A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.
An order of gram-positive bacteria in the class Bacilli, that have the ability to ferment sugars to lactic acid. They are widespread in nature and commonly used to produce fermented foods.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. It is nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. No endospores are produced. Its organisms are found in fermenting plant products and are nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
A species of rod-shaped, LACTIC ACID bacteria used in PROBIOTICS and SILAGE production.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria mainly isolated from milk and milk products. These bacteria are also found in plants and nonsterile frozen and dry foods. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS (group N), it is now recognized as a separate genus.
A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic bacteria. capable of producing LACTIC ACID. It is important in the manufacture of fermented dairy products.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria that is frequently used as starter culture in SILAGE fermentation, sourdough, and lactic-acid-fermented types of beer and wine.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A species of thermophilic, gram-positive bacteria found in MILK and milk products.
A rod-shaped bacterium isolated from milk and cheese, dairy products and dairy environments, sour dough, cow dung, silage, and human mouth, human intestinal contents and stools, and the human vagina.
A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.
A family of gram-positive non-sporing bacteria including many parasitic, pathogenic, and saprophytic forms.
Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria associated with DENTAL CARIES.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
Acidosis caused by accumulation of lactic acid more rapidly than it can be metabolized. It may occur spontaneously or in association with diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS; LEUKEMIA; or LIVER FAILURE.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Milk modified with controlled FERMENTATION. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KAFFIR CORN.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.
A genus of gram-positive, asporogenous, lactic acid bacteria, in the family LEUCONOSTOCACEAE.
Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
A genus of GRAM-POSITIVE COCCI in the family LEUCONOSTOCACEAE. It is the primary bacteria involved in carrying out malolactic conversion in winemaking.
A gram-positive, non-spore-forming group of bacteria comprising organisms that have morphological and physiological characteristics in common.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).
A 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis. It has been used as a food preservative in canned fruits and vegetables, and cheese.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria found naturally in the human intestinal flora and BREAST MILK.
Fodder converted into succulent feed for livestock through processes of anaerobic fermentation (as in a silo).
Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
A slightly acid milk food produced by fermentation due to the combined action of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus.
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Alcohol oxidoreductases with substrate specificity for LACTIC ACID.
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.
Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.
The sodium salt of racemic or inactive lactic acid. It is a hygroscopic agent used intravenously as a systemic and urinary alkalizer.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
A species of gram-positive bacteria isolated from MILK and cheese-starter cultures.
Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.
A species of gram-negative bacteria of the family ACETOBACTERACEAE found in FLOWERS and FRUIT. Cells are ellipsoidal to rod-shaped and straight or slightly curved.
A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.
Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
The mechanical process of cooling.
Ground up seed of WHEAT.
Keeping food for later consumption.
The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
Organic polymeric materials which can be broken down by naturally occurring processes. This includes plastics created from bio-based or petrochemical-based materials.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose cells occur singly, in pairs or short chains, in V or Y configurations, or in clumps resembling letters of the Chinese alphabet. Its organisms are found in cheese and dairy products as well as on human skin and can occasionally cause soft tissue infections.
A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
Personal care items for women.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
The second stomach of ruminants. It lies almost in the midline in the front of the abdomen, in contact with the liver and diaphragm and communicates freely with the RUMEN via the ruminoreticular orifice. The lining of the reticulum is raised into folds forming a honeycomb pattern over the surface. (From Concise Veterinary Dictionary, 1988)
A plant genus in the CANNABACEAE family. Best known for the buds of Humulus lupulus L. used in BEER.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, a common saprophyte and facultative parasite of mature fruits and vegetables. It may cause cerebral mycoses in diabetes and cutaneous infection in severely burned patients.
Aromatic substances added to food before or after cooking to enhance its flavor. These are usually of vegetable origin.
The D-isomer of ASPARTIC ACID.
A genus of bacteria which may be found in the feces of animals and man, on vegetation, and in silage. Its species are parasitic on cold-blooded and warm-blooded animals, including man.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.
Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
The application of knowledge to the food industry.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
The syrup remaining after sugar is crystallized out of SUGARCANE or sugar beet juice. It is also used in ANIMAL FEED, and in a fermented form, is used to make industrial ETHYL ALCOHOL and ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
A thin-walled distention of the alimentary tract protruding just outside the body cavity in the distal end of the neck (esophagus), used for the temporary storage of food and water.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A plant genus of the family TROPAEOLACEAE. The common nasturtium is a plant that grows 2.4-3.6 m (8-12 feet) tall and has funnel-shaped flowers that are commonly yellow-orange with red spots or stripes and have a long spur that contains sweet nectar. Some species in this genus are called watercress which is also a common name for RORIPPA and NASTURTIUM.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family Aerococcaceae.
The gradual destruction of a metal or alloy due to oxidation or action of a chemical agent. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria used in PROBIOTICS.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
A beverage prepared from SOYBEANS.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Polysaccharides composed of D-fructose units.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
A very complex, but reproducible mixture of at least 177 C10 polychloro derivatives, having an approximate overall empirical formula of C10-H10-Cl8. It is used as an insecticide and may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.
Discarded animal and vegetable matter from a kitchen or the refuse from food preparation. (From Random House College Dictionary, 1982)
Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.
An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly found in the alimentary tract of cows, sheep, and other ruminants. It occasionally is encountered in cases of human endocarditis. This species is nonhemolytic.
A biguanide hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of METFORMIN. Although it is generally considered to be associated with an unacceptably high incidence of lactic acidosis, often fatal, it is still available in some countries. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
The removal of a carboxyl group, usually in the form of carbon dioxide, from a chemical compound.
The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
A family of gram-positive bacteria in the order Lactobacillales, phylum Firmicutes.
A technique for analysis of the chemical composition of molecules. A substance is bombarded with monochromatic ELECTRONS. Some of the electrons passing through the specimen will lose energy when they ionize inner shell electrons of the atoms in the specimen. The energy loss is element dependent. Analysis of the energy loss spectrum reveals the elemental composition of a specimen. ENERGY-FILTERED TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY is a type of electron energy loss spectroscopy carried out in electron microscopes specially outfitted to analyze the spectrum of electron energy loss.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic cocci parasitic in the mouth and in the intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms and a decrease in lactobacilli. It remains unclear whether the initial pathogenic event is caused by the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli.
The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.
Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.
Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.
A plant genus of the family PONTEDERIACEAE that is used as a biological filter for treating wastewater.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Microbial, plant, or animal cells which are immobilized by attachment to solid structures, usually a column matrix. A common use of immobilized cells is in biotechnology for the bioconversion of a substrate to a particular product. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.
Nutritional supplements combining PROBIOTICS (bacteria) and PREBIOTICS (sugars).
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Unlike ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS, this species may produce an alpha-hemolytic reaction on blood agar and is unable to utilize pyruvic acid as an energy source.
A metabolite of AMINOPYRINE with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. It is used as a reagent for biochemical reactions producing peroxides or phenols. Ampyrone stimulates LIVER MICROSOMES and is also used to measure extracellular water.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
Excretion of an excessive amount of OXALATES in the urine.
A plant genus of the family CAPPARACEAE that contains mabinlin, a sweet protein.
Medicated dosage forms that are designed to be inserted into the rectal, vaginal, or urethral orifice of the body for absorption. Generally, the active ingredients are packaged in dosage forms containing fatty bases such as cocoa butter, hydrogenated oil, or glycerogelatin that are solid at room temperature but melt or dissolve at body temperature.
Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A state due to excess loss of carbon dioxide from the body. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.

Energy cost of sport rock climbing in elite performers. (1/5450)

OBJECTIVES: To assess oxygen uptake (VO2), blood lactate concentration ([La(b)]), and heart rate (HR) response during indoor and outdoor sport climbing. METHODS: Seven climbers aged 25 (SE 1) years, with a personal best ascent without preview or fall (on sight) ranging from 6b to 7a were assessed using an indoor vertical treadmill with artificial rock hand/foot holds and a discontinuous protocol with climbing velocity incremented until voluntary fatigue. On a separate occasion the subjects performed a 23.4 m outdoor rock climb graded 5c and taking 7 min 36 s (SE 33 s) to complete. Cardiorespiratory parameters were measured using a telemetry system and [La(b)] collected at rest and after climbing. RESULTS: Indoor climbing elicited a peak oxygen uptake (VO2climb-peak) and peak HR (HRpeak) of 43.8 (SE 2.2) ml/kg/min and 190 (SE 4) bpm, respectively and increased blood lactate concentration [La(b)] from 1.4 (0.1) to 10.2 (0.6) mmol/l (p < 0.05). During outdoor climbing VO2 and HR increased to about 75% and 83% of VO2climb-peak and HRpeak, respectively. [La(b)] increased from 1.3 (0.1) at rest to 4.5 mmol/l (p < 0.05) at 2 min 32 s (8 s) after completion of the climb. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that for elite climbers outdoor sport rock climbs of five to 10 minutes' duration and moderate difficulty require a significant portion of the VO2climb-peak. The higher HR and VO2 for outdoor climbing and the increased [La(b)] could be the result of repeated isometric contractions, particularly from the arm and forearm muscles.  (+info)

Correlation between hypermetabolism and neuronal damage during status epilepticus induced by lithium and pilocarpine in immature and adult rats. (2/5450)

The correlation between seizure-induced hypermetabolism and subsequent neuronal damage was studied in 10-day-old (P10), 21-day-old (P21), and adult rats subjected to lithium-pilocarpine status epilepticus (SE). Local CMRglc (LCMRglc) values were measured by the [14C]2-deoxyglucose method for a duration of 45 minutes starting at 60 minutes after the onset of SE, and neuronal damage was assessed by cresyl violet staining at 6 days after SE. In P21 and adult rats, LCMRglc values were increased by 275 to 875% in all thalamic, cortical, forebrain, and hypothalamic regions plus the substantia nigra. In addition, at P21 there were also large increases in LCMRglc in brainstem regions. In P10 rats, metabolic increases were mostly located in cortical and forebrain regions plus the substantia nigra but did not affect hypothalamic, thalamic, or brainstem areas. In adult rats, there was an anatomical correlation between hypermetabolism and neuronal damage. At P21, although hypermetabolism occurred in regions with damage, the extent of damage varied considerably with the animals and ranged from an almost negligible to a very extended degree. Finally, in P10 rats, although quite pronounced hypermetabolism occurred, there was no neuronal damage induced by the seizures. Thus, in the present model of epilepsy, the correlation between marked hypermetabolism and neuronal damage can be shown in adult rats. Conversely, immature rats can sustain major metabolic activations that lead either to a variable extent of damage, as seen at P21, or no damage, as recorded at P10.  (+info)

Lactic acid polymers as biodegradable carriers of fluoroquinolones: an in vitro study. (3/5450)

A biodegradable polymer of DL-dilactide that facilitates release of ciprofloxacin or pefloxacin at levels exceeding MICs for the causative microorganisms of chronic osteomyelitis is described. Duration and peak of release were found to depend on the molecular weight of the polymer. Its characteristics make it promising for treating chronic bone infections.  (+info)

Mechanisms of capsaicin- and lactic acid-induced bronchoconstriction in the newborn dog. (4/5450)

1. Capsaicin activation of the pulmonary C fibre vanilloid receptor (VR1) evokes the pulmonary chemoreflex and reflex bronchoconstriction. Among potential endogenous ligands of C fibre afferents, lactic acid has been suggested as a promising candidate. We tested the hypotheses that (a) lactic acid behaves as a stimulant of C fibre receptors in the newborn dog to cause reflex bronchoconstriction, and (b) lactic acid causes reflex bronchoconstriction via the same pulmonary C fibre receptor mechanism as capsaicin using the competitive capsaicin/VR1 receptor antagonist capsazepine. 2. Right heart injection of lactic acid caused a significant increase (47 +/- 8.0 %) in lung resistance (RL) that was atropine sensitive (reduced by 75 %; P < 0.05), consistent with reflex activation of muscarinic efferents by stimulation of C fibre afferents. 3. Infusion of the competitive capsaicin antagonist capsazepine caused an 80 % reduction (P < 0.01) in the control bronchoconstrictor response (41 +/- 8.5 % increase in RL) to right heart injections of capsaicin. The effects of capsazepine are consistent with reversible blockade of the VR1 receptor to abolish C fibre-mediated reflex bronchoconstriction. 4. Lactic acid-evoked increases in RL were unaffected by VR1 blockade with capsazepine, consistent with a separate lactic acid-induced reflex mechanism. 5. We conclude that (a) putative stimulation of C fibres with lactic acid causes reflex bronchoconstriction in the newborn dog, (b) capsazepine reversibly antagonizes reflex bronchoconstriction elicited by right heart injection of capsaicin, presumably by attenuating capsaicin-induced activation of the C fibre 'capsaicin' receptor (VR1), and (c) capsazepine resistance of lactic acid-induced bronchoconstriction indicates that lactic acid evokes reflex bronchoconstriction by a separate mechanism, possibly via the acid-sensing ionic channel.  (+info)

Glucose kinetics during prolonged exercise in highly trained human subjects: effect of glucose ingestion. (5/5450)

1. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate whether glucose ingestion during prolonged exercise reduces whole body muscle glycogen oxidation, (2) to determine the extent to which glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized during exercise with and without carbohydrate ingestion and (3) to obtain an estimate of gluconeogenesis. 2. After an overnight fast, six well-trained cyclists exercised on three occasions for 120 min on a bicycle ergometer at 50 % maximum velocity of O2 uptake and ingested either water (Fast), or a 4 % glucose solution (Lo-Glu) or a 22 % glucose solution (Hi-Glu) during exercise. 3. Dual tracer infusion of [U-13C]-glucose and [6,6-2H2]-glucose was given to measure the rate of appearance (Ra) of glucose, muscle glycogen oxidation, glucose carbon recycling, metabolic clearance rate (MCR) and non-oxidative disposal of glucose. 4. Glucose ingestion markedly increased total Ra especially with Hi-Glu. After 120 min Ra and rate of disappearance (Rd) of glucose were 51-52 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Fast, 73-74 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Lo-Glu and 117-119 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Hi-Glu. The percentage of Rd oxidized was between 96 and 100 % in all trials. 5. Glycogen oxidation during exercise was not reduced by glucose ingestion. The vast majority of glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized and MCR increased markedly with glucose ingestion. Glucose carbon recycling was minimal suggesting that gluconeogenesis in these conditions is negligible.  (+info)

Effect of shellfish calcium on the apparent absorption of calcium and bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. (6/5450)

Fossil shellfish powder (FS) and Ezo giant scallop shell powder (EG) were rendered soluble with lactate and citrate under decompression (FSEx and EGEx, respectively) and we examined the effects of lactate-citrate solubilization of FS and EG on mineral absorption, tissue mineral contents, serum biochemical indices and bone mineral density (BMD) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The apparent absorption ratios of minerals tended to be high in the rats fed with the solubilized mineral sources, those in the FSEx group being significantly higher than in the FS group. There was no significant difference in the tibia mineral content among the OVX groups. BMD at the distal femoral diaphysis was significantly increased by FSEx and EGEx feeding. It is suggested that solubilization with lactate and citrate under decompression increased the solubility and bioavailability of calcium from such natural sources of shellfish calcium as FS and EG.  (+info)

Regulation of myocardial blood flow by oxygen consumption is maintained in the failing heart during exercise. (7/5450)

The hemodynamic abnormalities and neurohumoral activation that accompany congestive heart failure (CHF) might be expected to impair the increase in coronary blood flow that occurs during exercise. This study was performed to determine the effects of CHF on myocardial oxygen consumption and coronary blood flow during exercise. Coronary blood flow was measured in chronically instrumented dogs at rest, during 2 stages of graded treadmill exercise under control conditions (n=10), and after the development of CHF produced by 3 weeks of rapid ventricular pacing (n=9). In the normal dogs, coronary blood flow increased during exercise in proportion to the increase in the heart rate x the left ventricular systolic blood pressure product (RPP). After the development of CHF, resting myocardial blood flow was 25% lower than normal (P<0.05). Myocardial blood flow increased during the first stage of exercise, but then failed to increase further during the second stage of exercise despite an additional increase in the RPP. Myocardial oxygen consumption during exercise was significantly lower in animals with CHF and paralleled coronary flow. Despite the lower values for coronary blood flow in animals with CHF, there was no evidence for myocardial ischemia. Thus, even during the second level of exercise when coronary flow failed to increase, myocardial lactate consumption continued and coronary venous pH did not fall. In addition, the failure of coronary flow to increase as the exercise level was increased from stage 1 to stage 2 was not associated with a further increase in myocardial oxygen extraction. Thus, cardiac failure was associated with decreased myocardial oxygen consumption and failure of oxygen consumption to increase with an increase in the level of exercise. This abnormality did not appear to result from inadequate oxygen availability, but more likely represented a reduction of myocardial oxygen usage with a secondary decrease in metabolic coronary vasodilation.  (+info)

Lactate kinetics at rest and during exercise in lambs with aortopulmonary shunts. (8/5450)

In a previous study [G. C. M. Beaufort-Krol, J. Takens, M. C. Molenkamp, G. B. Smid, J. J. Meuzelaar, W. G. Zijlstra, and J. R. G. Kuipers. Am. J. Physiol. 275 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 44): H1503-H1512, 1998], a lower systemic O2 supply was found in lambs with aortopulmonary left-to-right shunts. To determine whether the lower systemic O2 supply results in increased anaerobic metabolism, we used [1-13C]lactate to investigate lactate kinetics in eight 7-wk-old lambs with shunts and eight control lambs, at rest and during moderate exercise [treadmill; 50% of peak O2 consumption (VO2)]. The mean left-to-right shunt fraction in the shunt lambs was 55 +/- 3% of pulmonary blood flow. Arterial lactate concentrations and the rate of appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd) of lactate were similar in shunt and control lambs, both at rest (lactate: 1, 201 +/- 76 vs. 1,214 +/- 151 micromol/l; Ra = Rd: 12.97 +/- 1.71 vs. 12.55 +/- 1.25 micromol. min-1. kg-1) and during a similar relative workload. We found a positive correlation between Ra and systemic blood flow, O2 supply, and VO2 in both groups of lambs. In conclusion, shunt lambs have similar lactate kinetics as do control lambs, both at rest and during moderate exercise at a similar fraction of their peak VO2, despite a lower systemic O2 supply.  (+info)

A growing number of players are capitalizing on the opportunities arising out of the substantial popularity of biodegradable plastics and bioplastics where lactic acid and polylactic acid are used as raw materials for their production. Some of the leading players in the global lactic acid market and polylactic acid market are Futerro SA, Teijin Ltd., Zhejiang Hisun Biomaterials Co., Ltd., Synbra Technology BV, Archer Daniels Midland Company, Henan Jindan Lactic Acid Technology Co., Ltd., NatureWorks LLC, and Corbion NV., notes Transparency Market Research (TMR).. The global lactic acid market stood at US$1,130.4 Mn in 2014 and is estimated to reach US$3,381.8 Mn by the end of 2023. This represents the market to rise at robust CAGR of 13.0% during 2015-2023. On the other hand, the global polylactic acid market stood at US$400.1 Mn in 2014 and is projected to reach a worth of US$1,358.1 Mn by 2023 end. Polylactic acid market is projected to proliferate at a CAGR of 14.6% during the same forecast ...
The aim of this study was to determine if the post-operative serum arterial lactate concentration is associated with mortality, length of hospital stay or complications following hepatic resection. Serum lactate concentration was recorded at the end of liver resection in a consecutive series of 488 patients over a seven-year period. Liver function, coagulation and electrolyte tests were performed post-operatively. Renal dysfunction was defined as a creatinine rise of |1.5x the pre-operative value. The median lactate was 2.8 mmol/L (0.6 to 16 mmol/L) and was elevated (≥2 mmol/L) in 72% of patients. The lactate concentration was associated with peak post-operative bilirubin, prothrombin time, renal dysfunction, length of hospital stay and 90-day mortality (P | 0.001). The 90-day mortality in patients with a post-operative lactate ≥6 mmol/L was 28% compared to 0.7% in those with lactate ≤2 mmol/L. Pre-operative diabetes, number of segments resected, the surgeons assessment of liver parenchyma, blood
A method for producing a polylactic acid of the present invention includes the steps of (a) polymerizing a lactide used as a main starting material in a molten state to give a polylactic acid; and (b) further polymerizing the polylactic acid obtained in step (a) in a solid phase by heating at a temperature lower than a melting point of a final polymer product.
BACKGROUND: Hyperlactataemia is often associated with a poor outcome in severe malaria in African children. To unravel the complex pathophysiology of this condition the relationship between plasma lactate levels, parasite density, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and haemozoin-containing leucocytes was studied in children with severe falciparum malarial anaemia. METHODS: Twenty-six children with a primary diagnosis of severe malarial anaemia with any asexual Plasmodium falciparum parasite density and Hb | 5 g/dL were studied and the association of plasma lactate levels and haemozoin-containing leucocytes, parasite density, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines was measured. The same associations were measured in non-severe malaria controls (N = 60). RESULTS: Parasite density was associated with lactate levels on admission (r = 0.56, P | 0.005). Moreover, haemozoin-containing neutrophils and IL-12 were strongly associated with plasma lactate levels, independently of parasite density (r = 0.60, P = 0
Detailed TOC of Global L(+)-Lactic Acid Sales Market Research Report 2020. 1 L(+)-Lactic Acid Sales Market Overview. 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of L(+)-Lactic Acid Sales 1.2 L(+)-Lactic Acid Sales Segment by Type. 1.2.1 Global L(+)-Lactic Acid Sales Sales Growth Rate Comparison by Type (2020-2026). 1.2.2 Organic L(+)-Lactic Acid Sales 1.2.3 Inorganic L(+)-Lactic Acid Sales 1.3 L(+)-Lactic Acid Sales Segment by Application. 1.3.1 L(+)-Lactic Acid Sales Sales Comparison by Application: (2020-2026). 1.3.2 Organics Dehydration. 1.3.3 Organics Recovery. 1.3.4 Organics Separation. 1.4 Global L(+)-Lactic Acid Sales Market Size Estimates and Forecasts. 1.4.1 Global L(+)-Lactic Acid Sales Revenue 2015-2026. 1.4.2 Global L(+)-Lactic Acid Sales Sales 2015-2026. 1.4.3 L(+)-Lactic Acid Sales Market Size by Region: 2020 Versus 2026. 2 Global L(+)-Lactic Acid Sales Market Competition by Manufacturers. 2.1 Global L(+)-Lactic Acid Sales Sales Market Share by Manufacturers (2015-2020). 2.2 Global L(+)-Lactic ...
Report provides the brief overview about the demand and growth of the lactic and polylactic acid worldwide . Its also contain global market scenario of lactic and polylactic acid including Some of the...
[129 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Lactic Acid and Polylactic Acid (PLA) Sales Market Report 2020 report by QYResearch Group. This report studies sales (consumption) of Lactic Acid and Polylactic...
Redavid, L. A., Sharp, C. R., Mitchell, M. A. and Beckel, N. F. (2012), Plasma lactate measurements in healthy cats. Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care, 22: 580-587. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-4431.2012.00801.x ...
Lactic acid concentration was determined by Boehringer Mannheim D-L Lactic acid kit in the selected best probiotic cultures. After culturing for 24 o C at 37 o C in MRS broth (containing glucose) as shown in Fig 1 and whey (without any nutrients) as shown in Table 1, lactic acid concentration in cell free supernatant (CFS) was determined.. D-L isomers of lactic acid was estimated in all the seven whey samples inoculated with seven probiotic lactic cultures after an incubation period of 24 hrs. Lactic acid concentration in whey reaches maximally up to 29mM (Table 1) for NCDC 291 followed by NCDC 299 and NCDC 17. The low lactic acid concentration resulted in lesser diffusion in agar well method. Moreover, the findings showed that only NCDC 17 produces more of D-lactic acid (7.2mM/l) as compared to other probiotic strains in fermented whey. Low lactic acid concentration was shown by strains DDS-1 and MTCC 1408.. ...
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Lactic acid is also used for reducing chromates in mordanting wool, in manufacture of cheese, confectionery. Select item 29032650 20. Follow all instructions closely. Polylactic acid, or polylactide (PLA) is a thermoplastic polyester with backbone formula (C 3 H 4 O 2) n or [â C(CH 3)HC(=O)Oâ ] n, formally obtained by condensation of lactic acid C(CH 3)(OH)HCOOH with loss of water (hence its name). Lactic acid bacteria have been used to ferment or culture foods for at least 4000 years. They are widespread in nature and are also found in our digestive systems. Discovery of Lactic Acid: Lactic acid was first discovered by Scheele (1789) from sour milk. Lactic acid bacteria are used in the food industry for a variety of reasons such as the production of cheese and yogurt products. Use salicylic acid and lactic acid as ordered by your doctor. In the year 1881, first commercial production was started by M/S Clinton Processing Company, Clinton, Iowa (USA). Lactic acid is the waste product produced ...
[221 Pages Report] Lactic Acid Market report categorizes the global market by Application (Biodegradable Polymer, Food & Beverage) & Polylactic Acid Market by Application (Packaging, Agriculture), & by Geography
The POC lactate meters were highly correlated with ELISA (r = 0.98-0.99) despite disagreements among units. When regressed on ELISA, blood l-lactate concentrations generated from Accutrend Plus and Lactate Pro were linear up to 16.6 and 15.7 mmol/L, respectively, whereas those generated from i-STAT and Lactate Scout were linear up to 19.5 and 19.7 mmol/L, respectively. All POC lactate meters had a Se of 100% with Sp of 95.7-98.6% at a plasma l-lactate cut-off concentration of 4 mmol/L. i-STAT had the best accuracy (99.0%) and precision (99.8%), the best linear fit (y = −0.13 + 1.04X) yielding the lowest bias (−6.6%) as well as the highest Se (100%) and Sp (98.6%). ...
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The aims of this study were, firstly to determine the level of agreement between the fingertip and earlobe for the measurement of blood lactate, and secondly, to examine whether these sample sites may be used interchangeably when distinguishing lactate parameters routinely used in the physiological assessment and exercise prescription. Twenty healthy males performed an incremental cycle ergometry step test. Capillary blood samples were taken simultaneously at the end of each increment from the ear lobe and fingertip to determine blood lactate concentration. Power output and heart rate at different lactate parameters (LT, LT1, 2 mmol.L-1 and 4 mmol.L-1) were calculated from the lactate values. The average bias in blood lactate concentration measured from the fingertip and earlobe was 9.2% with 95% of measures differing by between -24.9 and 58.7%. There were no significant differences between sample sites (P = 0.201), however there was a strong positive relationship (R² = 0.9455). At the ...
Although the blood lactate response to exercise is used widely to control and monitor training programs, many factors in addition to training adaptation can affect the blood lactate response. Therefore, one needs to consider the following points when collecting, analyzing, and interpreting blood lactate measurements.
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Lactic acid production by chick embryo fibroblasts occurs in the absence of exogenous glucose. Fifteen to 50-fold less lactic acid is formed in the absence of glucose than in its presence. Nevertheless, serum and pH stimulation enhances this residual lactic acid production to the same r...read more ...
Compared to the 8-minute duration, the use of 4- or 6-minute exercise intervals during an incremental-intensity test produces results that overestimate maximal lactate steady state exercise intensity for endurance trained runners. Implication. When testing athletes who have performed considerable endurance work, and an incremental test is used to assess anaerobic threshold, maximum lactate steady state, etc., the duration of each increment needs to be quite long because short-period intervals will lead to erroneous inferences. For trained runners, 8 minutes appears to be the minimum period to be spent at each step of an incremental testing procedure.. Return to Table of Contents for this issue. ...
It is well known that systemic hyperlactatemia may occur when epinephrine is used as treatment of hypotension or as an inotrope. Several investigators have implicated that this may not necessarily be a sign of tissue hypoperfusion or anaerobic metabolism. Indeed, hyperlactatemia may be related to aerobic glycolysis. Epinephrine stimulates the Na+-K+ pump activity; thus lactate is released from well-oxygenated tissue (14, 19). In the present experiment, we observed a high arterial lactate-to-pyruvate ratio in addition to arterial hyperlactatemia. This should, to our understanding, indicate cytosolic dysoxia within some vascular region of an organism. A closer look at the splanchnic region revealed an increasing venous-to-arterial lactate gradient in the gastric wall, whereas prehepatic tissues as a whole seemed to turn to a negative gradient, indicating overall lactate uptake. Intraperitoneal lactate release occurred, but this may have merely reflected systemic hyperlactatemia. Intraperitoneal ...
The 2% AGP in the cream visibly reduces fine lines and wrinkles. It is used as a preservative in food industry. Lactic acidosis is a form of metabolic acidosis that begins in the kidneys. Uses of Lactic Acid: Since it is a weak acid with good solvent properties, it polymerises readily for the production of polymers. It is also used to relieve symptoms of digestive disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, stomach ulcers, constipation, indigestion, etc. Lactic Acid is widely used as preservative, flavor enhancer and pH regulator in food production. A model of glucose turning into lactic acid. Lactic Acid is an organic acid with chemical formula C 3 H 6 O 3. Some of them are described below: 1. Lactic acid can then migrate to tissues that can use it; the heart, liver and kidneys use the extra lactate for fuel, breaking it down into carbon dioxide. Lactic acid, salicylic acid, and urea are keratolytics. Lactic acid is found in sour milk, but you may have also heard of ...
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Lactic acid is discovered fundamentally in sharp drain items, for example, koumiss, laban, yogurt, kefir, and some curds. The casein in aged drain is coagulated (soured) by lactic acid. Lactic acid is likewise in charge of the sharp kind of sourdough bread.. In arrangements of dietary data lactic acid may be incorporated under the expression starch (or sugar by contrast) since this frequently incorporates everything other than water, protein, fat, powder, and ethanol. If this is the situation then the ascertained sustenance vitality may utilize the standard 4 calories for each gram that is regularly utilized for all carbs. Be that as it may, at times lactic acid is overlooked in the calculation. The vitality thickness of lactic acid is 362 kilocalories (1,510 kJ) per 100 g.. In lager blending a few styles of brew (harsh brew) deliberately contain lactic acid. Most generally this is created normally by different strains of microorganisms. These microorganisms age sugars into acids, dissimilar ...
Cell death or cytotoxicity is classically evaluated by the quantification of plasma membrane damage. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a stable cytoplasmic enzyme present in all cells, and is rapidly released into the cell culture supernatant upon membrane damage or cell lysis. This assay is a fast and simple method to determine changes in the plasma membrane upon incubation with a test compound
Diametrically opposed positions exist regarding the deleterious effects of elevated lactate. There are data suggesting that it is a detrimental proxy for tissue hypoperfusion and anaerobic metabolism in sepsis and an alternative viewpoint is that some of the hyperlactatemia produced maybe adaptive. This study was conducted to explore the relationship between serum lactate levels, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and sympathetic stimulation in patients with sepsis. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected clinical data from four community-based hospitals and one academic medical center. 8173 adults were included. Heart rate (HR) was used as a surrogate marker of sympathetic stimulation. HR, MAP, and lactate levels were measured upon presentation. MAP and HR interacted to affect lactate levels with the highest levels observed in patients with low MAP and high HR (3.6 mmol/L) and the lowest in patients with high MAP and low HR (2.2 mmol/L). The overall mortality rate was 12.4%. Each 10 beats
Lactic acid has many industrial and food processing applications, due to which it has a strong market presence globally. Out of all the regions, North America holds the majority of the market shares owing to the high consumption of processed food in the region. Increasing applications and versatility is only encouraging the food-grade lactic acid to grow in the region.. Asia-Pacific on the other hand holds the highest potential to grow in the global food grade lactic acid market in the forecasted period. Food grade lactic acid provides food products and perishable items a longer shelf life, owing to which it holds a significant place in the European market.. Food Grade Lactic Acid: Consumer Side Driving Force. With increasing urbanization in the global market, the purchasing power of the population for food products has increased in the previous two decades. This increase in consumption of different food products is giving the food-grade lactic acid a cascading effect of increased demand, as it ...
Lactic acid has many industrial and food processing applications, due to which it has a strong market presence globally. Out of all the regions, North America holds the majority of the market shares owing to the high consumption of processed food in the region. Increasing applications and versatility is only encouraging the food-grade lactic acid to grow in the region.. Asia-Pacific on the other hand holds the highest potential to grow in the global food grade lactic acid market in the forecasted period. Food grade lactic acid provides food products and perishable items a longer shelf life, owing to which it holds a significant place in the European market.. Food Grade Lactic Acid: Consumer Side Driving Force. With increasing urbanization in the global market, the purchasing power of the population for food products has increased in the previous two decades. This increase in consumption of different food products is giving the food-grade lactic acid a cascading effect of increased demand, as it ...
1. Arterial concentrations and leg exchange of carbohydrate substrates and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were examined together with concentrations of intramuscular metabolites at rest and during exercise in six patients with Parkinsons disease and in a group of five healthy control subjects.. 2. Heart rate, pulmonary oxygen uptake and ventilatory exchange ratio were all significantly higher in the group of patients during exercise. The release of lactate by the exercising leg in the patients exceeded that of the control subjects and was associated with a significantly elevated arterial lactate concentration. Glucose uptake by the leg was greater in the patients during exercise. Arterial NEFA was higher and fractional NEFA turnover lower in the patients both at rest and during exercise, whereas oxidation of NEFA by the leg muscles during exercise was similar in the two groups.. 3. ATP, creatine phosphate and glycogen content of muscle were significantly reduced in the basal state in the ...
Fig. 1: Lactate clearance throughout ex vivo perfusion. Recordsdata availabilityRecordsdata from this undercover agent will seemingly be made on hand upon cheap
Abstract: The aim of this review is to describe the research in the production of lactic acid from biomass and its transformation to commodity chemicals mainly since 2002. The following reactions will be discussed in detail: catalytic production of lactic acid or alkyl lactates using homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts (section 2), catalytic transformation of lactic acid or alkyl lactates via hydrogenation to 1,2-propanediol (propylene glycol), dehydrogenation to pyruvic acid, dehydration to acrylic acid, decarbonylation and decarboxylation to acetaldehyde, condensation of lactic acid to 2,3-pentanedione, and esterification (section 3), excluding, however, polymerization. The main emphasis is on elucidation of catalyst properties, the stability of catalysts and their reuse, and reaction conditions and mechanisms in the production of both lactic acid and its derivatives in the presence of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. Furthermore, kinetic modeling and reactor technologies are also ...
Reasons to Improve Lactate Kinetics. With the positives of lactate being presented in an earlier paragraph, some of the reasons for lactate improvement will now be identified. Other reasons to improve the ability of lactate kinetics, specifically MCTs remain. The ultimate goals during exercise include buffering hydrogen ions and keeping the ATP:ADP ratio consistent. The energy systems that are responsible for ATP production and re-synthesis can be viewed as fuel tanks, each with their own specific characteristics. The creatine phosphate system (PCr) produces ATP the most rapidly, but has a very small fuel tank, lasting only about 6-10 seconds. The PCr system does not have a major impact on lactate production or clearance, so it will not be a main focus within this post. Anaerobic glycolysis has the ability to produce ATP quickly, with a considerably larger fuel tank than the PCr system. Anaerobic glycolysis produces an end-product, which upon accumulation can limit repeat-sprint abilities. ...
Brooks is not done yet. His most recent research has looked at the role of lactate in cell signaling. It suggests that the high levels of intracellular lactate that arise during intense exercise stimulate some of the beneficial fitness adaptations that occur in response to such training. Specifically, high lactate concentrations trigger the production of free radicals that upregulate a variety of genes. Some of these genes govern mitochondrial biogenesis. So it appears that intracellular lactate accumulation during intense exercise stimulates the muscle cell to produce more mitochondria, thus enhancing its ability to burn lactate (and other fuels) in future workouts.. If I had to package all of the forgoing science into a single upshot, it would be this: According to the classical theory of lactate, one of the highest priorities of training was to reduce the amount of lactate the body produces at higher exercise intensities so that the athlete can race faster without fatiguing due to high ...
Lactate is one of the most crucial intermediates in carbohydrate and nonessential amino acid metabolism. The complexity of cellular interactions and metabolism means that lactate can be considered a waste product for one cell but a useful substrate for another. The presence of elevated lactate levels in critically ill patients has important implications for morbidity and mortality. In this review, we provide a brief outline of the metabolism of lactate, the pathophysiology of lactic acidosis, the clinical significance of D-lactate, the role of lactate measurement in acutely ill patients, the methods used to measure lactate in blood or plasma and some of the methodological issues related to interferences in these assays, especially in the case of ethylene glycol poisoning ...
Principal Investigator:MARUYAMA Atsuo, Project Period (FY):1992 - 1993, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:体育学
TY - JOUR. T1 - Potential and assessment of lactic acid production and isolation - a review. AU - Jantasee, Sasiradee. AU - Kienberger, Marlene. AU - Mungma, Nuttakul. AU - Siebenhofer, Matthäus. PY - 2017/3. Y1 - 2017/3. M3 - Article. JO - Journal of chemical technology & biotechnology. JF - Journal of chemical technology & biotechnology. SN - 0268-2575. ER - ...
Clearance of lactate from the blood can occur either through oxidation within the muscle fibre in which it was produced or it can be transported to other muscles fibres for oxidation (31,30). Lactate that is not oxidized in this way diffuses from the exercising muscle into the capillaries and it is transported via the blood to the liver (31). Through a process known as the Cori cycle, lactate can be converted to pyruvate in the presence of oxygen, which can then be converted into glucose (2). This glucose can either be metabolized by working muscles or stored in the muscles as glycogen for later use (2 ...
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Lactic acid is used in foods to add tartness and as a preservative. The name comes from the Latin word for milk, but most lactic acid is produced commercially from corn fermentation. Lactic acid is what gives the sour taste to spoiled milk, and to sauerkraut. Lactic acid is also used as a preservative in foods like spanish olives. ...
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In 2020, the 11th Asian Conference on Lactic Acid Bacteria (ACLAB 11) will be held on 29th - 31st October 2020 at The Sukosol Bangkok. This conference is organised by a group of Thai scientists who are working in the field of lactic acid bacteria and the Department of Biotechnology of the Faculty of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart University.. The objective of the conference is to provide the opportunity for researchers from academia and industry to assemble and discuss and exchange the latest research information on the roles and industrial applications of lactic acid bacteria. The event will be conducted in English and will focus on the topic LAB for healthier longer better life.. Official Website of ACLAB 11: http://www.11aclab.agro.ku.ac.th/index.html. ...
Even the mention of lactate threshold can send pain into a runners quads. For decades, lactic acid production was thought to only be a bad thing-but new research is suggesting thats only half the story. Understanding your individual lactate threshold (or LT) can be a tool to training smarter and performing better.
The export option will allow you to export the current search results of the entered query to a file. Different formats are available for download. To export the items, click on the button corresponding with the preferred download format. By default, clicking on the export buttons will result in a download of the allowed maximum amount of items. For anonymous users the allowed maximum amount is 50 search results. To select a subset of the search results, click Selective Export button and make a selection of the items you want to export. The amount of items that can be exported at once is similarly restricted as the full export. After making a selection, click one of the export format buttons. The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format. ...
Contrary to popular belief, lactic acid does not cause muscle pain. Ingestion of lactic acid in reasonable amounts causes no problems (its found in fermented dairy and malt products) and experiments perfusing it into muscle caused no discomfort. Recently, its been common to say that its not the lactate but the hydrogen ions - the acidity - that causes pain; this is fallacious in two ways: 1) in cells, the compound found is not lactic acid but lactate ion and 2) the reaction producing lactate is NADH + H + pyruvate = NAD + lactate [NAD is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide], which actually reduces the hydrogen ion concentration. Muscle pain caused by exertion not due to cellular damage is caused by membrane polarization by ATP-dependent translocases electrically signalling adjacent neurons ...
The effect of different pedalling rates (40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 rev min-1) on power generating capability, oxygen uptake (O2) and blood lactate concentration [La]b during incremental tests was studied in seven subjects. No significant differences in O2,max were found (mean +/- S.D., 5.31 +/- 0.13 l min-1). The final external power output delivered to the ergometer during incremental tests (PI,max) was not significantly different when cycling at 60, 80 or 100 rev min-1 (366 +/- 5 W). A significant decrease in PI,max of 60 W was observed at 40 and 120 rev min-1 compared with 60 and 100 rev min-1, respectively (P , 0.01). At 120 rev min-1 there was also a pronounced upward shift of the O2-power output (O2-P) relationship. At 50 W O2 between 80 and 100 rev min-1 amounted to +0.43 l min-1 but to +0.87 l min-1 between 100 and 120 rev min-1. The power output corresponding to 2 and 4 mmol l-1 blood lactate concentration (P[La]2 and P[La]4 ) was also significantly lower (, 50 W) at 120 rev min-1 (P , ...
Lactides rapidly hydrolyse to lactoyl lactic acid and subsequently to lactic acid in aqueous media. Lactic acid is a ubiquitous and essential biological molecule, in humans and other mammals, but also in most if not all vertebrate and invertebrate animals, as well as in many micro-organisms. As such the biokinetics, metabolism and distribution of lactic acid have to be considered in the context of its normal biochemistry; exogenous lactic acid will be indistinguishable from endogenous lactic acid and will follow the same biochemical pathways as endogenous lactic acid, at least up to a certain systemic level. The biochemistry of lactic acid has been reviewed and summarized in Sterenborg, 2007. Hydrolysis of lactide The hydrolysis rate of lactide in aqueous environments at pH 2 was determined in-house, to simulate the fate of lactide in gastric fluids. The results obtained in the PURAC study are in excellent agreement with the results presented by Conn et al. (1995), and it can be concluded that ...
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During the process of our bodies breaking down glucose as fuel for our muscles, the glucose gets broken down to lactate and hydrogen ions are released. You know what though? Its actually the hydrogen that causes problems! The hydrogen ions causes pH to fall and creates a state of acidosis, which then leads to the pain and discomfort you always blame on the lactic acid. BUT, the lactic acid then tirelessly works in our favor again by helping to carry the hydrogen ions away where it gets removed in the liver which then converts the lactic acid back to glucose. A thankless job ...
The simplest way to prevent lactic acid buildup is to work out more. Lactic acid is produced when your muscles are working excessively hard. Gradually increasing your workouts and intensity will help your muscles become more accustomed to the exercise and will need to produce less lactic acid as a result. There really isnt any quick-fix way to resolving the burn and pain of strenuous work.. ...
Sourdough is a mixture of flour and water inhabited by a symbiosis of Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. It is used in baking to ...
Lactic acid[edit]. It was once believed that lactic acid build-up was the cause of muscle fatigue.[2] The assumption was lactic ... Sahlin K (1986). "Muscle fatigue and lactic acid accumulation". Acta Physiol Scand Suppl. 556: 83-91. PMID 3471061.. ... Lactic acid also has a negating effect on the chloride ions in the muscles, reducing their inhibition of contraction and ... They include chloride, potassium, lactic acid, ADP, magnesium (Mg2+), reactive oxygen species, and inorganic phosphate. ...
The most commonly used antimicrobial preservative is lactic acid. Common antimicrobial preservatives are presented in the table ... Common sequestering agents are disodium EDTA, citric acid (and citrates), tartaric acid, and lecithin.[1] ... of Acidified Cucumbers with a Natural Preservative Combination of Fumaric Acid and Allyl Isothiocyanate that Target Lactic Acid ... propionic acid and propionates baked goods n/a isothiazolinones (MIT, CMIT, BIT) home and personal care products, paints/ ...
The most commonly used antimicrobial preservative is lactic acid. Common antimicrobial preservatives are presented in the table ... Common sequestering agents are disodium EDTA, citric acid (and citrates), tartaric acid, and lecithin.[1] ... of Acidified Cucumbers with a Natural Preservative Combination of Fumaric Acid and Allyl Isothiocyanate that Target Lactic Acid ... ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate cheese, chips E321 butylated hydroxytoluene, butylated hydroxyanisole also used in food ...
It is an intermediate in the industrial production of ethyl lactate and lactic acid. It is the cyanohydrin of acetaldehyde. It ... Lactonitrile is used in making esters of lactic acid. Cyanohydrins are sources of highly toxic hydrogen cyanide. The substance ... Westhoff, Gerrit; Starr, John N. (2012). "Lactic Acids". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. ...
... lactic acid; artificial flavors; vitamin A (palmitate); beta carotene (colour). Nutrition Information for a serving size of 1 ...
Lactic acid fermentation. References[edit]. *^ Bâati, L. ̈L.; Fabre-Gea, C.; Auriol, D.; Blanc, P. J. (2000). "Study of the ... Ljungh A, Wadström T (2006). "Lactic acid bacteria as probiotics". Curr Issues Intest Microbiol. 7 (2): 73-89. PMID 16875422.. ... L. acidophilus is a homofermentative, microaerophilic species, fermenting sugars into lactic acid, and grows readily at rather ... Lactobacillus acidophilus (New Latin 'acid-loving milk-bacillus') is a species of gram positive bacteria in the genus ...
The LAB bacteria produce lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and carbon dioxide as by-products during metabolism. Lactic acid ... However, due to significantly different preparation techniques from pao cai, kimchi has significantly more lactic acid bacteria ... Foods, National Research Council (US) Panel on the Applications of Biotechnology to Traditional Fermented (1992). Lactic Acid ... Paramithiotis, Spiros; Papoutsis, George; Drosinos, Eleftherios H. (2017). Paramithiotis, Spiros (ed.). Lactic Acid ...
Drake, Harold L. (2014-01-01). "The genus Lactovum". In Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.; Wood, Brian J. B. (eds.). Lactic Acid Bacteria. ...
Hoyles, Lesley (2014). "The genus Facklamia". Lactic Acid Bacteria. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: 91-98. doi:10.1002/9781118655252. ...
"Lactic Acid Test". Medline Plus Trusted Health Information for You. A.D.A.M., Inc. November 7, 2014. Retrieved November 12, ... Lactic acid buildup may cause a runner to slow down unintentionally. Progressively increasing speed in any race allows the ... Starting slow allows the runner's body to compensate for the lactic acid production and low oxygen levels that result from ...
Some strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) may affect Helicobacter pylori infections (which may cause peptic ulcers) in adults ... Additionally, lactic acid bacteria (LABs), which are food fermenting bacteria, have the ability to prevent food spoilage and ... At that time, milk fermented with lactic-acid bacteria were known to inhibit the growth of proteolytic bacteria because of the ... Oh CK, Oh MC, Kim SH (2004). "The Depletion of Sodium Nitrite by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Kimchi". Journal of ...
... and potassium lactate are salts derived from the neutralization of lactic acid and most commercially used lactic acids are ... In some rare instances, some lactic acid is fermented from dairy products such as whey[4] and lactose.[11] Whey is made of up ... Sodium lactate is the sodium salt of lactic acid, and has a mild saline taste. It is produced by fermentation of a sugar source ... Moreover, although the lactic-acid starter culture to ferment corn or beets may contain milk,[4] sodium lactate does not ...
... stearic acid, ester with lactate of lactic acid, calcium salt; stearic acid ester with lactic acid bimol. ester calcium salt; ... Schaefer, E.C; Matthews, M.E (2007). "Fatty Acids, C16-18 and C18-Unsaturated, Reaction Products with Lactic Acid and ... Stearoyl Lactic Acid, Calcium and Sodium Salts". Seventeenth Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, ... CSL is currently manufactured by the esterification of stearic acid and lactic acid with partial neutralization using food- ...
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are anaerobic. In the absence of oxygen, they metabolize sugar into lactic acid. LAB improves soil ... "Lactic Acid Bacteria" (PDF). Cho Global Natural Farming. 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2016. Reddy 2011, p. 41. Reddy 2011, p. 42 ... Three types of bacteria common in KNF include lactic acid bacteria, purple bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and yeast. Mycorrhizae ... Outputs can include antibiotics, enzymes and lactic acids that can suppress diseases and promote healthy soil conditions. The ...
The lactic acid bacteria in health and disease. 1. The lactic acid bacteria. New York: Elsevier Applied Science. pp. 69-114. ... Lactic acid bacteria, 2nd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1998: 475-518. Edens FW, Parkhurst CR, Casas IA, Dobrogosz WJ (January ... At the turn of the 20th century, L. reuteri was recorded in scientific classifications of lactic acid bacteria, though at this ... The lactic acid Bacteria. Det Kongelige Danske Videnskasbernes Selskab. Naturvidenskabelige mathematiske Afdeling, NS 8.5.2 ...
Wells, JG; Balke, B; Van Fossan, DD (1957). "Lactic acid accumulation during work; a suggested standardization of work ... saturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid, dietary cholesterol, and trans fatty acid. From a ... more energy is needed to burn a saturated fatty acid than an unsaturated fatty acid. The fatty acid molecule is broken down and ... The breakdown of proteins into amino acids is an example of catabolism, while the formation of proteins from amino acids is an ...
doi:10.1007/s10295-012-1089-x. Kitahara, K. (1966). "Studies on Lactic Acid Bacteria". Nyusankin no Kenkyu: 67~69. Buchanan, R. ... Both share an acid residue Glutamic acid 216 of the enzyme that bridges the two cations. Two basic amino acids surround the ...
... and the lactic acid bacteria produce lactic acid, which contributes flavor in the form of sourness. The lactic acid bacteria ... with more lactic acid relative to acetic acid. The yeasts produce mainly CO2 and ethanol. High amounts of lactic acid are ... Lactic acid bacteria: genetics, metabolism, and applications: proceedings of the Sixth Symposium on lactic acid bacteria: ... Gänzle, Michael G (2015). "Lactic metabolism revisited: metabolism of lactic acid bacteria in food fermentations and food ...
Lactic acid fermentation of vegetables. Protocols for minimally processed foods. Technology for production of tomato, colored ... Nucleic acid probes for many viruses. DNA fingerprinting techniques for characterization and documentation of germplasm. ...
De Vuyst, L.; Vandamme, E.J. (1994). "Antimicrobial Potential of Lactic Acid Bacteria". Bacteriocins of Lactic Acid Bacteria. ... The liquid leaches out a valuable fraction of proteins, nutrients and lactic acid. To recover them, and to avoid drowning the ... If aerated, e.g. by energetic dilution, its lactic acid content will oxidise to pyruvate, rendering it less dangerous to plants ... This exposes it to air, whereupon the lactic acid oxidises to pyruvate, a fundamental energy carrier in biological processes. ...
Natural plant extracts (including natural caffeine and kola nut extract). citric, tartaric and lactic acids. Stabilizer: gum ...
nov., a lactic acid-producing streptomycete isolated from the rhizosphere of tomato plants". International Journal of ... nov., a lactic acid-producing streptomycete isolated from the rhizosphere of tomato plants". International Journal of ... Streptomyces lacticiproducens produces lactic acid. List of Streptomyces species LPSN bacterio.net UniProt Straininfo of ...
... and commercial lactic acid-based spermicides are available. A contraceptive containing lactic acid, citric acid, and potassium ... "U.S. FDA Approves Evofem Biosciences' Phexxi (lactic acid, citric acid and potassium bitartrate), the First and Only Non- ... "Femprotect - Lactic Acid Contraceptive Gel". Woman's Natural Health Practice. Archived from the original on June 1, 2006. ... Lactic acid preparations have also been shown to have some spermicidal effect, ...
Owing to lactic acid's keratolytic properties (to break down hard skin cells) and urea's hydrating properties, Calmurid is used ... "Calmurid cream (urea, lactic acid)". Netdoctor. 27 August 2010. Retrieved 2017-02-12. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) v ... Composition: Urea 100 mg/g and lactic acid 50 mg/g in an emulsified base containing betaine monohydrate, glyceryl monostearate ... Calmurid Cream contains the active ingredients lactic acid and urea, whereas Calmurid HC contains an additional ingredient, the ...
Wells, JG; Balke, B; Van Fossan, DD (1957). "Lactic acid accumulation during work; a suggested standardization of work ... saturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid, dietary cholesterol, and trans fatty acid. From a ... more energy is needed to burn a saturated fatty acid than an unsaturated fatty acid. The fatty acid molecule is broken down and ... Palmitic acid is a commonly studied example of the saturated fatty acid molecule. The overall equation for the substrate ...
... such as folic acid, vitamin K and biotin, convert sugars to lactic acid (see Lactobacillus), as well as fermenting complex ... Bacteria, often lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus and Lactococcus, in combination with yeasts and moulds, have been ... occurs between clusters of anaerobic bacteria that consume organic acids, such as butyric acid or propionic acid, and produce ... Gorbach SL (February 1990). "Lactic acid bacteria and human health". Annals of Medicine. 22 (1): 37-41. doi:10.3109/ ...
Wood, B. J.; Holzapfel, W. H. N. (1995). The Genera of Lactic Acid Bacteria. Springer. pp. 301-. ISBN 978-0-7514-0215-5. ... and Other Lactic Acid Bacteria in the Human Colon". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 69 (12): 7545-7548. doi:10.1128/AEM ...
Salicylic acid reaches warts; lactic acid and collodion do not.[2] Therefore, these additional components have only an indirect ... There are typically two types of products: adhesive pads treated with salicylic acid or a bottle of concentrated salicylic acid ... Removing a wart with this method requires a strict regimen of cleaning the area, applying the salicylic acid, and removing the ... The molecular structure of the skin is altered at the centre of the wart.[3] Experiments indicated that salicylic acid bonding ...
... lactic acid, salicylic acid, Jessner's solution, or a lower concentration (20%) of trichloroacetic acid. These peels only ... Salicylic acid[edit]. Salicylic acid is a topically applied beta-hydroxy acid that stops bacteria from reproducing and has ... "Topical azelaic acid, salicylic acid, nicotinamide, sulphur, zinc and fruit acid (alpha-hydroxy acid) for acne". Cochrane ... Azelaic acid[edit]. Azelaic acid is effective for mild to moderate acne when applied topically at a 20% concentration.[66][141] ...
Lactic acid, produced naturally in the two slower traditional methods, is added to the starter to inhibit unwanted bacteria. ... One of the microoganisms implicated in this spoilage is lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that has grown tolerant to ethanol and is ... Suzuki K, Asano S, Iijima K, Kitamoto K. (2008). "Sake and Beer Spoilage Lactic Acid Bacteria - A review". The Inst of Brew & ... San-do (酸度) indicates the concentration of acid, which is determined by titration with sodium hydroxide solution. This number ...
... is a species of slime-forming, homofermentative, rod-shaped lactic acid bacteria first isolated ...
Acid malt, also known as acidulated malt, whose grains contain lactic acid, can be used as a continental analog to ... Acid malt lowers the mash pH and provides a rounder, fuller character to the beer, enhancing the flavor of Pilseners and other ...
... is a small 69 nucleotide RNA (human mitochondrial map position 4263-4331) that transfers the amino acid isoleucine to a ... Common clinical manifestations include myopathy, hypotonia, and encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and hypertrophic ... May 2003). "A homoplasmic mitochondrial transfer ribonucleic acid mutation as a cause of maternally inherited hypertrophic ...
The most common feature is a potentially life-threatening buildup of lactic acid (lactic acidosis), which can cause nausea, ... Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency is characterized by the buildup of a chemical called lactic acid in the body and a variety of ... tricarboxylic acid cycle. • oxidation-reduction process. • acetyl-CoA biosynthetic process from pyruvate. • glucose metabolic ... Voet DJ, Voet JG, Pratt CW (2010). "Chapter 17, Citric Acid Cycle". Principles of Biochemistry (4th ed.). Wiley. p. 550. ISBN ...
Federweißer contains yeast, lactic acid bacteria, and a large amount of vitamin B1 and B2. ... As carbonic acid is constantly produced, the bottles can not be sealed airtight and have a permeable lid (they would burst ...
Aerobic respiration, the process that does use oxygen, produces much more energy and doesn't produce lactic acid. It also ... However, this process produces lactic acid, and is not as efficient as when oxygen is used. ...
Lactic acid fermentation produces lactic acid. It happens in muscles of animals when they need lots of energy fast. The pain of ... Other cells make vinegar or lactic acid when they ferment sugar. In a different way, the fermentation process can continue and ... a cramped muscle is caused by the build-up of lactic acid. The pain eases as the product is taken away by the blood supply. ... turn the alcohol into vinegar i.e. acetic acid. Types of fermentation[change , change source]. When yeast ferments, it breaks ...
Such artificial flavours include methyl salicylate which creates the wintergreen odor and lactic acid which gives milk a tart ... fatty acids (including essential fatty acids), fatty-acid derived phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids and terpenoids, ... Food and Nutrition Board of Institute of Medicine (2005) Dietary Reference Intakes for Protein and Amino Acids, page 685, from ... a process would be to encourage fermentation of dairy products with microorganisms that convert lactose to lactic acid; an ...
It was found that using poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) microspheres, which encapsulated the drug, the minimum dosing ... Pegaptanib is a pegylated anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) aptamer, a single strand of nucleic acid that binds ...
juli 2007). Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design: Volume 28 - Lactic Acid to Magnesium Supply-Demand Relationships. M ...
... s can be used in the diagnosis of a number of acidosis conditions such as lactic, metabolic, and respiratory ... Acid-base disorders. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap ...
... compression garments helped to decrease the heart rate and lactic acid buildup in athletes.[16] According to a study by ...
... to preserve substantial amounts of food through lactic acid, alcohol, acetic acid, and alkaline fermentations; to enrich food ... and in the preservation of sour foods with the production of lactic acid, such as in sauerkraut and yogurt. ... Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms- ... Food fermentation is the conversion of sugars and other carbohydrates into alcohol or preservative organic acids and carbon ...
A mannose sugar is added to the first tryptophan residue in the sequence W-X-X-W (W indicates tryptophan; X is any amino acid ... Glycolysis → Pyruvate decarboxylation → Citric acid cycle → Oxidative phosphorylation (electron transport chain + ATP synthase) ...
Structural implications of novel amino acid substitutions in E1 protein". Molecular Genetics and Metabolism. 104 (4): 507-16. ... "Defective gene in lactic acidosis: abnormal pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha-subunit caused by a frame shift". American Journal ... "An amino acid substitution in the pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha gene, affecting mitochondrial import of the precursor ...
In skeletal muscles, the waste product is lactic acid. This type of fermentation is called lactic acid fermentation. In ... Citric acid cycle. Main article: Citric acid cycle. This is also called the Krebs cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle. When ... The total ATP yield in ethanol or lactic acid fermentation is only 2 molecules coming from glycolysis, because pyruvate is not ... Nutrients that are commonly used by animal and plant cells in respiration include sugar, amino acids and fatty acids, and the ...
... is a copolymer of lactide (a cyclic diester of lactic acid) and glycoside. In practice, vicryl comes as braided, dyed or ... Vicryl and other polyglycolic-acid sutures may also be treated for more rapid breakdown ("Vicryl Rapide") in rapidly healing ... Other brands of polyglycolic acid suture include PolySyn, Surgicryl, Polysorb and Dexon, all of which are manufactured by ... has been used generically referring to any synthetic absorbable suture made primarily of polyglycolic acid. ...
Some strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) may affect Helicobacter pylori infections (which may cause peptic ulcers) in adults ... Some fermented products that contain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) include: vegetables such as pickled vegetables,[19] kimchi,[19] ... "Health and Nutritional Properties of Probiotics in Food including Powder Milk with Live Lactic Acid Bacteria" (PDF). Report of ... Oh CK, Oh MC, Kim SH (2004). "The Depletion of Sodium Nitrite by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Kimchi". Journal of ...
Lactic acid - asitlik düzenleyici, koruyucu, antioksidan. *laktik asit esterleri, - emülgatör. *Lactitol - humectant ... Diacetyltartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids - emülgatör. *Dicalcium diphosphate - topaklanmayı ... Mixed acetic and tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids - emulsifier ... Blackcurrant seed oil - used as a food supplement, because of high content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Also used in ...
The pyruvate is either converted into alanine via alanine aminotransferase or converted into lactic acid by lactate ... Their function is to convert the potential energy of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in ... Succinic acid has been studied, and shown effective for both Leigh syndrome, and MELAS syndrome.[13][14] A high-fat, low- ... The lactic acidosis sometimes associated with Leigh syndrome is caused by the buildup of pyruvate, which is unable to be ...
On an analytic property of alcoholic and lactic fermentations, and on their application to the study of sugars), Annales de ... Sul, HS (2006). 》Metabolism of Fatty Acids, Acylglycerols, and Sphingolipids》. Missouri: Saunders, Elsevier. 450-467쪽. ISBN 1- ...
Lactic acid bacteria ferments the sugars into lactic acid and yeast makes ethanol, which through aging and secondary ... Based on the result of free amino acid analysis, the most abundant amino acids in Chinese soy sauce product are glutamic acid, ... 18 June 2002). "Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand". Journal of General and Applied Microbiology. 48 ... Acid-hydrolyzed vegetable protein[edit]. Some brands of soy sauce are made from acid-hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed ...
... and they must deal with the accumulation of lactic acid due to anaerobic metabolism.[1] Beaked whales have several anatomical ...
If oxygen is not available, pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid, which may contribute to muscle fatigue. This occurs ... Acidification by lactic acid may allow recovery of force so that acidosis may protect against fatigue rather than being a cause ... Once thought to be caused by lactic acid build-up, a more recent theory is that it is caused by tiny tears in the muscle fibers ... Since lactic acid disperses fairly rapidly, it could not explain pain experienced days after exercise.[20] ...
Labradorite Lactic acid Lanthanide Lanthanum Lapis lazuli Lars Onsager Lawrencium Lazurite Le Chatelier's principle Lead ... Contents A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Abichite Acetaldehyde Acetaminophen Acetic acid Acetone acetyl ... Carbohydrate carbon carbon dioxide Carbon group carbon monoxide carbonate carbonation Carbonic acid carbonyl carboxylic acid ... Phosphorus Phosphoric acid Phthalates Phyllite Physical chemistry physics physiologically active compound picometre Picric acid ...
Main articles: Acid-base homeostasis and Acid-base imbalance. The plasma pH can be altered by respiratory changes in the ... An important function is the production and control of bile acids. Too much bile acid can be toxic to cells and its synthesis ... A change in the plasma pH gives an acid-base imbalance. In acid-base homeostasis there are two mechanisms that can help ... It is only the lactate and the waste products of the citric acid cycle that are returned to the blood. The liver can take up ...
Apart from lactic acid and lactide, lactic acid O-carboxyanhydride ("lac-OCA"), a five-membered cyclic compound has been used ... Lactic Acid)". In Rafael Auras; Loong-Tak Lim; Susan E. M. Selke; Hideto Tsuji. Poly(Lactic Acid): Synthesis, Structures, ... Poly(lactic acid) or polylactic acid or polylactide (PLA) is a biodegradable and bioactive thermoplastic aliphatic polyester ... Pure poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), on the other hand, is the main ingredient in Sculptra, a long-lasting facial volume enhancer, ...
Lactic acid bacteria (hereto known as LAB) ferment lactose to lactic acid, they are mesophilic, Gram-positive facultative ... Its name comes from the production of lactic acid by bacterial fermentation, which is called souring. Crème fraîche is one type ... Organic acids such as citric acid or sodium citrate are added to the cream prior to homogenization in order to increase the ... When the cream is inoculated with starter bacteria and the bacteria begins converting lactose to lactic acid, the pH begins a ...
... lactic acid or (R)-lactic acid. A mixture of the two in equal amounts is called DL-lactic acid, or racemic lactic acid. Lactic ... Related carboxylic acids. acetic acid. glycolic acid. propionic acid. 3-hydroxypropanoic acid. malonic acid. butyric acid. ... Chemistry and production of lactic acid, lactide and poly(lactic acid) in Poly(Lactic acid). Hoboken: Wiley. p. 3. ISBN 978-0- ... Lactic acid is chiral, consisting of two enantiomers. One is known as L-(+)-lactic acid or (S)-lactic acid and the other, its ...
The malolactic fermentation mechanism is mainly transformation of L-malic acid (dicarboxylic acid) to an lactic acid ( ... also produce lactic acid as the major product of carbohydrate metabolism. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are either rod-shaped ... produce lactic acid as the major metabolic end product of carbohydrate fermentation, giving them the common name lactic acid ... Gänzle MG (2015). "Lactic metabolism revisited: metabolism of lactic acid bacteria in food fermentations and food spoilage". ...
But what is lactic acid? And is it really bad... ... of cycling on TV without hearing about the burning lactic acid ... These ideas also gave rise to the notion of the lactic acid burn and that lactic acid was responsible for fatigue during high ... You dont need to listen to pro-cycling commentary for very long before you hear that lactic acid is burning in the riders ... In the human body most lactic acid is present in the form of lactate. During vigorous exercise there is an increase in the ...
Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red blood cells. It forms when the body breaks down carbohydrates to use for ... Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red blood cells. It forms when the body breaks down carbohydrates to use for ... A test can be done to measure the amount of lactic acid in the blood. ... fist or having the elastic band in place for a long time while having blood drawn can result in a false increase in lactic acid ...
Lactic acid carries oxygen from your lungs to other parts of your body. Too much lactic acid in the blood can lead to a life- ... This test measures the level of lactic acid in the blood. ... Why do I need a lactic acid test?. You may need a lactic acid ... What is a lactic acid test?. This test measures the level of lactic acid, also known as lactate, in your blood. Lactic acid is ... If lactic acid levels get too high, it can lead to a life-threatening condition known as lactic acidosis. A lactic acid test ...
Lactic Acid Injections in Osteoarthritis. Br Med J 1946; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.4486.1007 (Published 28 December ...
Lactic acid definition, a colorless or yellowish, syrupy, water-soluble liquid, C 3 H 6 O 3 , produced during muscle ... lactic acid in Medicine Expand. lactic acid n. A syrupy, water-soluble liquid existing in three isomeric forms: one in muscle ... lactic acid. noun 1. a colourless syrupy carboxylic acid found in sour milk and many fruits and used as a preservative (E270) ... Suspend the phosphate carefully in the distilled water, add the lactic acid, allow solution to go on for some minutes, and ...
Under certain conditions lactic acid increases to critical levels. This is called lactic acidosis which can be a life ... Lactic acid is a by-product of normal muscle metabolism under conditions of low oxygen. ... What is Lactic Acid?. Lactic acids levels increase when there is decreased oxygen. An increase in lactic acid may be a result ... Other Testing Done With Lactic Acid. Lactic acid testing is primarily done to diagnose lactic acidosis, an acidic condition of ...
... materia medica indications (symptoms) by T.F. Allen, Boericke, Clarke, Reversed & reworded Kent repertory and Nash ... Buy Lactic Acid. 30CBuy Lactic Acid. 200C. Lactic Acid. Popularity:. Sales rank: 264. ... Lactic Acid. Lacticum Acidum, Lactic Acid, Lactic-ac, Acidum lacticum. Available in 3C-30C, 200C, 2X-30X, 200X, 1M-10M from $ ... Lactic Acid. most popular Potencies. 30C. 200C. 6C. 6X. 30X. Homeopathic remedies are prescribed on the basis that in a tiny ...
Lactic acid definition, a colorless or yellowish, syrupy, water-soluble liquid, C3H6O3, produced during muscle contraction as a ... lactic acid. lacteal, lacteous, lactescent, lacti-, lactic, lactic acid, lacticacidemia, lactiferous, lactiferous duct, ... lactic acid. *. Consequently, when lactic-acid fermentation is once developed a comparatively large amount of HCl is required ... Lactose6 is attacked by the lactic-acid bacteria and by them is changed to lactic acid. ...
... , Lactic Acidosis, Lactic Acidosis Definition, Lactic Acid. ... However, differential diagnosis of Lactic Acidosis is broad (see above). *Avoid ordering Lactic Acid in low risk patients (non- ... Lactic Acid may have more evidence for use in sick children (esp. Sepsis, Trauma) and their disposition. *Increased organ ... Lactic Acid clearance outside Sepsis does not uniformly improve with Intravenous Fluids. *Cardiogenic Shock can also increase ...
One is known as L-(+)-lactic acid or (S)-lactic acid and the other, its mirror image, is D-(−)-lactic acid or (R)-lactic acid. ... Related carboxylic acids. acetic acid. glycolic acid. propionic acid. 3-hydroxypropanoic acid. malonic acid. butyric acid. ... Chemistry and production of lactic acid, lactide and poly(lactic acid) in Poly(Lactic acid). Hoboken: Wiley. p. 3. ISBN 978-0- ... or racemic lactic acid.. Lactic acid is hygroscopic. DL-lactic acid is miscible with water and with ethanol above its melting ...
We did a lactic acid peel and all I could think about was dont use water! But I could also be very wrong.. ... Lactic acid peels? EDS Skin Care Forums Forum Index » Skin Care and Makeup Forum. ... I feel like I recently read something about lactic acid re-activatinig with water for hours after a peel has been performed. I ... I have been using lactic acid peels for years and I have never had it reactivate. Once you wash it off completely with water it ...
If your doctor suspects that this is the case, youll probably have a lactic acid blood test. ... Lactic acid is perfectly safe at low levels, but it can cause major problems when it builds up. ... Symptoms of Lactic Acidosis. Higher-than-normal lactic acid levels can lead to a condition called lactic acidosis. If its ... If your lactic acid level is normal, you dont have lactic acidosis. Your cells are making enough oxygen. It also tells your ...
Skin Laboratory recommends a peel containing lactic acid. The Lactic acid works as a natural humectant, pulling moisture from ... Dry Skin Care Tips Announced by Skin Laboratory - Add Lactic Acid Treatment. ... Moisturize often and use a lactic peel if you need to treat a skin condition but want to avoid drying out your skin. ...
Lactic acid is an acid that naturally forms in the body during exercise and is also present in some foods. Too much lactic acid ... Lactic acid is added to fizzy sodas and some fruit juices to regulate acidity. Lactic acid can extend the shelf life in meats, ... Lactic acid is also used as a pH regulator or a preservative. Lactic acid can sometimes be used as a flavoring agent. ... Lactic acid occurs naturally in some food. Natural fermentation creates lactic acid in in cheese, soy sauce, sourdough, meat ...
... C. R. Álvarez-Chávez,1,2,3 D. L. Sánchez-Acosta,2 ... lactic acid) (PLA) matrix. The pecan nutshells contain polyphenols, proteins, tannins, sugars, and lipids; some of these ...
The Global and China Lactic Acid and Derivative Industry Report, 2014-2016 market research, published in October 2014, is ... Import and export of Chinese lactic acid and derivatives including polylactic acid, lactic acid, lactate salt and lactic ester; ... PURAC, Cargill and Henan Jindan Lactic Acid Technology Co., Ltd. as the worlds top three lactic acid manufacturers boasted a ... of total lactic acid consumption in 2013; China surpassed Western Europe to become the second largest lactic acid market, with ...
... and require breaking the cyclic dimer of lactic acid "lactide" to obtain polylactic acid (PLA). The lactide is a renewable ... Design of New Biomaterials from lactic acid. 30.11.2007. Researchers from the Universidad Rey Juan Carlos have developed new ... Polymeric biomaterials derived from lactic acid have extensive uses in medical applications, especially in the context of ...
Lactic acid. Regulatory process names 3 Translated names 23 CAS names 1 IUPAC names 21 Other identifiers 7 ...
The bacteria are from the Bacilli type of Lactobacillales which includes Streptococcaceae (parent of Streptococcus and lactic ... The colder the temperature during ripening the more the flavor development relative to acid production. Ripened butter is ...
Return to main Lactic Acid page Does Lactic Acid Really Make You Sore? Weve all experienced it: the ache that hurts so good ... 5 Brutal Sprint Drills That Push the Lactic Threshold The Five Most Painful Lactic Threshold Speed Sessions Lactic threshold ... For a long time lactic acid was bad news. Many people still see it this way, and rightfully so. But since its discovery in the ... and lactic tolerance are important for anyone who sprints. Whether you are a... ...
... acid tolerant, non-sporulating, non-respiring rod or cocci that ... Lactic acid bacteria The Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) comprise a ... The Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) comprise a clade of Gram positive, low-GC, acid tolerant, non-sporulating, non-respiring rod or ... These bacteria, usually found in decomposing plants and lactic products produce lactic acid as the major metabolic endproduct ... as they can withstand the increased acidity from organic acid production (e.g. lactic acid). Laboratory media used for LAB ...
100 mg/L lactic acid (nomical formulation, nominal active is 88 mg/L) is not inhibiting to activated sludge. ...
Lactic acid and skin texture are closely linked. Visit HowStuffWorks to learn about lactic acid and skin texture. ... Lactic acid is considered one of the best AHAs to use, because most AHAs can often be irritating to the skin. Lactic acid is ... As an alpha hydroxy acid (AHA), lactic acid is a member of a well-known family of exfoliants. As such, it improves skins ... Consequently, lactic acid often works well as a wrinkle and line reducer and helps to even out skin tone and diminish acne ...
Shop SUNDAY RILEYs Good Genes All-In-One Lactic Acid Treatment at Sephora. This all-in-one AHA Treatment clarifies, and ... What it is: An all-in-one AHA treatment, powered by lactic acid, that clarifies, smooths, and retexturizes the appearance of ... Purified Lactic Acid: Hydrates and exfoliates the surface layers of the skin, revealing a more clarified, fresher, smoother, ... Formulated with high potency, purified grade lactic acid, it exfoliates the dull surface of the skin for clarity, radiance, and ...
Shop Sunday Rileys Good Genes All-In-One Lactic Acid Treatment at Sephora. It exfoliates to reveal a smoother, radiant, and ... Good Genes All-In-One Lactic Acid Treatment is formulated with high potency, purified grade lactic acid that immediately ... A clarifying, line smoothing lactic acid treatment. Solutions for: - Dullness and uneven texture - Dark spots - Fine lines and ... High Potency, Purified Grade Lactic Acid: Exfoliates dull, pore-clogging dead skin cells to instantly clarify and reveal ...
Most athletes see lactic acid as the enemy, but its time to learn the truth about how lactate impacts your bodys muscle ... Lactic acid is gone in minutes. Lactic acid is made of two parts: the acid and the lactate molecule. Below is a slide from a ... that the lactate part of lactic acid can actually be a fuel for muscles and the heart and that the acid part of lactic acid is ... Debunking the myths about lactic acid, fatigue and recovery. ... foam rolling for lactic acid * what is lactic acid in your ...
  • In industry, lactic acid fermentation is performed by lactic acid bacteria , which convert simple carbohydrates such as glucose , sucrose , or galactose to lactic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cheese makers also often add cultures or lactic acid to their milk to keep it from spoiling during fermentation. (dictionary.com)
  • Consequently, when lactic-acid fermentation is once developed a comparatively large amount of HCl is required to arrest it. (dictionary.com)
  • Lactic acid produced by fermentation of milk is often racemic, although certain species of bacteria produce solely (R)-lactic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lactic acid is produced industrially by bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates, or by chemical synthesis from acetaldehyde. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2009, lactic acid was produced predominantly (70-90%) by fermentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Production of racemic lactic acid consisting of a 1:1 mixture of D and L stereoisomers, or of mixtures with up to 99.9% L-lactic acid, is possible by microbial fermentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Industrial scale production of D-lactic acid by fermentation is possible, but much more challenging. (wikipedia.org)
  • This acid can also be found in certain dairy products, such as yogurt , as well as sourdough breads and some beers and wines as a result of fermentation. (wisegeek.com)
  • Beer and wine sometimes include bacteria that produces this acid, which can help eliminate other, somewhat unpleasant flavors produced during fermentation. (wisegeek.com)
  • These bacteria, usually found in decomposing plants and milk products, produce lactic acid as the major metabolic end product of carbohydrate fermentation, giving them the common name lactic acid bacteria (LAB). (wikipedia.org)
  • This aspect helps LAB to outcompete other bacteria in a natural fermentation, as they can withstand the increased acidity from organic acid production (e.g., lactic acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • When your muscles can't get enough oxygen during a short burst of exercise, they start to make use of a pathway called lactic acid fermentation, which generates a small three-carbon compound called lactic acid or lactate as a byproduct of glucose breakdown. (livestrong.com)
  • Your muscles ultimately gain less energy from glucose breakdown and lactic acid fermentation than your liver must expend to make the lactate back into glucose. (livestrong.com)
  • At times like these, lactic acid fermentation becomes the only way your muscles can keep metabolizing glucose for fuel. (livestrong.com)
  • The commercial production of lactic acid is typically done by fermentation. (jungbunzlauer.com)
  • Because the L(+) form is preferred for its better metabolisation, Jungbunzlauer has chosen to produce pure L(+)-lactic acid by traditional fermentation of natural carbohydrates. (jungbunzlauer.com)
  • A few years ago, I was asked to explain lactic acid fermentation in sourdough, and the difference between homo- and heterofermentation. (thefreshloaf.com)
  • Homo- , meaning "all the same," refers to the end product of fermentation (by lactic acid bacteria), which is only, or "all" lactic acid. (thefreshloaf.com)
  • Fermentation with lactic acid bacteria is not an exact science, and one brand of beer may have different levels of sourness from batch to batch or from year to year. (morebeer.com)
  • After that, lactic acid bacteria, dominated by Pediococcus damnosus, provide lactic acid fermentation for 4-5 months. (morebeer.com)
  • Lactic acid bacteria produce lactic acid during the process of fermentation. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Skeletal muscles and other tissues commonly produce lactic acid, even while at rest. (wisegeek.com)
  • Although lactic acid bacteria are generally associated with the order Lactobacillales, bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium (phylum Actinobacteria) also produce lactic acid as the major product of carbohydrate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many different species and strains of bacteria found in various types of starters, and because they produce lactic acid while fermenting sugar, they fall under the heading of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB). (thefreshloaf.com)
  • As lactic acid bacteria, heterofermentative LAB produce lactic acid, but they also produce carbon dioxide gas, alcohol or acetic acid as well. (thefreshloaf.com)
  • In synthetic medium, 60.6% of the glucose entered the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) to produce lactic acid, whereas 36.4% of the glucose entered the pentose phosphate metabolic pathway (HMP). (wiley.com)
  • This test is most often done to diagnose lactic acidosis . (medlineplus.gov)
  • What are the implications of lactic acidosis? (medlineplus.gov)
  • If lactic acid levels get too high, it can lead to a life-threatening condition known as lactic acidosis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A lactic acid test can help diagnose lactic acidosis before it causes serious complications. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A lactic acid test is most often used to diagnose lactic acidosis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You may need a lactic acid test if you have symptoms of lactic acidosis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A high lactic acid level means you likely have lactic acidosis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There are two types of lactic acidosis: type A and type B. The cause of your lactic acidosis depends on which type you have. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The purpose of the lactic acid test is to diagnose lactic acidosis. (brighthub.com)
  • Lactic acidosis can result from a number of diseases affecting the heart, liver, and kidneys. (brighthub.com)
  • Lactic acid testing is primarily done to diagnose lactic acidosis, an acidic condition of the body that can compromise many systems and organs. (brighthub.com)
  • Higher-than-normal lactic acid levels can lead to a condition called lactic acidosis . (webmd.com)
  • If your lactic acid level is normal, you don't have lactic acidosis. (webmd.com)
  • It also tells your doctor that something other than lactic acidosis is causing your symptoms. (webmd.com)
  • Very high levels of lactic acid can cause a serious, sometimes life-threatening condition called lactic acidosis . (wisegeek.com)
  • While extreme over-exercising and overheating can result in lactic acidosis, it can also be caused by alcohol poisoning, liver disease, and a lack of oxygen, due to something like carbon monoxide poisoning. (wisegeek.com)
  • Lactic acidosis refers to the abnormal build-up of lactic acid in the body. (petmd.com)
  • The recommended treatment for lactic acidosis will be dependent upon the underlying medical condition that is causing the lactic acid to build up. (petmd.com)
  • Most signs of lactic acidosis are related to the underlying cause of the medical condition and not the actual condition. (petmd.com)
  • One of the primary causes of lactic acidosis is an insufficient amount of oxygen in the blood or poor use of oxygen by the body. (petmd.com)
  • It is a common misnomer that Lactic Acid is the cause of fatigue and cessation of high intensity exercise, yet training plans built around your individual Lactate Threshold are highly effective despite the debunking of the "Lactic Acidosis" rationale. (pezcyclingnews.com)
  • Lactid acid level may be measured in the bloodstream in conditions of metabolic acidosis . (biology-online.org)
  • A test can be done to measure the amount of lactic acid in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It's a test that measures the amount of lactic acid (also called "lactate") in your blood . (webmd.com)
  • 1986) [1] found that the normal amount of lactic acid circulating in the blood is about 1 to 2 millimoles/litre of blood. (brianmac.co.uk)
  • Lactobacillus helveticus R reached the highest antimicrobial activity by the production of the largest amount of lactic acid, while L. lactis 140/2 achieved that by the complex of produced organic acids. (springer.com)
  • Pecan nutshells are a solid form of waste obtained from the pecan nut production and they have been explored as an inexpensive filler for incorporation by melt blending into the poly(lactic acid) (PLA) matrix. (hindawi.com)
  • siRNA-chitosan complexes in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles for the silencing of aquaporin-1 in cancer cells," Molecular Pharmaceutics , vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 3186-3194, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) Acid/Solutol HS15-Based Nanoparticles fo. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Poly(lacticco-glycolic) acid (PLGA) is one of representative biocompatible and biodegradable polymers, and polyoxyl 15 hydroxystearate (Solutol HS15) is a nonionic solubilizer and emulsifying agent. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Synthetic biodegradable polymers including poly(lactic acid) (PLA) are attractive cell culture substrates because their surfaces can be micropatterned to support cell adhesion. (nature.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to develop a self-aggregated nanoparticulate vehicle using an amphiphilic poly(lactic acid)-grafted-chitosan (PLA-g-CS) copolymer and to evaluate its potential for ocular delivery of amphotericin B. (dovepress.com)
  • Geographically, it is observed that, North America is the largest market for global lactic acid & poly lactic acid market owing to high concentration of related industries in this region. (pr.com)
  • The aim of our research was to produce poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fibres with diameters in the micrometer size range, serving as the reinforcing phase in self-reinforced (SR) PLA composites. (mdpi.com)
  • Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used as delivery carriers for anticancer drugs. (aiche.org)
  • Natural polyelectrolyte multilayers of chitosan (CHI) and alginate (ALG) were alternately deposited on doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) with layer by layer self-assembly to control drug release for antitumor activity. (dovepress.com)
  • Formulated with high potency, purified grade lactic acid, it exfoliates the dull surface of the skin for clarity, radiance, and younger-looking skin. (sephora.com)
  • Good Genes All-In-One Lactic Acid Treatment is formulated with high potency, purified grade lactic acid that immediately exfoliates dull, pore-clogging dead skin cells, revealing smoother, fresher, younger-looking skin. (sephora.com)
  • High Potency, Purified Grade Lactic Acid: Exfoliates dull, pore-clogging dead skin cells to instantly clarify and reveal smoother, clearer, younger-looking skin, while fighting visible signs of hyperpigmentation. (sephora.com)
  • The Global and China Lactic Acid and Derivative Industry Report, 2014-2016 market research, published in October 2014 , is spread across 66 pages, discusses 19 companies and it's market analysis is supported with 65+ charts. (prnewswire.com)
  • Varsha KK, Nampoothiri KM (2016) Appraisal of lactic acid bacteria as protective cultures. (springer.com)
  • Di Gioia D, Mazzola G, Nikodinoska I, Aloisio I, Landerholc T, Rossi M, Raimondi S, Melero B, Rovira J (2016) Lactic acid bacteria as protective cultures in fermented pork meat to prevent Clostridium spp. (springer.com)
  • The report titled "Global Lactic Acid and Polylactic Acid (PLA) Market Research Report 2016" studies about the global market scenario of lactic and polylactic acid. (pr.com)
  • Research and Markets has announced the addition of the 'D-Lactic Acid (CAS 10326-41-7) Market Research Report 2016' report to their offering. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • This Global Report 2016 is a result of industry experts' diligent work on researching the world market of d-lactic acid. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • The test procedure involves the oxidation of lactate to pyruvate using LDH (lactic dehydrogenase) as a catalyst for the reaction. (brighthub.com)
  • Through a complex process known as glycolysis , glycogen in the muscles breaks down into glucose and then into pyruvate or pyruvic acid . (wisegeek.com)
  • Under these conditions, the excess pyruvate produces lactic acid, which helps generate short-term bursts of energy. (wisegeek.com)
  • Intracellular redox balance is maintained through the oxidation of NADH, concomitant with pyruvate reduction to lactic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later on while you are resting, your liver is busy oxidizing the lactic acid to pyruvate through a reaction catalyzed by an enzyme called lactate dehydrogenase. (livestrong.com)
  • In the subsequent pyruvate metabolism, Fe 3+ also increased lactate dehydrogenase activity, and inhibited alcohol dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase, thereby increasing the lactic acid production to 9.03 g l −1 , an increase of 8% compared with the control. (wiley.com)
  • Every day, food processors, retailers and consumers are forced to throw out food spoiled with lactic acid bacteria. (3m.co.uk)
  • Šušković J, Kos B, Beganović J, Leboš Pavunc A, Habjanič K, Matošić S (2010) Antimicrobial activity-the most important property of probiotic and starter lactic acid bacteria. (springer.com)
  • Commonly used probiotic bacteria belong to lactic acid bacteria (LAB) family i.e. (protocol-online.org)
  • I feel like I recently read something about lactic acid re-activatinig with water for hours after a peel has been performed. (essentialdayspa.com)
  • We did a lactic acid peel and all I could think about was don't use water! (essentialdayspa.com)
  • With hindsight I do believe I have had reactivation with my last lactic peel when I pushed the boundaries percentage wise. (essentialdayspa.com)
  • Skin Laboratory recommends a peel containing lactic acid. (prweb.com)
  • Moisturize often and use a lactic peel if you need to treat a skin condition but want to avoid drying out your skin. (prweb.com)
  • I am new here and I am looking for some suggestions on Pure Lactic Acid 90% to do a full body peel. (askmehelpdesk.com)
  • Lactic acid peel with 90% pure lactic acid. (askmehelpdesk.com)
  • I am trying to make a 40% lactic acid peel with 90% pure lactic acid. (askmehelpdesk.com)
  • Should I do a lactic acid peel first? (askmehelpdesk.com)
  • Glycolic or lactic peel what's the best? (askmehelpdesk.com)
  • So I never did a peel before and I tried retin a with so much success I was so happy.But now I would like to try glycolic or lactic peel and I'm a little scared. (askmehelpdesk.com)
  • A lactic acid peel may cause a sunburn-like sensation accompanied by redness and flaking, which can range from mild to severe based on the strength of the peel. (livestrong.com)
  • A gentle lotion or cream may be applied following a lactic acid peel to help soothe the skin. (livestrong.com)
  • If scarring does occur following a lactic acid peel, it can usually be successfully treated, notes the AAD. (livestrong.com)
  • AHAs help to gently peel away dead cells to unveil a new, glowing layer, while also moisturizing by signaling skin cells to increase their hyaluronic acid deposition, hydrating the skin from the inside out. (prioriskincare.com)
  • Exercise can cause a temporary increase in lactic acid levels. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Clenching the fist or having the elastic band in place for a long time while having blood drawn can result in a false increase in lactic acid level. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An increase in lactic acid may be a result of anaerobic exercise such as sprinting or heavy weight lifting or a disease. (brighthub.com)
  • This test measures the level of lactic acid, also known as lactate, in your blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Normally, the level of lactic acid in the blood is low. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Level of lactic acid rises during conditions of oxygen deprivation, such as shock, heart failure, and lung disease. (biology-online.org)
  • The scientists behind Priori found in their studies that increasing the pH level of lactic acid has a huge effect on skin sensitivity and irritation. (prioriskincare.com)
  • High levels of lactic acid. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Blood levels of lactic acid can increase to dangerous levels under certain conditions. (brighthub.com)
  • Lactate and Lactic Acid production are routinely offered as the seemingly natural cause and effect parameters that cause fatigue and decrease in performance, but are they really the source of the problem? (pezcyclingnews.com)
  • Encapsulated in these comments are a whole bunch of misconceptions about lactic acid, fatigue and even recovery. (si.com)
  • In 1856, the role of Lactobacillus in the synthesis of lactic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1856, the role of Lactobacillus in the synthesis of lactic acid was discovered by Louis Pasteur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lactic acid producing bacteria can be divided in two classes: homofermentative bacteria like Lactobacillus casei and Lactococcus lactis, producing two moles of lactate from one mole of glucose, and heterofermentative species producing one mole of lactate from one mole of glucose as well as carbon dioxide and acetic acid/ethanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with two other closely related species of the "acidophilus" complex, L. johnsonii and Lactobacillus gasseri , the organism lacked biosynthetic capacity for most vitamins and amino acids, but encoded considerable transporter and fermentative capacities, expected for organism's residing within the nutrient rich conditions of upper GI tract. (pnas.org)
  • Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele was the first person to isolate lactic acid in 1780 from sour milk . (wikipedia.org)
  • It is said that milk fresh from the cow manifests the presence of lactic acid . (dictionary.com)
  • a colourless syrupy carboxylic acid found in sour milk and many fruits and used as a preservative ( E270 ) for foodstuffs, such as soft margarine, and for making pharmaceuticals and adhesives. (dictionary.com)
  • A syrupy, water-soluble organic acid produced when milk sours or certain fruits ferment. (dictionary.com)
  • Lactic acid was isolated for the first time by the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1780 from sour milk . (wikipedia.org)
  • Lactic acid, also known as 2-hydroxypropanoic or milk acid, is a compound formed when glucose is broken down under certain conditions in a living creature or by some types of bacteria. (wisegeek.com)
  • Certain types of bacteria added to milk, for example, produce the acid, which helps create the texture and tartness found in yogurt. (wisegeek.com)
  • Derived mostly from milk, lactic acid is a great anti-ageing ingredient but is also good for acne. (mamamia.com.au)
  • 3) A clear, odorless, hygroscopic organic acid abundant in many fruits, wine and sour milk. (biology-online.org)
  • Lactic acid comes from lactose found in milk, and it's one of the gentler acids while being the most moisturizing, making it the premier choice for those with sensitive or aging skin. (prioriskincare.com)
  • The isolation of lactic acid bacteria from raw and pasteurized milk is discussed. (dairyscience.info)
  • It can be challenging to isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from raw milk that has been refrigerated without pre-incubation since the flora tends to be dominated by Gram-negative bacteria and the LAB are present in low numbers. (dairyscience.info)
  • Loaded with a concentrated multi-source alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) complex-including glycolic and lactic acids-and microalgae, this potent retexturizing gel formula is designed for daily use, so you can see the results of continued healthy exfoliation night after night. (olehenriksen.com)
  • From salicylic acid to glycolic and lactic. (mamamia.com.au)
  • We can't find products matching this selection for Exfoliating Body Wash With Glycolic And Lactic Acids . (adorebeauty.com.au)
  • Global lactic acid market consumption has been growing steadily and rapidly since 2008, and the market capacity has arrived at 800,000 tons in 2013. (prnewswire.com)
  • In 1808, Jöns Jacob Berzelius discovered that lactic acid (actually L -lactate) also is produced in muscles during exertion. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, lactic acid produced by anaerobic respiration in animal muscles has the (S) configuration and is sometimes called "sarcolactic" acid, from the Greek "sarx" for flesh. (wikipedia.org)
  • During prolonged strenuous activity, the high amounts of lactic acid may produce hydrogen ions that cause burning sensations in muscles. (wisegeek.com)
  • The process of lactic acid removal takes approximately one hour, but this can be accelerated by undertaking an appropriate cool down that ensures a rapid and continuous supply of oxygen to the muscles. (brianmac.co.uk)
  • Below is a slide from a classic study done in the late 1930s from the Harvard Fatigue Lab showing how fast lactic acid disappears from your blood (and muscles) after exercise. (si.com)
  • Dr. Brooks has led the way in showing a number of things, including that under most circumstances lactic acid is not caused by lack of oxygen, or "anaerobic" conditions, in exercising muscles. (si.com)
  • He and other colleagues have also shown that the lactate part of lactic acid can actually be a fuel for muscles and the heart and that the acid part of lactic acid is not the cause of fatigue. (si.com)
  • Lactic acid is a substance that is produced by the muscles during normal physical activity, and which is elevated during exercise. (petmd.com)
  • The accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles has long been incorrectly associated with fatigue during exercise, as well being linked with delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) . (lesmills.com)
  • For years, we've been told by coaches, trainers and science teachers that lactic acid causes our muscles to ache and tire when we exercise intensely. (dailyburn.com)
  • Researchers concluded that the accumulation of lactic acid - and the increasing acidic environment in our muscles - is what causes muscle fatigue and failure. (dailyburn.com)
  • Berkeley -- In the lore of marathoners and extreme athletes, lactic acid is poison, a waste product that builds up in the muscles and leads to muscle fatigue, reduced performance and pain. (eurekalert.org)
  • Lactate is an interesting choice, because not only can it neutralise acid produced in the muscles, but in doing so, it can also provide the body with more energy, making it more useful than bicarbonate alone. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • Lactic acid plays a role in several biochemical processes and is produced in the muscles during intense activity. (hmdb.ca)
  • In this case, the acetyl-CoA will feed into a biochemical pathway called the citric acid cycle, and your liver cell will use the energy it extracts by oxidizing these carbons to store energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate or ATP. (livestrong.com)
  • The individual LAB strain showed strain-specific abilities to produce individual compounds: citric acid was observed for Streptococcus thermophilus 43, sorbic acid for Lactococcus lactis 140/2, and diacetyl for other L. lactis strains. (springer.com)
  • Swiss-based Jungbunzlauer has also recently increased the price of its citric acid products. (bakeryandsnacks.com)
  • Made out of, you guessed it, citric fruits, citric acid is used to treat the same concerns as glycolic. (mamamia.com.au)
  • POWERHOUSE FORMULA: Includes Vitamin C, Glycolic Acid, Hyaluronic Acid, Lactic Acid & CoEnzymeQ10 which exfoliates and firms skin, unclogs pores and diminishes blackheads, provides intense hydration to minimize the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. (amazon.com)
  • Lactic acid helps speed up the cell growth process while increasing hyaluronic acid, making skin appear thicker and plumper with natural hydration. (prioriskincare.com)
  • The lactic acid along with carbon dioxide builds up in the bloodstream as it cannot be cleared through the lungs. (brighthub.com)
  • 65% of lactic acid is converted to carbon dioxide and water, 20% into glycogen, 10% into Protein and 5% into glucose. (brianmac.co.uk)
  • Through respiration, glucose and oxygen are turned into carbon dioxide and water via the Krebs cycle, also known as the tricarboxylic acid or TCA cycle. (thefreshloaf.com)
  • Lactic acid is an alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA) due to the presence of carboxyl group adjacent to the hydroxyl group. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an alpha hydroxy acid (AHA), lactic acid is a member of a well-known family of exfoliants. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Lactic acid is an alpha hydroxy acid that may also hydrate dry, flaky skin. (livestrong.com)
  • Sunburn Alert: This product contains an alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) that may increase your skin's sensitivity to the sun and particularly the possibility of sunburn. (olehenriksen.com)
  • This dual alpha hydroxy acid formulation (glycolic & lactic) helps cut through and remove excess skin oils, impurities and make-up, without leaving skin dry or irritated. (dermadoctor.com)
  • But there are still those out there who don't know the benefits of a chemical exfoliator like an AHA (alpha hydroxy acid). (prioriskincare.com)
  • Bacteria produce organic acids that contribute, for good and bad, to the quality of bread. (thefreshloaf.com)
  • Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of at least one carboxyl group. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • Water-soluble organic acids derived from fruit or other kinds of food, glycolic, lactic and citrus are among the most popular types of AHAs. (prioriskincare.com)
  • Under conditions of anaerobic activity such as heavy exercise, the body will adjust and re-establish equilibrium once the exercise is discontinued, clearing the system of excess lactic acid. (brighthub.com)
  • The lactic acid system is capable of releasing energy to resynthesise ATP without the involvement of oxygen and is called anaerobic glycolysis. (brianmac.co.uk)
  • This point is often measured as the lactic threshold or anaerobic threshold (AT) or onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA). (brianmac.co.uk)
  • Introducing the first self contained anaerobic plates for lactic acid bacteria testing: 3M™ Petrifilm™ Lactic Acid Bacteria Count Plates. (3m.co.uk)
  • The self contained anaerobic environment in this plate enhances the recovery of lactic acid bacteria, providing fast, accurate results for effective control of product quality and shelf life. (3m.co.uk)
  • When infused into skincare to be applied topically, this acid gently resurfaces skin to remove the build-up of dull, dead skin cells to reveal a brighter, smoother, younger-looking complexion. (totalbeauty.com)
  • So, whether you apply it at night to boost your beauty sleep, or before applying foundation to create the smoothest base possible, lactic acid is one of those magical skincare ingredients that definitely deserves a spot in your routine. (totalbeauty.com)
  • 3 acid skincare products you need. (mamamia.com.au)
  • I know this all may be just a bit intimidating, but remember this: the best way to incorporate an AHA like lactic acid into your skincare routine is to start with small concentrations and work your way up. (prioriskincare.com)
  • The 3M™ Petrifilm™ Lactic Acid Bacteria Count Plate is a time-saving, sample-ready plate designed to determine total lactic acid bacteria populations in food and environmental samples. (3m.co.uk)
  • Lactobacillales are an order of gram-positive, low-GC, acid-tolerant, generally nonsporulating, nonrespiring, either rod-shaped (bacilli) or spherical (cocci) bacteria that share common metabolic and physiological characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, lactic acid and other metabolic products contribute to the organoleptic and textural profile of a food item. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) comprise a clade of Gram positive , low-GC, acid tolerant, non-sporulating, non-respiring rod or cocci that are associated by their common metabolic and physiological characteristics. (bionity.com)
  • Metabolic acid ions were determined by capillary electrophoresis. (tudelft.nl)
  • In conclusion it is feasible and effective means using GC-MS, isotope experiment and MATLAB software to integrate research the metabolic flux distribution of lactic acid bacteria, and the results provide the theoretical foundation for similar metabolic flux distribution. (wiley.com)
  • Lactic acid peels? (essentialdayspa.com)
  • I have been using lactic acid peels for years and I have never had it reactivate. (essentialdayspa.com)
  • Lactic acid peels can have antiaging effects on the skin. (livestrong.com)
  • I use RegimA at home and had a course of their fruit acid peels almost two years ago to treat problematic combination skin. (consultingroom.com)
  • one is 40% and the other is 50%, that is why i can do lactic peels twice a week, when i feel like it. (acne.org)
  • A widespread belief among some people is that ongoing muscle soreness following an intense workout is due to a buildup of lactic acid. (wisegeek.com)
  • A long-standing theory about exercise cool-down is that it plays a role in preventing delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) by flushing lactic acid f. (stack.com)
  • There's a big difference between lactic acid and lactate and understanding the disparity will impact your body's muscle soreness, recovery, fatigue and more. (si.com)
  • Back in the 1980s, a study was done to intentionally make people sore for 72 hours after exercise by having them run downhill, and that was how the authors answered the question, "Is Lactic acid related to delayed-onset muscle soreness? (si.com)
  • Results indicated that lactic acid is not related to exercise-induced delayed-onset muscle soreness. (si.com)
  • When it comes to athletic performance, lactic acid has historically been viewed as the enemy - the culprit behind DOMS (Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness) and fatigue. (lesmills.com)
  • I have very sensitive skin, always neutralise lactic acid with water and never had stinging at any time after rinsing. (essentialdayspa.com)
  • In the absence of oxygen, carbohydrate metabolism results in lactic acid production. (brighthub.com)
  • As a starting material for industrial production of lactic acid, almost any carbohydrate source containing C5 and C6 sugars can be used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Production of lactic acid has linked LAB with food fermentations, as acidification inhibits the growth of spoilage agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cargill mainly supplies lactic acid products to its subsidiary - NatureWorks for production of polylactic acid. (prnewswire.com)
  • Since the smooth realization of industrial production in the 1990s, polylactic acid has seen incremental application in biomedicinel, automotive, electronics and other fields, accompanied by intensified development efforts in various countries. (prnewswire.com)
  • Polylactic acid industry started relatively late in China , seeing gradual transition from laboratory to pilot industrial-production units only after 1990s. (prnewswire.com)
  • The colder the temperature during ripening the more the flavor development relative to acid production. (webexhibits.org)
  • Nine two-component regulatory systems were predicted, some associated with determinants implicated in bacteriocin production and acid tolerance. (pnas.org)
  • In a normal functioning body, the liver and the kidneys work to maintain the balance between lactic acid production and its removal. (petmd.com)
  • But what if, rather than hindering your performance, the production of lactic acid in fact makes you a better athlete? (lesmills.com)
  • Rattanachaikunsopon P, Phumkhachorn P (2010) Lactic acid bacteria: their antimicrobial compounds and their uses in food production. (springer.com)
  • Blagojev N, Škrinjar M, Veskovic-Moračanin S, Šošo V (2012) Control of mould growth and mycotoxin production by lactic acid bacteria metabolites. (springer.com)
  • Dr. Sokolovas has been the leading researcher on the impacts of lactic acid production in elite athletes. (directsellingnews.com)
  • 3M science brings you a better way to test for lactic acid bacteria in your food products, raw materials and production environment without the hassle of traditional agar methods - 3M™ Petrifilm™ Lactic Acid Bacteria Count Plates. (3m.co.uk)
  • The aim of this study was lo determine the effects of 3 wk of daily rinsing with amine fluoride/stannous fluoride (AmF/SnF2) mouthrinse on plaque formation at buccal and interproximal sites, and on the acid production in plaque. (tudelft.nl)
  • The results at baseline showed higher lactic acid concentrations in resting interproximal plaque than in buccal plaque, and a higher acid production in response to sucrose challenge in buccal plaque than in interproximal plaque. (tudelft.nl)
  • If you've read anything about training in the last ten years you've probably come across the idea of Lactate Threshold and a discussion of how lactic acid production limits performance. (pezcyclingnews.com)
  • As exercise intensity increases lactic acid production rises at a rate that, eventually, overwhelms the bodies ability to buffer this build-up and a decrease in performance naturally follows. (pezcyclingnews.com)
  • Controlling acid balance and degree of sourness is something that artisan bakers strive to do, so it may be useful to understand where the acids come from and how their production can be influenced by things that are within the baker's control. (thefreshloaf.com)
  • Last month we looked at the intricacies of Lactic Acid/Lactate production and its role in limiting performance. (pezcyclingnews.com)
  • The short summary of that article is to say that Lactic Acid production is NOT the limiter in high intensity exercise, and the science behind that belief was founded on an inferred cause and effect relationship between lactate production and cessation of exercise that, ultimately, proved to be untrue. (pezcyclingnews.com)
  • The company now boasts a lactic acid and lactates production capacity of more than 18,000 tons. (bakeryandsnacks.com)
  • Though, lactic acid is used in the production of PLA plastics that are mainly used in packaging products that comply with environmental customs. (pr.com)
  • Governments across the globe have imposed ban on the use of plastic bags and also provide incentives for polylactic acid production process. (pr.com)
  • Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play an important role in the production of fermented food by dairy and wine industries. (europa.eu)
  • Decarboxylation of did- and tricarboxylic acids by LAB is a desirable step resulting in the production of compounds which enhance the organoleptic properties and/or the stability of the finished products .However, decarboxylation of amino acids (e.g. histamine, tyrosine) leads tithe production of bioorganic amines (BA) (e.g. histamine , tramline) which have undesirable toxic properties. (europa.eu)
  • However, the addition of Zn 2+ showed an opposite effect, decreasing the lactic acid production. (wiley.com)
  • Lactic acid is a substance made by muscle tissue and by red blood cells, which carry oxygen from your lungs to other parts of your body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Lactic acid levels rise when oxygen levels decrease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Lactic acids levels increase when there is decreased oxygen. (brighthub.com)
  • Alpha hydroxy acids are a type of chemical exfoliants (along with beta hydroxy acids) that work to resurface skin. (totalbeauty.com)
  • Where alpha hydroxy acids work on the skin's surface and are water soluble, beta hydroxy acids work both on the skin's surface and deep within the pore, and are oil soluble. (totalbeauty.com)
  • There are two classes of Hydroxy Acids: you've got your Alpha Hydroxy Acids (AHAs) and your Beta Hydroxy Acids (BHAs). (mamamia.com.au)
  • The accumulation of lactic acid can be critical, so a lactic acid test may be done for the purpose of identifying acidic conditions in the body. (brighthub.com)
  • Relying on the graphene-modified transducer, l -lactic dehydrogenase ( l -LDH) was successfully immobilised in a 1 % Nafion ® membrane. (springer.com)
  • Polylactic acid is one of the most potential applications of lactic acid. (prnewswire.com)
  • Currently, leading polylactic acid manufacturers are concentrated in the United States , the Netherlands , Germany and other developed countries. (prnewswire.com)
  • In 2013, global polylactic acid capacity hovered around 320,000 tons, of which 90% came from six major manufacturers. (prnewswire.com)
  • In 2014 China's polylactic acid capacity was approximately 13,700 tons, increasing by 4,800 tons over 2008. (prnewswire.com)
  • These new materials are obtained through molecular catalysis, and require breaking the cyclic dimer of lactic acid "lactide" to obtain polylactic acid (PLA). (innovations-report.com)
  • Its also contain global market scenario of lactic and polylactic acid including Some of the key regions. (pr.com)
  • Polylactic acid (PLA) is a bio-degradable thermoplastic polyester produced from lactic acid using various crops like corn, sugarcane, tapioca etc. (pr.com)
  • Just like other sustainable bioplastics, polylactic acid market has enormous potential to be used in several packaging applications of food, beverages and other consumer products that have small shelf-life. (pr.com)
  • Generally, lactic acid testing would be secondary to screening tests and evaluation of symptoms. (brighthub.com)
  • Below are the strongest indications (i.e. symptoms) of Lactic Acid. (abchomeopathy.com)
  • We know now that this is not the case, as lactic acid has no direct role in causing these exercise-related symptoms. (lesmills.com)
  • LEIGH CAMPBELL: From salicylic to glycolic, acid is skincare's new buzz word. (mamamia.com.au)
  • Originating from the bark of a tree, Salicylic is the go-to acid to treat acne and breakouts. (mamamia.com.au)
  • A mixture of Lactic Acid and Salicylic Acids produces botanical vine like crystalline formations. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Compared to traditional Berliner Weisse, this modern version is less sour, presenting only lactic acid and no esters. (morebeer.com)
  • 2 . Compared to acetic acid , its p K a is 1 unit less, meaning lactic acid is ten times more acidic than acetic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The percentage of acids, primarily lactic and acetic, in a particular beer determines its sourness. (morebeer.com)
  • The general formula of a carboxylic acid is R-COOH, where R is some monovalent functional group. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • α-Hydroxy acids, or alpha hydroxy acids , are a class of chemical compounds that consist of a carboxylic acid substituted with a hydroxyl group on the adjacent carbon. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • These are organic compounds containing a carboxylic acid substituted with a hydroxyl group on the adjacent carbon. (hmdb.ca)
  • Lactic acid giant Galactic is the latest ingredients firm to announced substantial price increases on the back of rocketing energy costs. (bakeryandsnacks.com)
  • The expression 'lactic acid' is used most commonly by athletes to describe the intense pain felt during exhaustive exercise, especially in events like the 400 metres and 800 metres. (brianmac.co.uk)
  • The lactic acid we commonly use has a concentration of 88% by weight and 1 Eq of that weighs 102 g. 1 mEq weighs 0.102 g. (thebrewingnetwork.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to test the suitability of Transgalactosylated oligosaccharides-mupirocin lithium salt (TOS-MUP) and MRS-clindamycin-ciprofloxacin (MRS-CC) agars, along with several other culture media, for selectively enumerating bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species commonly used to make fermented milks. (scielo.br)
  • Light micrograph of a colony of lactic acid bacteria used in probiotics. (sciencephoto.com)
  • A few years ago the Galactic signed a joint venture agreement with the BBCA Biochemical Company for the erection of a lactic acid and derivatives manufacturing unit in China. (bakeryandsnacks.com)
  • And yeah, the body can burn lactic acid as a fuel so if anything think of the burn/pain buildup like a battery charging. (metafilter.com)
  • They're generating lactic buildup of their own and just like your legs you can develop and train them to efficiently burn that energy. (metafilter.com)
  • Does Lactic Acid Really Make You Sore? (stack.com)
  • He proved the ferment of lactic acid to be an organism of a certain kind. (dictionary.com)
  • Based upon how they ferment sugars, lactic acid bacteria can be sorted into three categories. (thefreshloaf.com)
  • One common use for lactic acid in a human body is the formation of glucose. (wisegeek.com)
  • Moderate amounts of this acid can move through someone's blood stream and reach the liver, where it undergoes a process called gluconeogenesis to become glucose. (wisegeek.com)
  • Lactic acid is not useful to your muscle cells, but your liver turns it back into glucose later on after exercise. (livestrong.com)
  • The liver also needs to turn the lactic acid into glucose. (livestrong.com)
  • The theory is that when the body breaks down glucose for energy, it produces lactic acid as a by-product. (dailyburn.com)
  • Blood lactic acid concentration was measured before and during 45 minutes of treadmill running, one time on the level and once at a minus 10%(downhill) incline. (si.com)
  • Blood lactic acid concentration and subjective sensations of muscular soreness were assessed at intervals for 72 hours after the runs. (si.com)
  • Lactic acid concentration was significantly increased during running on the level, but subjects experienced no significant post exercise muscular soreness. (si.com)
  • To convert Eq to an actual amount of acid/base its molar weight, number of hydrogen ions donated/absorbed and its concentration needs to be known. (thebrewingnetwork.com)
  • Our LCA complex line provides a buffered concentration of lactic acid, mixed with vitamins A, C, E, and Pro A (we call this mix the Multi-Functional Antioxidant Sequence, or MFAS). (prioriskincare.com)
  • In the traditional process, unboiled wort is fermented with a mixture of Brettanomyces ale yeast and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria. (morebeer.com)
  • DL -lactic acid is miscible with water and with ethanol above its melting point, which is around 17 or 18 °C. D -lactic acid and L -lactic acid have a higher melting point. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tested LAB strains appeared to produce and excrete natural antimicrobial compounds such as ethanol (0.27-0.87%), lactic (5.6-19.9 g/L), citric (0.3-3.3 g/L), benzoic (0.2-1.8 mg/L), and sorbic (0.1-1.2 mg/L) acids. (springer.com)
  • Sourdough bread often relies on both yeast and bacteria in the air around the dough's starter for its tart flavor, usually caused by the formation of acid within the bread. (wisegeek.com)
  • In yeasted breads, acids come in small doses from naturally occurring bacteria present in flour and commercial yeast. (thefreshloaf.com)
  • The beer is bottled with a fresh addition of kräusen that includes yeast (no lactic acid bacteria). (morebeer.com)
  • Glycolysis (breakdown of carbohydrates) results in the formation of pyruvic acid and hydrogen ions (H+). (brianmac.co.uk)
  • If too many hydrogen ions are the culprit, then why blame so-called lactic acid? (dailyburn.com)
  • Scientists have been confused because lactate and hydrogen ions are present together in the muscle when you exercise intensely, and they thought it was lactic acid," says McCormick. (dailyburn.com)
  • Solubility is so high that 1 part of lactic acid can dissolve 12 parts of water. (wikipedia.org)
  • These ideas also gave rise to the notion of the 'lactic acid burn' and that lactic acid was responsible for fatigue during high-intensity exercise. (active.com)
  • An individual with extremely high lactic acid may be slow to respond having difficulty speaking cohently. (brighthub.com)
  • If your lactic acid level is high, it could be caused by a number of things. (webmd.com)
  • A "fight-or-flight" response, for example, often relies on this acid for the energy a person needs to quickly run at high speeds. (wisegeek.com)
  • Jungbunzlauer also proposes L(+)-lactic acid in high quality personal care, pharmaceutical starting material grade, technical and biocidal grades. (jungbunzlauer.com)
  • According to the research, due to rising demand from its end-use applications, the global market for lactic acid is estimated to witness high growth in future. (pr.com)
  • China surpassed Western Europe to become the second largest lactic acid market, with growth in consumption primarily benefiting from increasing demand in the food and beverage processing industry as well as robust export demand. (prnewswire.com)
  • One of the liver's functions is to metabolize lactic acid, therefore, the health of the liver is a factor in removing lactic acid from the body. (brighthub.com)
  • Liver disease can result in an increased lactic acid as well. (brighthub.com)
  • The liver is involved in breakdown of lactic acid. (brighthub.com)
  • When lactic acid is abundant in your liver cells after exercise, the gluconeogenesis pathway is a little bit different from the one your liver employs at other times. (livestrong.com)
  • I read somewhere that lactic acid would sour the beer, but it wasn't too noticeable until you had around 2ml per gallon which I would be way below. (homebrewtalk.com)