
Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
The mechanical process of cooling.
Ground up seed of WHEAT.
Keeping food for later consumption.
The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
Organic polymeric materials which can be broken down by naturally occurring processes. This includes plastics created from bio-based or petrochemical-based materials.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose cells occur singly, in pairs or short chains, in V or Y configurations, or in clumps resembling letters of the Chinese alphabet. Its organisms are found in cheese and dairy products as well as on human skin and can occasionally cause soft tissue infections.
A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
Personal care items for women.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
The second stomach of ruminants. It lies almost in the midline in the front of the abdomen, in contact with the liver and diaphragm and communicates freely with the RUMEN via the ruminoreticular orifice. The lining of the reticulum is raised into folds forming a honeycomb pattern over the surface. (From Concise Veterinary Dictionary, 1988)
A plant genus in the CANNABACEAE family. Best known for the buds of Humulus lupulus L. used in BEER.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, a common saprophyte and facultative parasite of mature fruits and vegetables. It may cause cerebral mycoses in diabetes and cutaneous infection in severely burned patients.
Aromatic substances added to food before or after cooking to enhance its flavor. These are usually of vegetable origin.
The D-isomer of ASPARTIC ACID.
A genus of bacteria which may be found in the feces of animals and man, on vegetation, and in silage. Its species are parasitic on cold-blooded and warm-blooded animals, including man.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.
Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
The application of knowledge to the food industry.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
The syrup remaining after sugar is crystallized out of SUGARCANE or sugar beet juice. It is also used in ANIMAL FEED, and in a fermented form, is used to make industrial ETHYL ALCOHOL and ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
A thin-walled distention of the alimentary tract protruding just outside the body cavity in the distal end of the neck (esophagus), used for the temporary storage of food and water.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A plant genus of the family TROPAEOLACEAE. The common nasturtium is a plant that grows 2.4-3.6 m (8-12 feet) tall and has funnel-shaped flowers that are commonly yellow-orange with red spots or stripes and have a long spur that contains sweet nectar. Some species in this genus are called watercress which is also a common name for RORIPPA and NASTURTIUM.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family Aerococcaceae.
The gradual destruction of a metal or alloy due to oxidation or action of a chemical agent. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria used in PROBIOTICS.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
A beverage prepared from SOYBEANS.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Polysaccharides composed of D-fructose units.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
A very complex, but reproducible mixture of at least 177 C10 polychloro derivatives, having an approximate overall empirical formula of C10-H10-Cl8. It is used as an insecticide and may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.
Discarded animal and vegetable matter from a kitchen or the refuse from food preparation. (From Random House College Dictionary, 1982)
Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.
An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly found in the alimentary tract of cows, sheep, and other ruminants. It occasionally is encountered in cases of human endocarditis. This species is nonhemolytic.
A biguanide hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of METFORMIN. Although it is generally considered to be associated with an unacceptably high incidence of lactic acidosis, often fatal, it is still available in some countries. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
The removal of a carboxyl group, usually in the form of carbon dioxide, from a chemical compound.
The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
A family of gram-positive bacteria in the order Lactobacillales, phylum Firmicutes.
A technique for analysis of the chemical composition of molecules. A substance is bombarded with monochromatic ELECTRONS. Some of the electrons passing through the specimen will lose energy when they ionize inner shell electrons of the atoms in the specimen. The energy loss is element dependent. Analysis of the energy loss spectrum reveals the elemental composition of a specimen. ENERGY-FILTERED TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY is a type of electron energy loss spectroscopy carried out in electron microscopes specially outfitted to analyze the spectrum of electron energy loss.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic cocci parasitic in the mouth and in the intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms and a decrease in lactobacilli. It remains unclear whether the initial pathogenic event is caused by the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli.
The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.
Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.
Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.
A plant genus of the family PONTEDERIACEAE that is used as a biological filter for treating wastewater.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Microbial, plant, or animal cells which are immobilized by attachment to solid structures, usually a column matrix. A common use of immobilized cells is in biotechnology for the bioconversion of a substrate to a particular product. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.
Nutritional supplements combining PROBIOTICS (bacteria) and PREBIOTICS (sugars).
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Unlike ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS, this species may produce an alpha-hemolytic reaction on blood agar and is unable to utilize pyruvic acid as an energy source.
A metabolite of AMINOPYRINE with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. It is used as a reagent for biochemical reactions producing peroxides or phenols. Ampyrone stimulates LIVER MICROSOMES and is also used to measure extracellular water.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
Excretion of an excessive amount of OXALATES in the urine.
A plant genus of the family CAPPARACEAE that contains mabinlin, a sweet protein.
Medicated dosage forms that are designed to be inserted into the rectal, vaginal, or urethral orifice of the body for absorption. Generally, the active ingredients are packaged in dosage forms containing fatty bases such as cocoa butter, hydrogenated oil, or glycerogelatin that are solid at room temperature but melt or dissolve at body temperature.
Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A state due to excess loss of carbon dioxide from the body. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.

Energy cost of sport rock climbing in elite performers. (1/5450)

OBJECTIVES: To assess oxygen uptake (VO2), blood lactate concentration ([La(b)]), and heart rate (HR) response during indoor and outdoor sport climbing. METHODS: Seven climbers aged 25 (SE 1) years, with a personal best ascent without preview or fall (on sight) ranging from 6b to 7a were assessed using an indoor vertical treadmill with artificial rock hand/foot holds and a discontinuous protocol with climbing velocity incremented until voluntary fatigue. On a separate occasion the subjects performed a 23.4 m outdoor rock climb graded 5c and taking 7 min 36 s (SE 33 s) to complete. Cardiorespiratory parameters were measured using a telemetry system and [La(b)] collected at rest and after climbing. RESULTS: Indoor climbing elicited a peak oxygen uptake (VO2climb-peak) and peak HR (HRpeak) of 43.8 (SE 2.2) ml/kg/min and 190 (SE 4) bpm, respectively and increased blood lactate concentration [La(b)] from 1.4 (0.1) to 10.2 (0.6) mmol/l (p < 0.05). During outdoor climbing VO2 and HR increased to about 75% and 83% of VO2climb-peak and HRpeak, respectively. [La(b)] increased from 1.3 (0.1) at rest to 4.5 mmol/l (p < 0.05) at 2 min 32 s (8 s) after completion of the climb. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that for elite climbers outdoor sport rock climbs of five to 10 minutes' duration and moderate difficulty require a significant portion of the VO2climb-peak. The higher HR and VO2 for outdoor climbing and the increased [La(b)] could be the result of repeated isometric contractions, particularly from the arm and forearm muscles.  (+info)

Correlation between hypermetabolism and neuronal damage during status epilepticus induced by lithium and pilocarpine in immature and adult rats. (2/5450)

The correlation between seizure-induced hypermetabolism and subsequent neuronal damage was studied in 10-day-old (P10), 21-day-old (P21), and adult rats subjected to lithium-pilocarpine status epilepticus (SE). Local CMRglc (LCMRglc) values were measured by the [14C]2-deoxyglucose method for a duration of 45 minutes starting at 60 minutes after the onset of SE, and neuronal damage was assessed by cresyl violet staining at 6 days after SE. In P21 and adult rats, LCMRglc values were increased by 275 to 875% in all thalamic, cortical, forebrain, and hypothalamic regions plus the substantia nigra. In addition, at P21 there were also large increases in LCMRglc in brainstem regions. In P10 rats, metabolic increases were mostly located in cortical and forebrain regions plus the substantia nigra but did not affect hypothalamic, thalamic, or brainstem areas. In adult rats, there was an anatomical correlation between hypermetabolism and neuronal damage. At P21, although hypermetabolism occurred in regions with damage, the extent of damage varied considerably with the animals and ranged from an almost negligible to a very extended degree. Finally, in P10 rats, although quite pronounced hypermetabolism occurred, there was no neuronal damage induced by the seizures. Thus, in the present model of epilepsy, the correlation between marked hypermetabolism and neuronal damage can be shown in adult rats. Conversely, immature rats can sustain major metabolic activations that lead either to a variable extent of damage, as seen at P21, or no damage, as recorded at P10.  (+info)

Lactic acid polymers as biodegradable carriers of fluoroquinolones: an in vitro study. (3/5450)

A biodegradable polymer of DL-dilactide that facilitates release of ciprofloxacin or pefloxacin at levels exceeding MICs for the causative microorganisms of chronic osteomyelitis is described. Duration and peak of release were found to depend on the molecular weight of the polymer. Its characteristics make it promising for treating chronic bone infections.  (+info)

Mechanisms of capsaicin- and lactic acid-induced bronchoconstriction in the newborn dog. (4/5450)

1. Capsaicin activation of the pulmonary C fibre vanilloid receptor (VR1) evokes the pulmonary chemoreflex and reflex bronchoconstriction. Among potential endogenous ligands of C fibre afferents, lactic acid has been suggested as a promising candidate. We tested the hypotheses that (a) lactic acid behaves as a stimulant of C fibre receptors in the newborn dog to cause reflex bronchoconstriction, and (b) lactic acid causes reflex bronchoconstriction via the same pulmonary C fibre receptor mechanism as capsaicin using the competitive capsaicin/VR1 receptor antagonist capsazepine. 2. Right heart injection of lactic acid caused a significant increase (47 +/- 8.0 %) in lung resistance (RL) that was atropine sensitive (reduced by 75 %; P < 0.05), consistent with reflex activation of muscarinic efferents by stimulation of C fibre afferents. 3. Infusion of the competitive capsaicin antagonist capsazepine caused an 80 % reduction (P < 0.01) in the control bronchoconstrictor response (41 +/- 8.5 % increase in RL) to right heart injections of capsaicin. The effects of capsazepine are consistent with reversible blockade of the VR1 receptor to abolish C fibre-mediated reflex bronchoconstriction. 4. Lactic acid-evoked increases in RL were unaffected by VR1 blockade with capsazepine, consistent with a separate lactic acid-induced reflex mechanism. 5. We conclude that (a) putative stimulation of C fibres with lactic acid causes reflex bronchoconstriction in the newborn dog, (b) capsazepine reversibly antagonizes reflex bronchoconstriction elicited by right heart injection of capsaicin, presumably by attenuating capsaicin-induced activation of the C fibre 'capsaicin' receptor (VR1), and (c) capsazepine resistance of lactic acid-induced bronchoconstriction indicates that lactic acid evokes reflex bronchoconstriction by a separate mechanism, possibly via the acid-sensing ionic channel.  (+info)

Glucose kinetics during prolonged exercise in highly trained human subjects: effect of glucose ingestion. (5/5450)

1. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate whether glucose ingestion during prolonged exercise reduces whole body muscle glycogen oxidation, (2) to determine the extent to which glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized during exercise with and without carbohydrate ingestion and (3) to obtain an estimate of gluconeogenesis. 2. After an overnight fast, six well-trained cyclists exercised on three occasions for 120 min on a bicycle ergometer at 50 % maximum velocity of O2 uptake and ingested either water (Fast), or a 4 % glucose solution (Lo-Glu) or a 22 % glucose solution (Hi-Glu) during exercise. 3. Dual tracer infusion of [U-13C]-glucose and [6,6-2H2]-glucose was given to measure the rate of appearance (Ra) of glucose, muscle glycogen oxidation, glucose carbon recycling, metabolic clearance rate (MCR) and non-oxidative disposal of glucose. 4. Glucose ingestion markedly increased total Ra especially with Hi-Glu. After 120 min Ra and rate of disappearance (Rd) of glucose were 51-52 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Fast, 73-74 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Lo-Glu and 117-119 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Hi-Glu. The percentage of Rd oxidized was between 96 and 100 % in all trials. 5. Glycogen oxidation during exercise was not reduced by glucose ingestion. The vast majority of glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized and MCR increased markedly with glucose ingestion. Glucose carbon recycling was minimal suggesting that gluconeogenesis in these conditions is negligible.  (+info)

Effect of shellfish calcium on the apparent absorption of calcium and bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. (6/5450)

Fossil shellfish powder (FS) and Ezo giant scallop shell powder (EG) were rendered soluble with lactate and citrate under decompression (FSEx and EGEx, respectively) and we examined the effects of lactate-citrate solubilization of FS and EG on mineral absorption, tissue mineral contents, serum biochemical indices and bone mineral density (BMD) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The apparent absorption ratios of minerals tended to be high in the rats fed with the solubilized mineral sources, those in the FSEx group being significantly higher than in the FS group. There was no significant difference in the tibia mineral content among the OVX groups. BMD at the distal femoral diaphysis was significantly increased by FSEx and EGEx feeding. It is suggested that solubilization with lactate and citrate under decompression increased the solubility and bioavailability of calcium from such natural sources of shellfish calcium as FS and EG.  (+info)

Regulation of myocardial blood flow by oxygen consumption is maintained in the failing heart during exercise. (7/5450)

The hemodynamic abnormalities and neurohumoral activation that accompany congestive heart failure (CHF) might be expected to impair the increase in coronary blood flow that occurs during exercise. This study was performed to determine the effects of CHF on myocardial oxygen consumption and coronary blood flow during exercise. Coronary blood flow was measured in chronically instrumented dogs at rest, during 2 stages of graded treadmill exercise under control conditions (n=10), and after the development of CHF produced by 3 weeks of rapid ventricular pacing (n=9). In the normal dogs, coronary blood flow increased during exercise in proportion to the increase in the heart rate x the left ventricular systolic blood pressure product (RPP). After the development of CHF, resting myocardial blood flow was 25% lower than normal (P<0.05). Myocardial blood flow increased during the first stage of exercise, but then failed to increase further during the second stage of exercise despite an additional increase in the RPP. Myocardial oxygen consumption during exercise was significantly lower in animals with CHF and paralleled coronary flow. Despite the lower values for coronary blood flow in animals with CHF, there was no evidence for myocardial ischemia. Thus, even during the second level of exercise when coronary flow failed to increase, myocardial lactate consumption continued and coronary venous pH did not fall. In addition, the failure of coronary flow to increase as the exercise level was increased from stage 1 to stage 2 was not associated with a further increase in myocardial oxygen extraction. Thus, cardiac failure was associated with decreased myocardial oxygen consumption and failure of oxygen consumption to increase with an increase in the level of exercise. This abnormality did not appear to result from inadequate oxygen availability, but more likely represented a reduction of myocardial oxygen usage with a secondary decrease in metabolic coronary vasodilation.  (+info)

Lactate kinetics at rest and during exercise in lambs with aortopulmonary shunts. (8/5450)

In a previous study [G. C. M. Beaufort-Krol, J. Takens, M. C. Molenkamp, G. B. Smid, J. J. Meuzelaar, W. G. Zijlstra, and J. R. G. Kuipers. Am. J. Physiol. 275 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 44): H1503-H1512, 1998], a lower systemic O2 supply was found in lambs with aortopulmonary left-to-right shunts. To determine whether the lower systemic O2 supply results in increased anaerobic metabolism, we used [1-13C]lactate to investigate lactate kinetics in eight 7-wk-old lambs with shunts and eight control lambs, at rest and during moderate exercise [treadmill; 50% of peak O2 consumption (VO2)]. The mean left-to-right shunt fraction in the shunt lambs was 55 +/- 3% of pulmonary blood flow. Arterial lactate concentrations and the rate of appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd) of lactate were similar in shunt and control lambs, both at rest (lactate: 1, 201 +/- 76 vs. 1,214 +/- 151 micromol/l; Ra = Rd: 12.97 +/- 1.71 vs. 12.55 +/- 1.25 micromol. min-1. kg-1) and during a similar relative workload. We found a positive correlation between Ra and systemic blood flow, O2 supply, and VO2 in both groups of lambs. In conclusion, shunt lambs have similar lactate kinetics as do control lambs, both at rest and during moderate exercise at a similar fraction of their peak VO2, despite a lower systemic O2 supply.  (+info)

Example sentence: "The patient was diagnosed with lactic acidosis secondary to uncontrolled diabetes and was admitted to the intensive care unit for proper management."

There are several types of acidosis, including:

1. Respiratory acidosis: This occurs when the lung's ability to remove carbon dioxide from the blood is impaired, leading to an increase in blood acidity.
2. Metabolic acidosis: This type of acidosis occurs when there is an excessive production of acid in the body due to factors such as diabetes, starvation, or kidney disease.
3. Mixed acidosis: This type of acidosis is a combination of respiratory and metabolic acidosis.
4. Severe acute respiratory acidosis (SARA): This is a life-threatening condition that occurs suddenly, usually due to a severe lung injury or aspiration of a corrosive substance.

The symptoms of acidosis can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include:

1. Fatigue
2. Weakness
3. Confusion
4. Headaches
5. Nausea and vomiting
6. Abdominal pain
7. Difficulty breathing
8. Rapid heart rate
9. Muscle twitching

If left untreated, acidosis can lead to complications such as:

1. Kidney damage
2. Seizures
3. Coma
4. Heart arrhythmias
5. Respiratory failure

Treatment of acidosis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Some common treatments include:

1. Oxygen therapy
2. Medications to help regulate breathing and heart rate
3. Fluid and electrolyte replacement
4. Dietary changes
5. Surgery, in severe cases.

In conclusion, acidosis is a serious medical condition that can have severe consequences if left untreated. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect that you or someone else may have acidosis. With prompt and appropriate treatment, it is possible to effectively manage the condition and prevent complications.

Plaque is a key risk factor for dental caries (tooth decay) and periodontal disease, which can lead to tooth loss if left untreated. In addition, research suggests that there may be a link between oral bacteria and certain systemic diseases, such as heart disease and diabetes. Therefore, maintaining good oral hygiene practices, such as regular brushing and flossing, is essential to prevent the accumulation of plaque and promote overall health.

The symptoms of BV can include:

* A strong, unpleasant odor
* Thin, white or grayish discharge
* Itching or burning sensation in the vagina
* Pain or discomfort during sex

BV is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination and laboratory tests, such as a vaginal swab or fluid sample. Treatment typically involves antimicrobial medications to eradicate the overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria. In some cases, metronidazole, an antibiotic that is effective against anaerobic bacteria, may be prescribed.

Complications of BV can include:

* Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
* Ectopic pregnancy
* Miscarriage
* Premature labor

Prevention of BV includes good hygiene practices, such as washing the genital area with mild soap and water, avoiding douching, and wearing breathable clothing. Sexual partners should also be treated to prevent re-infection.

It is important to note that BV is not a sexually transmitted infection (STI), but it can be more common in women who have multiple sexual partners or who have a new sexual partner. It is also more common during pregnancy, and in women with diabetes or HIV/AIDS.

The normal range of oxalate in the urine is between 2-5 mg/day. If the level of oxalate in the urine exceeds this range, it can lead to a variety of health problems, including:

1. Kidney stones: Excessive oxalate in the urine can lead to the formation of kidney stones, which can cause severe pain, nausea, and vomiting.
2. Nephrocalcinosis: This is a condition where there is an accumulation of calcium deposits in the kidneys, which can lead to damage and scarring of the kidneys.
3. Chronic kidney disease: Prolonged exposure to high levels of oxalate can cause damage to the kidneys, leading to chronic kidney disease and potentially end-stage renal disease.
4. Gastrointestinal symptoms: Some people with hyperoxaluria may experience gastrointestinal symptoms such as bloating, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.

There are several causes of hyperoxaluria, including:

1. Primary hyperoxaluria: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the liver's ability to produce oxalate.
2. Enteric hyperoxaluria: This occurs when there is an overgrowth of oxalate-producing bacteria in the gut.
3. Dietary factors: Consuming high amounts of oxalate-rich foods can lead to hyperoxaluria.
4. Intestinal diseases: Certain conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis can increase the amount of oxalate in the gut and lead to hyperoxaluria.

The diagnosis of hyperoxaluria typically involves a combination of urine tests and imaging studies, such as a kidney-ureter-bladder (KUB) x-ray or a CT scan. A 24-hour urine oxalate test can measure the amount of oxalate in the urine, while a blood test can check for elevated levels of oxalate in the blood.

Treatment for hyperoxaluria depends on the underlying cause and may include:

1. Dietary modifications: Avoiding oxalate-rich foods and reducing the intake of vitamin C, magnesium, and calcium can help lower oxalate levels.
2. Medications: Drugs such as sodium alginate or potassium citrate can help bind oxalate in the gut and reduce its absorption into the bloodstream.
3. Dialysis: In advanced cases of hyperoxaluria, dialysis may be necessary to remove excess oxalate from the blood.
4. Liver transplantation: In cases of primary hyperoxaluria, a liver transplant may be necessary to correct the underlying genetic defect.

In conclusion, hyperoxaluria is a condition characterized by excessive levels of oxalate in the body, which can lead to kidney damage and other complications. Early detection and treatment are essential to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes for patients with this condition."

Respiratory alkalosis can occur due to various causes such as hypoventilation (breathing too slowly), hypercapnia (excessive carbon dioxide in the blood), bicarbonate therapy, or drinking excessive amounts of antacids. Symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, headache, and muscle weakness.

Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause, such as correcting hypoventilation or removing excess carbon dioxide from the bloodstream. In severe cases, medications or mechanical ventilation may be necessary.

Demineralization is the opposite process of remineralization, where minerals are deposited back onto the tooth surface. Demineralization can progress over time and lead to tooth decay, also known as dental caries, if not treated promptly. Early detection and prevention of demineralization through good oral hygiene practices and regular dental check-ups can help to prevent tooth decay and maintain a healthy tooth structure.

Tooth demineralization can be detected early on by dental professionals using various diagnostic tools such as radiographs (x-rays) or visual examination of the teeth. Treatment options for demineralization depend on the severity of the condition and may include fluoride treatments, fillings, or other restorative procedures to repair damaged tooth structures.

It is important to maintain good oral hygiene practices such as brushing twice a day with fluoride toothpaste, flossing once a day, and limiting sugary snacks and drinks to prevent demineralization and promote remineralization of the teeth. Regular dental check-ups are also crucial in detecting early signs of demineralization and ensuring proper treatment to maintain good oral health.

... lactic acid, or (+)-lactic acid, and the other, its mirror image, is D-lactic acid, (R)-lactic acid, or (−)-lactic acid. A ... mixture of the two in equal amounts is called DL-lactic acid, or racemic lactic acid. Lactic acid is hygroscopic. DL-Lactic ... D-Lactic acid and L-lactic acid have a higher melting point. Lactic acid produced by fermentation of milk is often racemic, ... Lactic acid is also responsible for the sour flavor of sourdough bread. In lists of nutritional information lactic acid might ...
The malolactic fermentation mechanism is mainly transformation of L-malic acid (dicarboxylic acid) to an lactic acid ( ... also produce lactic acid as the major product of carbohydrate metabolism. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are either rod-shaped ... produce lactic acid as the major metabolic end product of carbohydrate fermentation, giving them the common name lactic acid ... Gänzle MG (2015). "Lactic metabolism revisited: metabolism of lactic acid bacteria in food fermentations and food spoilage". ...
Lactic acid, or lactate and H+ were created as a byproduct. This buildup of lactic acid causes a burning sensation inside of ... Kimchi also uses lactic acid fermentation. Lactic acid fermentation is also used in the production of sauerkraut. The main type ... The cells then default to fermenting lactic acid, since they are in an anaerobic environment. Through lactic acid fermentation ... more lactic acid will be produced to lower the pH back to a more acidic level. Lactic acid producing bacteria also act as a ...
... (lac-OCA) is an organic compound. It is used as a monomer equivalent to lactic acid or lactide ... lactic acid). When this monomer undergoes ring-opening polymerization, one equivalent of carbon dioxide gas is released for ... every lactic acid unit incorporated into the polymer: This compound is prepared by treatment of lactic acid or its salts with ...
... lactic acid; artificial flavors; vitamin A (palmitate); beta carotene (colour). Nutrition Information for a serving size of 1 ...
The LAB produce lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and carbon dioxide as by-products during metabolism. Lactic acid quickly lowers ... However, due to significantly different preparation techniques from pao cai, kimchi has significantly more lactic acid bacteria ... Foods, National Research Council (US) Panel on the Applications of Biotechnology to Traditional Fermented (1992). Lactic Acid ... Lactic Acid Fermentation of Fruits and Vegetables. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-4987-2690-0. Lee, Jung-Sook; Heo ...
Binda, Sylvie; Ouwehand, Arthur C. (2019). "Lactic Acid Bacteria for Fermented Dairy Products". Lactic Acid Bacteria. CRC Press ... Icelandic Acid-Curd Soft Cheese", Modernization of Traditional Food Processes and Products, Integrating Food Science and ...
Drake, Harold L. (2014-01-01). "The genus Lactovum". In Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.; Wood, Brian J. B. (eds.). Lactic Acid Bacteria. ...
Hoyles, Lesley (2014). "The genus Facklamia". Lactic Acid Bacteria. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: 91-98. doi:10.1002/9781118655252. ...
"Lactic Acid Test". Medline Plus Trusted Health Information for You. A.D.A.M., Inc. November 7, 2014. Retrieved November 12, ... Lactic acid buildup may cause a runner to slow down unintentionally. Progressively increasing speed in any race allows the ... Starting slow allows the runner's body to compensate for the lactic acid production and low oxygen levels that result from ...
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are anaerobic. In the absence of oxygen, they metabolize sugar into lactic acid. LAB improve soil ... "Lactic Acid Bacteria" (PDF). Cho Global Natural Farming. 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2016. Reddy 2011, p. 41. Reddy 2011, p. 42 ... Three types of bacteria common in KNF include lactic acid bacteria, purple bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and yeast. Mycorrhizae ... Outputs can include antibiotics, enzymes and lactic acids that can suppress diseases and promote healthy soil conditions. The ...
2017 Orla-Jensen S. (1919). The Lactic Acid Bacteria. Copenhagen: Host & Sons. Skerman VBD, McGowan V, Sneath PHA. (1980). " ...
The lactic acid bacteria in health and disease. Vol. 1. The lactic acid bacteria. New York: Elsevier Applied Science. pp. 69- ... Lactic acid bacteria, 2nd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1998: 475-518. Edens FW, Parkhurst CR, Casas IA, Dobrogosz WJ (January ... At the turn of the 20th century, L. reuteri was recorded in scientific classifications of lactic acid bacteria, though at this ... The lactic acid Bacteria. Det Kongelige Danske Videnskasbernes Selskab. Naturvidenskabelige mathematiske Afdeling, NS 8.5.2 ...
Wood, B. J. B.; Holzapfel, W. H. (1995). "Carbohydrate Metabolism". The Lactic Acid Bacteria: The genera of lactic acid ... α-Acetolactic acid is a precursor in the biosynthesis of the branched chain amino acids valine and leucine. α-Acetolactic acid ... ISBN 978-0-7514-0215-5. Marth, E. H.; Steele, J. L. (2001). "Genetics of Lactic acid bacteria". Applied dairy microbiology. Vol ... α-Acetolactic acid can also be decarboxylated by alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase to produce acetoin. The name α-acetolactate ...
Lactic acid fermentation of vegetables. Protocols for minimally processed foods. Technology for production of tomato, colored ... Nucleic acid probes for many viruses. DNA fingerprinting techniques for characterization and documentation of germplasm. ...
26: Maciejewski - Lactic Acid. - 1915. - Stlb. 929-930. Levkiska 2002. sfn error: no target: CITEREFLevkiska2002 (help) Levki ...
nov., a lactic acid-producing streptomycete isolated from the rhizosphere of tomato plants". International Journal of ... nov., a lactic acid-producing streptomycete isolated from the rhizosphere of tomato plants". International Journal of ... Streptomyces lacticiproducens produces lactic acid. List of Streptomyces species LPSN bacterio.net UniProt Straininfo of ...
... and commercial lactic acid-based spermicides are available. A contraceptive containing lactic acid, citric acid, and potassium ... "U.S. FDA Approves Evofem Biosciences' Phexxi (lactic acid, citric acid and potassium bitartrate), the First and Only Non- ... "Femprotect - Lactic Acid Contraceptive Gel". Woman's Natural Health Practice. Archived from the original on June 1, 2006. ... Lactic acid preparations have also been shown to have some spermicidal effect, ...
Owing to lactic acid's keratolytic properties (to break down hard skin cells) and urea's hydrating properties, Calmurid was ... "Calmurid cream (urea, lactic acid)". Netdoctor. 27 August 2010. Retrieved 2017-02-12. v t e (Articles needing additional ... Composition: Urea 100 mg/g and lactic acid 50 mg/g in an emulsified base containing betaine monohydrate, glyceryl monostearate ... Calmurid Cream contained the active ingredients lactic acid and urea, whereas Calmurid HC contained an additional ingredient, ...
Kitahara, K. (1966). "Studies on Lactic Acid Bacteria". Nyusankin No Kenkyu: 67~69. Buchanan, R.E.; Gibbons, N.E. (1974). ... Both share an acid residue Glutamic acid 216 of the enzyme that bridges the two cations. Two basic amino acids surround the ...
Wells, JG; Balke, B; Van Fossan, DD (1957). "Lactic acid accumulation during work; a suggested standardization of work ... saturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid, dietary cholesterol, and trans fatty acid. From a ... more energy is needed to burn a saturated fatty acid than an unsaturated fatty acid. The fatty acid molecule is broken down and ... Palmitic acid is a commonly studied example of the saturated fatty acid molecule. The overall equation for the substrate ...
Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B. (2 May 2014). "The genus Trichococcus". Lactic Acid Bacteria: 135-145. doi:10.1002/ ...
It is an intermediate in the industrial production of ethyl lactate and lactic acid. It is the cyanohydrin of acetaldehyde. It ... Lactonitrile is used in making esters of lactic acid. Cyanohydrins are sources of highly toxic hydrogen cyanide. The substance ... Westhoff, Gerrit; Starr, John N. (2012). "Lactic Acids". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. ...
Wood, B. J.; Holzapfel, W. H. N. (1995). The Genera of Lactic Acid Bacteria. Springer. pp. 301-. ISBN 978-0-7514-0215-5. ... and Other Lactic Acid Bacteria in the Human Colon". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 69 (12): 7545-7548. doi:10.1128/AEM ...
Salicylic acid reaches warts; lactic acid and collodion do not.[2] Therefore, these additional components have only an indirect ... There are typically two types of products: adhesive pads treated with salicylic acid or a bottle of concentrated salicylic acid ... Removing a wart with this method requires a strict regimen of cleaning the area, applying the salicylic acid, and removing the ... The molecular structure of the skin is altered at the centre of the wart.[3] Experiments indicated that salicylic acid bonding ...
... lactic acid. However, reported D-(−)-lactic acid can be produced when cultured at low pH. The capability to produce lactic acid ... The byproduct of ATP energy production is lactic acid. The lactic acid produced by the bacterium curdles the milk, which then ... glucose and lactic acid concentrations on the kinetics of lactic acid production by Lactococcus lactis ssp. Lactis ATCC 19435 ... November 2004). "The lactic acid bacteria, the food chain, and their regulation". Trends in Food Science & Technology. 15 (10 ...
By June 2013, the firm began working with NatureWorks to use methane fermentation to produce lactic acid. However, its main ... Protti-Alvarez, Francinia (2013-06-18). "NatureWorks, Calysta Energy enter R&D to produce lactic acid via methane fermentation ... McCoy, Michael (2016-03-14). "NatureWorks advances methane-to-lactic acid". C&EN Global Enterprise. 94 (11): 15-16. doi:10.1021 ...
Holzapfel, W. H.; Wood, Brian J. B. (1995). The Genera of lactic acid bacteria. London: Blackie Academic & Professional. ISBN 0 ... It was during the 1980s that studies on fatty acid composition, nucleic acid hybridization, and comparative oligonucleotide ... In carbohydrate and raffinose broths, E. malodoratus forms acid. It does not form endospores thus separating it from bacilli ...
... producing lactic acid as a metabolic byproduct. Contrary to common belief, lactic acid accumulation doesn't actually cause the ... It was once believed that lactic acid build-up was the cause of muscle fatigue. The assumption was lactic acid had a "pickling ... The impact of lactic acid on performance is now uncertain, it may assist or hinder muscle fatigue.[citation needed] Produced as ... Lactic acid also has a negating effect on the chloride ions in the muscles, reducing their inhibition of contraction and ...
... antiseptic lactic acid as an antiseptic. hydrogen peroxide According to their website, some of Lysol's products "have been ...
Other fermented teas, called pickled teas, are fermented in a wet process with lactic acid bacteria. Pickled teas include miang ...
Common food acids include vinegar, citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, folic acid, fumaric acid, and lactic acid. Acidity ... Citranaxanthin - color Citric acid - food acid Citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids - emulsifier Citrus ... flour treatment agent Lactic acid - acidity regulator, preservative, antioxidant Lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides ... Phosphated distarch phosphate - thickener, vegetable gum Phosphoric acid - food acid Phytic acid - preservative Pigment Rubine ...
... Overnight Cracked Heel Cream, £4.49, from pharmacies, contains urea and lactic acid to slough away any rough skin. Wear ... Only that it absorbs the moisture resulting from salicylic acid acting on the corn (dissolving it). Compeed conducts consumer ...
It has been reported that eutectic ionic fluids of lower pH-values, such as ChCl:oxalic acid and ChCl:lactic acid, allow a ... Studies have shown that ionic oxides such as ZnO tend to have high solubility in ChCl:malonic acid, ChCl:urea and Ethaline, ... Most of them are mixtures of choline chloride and a hydrogen-bond donor (e.g., urea, ethylene glycol, malonic acid) or mixtures ... The best selective recovery of copper (>97%) from chalcopyrite can be obtained with a mixed DES of 20 wt.% ChCl-oxalic acid and ...
Ren C, Zhang Q, de Haan BJ, Zhang H, Faas MM, de Vos P (October 2016). "Identification of TLR2/TLR6 signalling lactic acid ... But MyD88 also activates mitogen‐activated protein kinases (MAPKs). However, several strains of lactic acid bacteria have been ... the TLR2/6 heterodimer is known to be specific for diacylated lipopeptides such as lipoteichoic acid, found on the cell wall of ...
They ferment sugars, producing lactic acid as an end product. Many of these species produce carotenoid pigments, which color ...
Fan, Rong; Ebrahimi, Mehrdad; Czermak, Peter (3 May 2017). "Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor for Continuous Lactic Acid ... using direct electric current for enhanced lactic acid fermentation and product recovery". Tetrahedron. 60 (3): 655-661. doi: ... A Continuous Separation Process for the Simultaneous Production and Direct Capture of Organic Acids". Separation Science and ...
Lactic acid, produced naturally in the two slower traditional methods, is added to the starter to inhibit unwanted bacteria. ... Suzuki K, Asano S, Iijima K, Kitamoto K. (2008). "Sake and Beer Spoilage Lactic Acid Bacteria - A review". The Inst of Brew & ... One of the microorganisms implicated in this spoilage is lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that has grown tolerant to ethanol and is ... This number is equal to the milliliters of titrant required to neutralize the acid in 10 ml (0.35 imp fl oz; 0.34 US fl oz) of ...
There are five usual fruit acids: citric acid, glycolic acid, lactic acid, malic acid and tartaric acid. Many other alpha ... are naturally occurring carboxylic acids such as glycolic acid, a natural constituent of sugar cane juice, and lactic acid, ... Salicylic acid is a beta hydroxy acid. It is antibacterial (mostly bacteriostatic, except in high concentrations when it is ... It is becoming common for beta hydroxy acid (BHA) peels to be used instead of the stronger alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) peels due ...
Other biodegradable polymers: polycaprolactone polyglycolide polylactic acid poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) poly-3- ...
... and lower lactic acid generation in anaerobic activity. HBOCs have been shown in trials to be extremely dangerous in humans. ...
Organic acids and their salts are used widely in food products, e.g. lactic acid, citric acid, acetic acid, either as ... Phenol also known as carbolic acid was one of the first chemicals which was used as an antimicrobial agent. It has high ... For example, beef carcasses often are sprayed with acids, and then rinsed or steamed, to reduce the prevalence of Escherichia ... Phenolic compounds can also deactivate enzymes and damage the amino acids in microbial cells. Phenolics such as fentichlore, an ...
Atanda, O. O.; Ikenebomeh, M. J. (1988). "Changes in the acidity and lactic acid content of 'Nono', a Nigerian cultured milk ...
... oxalic acid and its salts, lactic acid, cholesterin, stearin, etc. He analysed muscle fibre and chitin. He showed that animal ... He discovered hydrochloric acid in gastric juice and its chemical interaction with pepsin. He studied bile and pancreatic ... Schmidt determined the typical crystallization patterns of many important biochemicals such as uric acid, ...
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.1970.tb15727.x. Blair, Cicely (2 February 1976). "The action of a urea-lactic acid ointment in ...
... it is considered part of the gut microbiota and its production of lactic acid is believed to prevent growth of pathogenic ... This adhesion is also enhanced by the fatty acids in the lipoteichoic acid of the B. longum cell wall. B. longum is considered ... B. longum also has bile salt hydrolases to hydrolyze bile salts into amino acids and bile acids. The function of this is not ... Some strains of B. longum were found to have high tolerance for gastric acid and bile, suggesting that these strains would be ...
These bacteria produce lactic acid as a metabolic byproduct. If the concentration of lactic acid becomes high enough, the pH ... It protects the tooth from the acids produced by oral microorganisms after consuming carbohydrates. The surface of enamel and ... Pellicle somewhat protects enamel, but not dentin, from acid and abrasion. Plaque is a biofilm composed of several different ... create a sticky environment that allows other bacteria to attach to the initial colonies and protect them from acids. As the ...
It bears structural similarity to lactic acid and pyruvic acid. It has been investigated as a metabolic poison and an ... Bromopyruvic acid is the organic compound with the formula BrCH2COCO2H. This colorless solid is the brominated derivative of ...
PBAT is produced commercially by BASF under the trademark ecoflex and in a blend with poly(lactic acid) called ecovio, by ... Lactic Acid)". mospace.umsystem.edu. American Institute of Chemical Engineers. hdl:10355/32635. Jiang, Long; Wolcott, Zhang (26 ... Lactic Acid) Blends". Nanomaterials. 2010 (2010): 8. Retrieved February 10, 2014. "Certified Compostable, Biodegradable and ... specifically a copolyester of adipic acid, 1,4-butanediol and terephthalic acid (from dimethyl terephthalate). PBAT is produced ...
α-Hydroxy acids, e.g. (lactic acid and glycolic acid) undergo decarbonylation when treated with catalytic concentrated sulfuric ... One exception is the decarbonylation of formic acid: HCO2H → CO + H2O The reaction is induced by sulfuric acid, which functions ... Via this reaction, formic acid is occasionally employed as a source of CO in the laboratory in lieu of cylinders of this toxic ... With strong heating, formic acid and some of its derivatives may undergo decarbonylation, even without adding a catalyst. For ...
... lactic-co-glycolic acid). Cobalt(II) ethylhexanoate (CAS# 136-52-7), a drier for alkyd resins Nickel(II) ethylhexanoate (CAS# ... 2-Ethylhexanoic acid is the organic compound with the formula CH3(CH2)3CH(C2H5)CO2H. It is a carboxylic acid that is widely ... 2-Ethylhexanoic acid is a colorless viscous oil. It is supplied as a racemic mixture. 2-Ethylhexanoic acid is produced ... Oxidation of this aldehyde gives the carboxylic acid. 2-Ethylhexanoic acid forms compounds with metal cations that have ...
... lactic acid - lactic acid autotroph - lactic fermentation - lagging strand - laminin - LDL receptor - Le Chatelier's principle ... amino acid - amino acid receptor - amino acid sequence - amino acid sequence homology - aminobutyric acid - ammonia - AMPA ... nucleic acid - nucleic acid regulatory sequence - nucleic acid repetitive sequence - nucleic acid sequence homology - nucleon ... acetic acid - acetyl CoA - acetylcholine - acetylcysteine - acid - acidic fibroblast growth factor - acrosin - actin - action ...
Acid malt, also known as acidulated malt, whose grains contain lactic acid, can be used as a continental analog to ... Acid malt lowers the mash pH and provides a rounder, fuller character to the beer, enhancing the flavor of Pilseners and other ...
Usually more tart than ice cream (the tanginess in part due to the lactic acid in the yogurt), as well as lower in fat (due to ...
"Calibration-Free Quantification of Lactic Acid and Lactic Acid Oligomers in Concentrated Aqueous Lactic Acid Solutions Using GC ... The following reactions demonstrate the combustion/reduction process for formic acid. HCO2H + 0.5O2 ↔ CO2 + H2O CO2 + 4H2 ↔ CH4 ... and formic acid (CH2O2), because these molecules are converted to methane. The concept of using a post-column catalytic reactor ... and formic acid (CH 2O 2)). Resilient to poisoning by compounds containing sulfur, halogens, nitrogen, oxygen, and others (e.g ...
If the oxygen supply is not soon restored, this may lead to accumulation of lactic acid. This is the case even without exercise ... This normal function is called aerobic metabolism and does not produce lactic acid if enough oxygen is present. During heavy ... Anaerobic metabolism to some degree then takes place in the muscle and this less ideal energy production produces lactic acid ... the second wind to be a result of the body finding the proper balance of oxygen to counteract the buildup of lactic acid in the ...
After that, the wort is pumped into a fermentation tank, where baker's yeast and lactic acid bacteria culture is added and the ... carbon dioxide and lactic acid. Afterwards, the kvass is cooled to 6 °C (279 K; 43 °F), clarified through either filtration or ... bread kvass', to differentiate it from kwas, 'acid', originally from kwaśny, 'sour'); Latvian: kvass; Romanian: cvas; Hungarian ... due to the addition of caramel and citric acid to the bread) and three times lower reducing sugar content than industrially ...
Stage 3: the patient develops shock with azotemia and acid-base disturbances; has significant coagulation abnormalities. Stage ... 4: the patient is vasopressor dependent and oliguric or anuric; subsequently develops ischemic colitis and lactic acidosis. ...
Lactic acid, or lactate, is a natural byproduct generated through the production of energy in the body, and is produced by the ... Source for information on Lactic Acid and Performance: World of Sports Science dictionary. ... Lactic Acid and PerformanceThe role of lactic acid in athletic performance is one that is widely misunderstood. ... Lactic Acid and Performance. The role of lactic acid in athletic performance is one that is widely misunderstood. Lactic acid, ...
Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red blood cells. It forms when the body breaks down carbohydrates to use for ... Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red blood cells. It forms when the body breaks down carbohydrates to use for ... A test can be done to measure the amount of lactic acid in the blood. ... How should acid-base disorders be diagnosed? In: Deutschman CS, Neligan PJ, eds. Evidence-Based Practice of Critical Care. 3rd ...
Lactic is a great choice for those dealing with aging and pigmented skin. It will exfoliate the outer surface of the skin and ... Lactic Acid 50, Purified Water, High Purity Lactic Acid, Sodium Hydroxide, Glycerine, Hydroxyethylcellulose, Benzyl Alcohol, ... the lactose is converted by bacteria into lactic acid. When Cleopatra chose to bathe in sour donkey milk, the lactic acid was ... Free Acid Value = 50 *Learn about FAV here.. This lactic peel is buffered. Buffering raises the pH level of the acid so that it ...
Glycolic Acid helps to diminish the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, while Lactic Acid ... Our skincare products feature a potent blend of AHAs including Glycolic Acid and Lactic Acid. These powerful exfoliants work ... Glycolic Acid helps to diminish the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, while Lactic Acid provides a gentle yet effective ... Our skincare products feature a potent blend of AHAs including Glycolic Acid and Lactic Acid. These powerful exfoliants work ...
Here we report a similar effect for the Lewis and Brønsted acid-catalyzed reaction of fructose to lactic acid or HMF, ... Lactic acid (LA) and 5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) are two examples of primary renewable building blocks that can be obtained ... 337g) Polar Aprotic Solvent Effects on the Catalytic Conversion of Fructose to 5-(hydroxymethyl)Fulfural or Lactic Acid. ... Sn-Beta catalyst was employed as catalyst for the Lewis acid-catalyzed reaction and a sulfonic acid-based CMK-3 catalyst was ...
Efficacy of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles as a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue delivery system to ... Efficacy of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles as a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue delivery system to ... The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles as a carrier of ... lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles, but the treatment does not improve reproductive performance. ...
... lactic acid + energy. Unfortunately, when your body starts to use anaerobic respiration, you are building up lactic acid an ... lactic acid in the muscles from anaerobic respiration even though the blood flowing through the muscles removes the lactic acid ... structure of lactic acid is CH3CH(OH)COOH, a carboxylic acid with an alcohol group) ... The oxygen debt is the quantity of oxygen your body needs to react with the build up of lactic acid in the cells and remove it ...
Upwind responses of Anopheles stephensi to carbon dioxide and L-lactic acid: an olfactometer study ... L-lactic acid alone did not produce a significant effect by itself, but addition of 6 µg/min of L-lactic acid to a range of 90 ... L-lactic acid and L-lactic acid plus carbon dioxide experiments. Based on the work of Geier et al., it might be roughly ... Such a modulatory effect of L-lactic acid over CO2 may be because the L-lactic acid plays a more critical role than CO2 in the ...
... lactic acid not only banishes dullness by loosening the bonds keeping dead skin cells attached to the skin, but it also acts as ... One of the gentlest of alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), ... Lactic Acid. One of the gentlest of alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs ... Those with dull, fatigued or lacklustre skin - the blend of lactic acid and a PHA will reveal the skins inner glow ... Those with dull, fatigued or lacklustre skin - the blend of lactic acid and a PHA will reveal the skins inner glow ...
where the Yield is lactic acid yield, L is the lactic acid concentration expressed as g lactic acid per L, V is 0.06 L, Gn is ... The lactic acid yield variation with time in the presence of formic acid (Fig. 4a) and acetic acid (Fig. 4b) is shown. The ... a) formic acid, (b) acetic acid, (c) furfural, (d) vanillin. A similar phenomenon of lactic acid yield reduction was observed ... Inhibition studies of SSF for lactic acid by selected compounds, formic acid (0.1 to 0.5 g/L), acetic acid (0.5 to 2.0 g/L), ...
... Anmol Chemicals is a manufacturer supplier exporter of Lactic Acid and it offers materials as per ... Product Name & Other Names: Lactic Acid or 2-Hydroxypropionic acid. CAS No.: 50-21-5. EINECS EC Number: 200-018-0. Molecular ... Product Name & Other Names: Lactic Acid or 2-Hydroxypropionic acid. CAS No.: 50-21-5. EINECS EC Number: 200-018-0. ... Appearance: Lactic Acid viscous liquid.. Odor: Odorless.. Odor threshold: Not available.. pH: ,1. Relative density: around 1.2 ...
If you are looking for the best lactic acid lotion, you may feel overwhelmed with all the different options. But dont worry, ... EXFOLIATE & MOISTURIZE ] Salicylic Acid & Lactic Acid to help exfoliate, Hyaluronic Acid to help retain skins moisture, and ... EXFOLIATE & MOISTURIZE ] Salicylic Acid & Lactic Acid to help exfoliate, Hyaluronic Acid to help retain skins moisture, and ... Frequently Asked Questions about Lactic acid lotion. This section answers common questions about lactic acid lotion. ...
... Properties: A mixture of calcium lactate ... ... Acid Powder is a mixture of calcium lactate and lactic acid at ... blend salt of calcium lactate and lactic acid, ... lactic acid powder , lactic acid powder manufacturer , lactic ... acid regulator , china lactate producer , China supplier of lactic acid powder , Chinese food additive , Chinese lactic acid ... Lactic Acid and Lactate salts Home > Products > Lactic Acid and Lactate salts > Details ...
Bright Serum with powerful L-ascorbic acid and lactic acid to improve signs of aging and brighten. ... Dennis Gross Vitamin C Lactic Vitamin C Firm & ... this vegan form of lactic acid is an alpha hydroxy acid. It ... Lactic Acid Derived from beets but also produced naturally by your body, this vegan form of lactic acid is an alpha hydroxy ... A powerful, synergistic serum combining lactic acid with 15% L-ascorbic acid to increase absorption and enhance antioxidant ...
The Lactic Acid Peel is alpha hydroxy acid that exfoliates the outer layer of your skin to encourage new cell turnover. This ... It is an excellent acid choice for dry and sun damaged skin. Lactic acid is derived from milk and is much milder on the skin ... The Lactic Acid Peel will fade dark marks, improve hyperpigmentation, brighten and lighten skin, improve the appearance of ... Salicylic acid peels arent a new approach. People have used salicylic acid peels for more than 2,000 years trusted Source in ...
Elevated serum lactic acid is an indicator of metabolic disorders caused by a variety of clinical causes. Blood lactic acid ... the ratio of lactic acid/pyruvic acid is higher; but when the condition is stable, the ratio of lactic acid/pyruvate only ... 25%~30% of lactic acid is metabolized by the kidneys, and a small part of lactic acid is metabolized by other organs or lost in ... Most of the lactic acid in the body is produced by skeletal muscle. Lactic acid enters the circulation from the tissues and is ...
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So the addition of an Acid such as Lactic Acid makes sense as acid will adjust pH much better than brewing salts. Ideally you ... Using Lactic acid to hit mash pH. First a word on trying to achieve mash pH 5.2-5.6 by just adding brewing salts such as ... Lactic can be used for sparge water adjustments also but note that sparge water usually has much less buffering than the mash ... Additions should be made incrementally, allowed to combine and another pH reading taken and if needed another acid addition. ...
... is een wateroplosbare alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) dat kan worden gebruikt om te verwerken in zelfgemaakte verzorgingsproducten ... Deze Lactic Acid, ook wel bekend als Melkzuur, ... Deze Lactic Acid, ook wel bekend als Melkzuur, is een ... Melkzuur / Lactic Acid, 80% (Food Grade) 10 ml , Natural Heroes , 7440828752737. 30 april 2023 Zelfzorg-Drogist Cosmetica, ... wateroplosbare alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) dat kan worden gebruikt om te verwerken in zelfgemaakte verzorgingsproducten zoals ...
Read on to discover the facts about lactic acid and how to kick it to the curb. ... Is lactic acid build up causing you pain? Dont worry - we can help! ... Hold Up - Why Does A Lactic Acid Buildup Happen? Lactic acid buildup often happens during longer and more intense bouts of ... Tips To Get Rid of Lactic Acid Buildup. When youre dealing with lactic acid buildup, your muscles will feel especially tired ...
10% Lactic Acid + Hyaluronic Acid ( Bright and Hydrated ) Renewing Concentrate (30ml) 10% Mandelic Acid + Hyaluronic Acid ... 10% Mandelic Acid + Hyaluronic Acid Retexturizing ( Inflammatory Acne) Concentrate (30ml) Rs. 559.30 Rs. 503.37 ... Dm Water, Lactic Acid , Dimethyl Isosormide, Ethoxydiglycol, Propanediol, Glycerin, Phenoxyethanol & Ethylhexylgycerin, Hydroxy ... 10% Tranexamic Acid Spot Correcting (Melasma) Concentrate (30ml) Rs. 559.30 Rs. 503.37 ...
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Lactic Acid: An alpha hydroxy acid that exfoliates the skin.. Ingredient Callouts: Free of parabens, formaldehydes, phthalates ... I stopped using physical exfoliants and using this lactic acid exfoliant has done wonders on my skins texture. ...Holy Grail ... What it is: A high-strength lactic acid peeling formula for smoother, healthier-looking skin.. Skin Type: Normal, Dry, ... Phytic Acid: A gently exfoliating AHA in Japanese rice that improves the look of tone and pore size.. - Tea Tree Oil: A ...
Hyaluronic Acid:( Sodium hyaluronate) Not just any hyaluronic acid (the right molecular weight of hyaluronic acid) gives skin ... PLLA: (Poly L Lactic Acid): A bio-simulator dermal filler stimulates skin to produce NEW collagen. ... SCULPLLA H2 CaviPLLA Poly-L Lactic Acid Premium Caviar + O2 Multi-Serum. $90.00. ... Poly-L-Lactic Acid, Nelumbo Nucifera Seed Extract, Plantago Asiatica Seed Extract, Panax Ginseng Leaf/Stem Extract, Crataegus ...
LACTIC ACID 5%. Lactic Acid acts as a peeling agent that gently exfoliates the skin and removes dead cells. It also contains ... Home / Face Serum / Drops of benefits- Gentle Peeling/ lactic Acid Gentle exfoliating serum 30ml (Numee). ... Drops of benefits- Gentle Peeling/ lactic Acid Gentle exfoliating serum 30ml (Numee) quantity. ... Drops of benefits- Gentle Peeling/ lactic Acid Gentle exfoliating serum 30ml (Numee). ...
How can I get rid of lactic acid faster?. "Lactic acid actually clears the body rather quickly," says Denver-based physical ... "Besides, soreness isnt caused by the lactic acid or its byproduct, lactate, but because of the strain to the muscles ... While you cant really reduce the amount of lactic acid (or the hundreds of other byproducts) your body produces during ...
Lactic Acid, 85%, laboratory grade, 100 ml. libertysci * $5.15 Sodium Carbonate, anhydrous, laboratory grade, 100 g. libertysci ...
L-lactic acid exerted a differential impact on the inflammation and proliferation markers. Intriguingly, L-lactic acid induced ... These results provide a deeper understanding of 1-nonadecene and L-lactic acids roles in modulating the microenvironment of ... Recently, 1-nonadecene and L-lactic acid were identified as unique metabolites in radicular cysts and periapical granuloma, ... Molecular pathogenicity of 1-nonadecene and L-lactic acid, unique metabolites in radicular cysts and periapical granulomas. ...
  • Lactic acid, or lactate, is a natural byproduct generated through the production of energy in the body, and is produced by the body at all times. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The relationship of lactic acid to the ability of the body to perform must be assessed in two parts: the function of the lactate itself, and the adverse effects of the hydrogen ion produced in the reaction that creates lactic acid. (encyclopedia.com)
  • the mix of calcium lactate and lactic acid has different microsturcture to the single salts, lower water absorption and provide more pure flavor in food, widely used in yogurt slices, fruit milk slices and candies. (techwaychem.com)
  • If there is insufficient oxygen, these pyruvate will be catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase to produce lactic acid. (medicaltrend.org)
  • Due to the lack of understanding of clinical biochemical basis, the concepts of Lactate and Lactic Acid are often mixed. (medicaltrend.org)
  • Lactic acidosis (LA), identified by an accumulation of plasma lactate concentration, is one type of anion gap metabolic acidosis and may manifest from numerous conditions. (medscape.com)
  • Lactic acidosis is characterized by an excess of serum lactate when lactate production is augmented, lactate utilization and clearance are decreased, or both. (medscape.com)
  • The greater the demands for energy, to the point where the body cannot rely on stored fatty acids as a fuel source, the more readily carbohydrates will be converted, meaning the greater the amount of lactic acid available for conversion. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A test can be done to measure the amount of lactic acid in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles as a carrier of gonadotropin-relea sing hormone analogues (GnRHa) for induction of ovulation in peled Coregonus peled. (muni.cz)
  • Our results demonstrate that ovulation can be induced in the peled by the sustained - release of GnRHa in poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles, but the treatment does not improve reproductive performance. (muni.cz)
  • In this work, a pathway built upon templated chemistry towards the synthesis of a self-healable polymer using the bio-based Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) as a starting material is proposed. (uclouvain.be)
  • 1995), especially as a feedstock monomer in the polymer industry for the manufacture of poly-(lactic acid) (PLA). (ncsu.edu)
  • Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) copolymer is among of the most biomaterials used. (bvsalud.org)
  • We evaluated volatile organic compound and particle emissions from fused deposition modeling™ 3-D printers using poly lactic acid and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene thermoplastics and measured personal exposures to total and specific volatile organic compounds. (cdc.gov)
  • EXFOLIATE & MOISTURIZE ] Salicylic Acid & Lactic Acid to help exfoliate, Hyaluronic Acid to help retain skin's moisture, and Niacinamide to help calm skin. (sportcrafter.com)
  • MOISTURIZING: Moisturizing body lotion and elasticity with hyaluronic acid and collagen. (sportcrafter.com)
  • Hyaluronic Acid is known as a moisture magnet, and the collagen ingredients in this body lotion have a high absorptive power, helping your skin remain hydrated and with elasticity. (sportcrafter.com)
  • Hyaluronic Acid: Visibly plumps skin with long-lasting hydration. (sephora.com)
  • A powerful, synergistic serum combining lactic acid with 15% L-ascorbic acid to increase absorption and enhance antioxidant performance for visible transformation of sun-aged skin. (drdennisgross.com)
  • Elevated serum lactic acid is an indicator of metabolic disorders caused by a variety of clinical causes. (medicaltrend.org)
  • It is very important to understand the production mechanism of lactic acid and the physiological factors of elevated serum lactic acid, otherwise it will cause abuse of lactic acid monitoring and interpretation. (medicaltrend.org)
  • It is created by one of three mechanisms: (1) increased production of acids, (2) decreased excretion of acids, or (3) loss of alkali. (medscape.com)
  • Acidosis arises from an increased production of acids, a loss of alkali, or a decreased renal excretion of acids. (medscape.com)
  • This study investigated upwind responses of Anopheles stephensi, mysorensis form, an important malaria vector in Asia, to carbon dioxide and L-lactic acid under laboratory conditions. (who.int)
  • L-lactic acid alone did not produce a significant effect by itself, but addition of 6 µg/min of L-lactic acid to a range of 90 to 410 ppm carbon dioxide resulted in attraction. (who.int)
  • i) The waste product is lactic acid , not carbon dioxide and water, as in aerobic respiration. (docbrown.info)
  • Know and understand anaerobic respiration results in an oxygen debt that has to be repaid in order to oxidise lactic acid to carbon dioxide and water. (docbrown.info)
  • Know that one cause of muscle fatigue is the build-up of lactic acid in the muscles from anaerobic respiration even though the blood flowing through the muscles removes the lactic acid, oxygen is used up to oxidise lactic acid to carbon dioxide and water. (docbrown.info)
  • The oxygen debt is the quantity of oxygen your body needs to react with the build up of lactic acid in the cells and remove it by oxidation to carbon dioxide and water (as happens with aerobic respiration of glucose) and replace the body's reserve of oxygen in the bloodstream and cells . (docbrown.info)
  • Lactic acid in the cell will itself metabolize into ATP, a process by which energy can be produced without oxygen, known as the anaerobic lactic energy system. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Lactic acid will begin to accumulate in the muscles when the athlete begins to operate above the anaerobic threshold, which is generally accepted as representing 80-90% of the maximum heart rate of the athlete. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This anaerobic reaction only partially breaks down the glucose to lactic acid in animals and some bacteria . (docbrown.info)
  • In animals, if the physical activity is intense and prolonged you get the ' cramps ' pains due to the build up of lactic acid, which can be painful as anaerobic respiration kicks in due to lack of oxygen. (docbrown.info)
  • With anaerobic respiration you do get the build up of lactic acid in the muscles because it is biochemically more difficult to oxidise and release energy . (docbrown.info)
  • Lactic acid is a product of anaerobic metabolism, but hyperlactic acid can also occur when there is no hypoxia. (medicaltrend.org)
  • Normally, the kidneys excrete hydrogen ions (H + ) through the formation of titratable acids and ammonium. (medscape.com)
  • This test is most often done to diagnose lactic acidosis . (medlineplus.gov)
  • [ 2 , 4 , 5 ] Clinical context and severity govern the effect of lactic acidosis, with mortality increasing by a factor of about three when the condition is associated with sepsis or low-flow states. (medscape.com)
  • Lactic acidosis remains the most common cause of metabolic acidosis in hospitalized patients. (medscape.com)
  • Treatment with buffering agents for acute lactic acidosis remains controversial. (medscape.com)
  • Dialysis may also be useful when severe lactic acidosis exists in the setting of renal failure or congestive heart failure, as well as with severe metformin intoxication. (medscape.com)
  • Several studies related to metformin-related lactic acidosis and acute kidney failure found significantly reduced morbidity and mortality related to continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) or hemodialysis. (medscape.com)
  • Even with 12% Glycolic Acid Solution, pH 3.0~4.0 balance prescription removes dead skin cells without irritating the skin. (sportcrafter.com)
  • Glycolic Acid removes the dead skin cells, Madecassoside helps skin regeneration and soothing. (sportcrafter.com)
  • Lactic acid is derived from milk and is much milder on the skin than Glycolic or Salicylic peels. (robertandrewsmedical.com)
  • A leave-on facial exfoliant with eight percent glycolic acid to remove built-up dead skin for a visibly bright, smooth, radiant, and youthful look. (sephora.com)
  • Glycolic Acid (AHA) 8%: Sheds dulling surface buildup to visibly boost radiance and reduce fine lines and wrinkles. (sephora.com)
  • Can be paired with CeraVe Renewing Salicylic Acid Cleanser for Rough and Bumpy Skin to cleanse & exfoliate. (sportcrafter.com)
  • Lactic Acid will exfoliate the outer surface of the skin and encourage new cell turnover. (platinumskincare.com)
  • When Cleopatra chose to bathe in sour donkey milk, the lactic acid was able to help exfoliate her skin and keep it smooth and beautifully clear. (platinumskincare.com)
  • Molecular pathogenicity of 1-nonadecene and L-lactic acid, unique metabolites in radicular cysts and periapical granulomas. (bvsalud.org)
  • Recently, 1-nonadecene and L-lactic acid were identified as unique metabolites in radicular cysts and periapical granuloma , respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • CERAVE MOISTURIZING LOTION WITH SALICYLIC ACID ] Body moisturizer that gently exfoliates dry, scaly, or rough and bumpy skin on legs and upper arms. (sportcrafter.com)
  • The Lactic Acid Peel is alpha hydroxy acid that exfoliates the outer layer of your skin to encourage new cell turnover. (robertandrewsmedical.com)
  • Lactic Acid: An alpha hydroxy acid that exfoliates the skin. (sephora.com)
  • Contains additional fruit acids to condition/soften skin and help diminish signs of aging. (sportcrafter.com)
  • Refreshing dual-action wash gel with added fruit acids for radiant, smooth skin without dullness. (kosmetik-friedrichstrasse.de)
  • Depending on the body's needs at a particular time, lactic acid is also capable of being converted into glycogen, the storage form of glucose, in the same fashion that blood glucose is stored, to be maintained in the liver and released into the bloodstream when required. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Lactic is a great choice for those dealing with aging and pigmented skin - think liver spots and freckling. (platinumskincare.com)
  • Lactic acid enters the circulation from the tissues and is converted back to glucose through gluconeogenesis in the liver (60%) and kidneys (30%), and is again used for glycolysis in various organs (Figure 1). (medicaltrend.org)
  • In skeletal muscle, lactic acid is generated from pyruvate through glycolysis, which is then converted to glucose in an ATP-dependent manner in the liver. (medicaltrend.org)
  • Acetic acid showed a strong inhibition on simultaneous saccharification fermentation (SSF) process, but little effect on enzymatic hydrolysis. (ncsu.edu)
  • One of the gentlest of alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), lactic acid not only banishes dullness by loosening the bonds keeping dead skin cells attached to the skin, but it also acts as a natural moisturising factor, helping to replenish moisture levels. (skingredients.com)
  • Anmol Chemicals is a manufacturer supplier exporter of Lactic Acid and it offers materials as per IP BP EP Ph Eur USP NF JP FCC Food Grade as per the the latest monograph at best prices. (anmol.org)
  • L-Ascorbic Acid Naturally derived from fruits & vegetables, ascorbic acid is Vitamin C in its purest form. (drdennisgross.com)
  • I stopped using physical exfoliants and using this lactic acid exfoliant has done wonders on my skin's texture. (sephora.com)
  • In 2016, the rescue of sepsis movement 1h cluster treatment included lactic acid monitoring as the primary core, and it is recommended that patients be fluid resuscitation to restore the lactic acid concentration to normal. (medicaltrend.org)
  • Contra-Indications: Milk Allergies If you are ready to move to a stronger acid, our TCA 13 is another excellent choice for pigmentation and antiaging with more peeling. (platinumskincare.com)
  • This lactic peel is buffered. (platinumskincare.com)
  • A higher pH level will slow-down the action of the acid, and is thus safer for an at-home peel. (platinumskincare.com)
  • This 50% lactic peel is perfect for the do-it-yourself-er or first time peeler. (platinumskincare.com)
  • Our Lactic acid peel has been enhanced with a "skin lightening" and " anti-aging" cocktail of herbal remedies. (platinumskincare.com)
  • View our simple hydroxy acid peel demonstration. (platinumskincare.com)
  • Watch Vlogger Mary Haberski @yogasurflove use our Lactic 50% peel for the very first time. (platinumskincare.com)
  • Lactic is considered a Very Superficial peel (more of an exfoliation), meaning that it only penetrates into the outermost layer, the Stratum Corneum. (platinumskincare.com)
  • The Lactic Acid Peel will fade dark marks, improve hyperpigmentation, brighten and lighten skin, improve the appearance of light wrinkles, and stimulate collagen. (robertandrewsmedical.com)
  • It has clean ingredients and clean exfoliants like Japanese Konnyaku, Tea Tree Oil, and Phytic Acid! (sephora.com)
  • The method by which lactic acid is broken down to produce ATP is much quicker than the aerobic processes, those that require oxygen to be delivered by way of the cardiovascular system . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Dumesic and coworkers [1] found that polar aprotic organic solvents such as g-valerolactone (GVL) and tetrahydrofural (THF) cause significant increases in reaction rates compared to water in addition to increased product selectivity for Brønsted acid-catalyzed reactions like conversion of xylose into furfural, dehydration of 1,2-propanediol to propanal and for the hydrolysis of cellobiose to glucose. (aiche.org)
  • Here we report a similar effect for the Lewis and Brønsted acid-catalyzed reaction of fructose to lactic acid or HMF, respectively. (aiche.org)
  • Sn-Beta catalyst was employed as catalyst for the Lewis acid-catalyzed reaction and a sulfonic acid-based CMK-3 catalyst was used for the Brønsted acid-catalyzed reactions. (aiche.org)
  • As a brain signal molecule, lactic acid is related to neuronal activity, metabolism, substrate utilization and blood flow, and may also be related to short-term memory and panic disorder. (medicaltrend.org)
  • Lactic acid response to caffeine in panic disorder: Comparison with social phobics and normal controls. (bvsalud.org)
  • Lactic acid is commonly recognized as one of the most versatile organic acids, with a long history of usage for the preservation of foodstuffs. (ncsu.edu)
  • Lactic acid (LA) and 5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) are two examples of primary renewable building blocks that can be obtained from fructose as starting feedstock. (aiche.org)
  • The effects on both cellulose conversion rate and lactic acid yield were studied by adding inhibitors, including formic acid, acetic acid, furfural, and vanillin into the hydrolysate of steam-pretreated Lespedeza stalks. (ncsu.edu)
  • Hydrolysis and SSF were less affected by furfural and vanillin compared with weak acids. (ncsu.edu)
  • If you are searching for these general types of skin improvements, then lactic is the acid choice for you. (platinumskincare.com)
  • In case of contact with Lactic Acid, wipe off excess material from skin then immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. (anmol.org)
  • There are so many lactic acid lotion brands on the market like Major Pharmaceuticals, CeraVe, Planet Eden, VILLAGE11FACTORY, Dermal Therapy, NEOPROSONE, AmLactin, DRMTLGY, Alpha Skin Care, it can be tough to know which one will be the best. (sportcrafter.com)
  • SA is a Beta Hydroxy Acid (BHA), an exfoliator that removes dead skin cells and smooths skin. (sportcrafter.com)
  • It is an excellent acid choice for dry and sun damaged skin. (robertandrewsmedical.com)
  • A high-strength lactic acid peeling formula for smoother, healthier-looking skin. (sephora.com)
  • For this reason, lactic acid is mistakenly regarded as a waste product. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The powder product is more easily used in some special aspects than lactic acid solution, and therefore becomes an ideal material added in instant salar, onion cheese, dry milk products and leisure food. (techwaychem.com)
  • At this time, glucose is converted into pyruvate through glycolysis, with acetyl-CoA as an intermediate product, entering the Krebs (citric acid) cycle, and most of ATP is produced in the process of oxidative phosphorylation. (medicaltrend.org)
  • Therefore, we aimed to investigate the inflammatory and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) effects of 1-nonadecene, and the inflammatory and collagen precipitation effects of L-lactic acid on both periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PdLFs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). (bvsalud.org)
  • Intriguingly, L-lactic acid induced fibrosis -like effects by enhancing collagen synthesis, while inhibiting MMP -1 release in PdLFs. (bvsalud.org)
  • The lactic acid yield of Lespedeza stalks rinsed with water increased from 64.0% to 89.4%, and the time to reach the maximum concentration was shortened from 96 hours to 48 hours when compared with the unwashed materials. (ncsu.edu)
  • Our concentrate on should be to consolidate and enhance the quality and service of present products, meanwhile consistently produce new products to meet unique customers' demands for 80 88 lactic acid we sincerely invite you to mature up with us and create a vivid foreseeable future jointly! (abaishengbioproducts.com)
  • Lactic acid is formed through the metabolism of the carbohydrate energy source glucose during the production of energy in the cell. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This ion is itself a byproduct of the production of lactic acid, and the ion is the cause of the muscle problems frequently associated with lactic acid presence in the muscles. (encyclopedia.com)
  • lactic acid can be transported through the bloodstream to a destination within the body where it is needed for ATP production. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The level of lactic acid production was estimated at around 68 million kg per year, and worldwide growth is believed to be 12 to 15% per year (Wassewar 2005). (ncsu.edu)
  • Certain organs of the body have a preference for lactic acid as a fuel source during endurance events, with the same bias that the brain and the central nervous system rely on carbohydrate sources for their energy needs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The kidneys are responsible for reclaiming filtered bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ) and eliminating the daily acid load generated from nitrogen (protein) metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • The results suggest that formic acid has a significant influence on the enzyme activity and poisoned bacterial cells, resulting in the reduction of cellulose conversion rate and lactic acid yield by 21% and 16.4%, respectively. (ncsu.edu)
  • Mature red blood cells lacking mitochondria produce lactic acid through the process of glycolytic enzyme synthesis of ATP. (medicaltrend.org)
  • Most of the lactic acid filtered by the kidneys is reabsorbed, and only a small part is lost in the urine. (medicaltrend.org)
  • Lactic can be used for sparge water adjustments also but note that sparge water usually has much less buffering than the mash so make smaller additions and stir through well. (onlinebrewingsupplies.com)
  • Hydrogen sulfide is used to produce elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid, and heavy water for nuclear reactors. (cdc.gov)
  • Clenching the fist or having the elastic band in place for a long time while having blood drawn can result in a false increase in lactic acid level. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Buffering raises the pH level of the acid so that it does not work too quickly. (platinumskincare.com)
  • The blood lactic acid level is positively correlated with the short-term and long-term disability rate and mortality of patients. (medicaltrend.org)
  • Lactic Acid Derived from beets but also produced naturally by your body, this vegan form of lactic acid is an alpha hydroxy acid. (drdennisgross.com)
  • Deze Lactic Acid, ook wel bekend als Melkzuur, is een wateroplosbare alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) dat kan worden gebruikt om te verwerken in zelfgemaakte verzorgingsproducten zoals serums en crèmes. (zelfzorg-drogist.nl)
  • L-lactic acid exerted a differential impact on the inflammation and proliferation markers. (bvsalud.org)
  • So the addition of an Acid such as Lactic Acid makes sense as acid will adjust pH much better than brewing salts. (onlinebrewingsupplies.com)
  • in 1843, German physician Johann Joseph Scherer discovered lactic acid in the blood of shock patients. (medicaltrend.org)
  • Milk wasn't the only acid used by the Egyptians, though it was the most popular. (platinumskincare.com)
  • Most of the lactic acid in the body is produced by skeletal muscle. (medicaltrend.org)
  • It does not remain pooled or stored in the muscles as waste, for as long as the muscles create emands for energy, lactic acid will be converted into ATP. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Blood lactic acid monitoring has been in clinical use for a long time, and is often used to assess the severity of the disease in critically ill patients and their response to therapeutic interventions. (medicaltrend.org)
  • In endurance races such as cross-country skiing, marathon runs, or long distance cycling, the phenomenon referred to as " second wind " is a result of lactic acid effect. (encyclopedia.com)