Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Alcohol oxidoreductases with substrate specificity for LACTIC ACID.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A species ARTERIVIRUS, occurring in a number of transplantable mouse tumors. Infected mice have permanently elevated serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase.
Acidosis caused by accumulation of lactic acid more rapidly than it can be metabolized. It may occur spontaneously or in association with diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS; LEUKEMIA; or LIVER FAILURE.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
Amino-substituted glyoxylic acid derivative.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains two CHLORINE atoms attached to its methyl group.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The oxygen consumption level above which aerobic energy production is supplemented by anaerobic mechanisms during exercise, resulting in a sustained increase in lactate concentration and metabolic acidosis. The anaerobic threshold is affected by factors that modify oxygen delivery to the tissues; it is low in patients with heart disease. Methods of measurement include direct measure of lactate concentration, direct measurement of bicarbonate concentration, and gas exchange measurements.
Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Glucose in blood.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.
Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC
BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
Diphosphoric acid esters of fructose. The fructose-1,6- diphosphate isomer is most prevalent. It is an important intermediate in the glycolysis process.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
Derivatives of OXALOACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1,4-carboxy aliphatic structure.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC
Infections caused by viruses of the genus ARTERIVIRUS.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).
Solutions prepared for exchange across a semipermeable membrane of solutes below a molecular size determined by the cutoff threshold of the membrane material.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
Allosteric enzymes that regulate glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. These enzymes catalyze phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate to either fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1 reaction), or to fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-2 reaction).
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
A state due to excess loss of carbon dioxide from the body. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria capable of reducing sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide. Organisms are isolated from anaerobic mud of fresh and salt water, animal intestines, manure, and feces.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The release of GLUCOSE from GLYCOGEN by GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE (phosphorolysis). The released glucose-1-phosphate is then converted to GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE by PHOSPHOGLUCOMUTASE before entering GLYCOLYSIS. Glycogenolysis is stimulated by GLUCAGON or EPINEPHRINE via the activation of PHOSPHORYLASE KINASE.
Five-carbon furanose sugars in which the OXYGEN is replaced by a NITROGEN atom.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.
A compound that inhibits aminobutyrate aminotransferase activity in vivo, thereby raising the level of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tissues.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A biotin-dependent enzyme belonging to the ligase family that catalyzes the addition of CARBON DIOXIDE to pyruvate. It is occurs in both plants and animals. Deficiency of this enzyme causes severe psychomotor retardation and ACIDOSIS, LACTIC in infants. EC
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
A family of gram-negative bacteria, in the phylum FIRMICUTES.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
Any method of measuring the amount of work done by an organism, usually during PHYSICAL EXERTION. Ergometry also includes measures of power. Some instruments used in these determinations include the hand crank and the bicycle ergometer.
A ketotriose compound. Its addition to blood preservation solutions results in better maintenance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels during storage. It is readily phosphorylated to dihydroxyacetone phosphate by triokinase in erythrocytes. In combination with naphthoquinones it acts as a sunscreening agent.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.

Induction of bovine polioencephalomalacia with a feeding system based on molasses and urea. (1/3648)

Polioencephalomalacia (PEM), a disease first described in the United States and related to intensive beef production, appeared in Cuba coincident with the use of a new, molasses-urea-based diet to fatten bulls. Because the only experimental means so far of reproducing PEM has been with amprolium, a structural analog of thiamin, the present study attempted to induce the disease using the molasses-urea-based diet. Six Holstein bulls (200-300 kg) were studied during consumption of three successive diets: 1) commercial molasses-urea-restricted forage diet of Cuban feedlots, 2) a period in which forage was gradually withdrawn and 3) a forage-free diet composed only of molasses, urea and fish meal. PEM was reproduced in this way. At ten-day intervals, blood concentrations of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and urea were measured, as well as when clinical signs of PEM appeared. The signs, clinical course and lesions of the experimentally induced disease were comparable to those of field cases. The biochemical results suggested a block in pyruvate oxidation as in PEM elsewhere in the world. No evidence existed of urea intoxication. In addition, brain and liver concentration of total thiamin from field cases and normal animals were found to be similar.  (+info)

Mechanism of citrate metabolism in Lactococcus lactis: resistance against lactate toxicity at low pH. (2/3648)

Measurement of the flux through the citrate fermentation pathway in resting cells of Lactococcus lactis CRL264 grown in a pH-controlled fermentor at different pH values showed that the pathway was constitutively expressed, but its activity was significantly enhanced at low pH. The flux through the citrate-degrading pathway correlated with the magnitude of the membrane potential and pH gradient that were generated when citrate was added to the cells. The citrate degradation rate and proton motive force were significantly higher when glucose was metabolized at the same time, a phenomenon that could be mimicked by the addition of lactate, the end product of glucose metabolism. The results clearly demonstrate that citrate metabolism in L. lactis is a secondary proton motive force-generating pathway. Although the proton motive force generated by citrate in cells grown at low pH was of the same magnitude as that generated by glucose fermentation, citrate metabolism did not affect the growth rate of L. lactis in rich media. However, inhibition of growth by lactate was relieved when citrate also was present in the growth medium. Citrate did not relieve the inhibition by other weak acids, suggesting a specific role of the citrate transporter CitP in the relief of inhibition. The mechanism of citrate metabolism presented here provides an explanation for the resistance to lactate toxicity. It is suggested that the citrate metabolic pathway is induced under the acidic conditions of the late exponential growth phase to make the cells (more) resistant to the inhibitory effects of the fermentation product, lactate, that accumulates under these conditions.  (+info)

Isolation from estuarine sediments of a Desulfovibrio strain which can grow on lactate coupled to the reductive dehalogenation of 2,4, 6-tribromophenol. (3/3648)

Strain TBP-1, an anaerobic bacterium capable of reductively dehalogenating 2,4,6-tribromophenol to phenol, was isolated from estuarine sediments of the Arthur Kill in the New York/New Jersey harbor. It is a gram-negative, motile, vibrio-shaped, obligate anaerobe which grows on lactate, pyruvate, hydrogen, and fumarate when provided sulfate as an electron acceptor. The organism accumulates acetate when grown on lactate and sulfate, contains desulfoviridin, and will not grow in the absence of NaCl. It will not utilize acetate, succinate, propionate, or butyrate for growth via sulfate reduction. When supplied with lactate as an electron donor, strain TBP-1 will utilize sulfate, sulfite, sulfur, and thiosulfate for growth but not nitrate, fumarate, or acrylate. This organism debrominates 2-, 4-, 2,4-, 2,6-, and 2,4,6-bromophenol but not 3- or 2,3-bromophenol or monobrominated benzoates. It will not dehalogenate monochlorinated, fluorinated, or iodinated phenols or chlorinated benzoates. Together with its physiological characteristics, its 16S rRNA gene sequence places it in the genus Desulfovibrio. The average growth yield of strain TBP-1 grown on a defined medium supplemented with lactate and 2,4,6-bromophenol is 3.71 mg of protein/mmol of phenol produced, and the yield was 1.42 mg of protein/mmol of phenol produced when 4-bromophenol was the electron acceptor. Average growth yields (milligrams of protein per millimole of electrons utilized) for Desulfovibrio sp. strain TBP-1 grown with 2,4,6-bromophenol, 4-bromophenol, or sulfate are 0.62, 0.71, and 1.07, respectively. Growth did not occur when either lactate or 2,4,6-bromophenol was omitted from the growth medium. These results indicate that Desulfovibrio sp. strain TBP-1 is capable of growth via halorespiration.  (+info)

Dissimilatory reduction of Fe(III) and other electron acceptors by a Thermus isolate. (4/3648)

A thermophilic bacterium that can use O2, NO3-, Fe(III), and S0 as terminal electron acceptors for growth was isolated from groundwater sampled at a 3.2-km depth in a South African gold mine. This organism, designated SA-01, clustered most closely with members of the genus Thermus, as determined by 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) sequence analysis. The 16S rDNA sequence of SA-01 was >98% similar to that of Thermus strain NMX2 A.1, which was previously isolated by other investigators from a thermal spring in New Mexico. Strain NMX2 A.1 was also able to reduce Fe(III) and other electron acceptors. Neither SA-01 nor NMX2 A.1 grew fermentatively, i.e., addition of an external electron acceptor was required for anaerobic growth. Thermus strain SA-01 reduced soluble Fe(III) complexed with citrate or nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA); however, it could reduce only relatively small quantities (0.5 mM) of hydrous ferric oxide except when the humic acid analog 2,6-anthraquinone disulfonate was added as an electron shuttle, in which case 10 mM Fe(III) was reduced. Fe(III)-NTA was reduced quantitatively to Fe(II); reduction of Fe(III)-NTA was coupled to the oxidation of lactate and supported growth through three consecutive transfers. Suspensions of Thermus strain SA-01 cells also reduced Mn(IV), Co(III)-EDTA, Cr(VI), and U(VI). Mn(IV)-oxide was reduced in the presence of either lactate or H2. Both strains were also able to mineralize NTA to CO2 and to couple its oxidation to Fe(III) reduction and growth. The optimum temperature for growth and Fe(III) reduction by Thermus strains SA-01 and NMX2 A.1 is approximately 65 degrees C; their optimum pH is 6.5 to 7.0. This is the first report of a Thermus sp. being able to couple the oxidation of organic compounds to the reduction of Fe, Mn, or S.  (+info)

Augmentation of killing of Escherichia coli O157 by combinations of lactate, ethanol, and low-pH conditions. (5/3648)

The acid tolerance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains can be overcome by addition of lactate, ethanol, or a combination of the two agents. Killing can be increased by as much as 4 log units in the first 5 min of incubation at pH 3 even for the most acid-tolerant isolates. Exponential-phase, habituated, and stationary-phase cells are all sensitive to incubation with lactate and ethanol. Killing correlates with disruption of the capacity for pH homeostasis. Habituated and stationary-phase cells can partially offset the effects of the lowering of cytoplasmic pH.  (+info)

Metabolism and inflammatory mediators in the peritendinous space measured by microdialysis during intermittent isometric exercise in humans. (6/3648)

1. The metabolic processes that occur around the tendon during mechanical loading and exercise are undescribed in man. These processes are important for understanding the development of overuse inflammation and injury. 2. A microdialysis technique was used to determine interstitial concentrations of glycerol, glucose, lactate, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) as well as to calculate tissue substrate balance in the peritendinous region of the human Achilles tendon. Recovery of 48-62 % (range) at rest and 70-77 % during exercise were obtained for glycerol, glucose and PGE2. 3. Six young healthy humans were studied at rest, during 30 min of intermittent static plantar flexion of the ankle at a workload corresponding to individual body weight, and during 60 min of recovery. Microdialysis was performed in both legs with simultaneous determination of blood flow by 133Xe washout in the same area, and blood sampling from the radial artery. 4. With exercise, the net release of lactate as well as of glycerol from the peritendinous space of the Achilles tendon increased 2-fold (P < 0.05). Furthermore a 100 % increase in interstitial concentration of PGE2 and TXB2 was found, but it was only significant for TXB2(P < 0.05). As peritendinous blood flow increased 2- to 3-fold during intermittent static contractions, this indicates also that the output of these substances from the tissue increased during exercise. 5. This study indicates that both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism as well as inflammatory activity is accelerated in the peritendinous region of the human Achilles tendon with dynamic loading.  (+info)

Arteriovenous differences for amino acids and lactate across kidneys of normal and acidotic rats. (7/3648)

1. Arteriovenous differences fro amino acids across kidneys of normal and chronically acidotic rats were measured. Glutamine was the only amino acid extracted in increased amounts in acidosis. There was a considerable production of serine by kidneys from both normal and acidotic rats. 2. The arterial blood concentration of glutamine was significantly decreased in acidotic animals. 3. The glutamine extracted by kidneys of acidotic rats was largely and probably exclusively derived from the plasma. 4. The blood lactate concentration was unchanged in acidosis, as was the uptake of lactate by the kidney.  (+info)

Effect of ornithine and lactate on urea synthesis in isolated hepatocytes. (8/3648)

1. In hepatocytes isolated from 24 h-starved rats, urea production from ammonia was stimulated by addition of lactate, in both the presence and the absence of ornithine. The relationship of lactate concentration to the rate of urea synthesis was hyperbolic. 2. Other glucose precursors also stimulated urea production to varying degrees, but none more than lactate. Added oleate and butyrate did not stimulate urea synthesis. 3. Citrulline accumulation was largely dependent on ornithine concentration. As ornithine was increased from 0 to 40 mM, the rate of citrulline accumulation increased hyperbolically, and was half-maximal when ornithine was 8-12 mM. 4. The rate of citrulline accumulation was independent of the presence of lactate, but with pyruvate the rate increased. 5. The rate of urea production continued to increase as ornithine was varied from 0 to 40 mM. 6. It was concluded that intermediates provided by both ornithine and lactate are limiting for urea production from ammonia in isolated liver cells. It was suggested that the stimulatory effect of lactate lies in increased availability of cytosolic aspartate for condensation with citrulline.  (+info)

Metformin (MET) is the first-line drug for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, MET increases blood lactate levels in patients with T2DM. Lactate possesses proinflammatory properties and causes insulin resistance (IR). Oxamate (OXA), a lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor, can decrease tissue lactate production and blood lactate levels. This study was conducted to examine the effects of the combination of OXA and MET on inflammation, and IR in diabetic db/db mice. Supplementation of OXA to MET led to lowered tissue lactate production and serum lactate levels compared to MET alone, accompanied with further decreased tissue and blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, along with better insulin sensitivity, beta-cell mass, and glycemic control in diabetic db/db mice ...
Lactate inflection point (LIP), is the exercise intensity at which the blood concentration of lactate and/or lactic acid begins to exponentially increase.[1] It is often expressed as 85% of maximum heart rate or 75% of maximum oxygen intake.[2] When exercising at or below the LT, any lactate produced by the muscles is removed by the body without it building up.[3] The onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA) is often confused with the lactate threshold. With a higher exercise intensity the lactate production exceeds at a rate which it cannot be broken down, the blood lactate concentration will show an increase equal to 4.0mM; it then accumulates at the muscle and then moves to the bloodstream.[2] Regular endurance exercise leads to adaptations in skeletal muscle which prevent lactate levels from rising. This is mediated via activation of PGC-1α which alters the isoenzyme composition of the LDH complex and decreases the activity of the lactate generating enzyme LDHA, while increasing the ...
Aerobic capacity is the intensity you can sustain your workout at. To improve, there is a great deal of research on looking at your lactate threshold levels to help enable you to gain improvement in your training ability.. Glycolysis, so called releasing energy by splitting sugars, provides energy through APT for use in powering your muscle contractions. Lactate is a product of this glycolysis. So, a good predictor of performance can be your lactate threshold, defined as when the bodys lactate production is higher than its lactate clearance.. At the threshold point the lactate measurement increases exponentially. This increase of lactate acid in the muscles is when your feel this burning sensation, aches, pains, even cramps and you can no longer continue at that intensity. When you reach this point of exhaustion but try to carry on you risk overtraining and/or subsequent injury. Ultimately, this will lead to a fall in performance and poor results.. To improve your clearance of lactate you ...
Lactate, perhaps the best-known metabolic waste product, was first isolated from sour milk, in which it is produced by lactobacilli. Whereas microbes also generate other fermentation products, such as ethanol or acetone, lactate dominates in mammals. Lactate production increases when the demand for ATP and oxygen exceeds supply, as occurs during intense exercise and ischaemia. The build-up of lactate in stressed muscle and ischaemic tissues has established lactates reputation as a deleterious waste product. In this Perspective, we summarize emerging evidence that, in mammals, lactate also serves as a major circulating carbohydrate fuel. By providing mammalian cells with both a convenient source and sink for three-carbon compounds, circulating lactate enables the uncoupling of carbohydrate-driven mitochondrial energy generation from glycolysis. Lactate and pyruvate together serve as a circulating redox buffer that equilibrates the NADH/NAD ratio across cells and tissues. This reconceptualization of
Lactic acidosis syndrome is a complication of therapy with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) drugs. Measurement of lactate levels is important in clinical trials of antiretroviral treatments. The preferred collection method for determining plasma lactate is with NaF/KOx tubes, while a number of ACTG studies have stored blood in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) tubes. This study will analyze lactate in samples collected and stored in NaF/KOx and EDTA tubes to investigate the reliability of lactate concentrations over time.. Pre- and post-exercise blood samples are drawn from participants into NaF/KOx and EDTA tubes and a portion is tested for lactate levels immediately. The remaining portions are frozen and tested at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months. ...
Lactate Threshold is the maximum steady state effort that can be maintained without lactate continually increasing. Train above the Lactate Threshold and you will bonk, overtrain, or not gain the benefits of training in the first place. Train suboptimally and your performance will not improve. Your body naturally produces lactate as you train from which it can conveniently create more glycogen to fuel your muscles. However, this isnt an instant process. If you use up too much glycogen before your body can reproduce it from lactic acid you will unfortunately, bonk. Hence, its essential to know your own personal lactate threshold for training and racing to perform optimally and avoid overtraining and the dreaded bonk. Take the guesswork out of training zones!. ...
First 250m went by without any problem. In fact, I reached 600m to go with ease, but then it started to feel hard. But the counting helped, and I managed to even accelerate in the second half. The trick was to watch the SPM and make sure I rated up whenever I saw the stroke rate fall below 32spm. With 150m to go it started to be really hard, but by then I was counting sets of five strokes and I even managed to keep the pace under 1:40 in the 9th 100m interval.. Happy with 3:21.4. Its a Seasons Best. Its just 2 seconds above my PB, and its a nice improvement of my nonathlon score.. The hardest part was taking the lactate measurement one minute after the 1000m. Breathing hard, shaking, sweating, and at the same time trying to go through the lactate routine is not easy. Wipe hands. Wash hand with wet towel. Dry hand. Prick a hole in a finger. Wipe off first drop of blood. Put the lactate strip in the lactate meter. Try to get the drop of blood at the open end of the lactate strip.. That last ...
As you can see, your lactate threshold essentially defines the upper limit of your sustainable efforts in training or even in competition.. Once you reach the point where you rely more heavily on your glycolytic system for energy, then youre exercising on borrowed time. You should try and save precious gylcogen and carbs for the sprint finish or defining moments of a race. The winner of a race usually isnt the strongest but is the one with the most energy left at the end. The longer time you can keep with the pace under or at your threshold the better chance you have of winning in the end. Therefore increasing your LT is like the holy grail of cycling.. When blood lactate accumulates, it will hinder your muscles ability to contract and forcing you to slow down or even stop. So naturally, the more work you can do before you reach your lactate threshold, the better. That will translate into better results.. Think of it this way, if the pace you can hold at your lactate threshold is higher than ...
Lactate, once considered a waste product of glycolysis, has emerged as a critical regulator of cancer development, maintenance, and metastasis. Indeed, tumor lactate levels correlate with increased metastasis, tumor recurrence, and poor outcome. Lactate mediates cancer cell intrinsic effects on metabolism and has additional non-tumor cell autonomous effects that drive tumorigenesis. Tumor cells can metabolize lactate as an energy source and shuttle lactate to neighboring cancer cells, adjacent stroma, and vascular endothelial cells, which induces metabolic reprogramming. Lactate also plays roles in promoting tumor inflammation and in functioning as a signaling molecule that stimulates tumor angiogenesis. Here we review the mechanisms of lactate production and transport and highlight emerging evidence indicating that targeting lactate metabolism is a promising approach for cancer therapeutics.. ...
What is a Lactate Threshold Test?. A Lactate Threshold test is the perfect way to ride and train smarter regardless of what type of cyclist you are: whether you ride sportives, do spin classes, go on a few club runs, or are a keen racer! In terms of general riding, your Lactate Threshold is the intensity that separates sustainable from unsustainable. When you are out riding with a group (or on your own) and you are going hard, you will know how long you are able to sustain such an effort! With regards to racing, it is a key determinant of performance and will decide if you are riding below your Lactate Threshold for the majority of a race when others around you might be riding above theirs. Simply put, you will have more performance left at the end of your ride.. How long does it take?. A Lactate Threshold test takes 1hr.. What do I need?. When attending your test please come equipped with your bike, kit and bike shoes. It is also advised to bring a drink of water and a towel.. ...
EKF Diagnostics Lactate Scout+ has been developed to provide coaches, athletes and clinicians with an accurate and easy-to-use mobile lactate test. Lactate Scout+ is a hand-held lactate analyzer that requires just 0.2 µl of capillary blood and returns results in 10 seconds.
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Information provided by a lactate threshold test has a number of purposes. By understanding the role that lactate plays in exercise metabolism, the exercise physiologist can use the information from lactate threshold tests to predict proper racing and training paces, and assess the fitness of a subject or the efficacy of the training program.
In this retrospective cross-sectional analysis of normotensive trauma patients who met criteria for ALS transport, prehospital lactate concentration as measured by a handheld, point-of-care (POC) assay was predictive of the need for RC. Lactate offered no significant performance benefit over shock index by AUROC. However, we propose that it has several advantages over SI. First, it is less prone to error and easier to calculate in real-time during a patient transport. Second, a PLac cutoff of 3.0 offered superior sensitivity (70.9%) over the commonly used SI cutoff of 0.9 (30.8%). Though this came at a modest cost in specificity (66.9 vs. 89.9%), the emphasis for a screening tool in this population is to avoid false-negatives. Third, because prehospital lactate has been demonstrated to be a useful adjunct in the triage of hypotensive ALS transports, its use in normotensive ALS transports could simplify protocols to include a prehospital lactate for any ALS transport. These advantages should be ...
Specifications Ferrous Lactate CAS No.: 16039-53-5 Molecular formula:C6H10FeO6.3H2O Molecular weight:288.04 Total iron : 18.9% min Ferrous
This site answers questions we have received about lactate, lactate testing, this history of lactate testing. Its importance for training, What is the anaerobic threshold (AT), how to test for the LT and AT and how to train the lactate threshold for optimal performance in endurance events
Synonyms for ammonium lactate in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for ammonium lactate. 1 synonym for ammonium: ammonium ion. What are synonyms for ammonium lactate?
Industrial Forecast of 2-Ethyl Hexyl Lactate market:The research report titled, &lsquo;Global 2-Ethyl Hexyl Lactate Market&nbsp;2018-2025&rsquo;, is an in-depth study of the overall environment of the market. The report sheds light on the highly lucrative Global 2-Ethyl Hexyl Lactate Market&nbsp;and its diversifying nature. The report provides detailed profile assessments and current scenario revenue projections for the most promising industry participants. The Global 2-Ethyl Hexyl Lactate Industry...
Assessment of the Effects of Controlled Frequency Breathing on Lactate Levels in Swimming A randomly assigned maximal effort 100-yd swim test was conducted twice, once..
Lactate threshold has been a term used for many years across all sports and it is one of the most daily pronounced terms in the world of training by athletes and coaches worldwide.
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Givaudan este un lider in arome si sisteme de aroma pentru produsele lactate lichide si congelate: de la inghetata si deserturi instant la branza, produse tartinabile si iaurturi. Experienta noastra in producerea de arome pentru produsele lactate ne permite sa dezvoltam solutii optime pentru cererea mare a pietii. In fiecare an, noi oferim noi produse si suntem cunoscuti pentru succesul pe care il avem in promovarea de noi arome si in sustinerea tendintelor moderne ale pietii, dar suntem de asemenea cunoscuti si pentru cele mai bune arome clasice, cum ar fi vanilia, ciocolata si capsuna.. Echipa noastra de experti in produsele lactate include cercetatori, analisti de piata, specialisti in alimentatie, ceea ce inseamna ca avem talentul si puterea tehnica de a readuce la viata produsele deja existente cat si inspirarea celor noi astfel permitand clientilor nostri sa-si imbunatateasca vanzarile si sa castige piata.. ...
Find all the synonyms and alternative words for lactate at, the largest free online thesaurus, antonyms, definitions and translations resource on the web.
Present the results of a lactate threshold test. You must present your findings in a suitable manner and you must be able to correctly identify the lactate t...
Physician reviewed ammonium lactate and halobetasol topical kit patient information - includes ammonium lactate and halobetasol topical kit description, dosage and directions.
Results: Downward inflection of HRDP was noticed in all subjects. Comparison of the S.Dmax and L.Dmax methods with the criterion method (lactate method) showed that while HRDP determined by the S.Dmax and lactate methods were not significantly different (167±8.83 vs. 168±8.17 b/min; P=0.86), significant difference emerged between determined HRDP by the L.Dmax and lactate methods (167±8.83 vs. 139.56±6.73 b/min; P£0.001). Bland-Altman plots revealed a good agreement between S.Dmax and lactate methods (95% CI=-5 to +3.6 b/min), while there is no agreement between L.Dmax and lactate method (95% CI=+4.9 to +71.3 b/min). Significant correlation was observed between the criterion and S.Dmax model (r=0.944) whereas there was no significant correlation between the criterion and L.Dmax model (r=0.158 ...
The conventional wisdom around lactic acid is wrong. So is what theyre charging for heirloom tomatoes. Plus, bad vegan comedy and more.. Matt Fitzgerald Article on Lactic Acid/Lactate. SMALL STEP INTENSIVE PRIVATE COACHING ...
US diagnostics specialist Heska had added a lactate meter analyzer to its range of blood analyzers. The product, which is the result of a collaboration between Heska and Roche, is a hand-held, portable analyzer that can be used both in-clinic and in the field.. ...
Monitor lactate to assess progress, review current training and adjust future sessions. Ideal for runners and athletes wishing to push their training and performance further.
can you use ammonium lactate lotion for discoloration under your underarms. Answered by Dr. Glynis Ablon: It may help a little: but it can be irritating as it is an acid and th...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Lactate. AU - Igarashi, Yasuhiro. AU - Tanaka, Yasushi. AU - Kawamori, Ryuzo. PY - 2004/11. Y1 - 2004/11. UR - UR - M3 - Article. C2 - 15628508. AN - SCOPUS:14544302358. VL - 62 Suppl 11. SP - 679. EP - 681. JO - Astrophysical Journal. JF - Astrophysical Journal. SN - 0004-637X. ER - ...
Lactate din Bucovina Secretul produselor este laptele zonei, prelucrat astfel încât să-și păstreze gustul și calitățile, totul natural, gustos și sănătos. Gustul specific al lactatelor Tudia este datorat așadar laptelui colectat din sute de gospodării și ferme din Bucovina. Având lapte de calitate, ne permitem să folosim procedee tradiționale - cum ar fi obținerea cășcavalului din lapte nepasteurizat. Această […]
Anca Alungulesei, expert in nutritie si trainer in alimentatie raw-vegan, deschide seria Workshopurilor de Gatit in cadrul EDENLAND PARK. [Lactate vegetale]
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Summary of clinical and metabolic characteristics. (A-F) Statistics for a selection of non-NMR variables for patient groups defined by six districts on the SO
Începând cu anul școlar 2017-2018, actualele programe de încurajare a consumului de fructe și de distribuire a laptelui în școli vor fi unificate într-un singur program cu finanțare europeană, denumit generic „Programul pentru școli, a anunţat Ministerul Agriculturii. Potrivit unui comunicat MADR, „Programul pentru școli este un program cu precădere […]. ...
Lactic esters are discussed in this installment of Comparatively Speaking. Here, Tony OLenick explains how the presence of two different reactive groups on a molecule can be used to make a series of related products; but their only relationship is that raw material.
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The lactate shuttle hypothesis was proposed by professor George Brooks of the University of California at Berkeley, describing the movement of lactate intracellularly (within a cell) and intercellularly (between cells). The hypothesis is based on the observation that lactate is formed and utilized continuously in diverse cells under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Further, lactate produced at sites with high rates of glycolysis and glycogenolysis can be shuttled to adjacent or remote sites including heart or skeletal muscles where the lactate can be used as a gluconeogenic precursor or substrate for oxidation. In addition to its role as a fuel source predominantly in the muscles, heart, brain, and liver, the lactate shuttle hypothesis also relates the role of lactate in redox signalling, gene expression, and lipolytic control. These additional roles of lactate have given rise to the term lactormone, pertaining to the role of lactate as a signalling hormone. Prior to the formation of the ...
Functions: Thickener. Calcium lactate is a white crystalline salt with formula C6H10CaO6, consisting of two lactate anions H3C-CHOH-CO−2 for each calcium cation Ca2+. It forms several hydrates, the most common being the pentahydrate C6H10CaO6·5H2O. Calcium lactate is used in medicine, mainly to treat calcium deficiencies; and as a food additive with E number of E327. Some cheese crystals consist of calcium lactate. - Wikipedia ...
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The pathogenesis of hyperlactatemia during sepsis is poorly understood. We have previously described an increase in lactate concentration across the lung in the dog during early endotoxemia. Accordingly, we sought to determine if the lung releases lactate in humans and what relation this has with lung injury. Methods: We measured lactate concentrations across the lung and lung injury scores (LIS) in two groups of patients. Group 1 consisted of nine patients with acute lung injury (LIS ≤2.0) and elevated lactate concentrations (,2.0 mmol/L). Group 2 contained 12 patients with no acute lung injury (LIS scores ≤1.5), with or without increased lactate concentrations. Simultaneous measurements of plasma lactate and blood gases were obtained from indwelling arterial and pulmonary artery, catheters. Measurements of cardiac output were also obtained. Lactate measurements were done using a lactate analyzer (YSI; Yellow Springs, Ohio). Results: For each patient with acute lung injury and ...
In C. glutamicum and E. coli, the expression of d-iLDH is constitutive, whereas the expression of l-iLDH is induced by l-lactate under the control of the l-lactate utilization operon. Owing to the difference between the structures of the l-lactate utilization operons (Fig. 1), in C. glutamicum, the LldP- and l-iLDH-encoding genes are regulated by LldR, but in E. coli, only the l-iLDH-encoding gene is regulated by LldR (4, 8, 15, 20). In P. aeruginosa XMG, the expression of l-iLDH and d-iLDH is coordinately induced by lactate. Unlike the situation in C. glutamicum and E. coli, in most Pseudomonas strains, the l-iLDH- and d-iLDH-encoding genes are adjacent to each other (Fig. 1). The RT-PCR analysis further confirmed the cotranscription of the d-iLDH- and l-iLDH-encoding genes in P. aeruginosa XMG. Thus, the coordinated expression of l-iLDH and d-iLDH in Pseudomonas strains is due to the fact that both the l-iLDH- and d-iLDH-encoding genes are in the same lactate utilization operon and are ...
The aims of this study were, firstly to determine the level of agreement between the fingertip and earlobe for the measurement of blood lactate, and secondly, to examine whether these sample sites may be used interchangeably when distinguishing lactate parameters routinely used in the physiological assessment and exercise prescription. Twenty healthy males performed an incremental cycle ergometry step test. Capillary blood samples were taken simultaneously at the end of each increment from the ear lobe and fingertip to determine blood lactate concentration. Power output and heart rate at different lactate parameters (LT, LT1, 2 mmol.L-1 and 4 mmol.L-1) were calculated from the lactate values. The average bias in blood lactate concentration measured from the fingertip and earlobe was 9.2% with 95% of measures differing by between -24.9 and 58.7%. There were no significant differences between sample sites (P = 0.201), however there was a strong positive relationship (R² = 0.9455). At the ...
Lactate is both a metabolite of glycolysis, and a component of several signaling pathways. Although recent studies indicate that lactate is a critical regulator of cancer development, very little is known about lactate metabolism in the context of metastatic cancer. Epithelial-to mesenchymal transition (EMT) promotes metastasis by inducing invasive properties in epithelial tumors. To determine whether EMT induces metabolic alterations, we have studied two epithelial breast cancer cell lines and their respective EMT-induced mesenchymal progeny for changes in lactate metabolism. Metabolic analysis revealed that EMT induced an enhanced glycolytic profile in mesenchymal breast cancer cells. In contrast, epithelial breast cancer cells preferentially use oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to produce ATP. The strong expression of the lactate importer MCT1 in epithelial breast cancer cells may involve the ERα-inducible GATA3 transcription factor. We detected a specific GATA3 binding site in the DNAse
The Worldwide Lactate Dehydrogenase Test Market is expected to reach $ 6.4 billion by the end of 2023; this market is projecsted to growing at a CAGR of ~ 8.8 % during 2017-2023. The Global Lactate Dehydrogenase Test Market report has been segmented as lactate dehydrogenase 1 (LD1), lactate dehydrogenase 2 (LD2), lactate dehydrogenase 3 (LD3), lactate dehydrogenase 4 (LD4), and lactate dehydrogenase 5 (LD5).. The Global Lactate Dehydrogenase Test Market report explores the major key Players in-depth analysis as LifeSpan BioSciences, Aviva Systems Biology, Accurex Biomedical Pvt. Ltd., Thermo Fisher Scientific, Bioo Scientific Corporation, Quest Diagnostics, Abcam plc., Randox Laboratories Ltd., Sigma-Aldrich Co. LLC., Merck KGaA and others.. Get Sample Copy @ .. The faster market uptake of new technology in the US is also an important driver of the market for global lactate dehydrogenase test. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme ...
Increasing evidence suggests there is a relationship between cognitive impairment and metabolic dysfunction. Diabetes is a chronic disease, and metabolic factors affecting brain metabolisms, such as serum glucose, insulin, and glucagon, are altered according to disease progression. In our previous study, we applied hyperpolarized [1-13C] pyruvate magnetic resonance spectroscopy in prediabetic mice after feeding them a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 months. Ultimately, we detected significantly increased [1-13C]lactate conversion in the whole brain and an almost five-fold increased [1-13C]lactate/pyruvate ratio in the hippocampal region. In the present study, we induced diabetes in mice by injecting streptozotocin and feeding them an HFD for 6 months. Unlike in prediabetic mice, [1-13C]lactate conversion in the diabetic mice did not differ from that in the control group, but [1-13C]lactate/total 13C ratio showed an almost 1.4-fold increase in the hippocampal region. We measured the amount of the lactate
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The effect of blood injected into either subarachnoid space or subcortical brain tissue upon lactate and pyruvate concentrations as well as acid-base balance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was studied in the anesthetized dog. CSF lactate and lactate/pyruvate ratio (L/P ratio) increased more ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lactate Is a Preferential Oxidative Energy Substrate over Glucose for Neurons in Culture. AU - Bouzier-Sore, Anne Karine. AU - Voisin, Pierre. AU - Canioni, Paul. AU - Magistretti, Pierre. AU - Pellerin, Luc. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - The authors investigated concomitant lactate and glucose metabolism in primary neuronal cultures using 13C-and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Neurons were incubated in a medium containing either [1- 13C]glucose and different unlabeled lactate concentrations, or unlabeled glucose and different [3-13C]lactate concentrations. Overall, 13C-NMR spectra of cellular extracts showed that more 13C was incorporated into glutamate when lactate was the enriched substrate. Glutamate 13C-enrichment was also found to be much higher in lactate-labeled than in glucose-labeled conditions. When glucose and lactate concentrations were identical (5.5 mmol/L), relative contributions of glucose and lactate to neuronal oxidative metabolism amounted to 21% and 79%, ...
Although the blood lactate response to exercise is used widely to control and monitor training programs, many factors in addition to training adaptation can affect the blood lactate response. Therefore, one needs to consider the following points when collecting, analyzing, and interpreting blood lactate measurements.
The technical field to which the invention relates. The invention relates to electroanalytical systems. Electroanalytical system includes a flow detector type wall-jet (operating in continuous flow mode) with an integrated high-performance the lactate biosensor belonging to the class of electrochemical biosensors, as well as a column for sorption concentration. Concentration is based on ion exchange.. The level of technology. Lactate is one of the most important chemical compounds from the point of view of clinical diagnostics. It is a marker of glycolysis, anaerobic metabolism. leading to the death of tissues in the body. Sports medicine considers the monitoring of lactate as a means of determining the so-called lactate threshold [Faude, O., W. Kindermann, T. Meyer. Lactate threshold concepts: how valid are they? Sports Medicine 39 (2009) 469-90], [H. Heck, R. Beneke. 30 years of lactate thresholds - what remains to be done? Deutsche Zeitschrift Fur Sportmedizin 59 (2008) 297-302) showing the ...
Lactate meaning in Hindi : Get meaning and translation of Lactate in Hindi language with grammar,antonyms,synonyms and sentence usages. Know answer of question : what is meaning of Lactate in Hindi dictionary? Lactate ka matalab hindi me kya hai (Lactate का हिंदी में मतलब ). Lactate meaning in Hindi (हिन्दी मे मीनिंग ) is दूध देना.English definition of Lactate : a salt or ester of lactic acid
Diametrically opposed positions exist regarding the deleterious effects of elevated lactate. There are data suggesting that it is a detrimental proxy for tissue hypoperfusion and anaerobic metabolism in sepsis and an alternative viewpoint is that some of the hyperlactatemia produced maybe adaptive. This study was conducted to explore the relationship between serum lactate levels, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and sympathetic stimulation in patients with sepsis. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected clinical data from four community-based hospitals and one academic medical center. 8173 adults were included. Heart rate (HR) was used as a surrogate marker of sympathetic stimulation. HR, MAP, and lactate levels were measured upon presentation. MAP and HR interacted to affect lactate levels with the highest levels observed in patients with low MAP and high HR (3.6 mmol/L) and the lowest in patients with high MAP and low HR (2.2 mmol/L). The overall mortality rate was 12.4%. Each 10 beats
Sodium Lactate 60% USP Natural Preservative Sodium Lactate is naturally derived from the fermentation of Lactic Acid. It is a clear colorless viscous liquid . Sodium Lactate is considered to have antioxidant properties...
Lactic acid concentration was determined by Boehringer Mannheim D-L Lactic acid kit in the selected best probiotic cultures. After culturing for 24 o C at 37 o C in MRS broth (containing glucose) as shown in Fig 1 and whey (without any nutrients) as shown in Table 1, lactic acid concentration in cell free supernatant (CFS) was determined.. D-L isomers of lactic acid was estimated in all the seven whey samples inoculated with seven probiotic lactic cultures after an incubation period of 24 hrs. Lactic acid concentration in whey reaches maximally up to 29mM (Table 1) for NCDC 291 followed by NCDC 299 and NCDC 17. The low lactic acid concentration resulted in lesser diffusion in agar well method. Moreover, the findings showed that only NCDC 17 produces more of D-lactic acid (7.2mM/l) as compared to other probiotic strains in fermented whey. Low lactic acid concentration was shown by strains DDS-1 and MTCC 1408.. ...
Brooks is not done yet. His most recent research has looked at the role of lactate in cell signaling. It suggests that the high levels of intracellular lactate that arise during intense exercise stimulate some of the beneficial fitness adaptations that occur in response to such training. Specifically, high lactate concentrations trigger the production of free radicals that upregulate a variety of genes. Some of these genes govern mitochondrial biogenesis. So it appears that intracellular lactate accumulation during intense exercise stimulates the muscle cell to produce more mitochondria, thus enhancing its ability to burn lactate (and other fuels) in future workouts.. If I had to package all of the forgoing science into a single upshot, it would be this: According to the classical theory of lactate, one of the highest priorities of training was to reduce the amount of lactate the body produces at higher exercise intensities so that the athlete can race faster without fatiguing due to high ...
Butyrate is the preferred energy source for colonocytes and has an important role in gut health; in contrast, accumulation of high concentrations of lactate is detrimental to gut health. The major butyrate-producing bacterial species in the human colon belong to the Firmicutes. Eubacterium hallii and a new species, Anaerostipes coli SS2/1, members of clostridial cluster XIVa, are able to utilize lactate and acetate via the butyryl CoA : acetate CoA transferase route, the main metabolic pathway for butyrate synthesis in the human colon. Here we provide a mathematical model to analyse the production of butyrate by lactate-utilizing bacteria from the human colon. The model is an aggregated representation of the fermentation pathway. The parameters of the model were estimated using total least squares and maximum likelihood, based on in vitro experimental data with E. hallii L2-7 and A. coli SS2/1. The findings of the mathematical model adequately match those from the bacterial batch culture experiments.
Blood lactate is a normal and important component of our body chemistry. Its metabolism includes simultaneous muscle uptake and release at rest during all intensities of exercise. Specifically, lactate provides an important source of energy, in the form of glucose, that helps replace muscle glycogen stores when they are diminished; it s an important fuel for aerobic metabolism (to help maintain fat-burning); and helps spare blood glucose. These actions occur during all exercise to varying degrees, especially during hard training and competition. Lactate is also utilized as an energy source for many other tissues throughout the body. Its used by cardiac muscle, the liver and kidney, red and white blood cells, and the brain. Lactate is also important for wound repair and regeneration. The largest mass of tissue, skeletal muscle, uses considerable amounts of lactate. Muscle. The old view that lactate, beginning with the muscles production of lactic acid during hard exercise (oxygen debt), is a ...
Lactate levels are assessed for several different reasons such as determining sustainable threshold, peak, tolerance and clearance values. The reason to assess is relative to the desired performance outcome and the lactate levels are often related to speed, power or heart rate. Sustainable threshold values are the most common assessment outcome and are used by endurance athletes primarily. To determine sustainable lactate levels, subjects perform exercise at incremental loads, for 12 to 15 minutes, while having blood drawn in droplets either from a finger or earlobe. A stationary bicycle, a personalized bike and Computrainer or a treadmill are typically used. The test starts with an easy-moderate work load which is maintained for a 3-5 minutes. The load is increased gradually every 3-5 minutes until reaching 1 testing stage above when lactate levels reach 4 mmol/L blood. This is done by increasing the cycling resistance or the speed and/or grade of the treadmill. The lactate levels, heart rate, ...
Sodium Lactate is a liquid salt that is naturally derived from the fermentation of natural sugars. In Cold Process soap, Sodium Lactate helps to produce a harder bar of soap that lasts longer in the shower. As a salt, it is also a natural humectant, providing moisture. This makes it a great additive to lotions, typical
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Explaines how the lactate test is used, when a lactate test is ordered, and what the results of a lactate test might mean. The lactate test is primarily ordered to help determine if someone has lactic acidosis, a level of lactate that is high enough to disrupt a persons acid-base (ph) balance.
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Results 75 patients were enrolled. Pearson correlations and coefficients calculated for lactate to systolic blood pressure were: −0.052 (ρ=0.0011, 95% CI −0.225 to 0.228); lactate and HR: 0.23 (ρ=0.0166, 95% CI −0.211 to 0.242); lactate and RR: 0.23 (ρ=0.054, 95% CI −0.174 to 0.277). BD to systolic blood pressure were: 0.003 (ρ=0.00001, 95% CI −0.229 to 0.224); BD and HR: −0.19 (ρ=0.038, 95% CI −0.399 to 0.038); BD and RR: −0.019 (ρ=0.0004, 95% CI −0.244 to 0.208). Odds of operative intervention were greater in patients with abnormally high lactate, OR 4.17 (95% CI 1.57 to 11), but not for BD, OR 2.53 (95% CI 0.99 to 6.45), or any of the vital signs. ...
The concentration of CSF lactate depends largely on production from CNS glycolysis and is independent of blood lactate. Increases in CSF lactate may be due to diverse processes, such as hypoxia of inflamed tissues, cerebral oedema or granulocyte and bacterial metabolism. In most cases of infectious meningitis, however, the CSF production of lactate is apparently a sequelae of, and proportional to, increased numbers of leukocytes.. ...
Author: von Pföstl, V et al.; Genre: Poster; Published in Print: 2010-11; Title: Effects of lactate on primary visual cortex of non-human primates investigated by pharmaco mri and neurochemical analysis
During cardiovascular exercise there are different levels of intensity you can choose to work at depending on your goal and ability. Each threshold intensity is identified by a percentage of your maximum heart rate (MHR); for instance, the aerobic zone is between 70%-80% of your MHR and focusses on developing the cardiovascular system. This article will address the lactate training threshold, which is a high-intensity state of cardiovascular exercise that still relies on oxygen for performance.. Depending on a individuals level of cardiovascular fitness, the lactate zone varies. For athletes this zone is usually between 75%-85% of MHR; those who have a higher level of fitness will tend to fall closer to the 85% mark than the 75% mark, and vice versa. As for untrained athletes, this zone can be around the 50%-60% mark. The lactate threshold edges very closely toward the anaerobic threshold, which is the zone of heart rate in which the body is performing at too high an intensity to gather enough ...
Clearance of lactate from the blood can occur either through oxidation within the muscle fibre in which it was produced or it can be transported to other muscles fibres for oxidation (31,30). Lactate that is not oxidized in this way diffuses from the exercising muscle into the capillaries and it is transported via the blood to the liver (31). Through a process known as the Cori cycle, lactate can be converted to pyruvate in the presence of oxygen, which can then be converted into glucose (2). This glucose can either be metabolized by working muscles or stored in the muscles as glycogen for later use (2 ...
It requires no enormous effort of the intellect to expect a substance to build up in the body fluids when you have disabled that organ which is responsible for its clearance. So with lactate, the loss of enough liver cells will give rise to a lactic acidosis. To a lesser extent, renal failure will diminish the kidneys meager contribution to the task of lactate clearance.
Lactate Control Solution for Accutrend Analyser. After about 25 tests, it is recommended to use the Control Solution to make sure you are getting the most accurate test results possible. Accutrend BM lactate control solution is used to check the function of the Accutrend Plus, Accusport and Accutrend Lactate measuring devices. BM lactate test strips are required to perform the test.
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Detection of lactate using MR spectroscopy plays an important clinical role in the assessment of a number of brain abnormalities, including tumor, stroke, and mitochondrial disorders. The presence of lactate in the context of a tumor can be considered diagnostic for glioblastoma multiforme. Lactate is also elevated as a consequence of mitochondrial abnormalities in neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington disease. Since for very short echo times, there are often residual fat peaks visible in the spectral region of the lactate doublet, one has to resort to echo times near multiples of 1/J (J being the coupling constant) for proper lactate detection and quantification. As an inverted doublet can be discriminated more easily against other resonances like lipids, PRESS with TE = 144 ms is often considered the most appropriate method for unambiguous lactate detection at 1.5T. Although the effect of anomalous J-modulation and the potential signal loss for lactate at TE = 144 ms have been ...
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Lactate is not simply a dead-end metabolite which is produced in skeletal muscle in response to hypoxia. Instead, lactate is produced by many tissues under many different conditions, transported throughout the body, and taken up and metabolized by many tissues. This lactate shuttle necessarily involves lactate metabolism and the membrane transport of lactate, especially in skeletal muscle. Historically, skeletal muscle was viewed as a producer of lactate; however, skeletal muscle (both at rest and during exercise) is now known as not only a major source of lactate, but also as the most important consumer of lactate. (p. S74). Stephen Seiler ( commented on this symposium. Some of his remarks, which summarize the content of the presentations and are appropriate for coaching science, are listed below.. ...
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Bielenda Professional Peeling Activator with Glycerin and Sodium Lactate Intended for: Activates the 3in1 30% Powder Brightening Peeling
Sodium lactate, when addedto your soap recipe at 2% gives a stable bar of soap with great lathering, great feel, and makes it easy to remove from your mould. 2% in lotions and cream also gives them a great silky feel when they are used
The biochip, sized 2mm x 4mm x 0.5mm, is a dual sensing element coated with hydrogels to prevent it from being rejected by human tissue. The sensor has the ability to transmit life saving readings to the medical personnel. The implantation of the chip will only be temporary, although long term biochip implants are also being tested and may be used as a precaution in some cases.. Blood glucose and lactate levels are very important for medical staff in the first stages of dealing with a trauma patient. These measurements can imply what the oxygen level in the patients blood is and can indicate the overall metabolic state of the patient. The blood lactate level is sometimes used to determine whether or not a trauma patient can survive surgery. Getting these measurements in real time can help the medics in a hospital or out in the field make decisions much faster and by doing so will help save lives.. The chip has undergone some tests and the developers assume it will be tested on humans within ...
Ammonium lactate lotion for dark spots. Ammonium lactate may exfoliate (remove) the darker skin cells and reduce the darkness of age spots. It is a combination of lactic acid and ammonium
In the lactate threshold test, the lactic acid concentration in the blood, the heart rate and perceived exertion are measured during a stress phase. Based on these values it is possible to determine precisely the pulse range (intensity) in which the training should be carried out. This test is recommended for everyone engaging in regular exercise, not just elite athletes ...
BioAssay Systems L-Lactate Assay Kit (ECLC-100) is based on LDH catalyzed oxidation of lactate, where the formed NADH reduces MTT. The color (565 nm) is proportional to the lactate concentration in the sample. Samples: plasma, urine, cell media, wine, and beverages. Detection range: 0.05-2 mM.
High levels of the metabolic acid known as lactate can be a sobering clue that cancer is growing inside the body. And now Chilean and U.S. researchers have developed a non-invasive way to diagnose its presence it individual cells: a molecular biosensor.
Both VO2max and lactate turnpoint are valuable and independent physiological markers for your current state of fitness, in addition the gas analysis measurements will allow you to determine the point at which your body is using fat as the primary energy source as opposed to carbohydrates. The threshold calculations are crucial for development of accurate heart rate zones and training parameters. Utilising information from the VO2max and lactate tests can identify the most appropriate training intensity and type of training for you specifically rather than a handed down program from a mate or a predetermined heart rate zone program designed for the general population who are just interested in getting fit, but not focused on improving their best time or getting to the top of their game.. Athletes who make the common mistake of engaging in training structures that are much too intense are subject to reduced aerobic efficiencies. It is always a shocking discovery for any athlete to be confronted ...
How can Lactate and VO2 Max testing make you faster?. Whether youre a beginner or veteran, we all want to improve through proper training. When we talk about training, the focus is usually on duration or mileage while intensity only comes secondary. This can be detrimental to our performance since athletes tend to focus on merely doing the workouts rather than doing them well. The common problem is that people fall into the more is better mindset. We log more and more miles even if were doing the workouts slower and slower and making ourselves exponentially more tired.. This is where performance testing (e.g. lactate and VO2 Max Testing) comes in. By having a clearer picture of what our body is capable of, we can understand how hard or easy we need to push and the type of training we need to improve. Read more ...
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Measuring lactate threshold[edit]. Muscles are producing lactate even at rest, usually about 0.8-1.5 mmol/L.[6] Although the ... Lactate inflection point (LIP), is the exercise intensity at which the blood concentration of lactate and/or lactic acid begins ... "Lactate Threshold - Firstbeat". Firstbeat. Retrieved 2017-10-20.. *^ a b c d Mann T, Lamberts RP, Lambert MI (Jul 2013). " ... With a higher exercise intensity the lactate production exceeds at a rate which it cannot be broken down, the blood lactate ...
... is a compound with formula NH4(C2H4(OH)COO). It is the ammonium salt of lactic acid. It has mild anti- ... Ammonium lactate is the chemical combination of lactic acid and ammonium hydroxide. It is used as a skin moisturizer lotion to ... Ammonium lactate makes skin more sensitive to sunlight. Skin is more likely to sunburn. Use sunblock and wear clothes when ... "DailyMed: View Drug Label: Lac-Hydrin (ammonium lactate) Lotion". Lac-Hydrin specially formulates 12% lactic acid, neutralized ...
Glucose feeds the TCA cycle via circulating lactate[edit]. The metabolic role of lactate is well recognized as a fuel for ... In the classical Cori cycle, muscles produce lactate which is then taken up by the liver for gluconeogenesis. New studies ... such as the glucogenic amino acids and lactate) into glucose by the liver and kidney.[36][37] ... "Glucose feeds the TCA cycle via circulating lactate". Nature. 551 (7678): 115-118. doi:10.1038/nature24057. PMC 5898814. PMID ...
Calcium lactate has similar absorption as calcium carbonate, but is more expensive. Calcium lactate and calcium gluconate are ... "Calcium lactate". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. "foods rich in calcium". Drug Information Portal ... calcium lactate and calcium phosphate. The absorption of calcium from most food and commonly used dietary supplements is very ...
GAPDH activity in aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis can be regulated by a leaky channeling complex with L-lactate dehydrogenase ... The OCA-S transcriptional coactivator complex contains GAPDH and lactate dehydrogenase, two proteins previously only thought to ... Lactate dehydrogenase; Lactoferrin; Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1), thus converting oxidized APE1 to its reduced ... The case of D-Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase and L-Lactate Dehydrogenase". Sci. Rep. 10 (10): 10404. doi:10.1038/ ...
Janssen, Peter G. J. M. (2001). Lactate threshold training. Human Kinetics. pp. 151-. ISBN 978-0-7360-3755-6. Retrieved 30 ...
"Lactating on Eggs". July 14, 2003. Archived from the original on April 14, 2009. Retrieved March 8, 2009. ...
"Milrinone Lactate Monograph". Mechanism of action. ...
Sartain, Felicity K.; Yang, Xiaoping; Lowe, Christopher R. (2006). "Holographic Lactate Sensor". Analytical Chemistry. 78 (16 ... Ammonia pH Hydrocarbons VOCs Gases Glucose Water content Lactate and other biomolecules Metal ions AK Yetisen; I Naydenova; F ...
Lactating on Eggs. Smithsonian National Zoo, 14 July 2003. Oftedal, OT (2002). "The mammary gland and its origin during ... Li, Peng; Knabe, Darrell A.; Kim, Sung Woo; Lynch, Christopher J.; Hutson, Susan M.; Wu, Guoyao (1 August 2009). "Lactating ... The male Dayak fruit bat has lactating mammary glands. Male lactation occurs infrequently in some species. Mammary glands are ...
... lactate by [[Fructose bisphosphatase,fructose 1-6]] all-phosphate (F6P) activated lactate dehydrogenase; H2 by pyruvate ... and lactate), neutral compounds (ethanol, methanol), ammonia, hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Acetogenesis is one of the main ... lactate); and Hetero-fermentative bacteria (acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, etc.). Marchaim, U. (1992). FAO ...
Pups are born in the spring and emerge from the den in early summer; the mother lactates for 7-9 weeks. Sexual maturity is ...
da Silva OP, Knoppert DC (September 2004). "Domperidone for lactating women". CMAJ. 171 (7): 725-6. doi:10.1503/cmaj.1041054. ... Henderson, Amanda (2003). "Domperidone: Discovering New Choices for Lactating Mothers". AWHONN Lifelines. 7 (1): 54-60. doi: ... in non-lactating women from 8.1 ng/mL to 110.9 ng/mL (a 13.7-fold increase). This was similar to the increase in prolactin ... and in lactating women, prolactin levels have been found to be 90 ng/mL at 10 days postpartum and 44 ng/mL at 180 days ...
doi:10.1016/0002-9343(61)90171-1. Huckabee, William E. (June 1961). "Abnormal resting blood lactate. II. Lactic acidosis". Am J ... Huckabee, William E. (June 1961). "Abnormal resting blood lactate. I. The significance of hyperlactatemia in hospitalized ... "The mechanism of inhibition by acidosis of gluconeogenesis from lactate in rat liver". Biochemical Journal. 164 (1): 185-191. ...
Da Silva, O. P.; Knoppert, D. C. (2004). "Domperidone for lactating women". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 171 (7): 725- ...
The production of lactate is beneficial for NAD+ regeneration (pyruvate is reduced to lactate while NADH is oxidized to NAD+), ... In animals, L-lactate is constantly produced from pyruvate via the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in a process of ... In medicine, lactate is one of the main components of lactated Ringer's solution and Hartmann's solution. These intravenous ... The conjugate base of lactic acid is called lactate. In solution, it can ionize, producing the lactate ion CH 3CH(OH)CO− 2. ...
SCN9A Erythrocyte lactate transporter defect; 245340; SLC16A1 Erythrocytosis, familial, 3; 609820; EGLN1 Erythrocytosis, ... FAM126A Leukoencephalopathy with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation; 611105; DARS2 ...
Farmer, Chantal (2015). The gestating and lactating sow. The Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers. ISBN 9789086868032. ...
Under anaerobic conditions (without the use of oxygen) most if not all of the pyruvate is converted to lactate (furthermore ... OMIM:BRP44L OMIM:MPYCD Livingstone, Callum; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Turnbull, Douglass M. (2001). "The ischaemic lactate-ammonia ... Piirilä, Päivi; Auranen, Mari (2016). "Unique Exercise Lactate Profile in Muscle Phosphofructokinase Deficiency (Tarui Disease ... only part of the pyruvate is converted to lactate; the pyruvate not converted feeds the citric acid cycle (CAC); both via ...
Dissection of a lactating breast. Section of portion of mamma. Apocrine Methods of secretion Modes of secretion Types of gland ...
Elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. No standardized protocol exist regarding the management of LVAD pump thrombosis. ... The unexpected abrupt increase in LVAD thrombosis was accompanied by elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels with outcomes ... of different management strategies in a multi-institutional study.,, Elevation of lactate dehydrogenase during the first month ...
This form of calcium is not as well absorbed as calcium lactate, and it only contains 0.93% (930 mg/dl) calcium ion (defined by ... Calcium lactate gluconate "Calcium Salts". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 18 ... "Comparative absorption of calcium from calcium gluconate and calcium lactate in man". The Journal of Nutrition. 89 (3): 283-292 ...
"TALWIN (pentazocine lactate) injection, solution". DailyMed. National Institute of Health. Retrieved 2011-12-10. "Equianalgesic ...
Dissection of a lactating breast. Anatomy portal List of glands of the human body List of specialized glands within the human ...
"TALWIN (pentazocine lactate) injection, solution". DailyMed. National Institute of Health. Retrieved 2011-12-10. Pain-Killing ... with multiple injection of pentazocine lactate. In addition, animal studies have demonstrated that Pentazocine is tolerated ...
Lactates-Advances in Research and Application: 2013 Edition. ScholarlyEditions. 21 June 2013. pp. 198-. ISBN 978-1-4816-7707-3 ...
Ramsay DT, Kent JC, Owens RA, Hartmann PE (February 2004). "Ultrasound imaging of milk ejection in the breast of lactating ... "Dietary supplementation of lactating Gambian women. I. Effect on breast-milk volume and quality". Human Nutrition. Clinical ... "Immune regulatory cytokines in the milk of lactating women from farming and urban environments". Pediatric Allergy and ...
In the opposite direction of the amino acid, a corresponding molecule is transported; for alanine this molecule is lactate; for ... In the astrocytes, this process is then reversed, and lactate is transported in the other direction. Numerous reports have been ... then transaminated by alanine aminotransferase into lactate-derived pyruvate to form alanine, which is exported to astrocytes. ...
Weiner, Carl P.; Buhimschi, Catalin (2009). Drugs for Pregnant and Lactating Women. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 37. ISBN 978-1 ...
Hård, E; Hansen, S (1985). "Reduced fearfulness in the lactating rat". Physiol. Behav. 35 (4): 641-643. doi:10.1016/0031-9384( ... "Effect of stocking density and effective fiber on the ruminal bacterial communities in lactating Holstein cows". PeerJ. 8 ( ...
Media in category "Lactates". The following 34 files are in this category, out of 34 total. ... Retrieved from "" ...
... lactates such as sodium, calcium, and potassium lactate are salts derived from the neutralization of lactic acid and most ... Sodium lactate is the sodium salt of lactic acid, and has a mild saline taste. It is produced by fermentation of a sugar source ... Sodium lactate is sometimes used in shampoo products and other similar items such as liquid soaps, as it is an effective ... Sodium lactate is used to treat arrhythmias caused by overdosing of class I antiarrythmics, as well as pressor sympathomimetics ...
Other LDHs act on D-lactate and/or are dependent on cytochrome c: D-lactate dehydrogenase (cytochrome)) and L-lactate (L- ... lactate dehydrogenase A. (subunit M). Human lactate dehydrogenase M4 (the isoenzyme found in skeletal muscle). From PDB: 1I10​. ... Lactate dehydrogenase catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate and lactate with concomitant interconversion of NADH and NAD+. ... D-lactate dehydrogenase, membrane binding. crystal structure of d-lactate dehydrogenase, a peripheral membrane respiratory ...
Methods to determine the lactic acid or lactate have been reviewed. Lactic acid or lactate in various clinical conditions were ... The Quantitive Significance of the "Himwich-Cori Cycle" for Removal of Lactate During Recovery After Maximal Exercise in Man ... Myocardial Release of Lactate, Inosine, and Hypoxanthine During Atrial Pacing- and Exercise-Induced Angina ... Is the Use of Isotopic Tracers Valid for the Study of Lactate Metabolism in vivo ...
Lactate may refer to: Lactation, the secretion of milk from the mammary glands Lactate, the conjugate base of lactic acid This ... disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Lactate. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change ...
Daily lactate production in a healthy person is substantial (approximately 20 mEq/kg/d), and this is usually metabolized to ... Thus, production and use of lactate (ie, Cori cycle) is constant, keeping plasma lactate low. ... encoded search term (How is lactate metabolized?) and How is lactate metabolized? ... How is lactate metabolized?. Updated: Oct 10, 2018 * Author: Christie P Thomas, MBBS, FRCP, FASN, FAHA; Chief Editor: Vecihi ...
Calcium lactate is a white crystalline salt with formula C 6H 10CaO 6, consisting of two lactate anions H 3C(CHOH)CO− 2 for ... Calcium lactate is also known as cheese lactate because it coagulates milk, making the chhena used in the production of paneer ... Recently ammonium lactate has been used as an alternative to calcium in this process. Calcium lactate has been considered as a ... Calcium lactate has several uses in human and veterinary medicine. Calcium lactate is used in medicine as an antacid. Calcium ...
... and lactate dehydrogenase-B deficiency.People with lactate dehydrogenase-A deficiency experience fatigue, muscle pain, and ... lactate dehydrogenase-A deficiency (sometimes called glycogen storage disease XI) ... Lactate dehydrogenase deficiency is a condition that affects how the body breaks down sugar to use as energy in cells, ... cramps during exercise (exercise intolerance). In some people with lactate dehydrogenase-A deficiency, high-intensity exercise ...
The Lactate Receptor HCAR1 Modulates Neuronal Network Activity through the Activation of Gα and Gβγ Subunits Haíssa de Castro ... Distribution of Monocarboxylate Transporters in the Peripheral Nervous System Suggests Putative Roles in Lactate Shuttling and ...
... lactate testing, can be a powerful tool to predict the performance and exercising intensity of athletes. ... Muscles only have a limited capacity to utilize lactate and to remove lactate from muscle fiber. As such, lactate will begin to ... Lactate levels will usually be normal during a long runs at a pace that is sustainable. The body is pushed beyond the lactate ... A portable lactate meter, lactate sensors, lancets to take blood, a defined distance over which to run and a way of pacing ...
The lactate test measures the level of lactate in the blood at a given point in time. A normal lactate level indicates that a ... What is the lactate/pyruvate ratio and how is it used?. A lactate/pyruvate ratio is a calculated result that may be used to ... A high lactate level in the blood means that the disease or condition a person has is causing lactate to accumulate. In general ... The lactate blood test is primarily ordered to help determine if someone has lactic acidosis, a level of lactate that is high ...
... Sodium (dl)-lactate sodium 2-hydroxypropanoate LACTATE PubChem Notes: Sodium Lactate The sodium salt of racemic or inactive lactic acid. It is a hygroscopic agent used ... Monosodium lactate Monosodium 2-hydroxypropanoate Per-glycerin Sodium alpha-hydroxypropionate ...
The Lactating Man. Mathilde Cohen & Yoriko Otomo (eds), Making Milk. The Past, Present and Future of Our Primary Food, pp. 141- ... Cohen, Mathilde, The Lactating Man (May 14, 2016). Mathilde Cohen & Yoriko Otomo (eds), Making Milk. The Past, Present and ... The assumption is that only female mammals lactate and, therefore, only female mammals nurse their own. Taking on the ...
If they were, they would use oxygen to break lactate down into carbon dioxide and water, preventing lactate from pouring into ... In one sense, this sudden lactate pile-up is normal: lactate moves into the bloodstream whenever your muscles break down ... improving lactate threshold (LT) is the key. A variety of studies have shown that lactate threshold is the single best ... Lactate Lift-Off. High-intensity workouts improve the hearts capacity to deliver oxygen and the muscles ability to use that ...
Lactating women with decreased milk supply who are unresponsive to nonpharmacologic measures to enhance lactation, including ... Further research is needed to define the best dose of domperidone and length of treatment in lactating women with reduced milk ... Domperidone for lactating women. Orlando P. da Silva and David C. Knoppert ... However, FDA warnings against the use of domperidone by lactating women were based on the increased risk of cardiac arrhythmia ...
Lactated Ringers Injection is a common electrolyte solution with a variety of clinical uses. Its composition is intended to ... Lactated Ringers and Dextrose Injection. Half-Strength Lactated Ringers and Dextrose Injection. Modified Lactated Ringers ... Lactated Ringers Injection, USP contains the following per 100mL of water for injection:. 13.0 mEq sodium. 10.9 mEq chloride. ... Lactated Ringers Injection is a common electrolyte solution with a variety of clinical uses. Its composition is intended to ...
The Courts reasoning? Its not sexist to tell women they cant lactate at work because men can also lactate. ... So is it possible for men to lactate? Yes, it is. Does it happen often? Not at all. Could it happen more? Absolutely, if men ... Which…what? Is it really possible for men to lactate? Can it happen naturally? As it turns out, yes, it can, and its more ... Lets start with why women, and not men, lactate routinely in appropriate circumstances. As you might suspect, the cause is ...
LOUIS Lee Biosolutions has announced the production and availability of five Human lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes LDH-1, LDH- ... lactate dehydrogenase. health. diagnostics. clinical. cancer. Contact Information. Burton Lee. President. Lee Biosolutions, Inc ... Human lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes are primarily used by cells in specific tissue. Human LDH Isoenzymes, also known as ... LOUIS Lee Biosolutions has announced the production and availability of five Human lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes LDH-1, LDH- ...
The build-up of lactate in stressed muscle and ischaemic tissues has established lactates reputation as a deleterious waste ... Whereas microbes also generate other fermentation products, such as ethanol or acetone, lactate dominates in mammals. Lactate ... Lactate and pyruvate together serve as a circulating redox buffer that equilibrates the NADH/NAD ratio across cells and tissues ... This reconceptualization of lactate as a fuel-analogous to how Hans Christian Andersens ugly duckling is actually a beautiful ...
Im 28 weeks today and I went to the doctor because I woke at 4am with 2 large hard spots in my breast. I knew what it was but why so early. Im not that close to...
Elevations in serum lactate dehydrogenase occur from myocardial infarction, liver disease, pernicious and megaloblastic anemia ... Elevations in serum lactate dehydrogenase occur from myocardial infarction, liver disease, pernicious and megaloblastic anemia ...
Regulation of proline oxidase activity by lactate. E M Kowaloff, J M Phang, A S Granger, and S J Downing ... We found that proline oxidase, the first enzyme of the proline degradative pathway, is inhibited by lactate. The Km of the ... Since proline can be a source for gluconeogenesis, regulation of proline degradation by lactate may serve as a mechanism for ... The marked inhibition of proline oxidase at levels of lactate that commonly occur in both genetic and acquired lactic acidosis ...
Additionally, we review the evolving role of lactate in sepsis care. We provide recommendations to aid lactate interpretation ... Demystifying Lactate in the Emergency Department.. Wardi G1, Brice J2, Correia M2, Liu D2, Self M2, Tainter C3. ... The role of lactic acid and its conjugate base, lactate, has evolved during the past decade in the care of patients in the ... Correction to Demystifying Lactate in the Emergency Department [Annals of Emergency Medicine 75 (2020) 287-298/8310]. [Ann ...
Butyl lactate Clear, colorless to white liquid with a mild, transient odor. ... Butyl ester of 2-hydroxypropanoic acid, Butyl ester of lactic acid, Butyl lactate ...
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in ... Lactate, Body Fluid. 5. Lactate, CSF. 6. Lactate, Plasma. 7. QC 463 EQUIL® Plus with Glucose and Lactate Control. 8. Storz ... LD Lactate > Pyruvate. 2. Lactate Dehydrogenase, Isoenzymes. 3. Lactate Dehydrogenase, Serum or Plasma. 4. ...
Lactate dehydrogenase (also called lactic acid dehydrogenase, or LDH) is an enzyme found in almost all body tissues. The LDH ... Lactate dehydrogenase (also called lactic acid dehydrogenase, or LDH) is an enzyme found in almost all body tissues. It plays ...
L-lactate dehydrogenases are metabolic enzymes which catalyse the conversion of L-lactate to pyruvate, the last step in ... Lactate/malate dehydrogenase, C-terminal (IPR022383). Short name: Lactate/malate_DH_C ... Structural basis for altered activity of M- and H-isozyme forms of human lactate dehydrogenase.. Proteins 43 175-85 2001 ... anaerobic glycolysis [PMID: 11276087]. L-lactate dehydrogenase is also found as a lens crystallin in bird and crocodile eyes. L ...
Identification of Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes by Rapid Kinetics Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Identification of Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes by Rapid Kinetics. Michael J. Bishop, Johannes Everse, and Nathan O. Kaplan ... Stopped-flow kinetics indicate that human and chicken heart-type4 lactate dehydrogenases (LDH) become inhibited as DPNH is ...
Gale Bernhardt tackles a question about the change in lactate threshold speed during the offseason. Should training zones be ... So to answer your question directly, yes, I believe your lactate threshold heart rate and lactate threshold speed or power ... Q. Hey Gale, I was curious, does my lactate threshold speed change in the offseason? If it does, do I need to adjust my ... Randy looked at power output on the bike and running velocity at lactate threshold (LT). Here is Randys response: The data ...
Micronutrient regulation in pregnant and lactating women from Rio de Janeiro. Arch Latinoam Nutr 1997;47:n°2 (suppl 1).Google ... Azeredo V.B., Bezerra F.F., Figueiredo R., Donangelo C.M., Trugo N.M.F. (2004) Micronutrient Status of Brazilian Lactating ...
  • There are a number of conditions that can cause high levels of lactate. (
  • The marked inhibition of proline oxidase at levels of lactate that commonly occur in both genetic and acquired lactic acidosis may cause the previously unexplained hyperprolinemia seen in these metabolic disorders. (
  • SAN FRANCISCO -- Cerebrospinal fluid levels of lactate were a perfect marker of viral versus bacterial meningitis in a small study, a researcher reported here. (
  • The enzyme is also found in cerebrospinal fluid where high levels of lactate dehydrogenase in cerebrospinal fluid are often associated with bacterial meningitis . (
  • Through their work they determined that tumor cells generated lactate up to five times faster than their non-tumor counterparts, and they could quantify low levels of lactate at great sensitivity. (
  • Recently ammonium lactate has been used as an alternative to calcium in this process. (
  • What is the most important information I should know about ammonium lactate? (
  • What is ammonium lactate? (
  • Ammonium lactate is a combination of lactic acid and ammonium hydroxide. (
  • Ammonium lactate is a moisturizer. (
  • Ammonium lactate is used to treat dry, scaly, itchy skin. (
  • Ammonium lactate may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before using ammonium lactate topical? (
  • You should not use this medication if you are allergic to ammonium lactate, glycerin, mineral oil, propylene glycol, or parabens. (
  • Ammonium lactate may be more likely to cause skin irritation in people who have fair or sensitive skin. (
  • FDA pregnancy category C. It is not known whether ammonium lactate topical will harm an unborn baby. (
  • It is not known whether ammonium lactate topical passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. (
  • How should I apply ammonium lactate? (
  • Ammonium lactate is usually applied twice a day. (
  • Do not apply ammonium lactate to your face unless your doctor has told you to. (
  • Call your doctor if your symptoms do not improve, or if they get worse while using ammonium lactate topical. (
  • An overdose is unlikely to occur with the use of ammonium lactate topical. (
  • What should I avoid while using ammonium lactate? (
  • Ammonium lactate topical is for use only on the skin. (
  • What are the possible side effects of ammonium lactate? (
  • What other drugs will affect ammonium lactate? (
  • It is not likely that other drugs you take orally or inject will have an effect on topically applied ammonium lactate. (
  • Your pharmacist can provide more information about ammonium lactate topical. (
  • Ammonium lactate cream is used to treat dry and scaly skin conditions, such as xerosis and ichthyosis vulgaris. (
  • There are no evaluations for Ammonium lactate topical. (
  • You should not use this medication if you have ever had an allergic reaction to ammonium lactate or urea. (
  • Apply ammonium lactate and urea to the skin in the amount your doctor has prescribed for you. (
  • Avoid using other medications on the areas you treat with ammonium lactate and urea unless your doctor tells you to. (
  • The combination of ammonium lactate and urea topical (for the skin) is used to treat rough or scaly skin caused by such conditions as eczema or psoriasis. (
  • How should I use ammonium lactate and urea? (
  • For a long time, muscular fatigue during exercise was believed to be caused primarily by lactate as a by-product of glycolysis (glucose metabolism). (
  • It is necessary to understand the basics of glucose metabolism in order to fully understand the relationship between lactate levels and sports performance and training. (
  • Lactate becomes the preferred endpoint of glucose utilization as muscle activity increases and oxygen availability is limited for glucose metabolism. (
  • What's more, there are downstream consequences with the switch to anaerobic glucose metabolism with lactate production as the endpoint. (
  • Lactate is one of the substances produced by cells as the body turns food into energy (cell metabolism), with the highest level of production occurring in the muscles. (
  • To put it simply, your LT is the running speed above which lactate (a by-product of glucose metabolism) begins to accumulate in your blood. (
  • This reconceptualization of lactate as a fuel-analogous to how Hans Christian Andersen's ugly duckling is actually a beautiful swan-has the potential to reshape the field of energy metabolism. (
  • Lactate metabolism is associated with mammalian mitochondria. (
  • We provide a review of the biology of lactate production and metabolism, the many causes of hyperlactatemia, and evidence on its use as a marker in prognosis and resuscitation. (
  • Lactate mediates cancer cell intrinsic effects on metabolism and has additional non-tumor cell autonomous effects that drive tumorigenesis. (
  • Here we review the mechanisms of lactate production and transport and highlight emerging evidence indicating that targeting lactate metabolism is a promising approach for cancer therapeutics. (
  • Saturation of lactate production at low glucose concentrations is probably contributing to the observed preferential stimulation of oxidative metabolism at higher concentrations. (
  • Aerobic glycolysis (AG), a central feature of tumour metabolism, fuels rapid growth with elevated glucose consumption and subsequent lactate production. (
  • Serum lactate relates with increased systemic anaerobic metabolism such as SIRS, sepsis and systemic hypoperfusion and it is easy to measure with a blood gas analysis. (
  • The mechanism(s) explaining the metabolism of lactate in these tissues, however, remains unclear. (
  • Due to slow metabolism and excretion, high D-lactate can cause acidosis and encephalopathy. (
  • By understanding the role that lactate plays in exercise metabolism, the exercise physiologist can use the information from lactate threshold tests to predict proper racing and training paces, and assess the fitness of a subject or the efficacy of the training program. (
  • Typical blood lactate levels at rest or during moderate exercise are approximately 1mM to 2 mM respectively. (
  • Blood lactate levels will usually be drawn either without the use of a tourniquet or with a tourniquet that is not released during the blood draw. (
  • Increased intensity of training just above the LT results in an abrupt increase in blood lactate levels. (
  • The increase in blood lactate levels seen at this transitional intensity indicates that the body has to rely on glycolysis to provide adequate ATP supplies for the exercising muscle. (
  • Therefore, increased endurance is linked to an increased lactate threshold . (
  • The lactate threshold is defined as the first increase in blood lactate that is above resting level. (
  • The lactate threshold test has been utilized in sports science to define specific training plans for various sports. (
  • The body is pushed beyond the lactate threshold with speed work, which trains the body to better clear lactate from the musculature. (
  • True lactate threshold training is the most efficient way to improve lactate threshold. (
  • Workouts are performed at a pace that is very close to an individual's specific lactate threshold. (
  • The ideal way to increase an individual's lactate threshold is through endurance-building long runs and stamina-building speed work at varying paces. (
  • So How do I Perform a Lactate Threshold Test? (
  • For many runners, improving lactate threshold (LT) is the key. (
  • A variety of studies have shown that lactate threshold is the single best predictor of running performance--better even than that vaunted variable, max VO2 (maximum aerobic capacity). (
  • But what exactly is lactate threshold, and how can it be improved? (
  • Research at the University of Ulm in Germany determined that investing 20 minutes or more per week in lactate threshold training led to large LT lift-offs, while less than 20 minutes weekly produced mediocre results. (
  • And it's best to devote just five to six weeks at a time to lactate threshold efforts, then shift to other key training needs (max VO2, economy, power, etc. (
  • Does Lactate Threshold Speed Change in the Offseason? (
  • Hey Gale, I was curious, does my lactate threshold speed change in the offseason? (
  • Several years ago, I attended a presentation by the late Ed Burke where he talked about how lactate threshold changes for elite cyclists. (
  • When cyclists would begin their training programs at the Olympic Training Center in the preseason, their lactate threshold heart rates were an average of 13 beats lower than when they were in peak racing condition. (
  • Randy looked at power output on the bike and running velocity at lactate threshold (LT). (
  • That written, at some point in the training cycle it is possible to improve cycling power and running velocity with minimal to no changes in lactate threshold heart rate. (
  • So to answer your question directly, yes, I believe your lactate threshold heart rate and lactate threshold speed or power numbers are different in the offseason, preseason and competitive season. (
  • The first suggestion is to get tested each six to eight weeks to look for changes in lactate threshold parameters. (
  • For these athletes, I consider early-season lactate threshold training as high Zone 2, or low Zone 3. (
  • When you cross your lactate threshold it becomes increasingly difficult to maintain your pace. (
  • If you're a seasoned triathlete, or even if you just finished your first 5K road race, you've probably heard something about lactate threshold training. (
  • So, where does lactate threshold training fit in? (
  • While physiologists keep learning more about what lactate does, coaches and trainers have learned ways to use the lactate threshold to an athlete's advantage. (
  • So what exactly is the lactate threshold? (
  • During intense exercise, though, lactate builds up faster than it can be flushed out of your blood -- this is your lactate threshold. (
  • When you cross your lactate threshold, you feel tired, and you might even feel a burn in your muscles. (
  • Sports physiologists have learned, however, that your lactate threshold can be raised with proper training. (
  • Runners who raise their lactate threshold can pick up their pace and get to the finish line quicker. (
  • From the research, it is apparent that lactate threshold training is a well-established system to enhance endurance performance. (
  • and (2) How should lactate threshold training be progressed? (
  • 2005). This article uses this approach in designing an exercise program that will optimize lactate threshold training. (
  • The lactate threshold is the fastest a person can continuously run, cycle, swim or aerobically exercise in a steady state bout without fatiguing. (
  • Information provided by a lactate threshold test has a number of purposes. (
  • Thus, the advent of lactate threshold signals that the body is consuming glucose and glycogen at an increased rate in respect to ATP production, which, ultimately, can lead to premature carbohydrate depletion and exhaustion. (
  • The relationship between lactate threshold and the rate of consumption of carbohydrate stores, and correlations between lactate threshold and maximal sustainable work rate, make lactate threshold a good predictor of endurance exercise performance. (
  • Tanaka 1990) have demonstrated close agreements between running paces at lactate threshold and average paces during competitive running events in distances ranging from 10,000 meters to the marathon. (
  • In studies using cycling ergometry, power outputs that elicited lactate threshold were similar to average power outputs during time trials ranging from 60 to 90 minutes (Bentley et al. (
  • However, in time trials ranging from 25 to 35 minutes, subjects typically maintain significantly higher power outputs than those that elicited lactate threshold (Bentley et al. (
  • 2002). Despite these discrepancies, correlations between power outputs at lactate threshold and average power outputs during the shorter time trials remained remarkably high, suggesting that performance in these events can be predicted from lactate threshold data with reasonable accuracy. (
  • As in many physiological and anatomical systems, the mechanisms that influence lactate threshold are responsive to exercise training. (
  • These improvements in oxidative capacity increase the muscle's ability to produce ATP, consume pyruvate, and regenerate NAD resulting in a reduced reliance on lactate production and an increase in work rates that are required to elicit lactate threshold. (
  • 1986), the exhibition of lactate threshold when expressed as a percentage of maximal oxygen consumption is primarily influenced by the level of conditioning (Henritze et al. (
  • Blood lactate was measured at the end of each exercise stage during the protocol, and the lactate threshold was determined as the stage prior to achieving 4 mmol·L-1. (
  • Differences in power at lactate threshold, power at exhaustion, and total exercise time were determined by paired t-tests and are presented as means ± SD. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate creatine supplementation decreases lactate during incremental cycling exercise and tends to raise lactate threshold. (
  • It converts pyruvate, the final product of glycolysis , to lactate when oxygen is absent or in short supply, and it performs the reverse reaction during the Cori cycle in the liver . (
  • By providing mammalian cells with both a convenient source and sink for three-carbon compounds, circulating lactate enables the uncoupling of carbohydrate-driven mitochondrial energy generation from glycolysis. (
  • L-lactate dehydrogenases are metabolic enzymes which catalyse the conversion of L-lactate to pyruvate, the last step in anaerobic glycolysis [ PMID: 11276087 ]. (
  • Lactate, once considered a waste product of glycolysis, has emerged as a critical regulator of cancer development, maintenance, and metastasis. (
  • In turn, this induces HIF-1α, MCT4 expression, and glycolysis in stromal fibroblasts, which then efflux excess lactate via MCT4. (
  • Oncoproteins drive the expression of genes involved in glycolysis and glutaminolysis, which results in production of excess amounts of lactate. (
  • Oncogenic lesions in cancer drive the switch to aerobic glycolysis and lactate production by inducing the expression and activation of several glycolytic enzymes (Figure 1 ). (
  • Excitatory synaptic transmission is accompanied by a local surge in interstitial lactate that occurs despite adequate oxygen availability, a puzzling phenomenon termed aerobic glycolysis. (
  • We hypothesized that in vivo measurements of lactate (lac), a by-product of glycolysis, would correlate with functional impairment and measures of brain health in a cohort of 15 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) individuals. (
  • In analogous clinical scenarios presenting with disrupted mitochondrial function (e.g., mitochondrial disorders such as Leigh syndrome or MELAS [ 14 , 15 ]), lactate (lac), the by-product of anaerobic glycolysis, is elevated in part as compensation for aerobic metabolic impairment [ 16 - 18 ]. (
  • Through the process of glycolysis (which means the splitting of sugar), blood glucose or muscle glycogen is converted to pyruvate, which will either enter the mitochondria (energy factory of the cell) or be converted to lactate, depending on the intensity of exercise. (
  • Although lactate production does not contribute to acidosis and lactate itself does not appear to cause fatigue, blood lactate accumulation does indicate that the body is relying on substantial contributions from anaerobic glycolysis to meet exercising energy requirements. (
  • This means that, during rest or moderate activity, the body is able to use glucose, pyruvate and lactate as energy sources as well as precursors for other metabolic pathways. (
  • Lactate, perhaps the best-known metabolic waste product, was first isolated from sour milk, in which it is produced by lactobacilli. (
  • Since proline can be a source for gluconeogenesis, regulation of proline degradation by lactate may serve as a mechanism for allocation of metabolic fuel sources. (
  • Tumor cells can metabolize lactate as an energy source and shuttle lactate to neighboring cancer cells, adjacent stroma, and vascular endothelial cells, which induces metabolic reprogramming. (
  • B ) In metabolic symbiosis, tumor cells in hypoxic regions of the tumor efflux lactate through MCT4, which is then imported by tumor cells in less hypoxic regions via MCT1 and used as an oxidative metabolite. (
  • What is the role of serum lactate level in the diagnosis of metabolic acidosis? (
  • Lactate production should not be viewed as a negative metabolic event, but as a consequence of high-intensity exercise. (
  • High levels of the metabolic acid known as lactate can be a sobering clue that cancer is growing inside the body. (
  • Stopped-flow kinetics indicate that human and chicken heart-type 4 lactate dehydrogenases (LDH) become inhibited as DPNH is oxidized in the presence of high concentrations of pyruvate. (
  • During the final stage of glycogen breakdown, lactate dehydrogenase converts a molecule called pyruvate to a similar molecule called lactate. (
  • The cells releases lactic acid into the blood, where it is converted to a similar molecule called lactate. (
  • In addition to its role as an energy substrate, recent studies have shown that lactate modulates neuronal excitability acting through various targets, including NMDA receptors and G-protein-coupled receptors specific for lactate, but little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the increase in interstitial lactate. (
  • Finally, pyruvate is converted to lactate by the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA, Figure 1 ). (
  • Pyruvate enters the mitochondria at exercise intensity levels below the LT, while at intensity levels above LT the capacity for mitochondrial respiration (the complete breakdown of carbohydrate) is exceeded and pyruvate is converted to lactate. (
  • At high concentrations of lactate, the enzyme exhibits feedback inhibition, and the rate of conversion of pyruvate to lactate is decreased. (
  • 6 Malignant transformation is underscored by genetic mutation, activating hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and subsequent upregulation of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A), leading to increased conversion of pyruvate to lactate and the efflux of lactate through monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4). (
  • Lactated Ringer's Injection is a common electrolyte solution with a variety of clinical uses. (
  • You're probably better off just drinking Gatorade since Lactated Ringer's Injection can only be dispensed by prescription (at least in the US), and your doctor will probably just tell you not to drink so much. (
  • When making additions to Lactated Ringer's Injection, USP, aseptic technique must be used. (
  • Additives may be incompatible with Lactated Ringer's Injection, USP. (
  • Before adding a substance or medication, verify that it is soluble and/or stable in water and that the pH range of Lactated Ringer's Injection, USP is appropriate. (
  • Baxter has lactated ringer's injection available. (
  • BBraun had lactated ringer's injection on shortage due to increased demand. (
  • 5% Dextrose in Lactated Ringer's Injection is sterile, nonpyrogenic and contains no bacteriostatic or antimicrobial agents. (
  • 5% Dextrose in Lactated Ringer's Injection is supplied sterile and nonpyrogenic in EXCEL Containers. (
  • There has therefore existed, for a substantial period of time, the need for a simple testing mechanism for the determination of the concentration of serum lactate dehydrogenase in body fluids, especially the blood, which long-felt need is satisfied by the instant invention more fully discussed hereinbelow. (
  • Affected individuals are usually discovered only when routine blood tests reveal reduced lactate dehydrogenase activity. (
  • Lactate dehydrogenase ( LDH or LD ) is an enzyme found in nearly all living cells (animals, plants, and prokaryotes ). (
  • These genes provide instructions for making the lactate dehydrogenase-A and lactate dehydrogenase-B pieces (subunits) of the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme. (
  • Various combinations of the lactate dehydrogenase-A and lactate dehydrogenase-B subunits make up the different forms of the enzyme. (
  • Mutations in the LDHA gene result in the production of an abnormal lactate dehydrogenase-A subunit that cannot attach (bind) to other subunits to form the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme. (
  • LDHB gene mutations lead to the production of an abnormal lactate dehydrogenase-B subunit that cannot form the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme. (
  • Lactate dehydrogenase (also called lactic acid dehydrogenase, or LDH) is an enzyme found in almost all body tissues. (
  • We found that proline oxidase, the first enzyme of the proline degradative pathway, is inhibited by lactate. (
  • The Km of the enzyme for proline increases with increasing concentrations of lactate. (
  • Lactate dehydrogenase ( LDH ) is an enzyme ( EC present in a wide variety of organisms, including plants and animals. (
  • Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a stable cytoplasmic enzyme that is found in all cells. (
  • Excess lactate can lead to lactic acidosis. (
  • Lactic acidosis is a disorder that occurs when lactate levels in your bloodstream rise above the normal limits. (
  • Lactic acidosis is considered present if the plasma lactate level exceeds 4-5 mEq/L in an acidemic patient. (
  • However, with the neutral pH maintained by the body, most of it will be present in the blood in the form of lactate. (
  • A unique form of lactate dehydrogenase was observed in the starch-gel electrophoretic patterns of adult human testes. (
  • Additionally, we review the evolving role of lactate in sepsis care. (
  • Biochemical approaches, although capable of lactate concentration quantification, are performed on excised tissue or biopsy samples with limited spatial extent. (
  • Edited MRS is sensitive to changes in lactate concentration during inspiratory hypoxia," Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging , vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 320-325, 2010. (
  • Though lactate production does not result in acidosis and has a questionable role in causing fatigue, the accumulation of lactate in the blood indicates that maximal sustainable rates of exercise and ATP production are close at hand (Morris and Shafer 2010). (
  • My test means is useful for the qualitative detection and quantitative determination of lactate dehydrogenase in sera wherein the test means comprises a reagent composition incorporated within a bibulous carrier. (
  • The quantitative determination of lactate dehydrogenase is extremely important in the detection of heart diseases, especially heart attacks, in that, following heart attacks, the concentration of lactate dehydrogenase in the blood rises noticeably over its normal concentration. (
  • Despite the similarity in name, sodium lactate is not chemically similar to lactose (milk sugar), so need not be restricted by those with lactose intolerance . (
  • Moreover, although the lactic-acid starter culture to ferment corn or beets may contain milk, [4] sodium lactate does not contain milk protein and need not be restricted by someone avoiding milk or those with a milk allergy. (
  • Lactate may refer to: Lactation, the secretion of milk from the mammary glands Lactate, the conjugate base of lactic acid This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Lactate. (
  • In the early 20th century, oral administration of calcium lactate dissolved in water (but not in milk or tablets) was found to be effective in prevention of tetany in humans and dogs with parathyroid insufficiency or who underwent parathyroidectomy. (
  • Calcium lactate is also known as cheese lactate because it coagulates milk, making the chhena used in the production of paneer cheese. (
  • Lactating women with decreased milk supply who are unresponsive to nonpharmacologic measures to enhance lactation, including counselling, relaxation techniques and mechanical expression, should continue to consider domperidone at antiemetic doses. (
  • Further research is needed to define the best dose of domperidone and length of treatment in lactating women with reduced milk production. (
  • Most adoptive mothers, for instance, begin lactating within three or four weeks of adoption, suggesting mere stimulation can induce enough hormonal action to produce milk. (
  • i wanna know if starting to lactate at 12 weeks pregnate is normal it wasn't the milk. (
  • The traditional kitchen spice, Fenugreek seeds contain an active ingredient called diosgenin that increase milk production in lactating mothers. (
  • The active ingredient in fenugreek seeds called diosgenin increases milk production in lactating mothers. (
  • Lactating is a natural progression and with hormones, my trusty breast pump and hours of beautifully thrilling stimulation and nipple play I am showing signs of lactation, with the milk ducts opening and leaking fluid. (
  • i too have been lactating for almost a year now- you are right it is very exciting when you see milk coming from your breasts. (
  • As food additive, the adding amount of Calcium Lactate should be in accordance with the requirements of GB14880-94 and GB2760: 12-24g in cereal and cereal product, 3-6g in beverage and milk beverage, 23-46 in nurseling food. (
  • Though the exact amounts differ, the solution always contains sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride dihydrate, and sodium lactate. (
  • High-intensity workouts improve the heart's capacity to deliver oxygen and the muscles' ability to use that oxygen, as well as the body's ability to clear lactate from the blood. (
  • Thus, production and use of lactate (ie, Cori cycle) is constant, keeping plasma lactate low. (
  • The normal plasma lactate concentration is 0.5-1.5 mEq/L. (
  • What conditions does Haloperidol Lactate Syringe treat? (
  • List Haloperidol Lactate Syringe side effects by likelihood and severity. (
  • What should I know regarding pregnancy, nursing and administering Haloperidol Lactate Syringe to children or the elderly? (
  • Does Haloperidol Lactate Syringe interact with other medications? (
  • Are you taking Haloperidol Lactate Syringe? (
  • Are you considering switching to Haloperidol Lactate Syringe? (
  • How long have you been taking Haloperidol Lactate Syringe? (
  • ST. LOUIS Lee Biosolutions has announced the production and availability of five Human lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes LDH-1, LDH-2, LDH-3, LDH-4 and LDH-5 for purchase at . (
  • Human lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes are primarily used by cells in specific tissue. (
  • According to Lee Biosolutions President Burton Lee, the company keeps close tabs on the clinical research community in an effort to stay ahead of widespread demands for products like Human Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes. (
  • Measurement of released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, a commonly used marker of lethal cell injury in both in vitro and in vivo screenings, has been used to assess the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles (NPs), chemical compounds, and environmental factors. (
  • In a platform presentation at the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC), he noted that measurement of lactate in CSF is "simple and cheap," and results can be had from clinical labs in many hospitals within a few minutes. (
  • Measurement of plasma D-lactate at 24h and 48h after ANP induction using ab83429. (
  • The role of lactic acid and its conjugate base, lactate, has evolved during the past decade in the care of patients in the emergency department (ED). A recent national sepsis quality measure has led to increased use of serum lactate in the ED, but many causes for hyperlactatemia exist outside of sepsis. (
  • The solubility of calcium L-lactate in water increases significantly in presence of d-gluconate ions, from 6.7 g/dl) at 25 °C to 9.74 g/dl or more. (
  • Paradoxically, while the solubility of calcium L-lactate increases with temperature from 10 °C (4.8 g/dl) to 30 °C (8.5 g/dl), the concentration of free Ca2+ ions decreases by almost one half. (
  • Addition of calcium lactate substantially increases the compressive strength and reduces water permeability of bioconcrete, by enabling bacteria such as Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cohnii, Bacillus pseudofirmus and Sporosarcina pasteurii to produce more calcite. (
  • Lactate production increases when the demand for ATP and oxygen exceeds supply, as occurs during intense exercise and ischaemia. (
  • The investigators hypothesized that the increases of peritoneal/ serum lactate ratio could be an earlier, sensible, non-invasive, and economical marker of post surgical complications. (
  • Increases in blood lactate concentrations also indicate that the subject's ATP consumption rate is beginning to exceed the ability to provide ATP through the oxidative pathway. (
  • Calcium Lactate Pentahydrate is one of numerous organo-metallic compounds sold by American Elements under the trade name AE Organo-Metallics™ for uses requiring non-aqueous solubility such as recent solar energy and water treatment applications. (
  • Calcium Lactate Pentahydrate is generally immediately available in most volumes, including bulk quantities. (
  • Mutations in the LDHA gene cause lactate dehydrogenase-A deficiency, and mutations in the LDHB gene cause lactate dehydrogenase-B deficiency. (
  • Optimization of 5-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-3-hydroxy-2-mercaptocyclohex-2-enone using structure-based design strategies resulted in inhibitors with considerable improvement in biochemical potency against human lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA). (
  • Lactate is then converted to pyruvate, which activates HIF-1α and NF-κB/IL-8 signaling. (
  • Alternately, these data support previous claims that lactate is converted to pyruvate within the mitochondrial intermembrane space with the pyruvate subsequently taken into the mitochondrial matrix where it enters the TCA cycle and is ultimately oxidized. (
  • Jorfeldt, L., Juhlin-Dannfelt, A. & Karlsson, J. Lactate release in relation to tissue lactate in human skeletal muscle during exercise. (
  • Lactate oxidation in human skeletal muscle mitochondria. (
  • The results further demonstrate that human skeletal muscle mitochondria cannot directly oxidize lactate within the mitochondrial matrix. (
  • Calcium lactate is used in molecular gastronomy as a flavorless fat-soluble agent for plain and reverse spherification. (
  • The body's utilization of lactate can be increased with training. (
  • Lactate is produced in excess by muscle cells, red blood cells, brain, and other tissues when there is insufficient oxygen at the cellular level or when the primary way of producing energy in the body's cells is disrupted. (
  • Fermentation may produce either D or L lactate, or a racemic mixture of both, depending on the type of organism used. (
  • Whereas microbes also generate other fermentation products, such as ethanol or acetone, lactate dominates in mammals. (
  • The kit detects D-Lactate in samples such as serum, plasma, cells, culture and fermentation media. (
  • [4] [10] In general, lactates such as sodium, calcium , and potassium lactate are salts derived from the neutralization of lactic acid and most commercially used lactic acids are fermented from dairy-free products such as cornstarch , potatoes , or molasses . (
  • Patients who have liver conditions may be unable to process the lactate in the solution, while those with kidney problems can have a serious reaction to the potassium or sodium. (
  • Correction to 'Demystifying Lactate in the Emergency Department' [Annals of Emergency Medicine 75 (2020) 287-298/8310]. (
  • Retrieved on August 08, 2020 from (
  • It also catalyzes the dehydrogenation of 2-Hydroxybutyrate , but it is a much poorer substrate than lactate. (
  • By use of four separate and specific substrate titration protocols, the respirometric analysis revealed that mitochondria were capable of oxidizing lactate in the absence of exogenous LDH. (
  • At rest and under steady-state exercise conditions, there is a balance between lactate production and removal, as lactate can be used as substrate (fuel) by the heart, liver and muscles (Brooks, 2000). (
  • A. Schurr, "Lactate: the ultimate cerebral oxidative energy substrate? (
  • A diagnostic test indicator for the determination of the concentration of lactate dehydrogenase in sera comprising a bibulous material which has contained therein the dried residue resulting from the impregnation thereof with 1. (
  • 1. A diagnostic test indicator for the determination of the concentration of lactate dehydrogenase in sera comprising a bibulous material which contains therein the dried residue resulting from the impregnation thereof with 2. (
  • Available tests for the detection of the concentration of lactate dehydrogenase in body fluids have, until now, consisted of extremely complex liquid systems whereby test tubes, measuring devices, ultraviolet light, standardization of instruments, correction factors depending upon temperature and false readings prevail. (
  • As mentioned briefly above, I have now discovered a novel test means for the determination of the concentration of lactate dehydrogenase in body fluids. (
  • Lactate concentration was quantified from freshly excised whole tumours with double quantum filtered (DQF) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI), LDH-A and proliferative marker Ki-67 were assessed histologically. (
  • There was a significantly higher lactate concentration ( t = 2.2224, p = 0.0349) in grade III (7.7 ± 2.9 mM) than in grade II (5.5 ± 2.4 mM). (
  • Lactate concentration was correlated with NPI ( ρ = 0.3618, p = 0.0495), but not with Ki-67 ( ρ = 0.3041, p = 0.1023) or tumour size ( r = 0.1716, p = 0.3645). (
  • Lactate concentration was negatively correlated with LDH-A ( ρ = −0.3734, p = 0.0421). (
  • Our results showed that lactate concentration in whole breast tumour from DQF MRS is sensitive to tumour grades and patient prognosis. (
  • We therefore hypothesise that lactate concentration derived from DQF MRS is sensitive to tumour grades and is associated with prognosis. (
  • To probe the hypothesis, we conducted a two-group cross sectional study examining the lactate concentration of whole tumour freshly excised from patients, with further comparison against histopathological findings (Fig. 1 ). (
  • After surgery, the freshly excised tumours were scanned on a clinical 3 T MRI scanner to derive lactate concentration within the whole tumour using double quantum filtered (DQF) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Subsequently, histopathological analysis provided tumour grade, size, histological type, lactate dehydrogenase A and B (LDH-A and LDH-B), Ki-67 expression and Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). (
  • Stromal-derived lactate is then imported by tumor cells via MCT1 and used as an oxidative metabolite. (
  • C ) In the vascular endothelial lactate shuttle, tumor cells efflux lactate via MCT4, which is imported by vascular endothelial cells by MCT1. (
  • Inflamed peritoneum are able to produce excess of lactate that the investigators can measure by collecting fluid from peritoneal drainage. (
  • Among 45 adults in whom the etiology of meningitis was microbiologically confirmed, all those with CSF lactate levels above 3.5 mmol/L had the bacterial form, whereas every patient with lower levels had viral meningitis, reported Stefano Giulieri, MD, of Lausanne University Hospital in Lausanne, Switzerland. (
  • However, all the viral cases had CSF lactate levels below 3.5 mmol/L, whereas this marker was higher in all the bacterial cases. (
  • There was a significant lactate production in the absence of glucose, which increased with glucose concentrations up to 3 mmol/l, reaching its half-maximal rate in the presence of 0.2-1.0 mmol/l glucose in both species. (
  • The rates of glucose utilization and lactate production were similar at 3 mmol/l glucose in rat islets and at about 6 mmol/l glucose in ob / ob mice islets. (
  • Human lactate dehydrogenase M 4 (the isoenzyme found in skeletal muscle ). (
  • Lactate is an important intermediate metabolite in human bioenergetics and is oxidized in many different tissues including the heart, brain, kidney, adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle. (
  • Here, we analyze the ability of skeletal muscle to respire lactate by using an in situ mitochondrial preparation that leaves the native tubular reticulum and subcellular interactions of the organelle unaltered. (
  • Daily lactate production in a healthy person is substantial (approximately 20 mEq/kg/d), and this is usually metabolized to pyruvate in the liver, the kidneys, and, to a lesser degree, in the heart. (
  • In early studies, lactate was shown to increase in blood and muscle tissue dependent on exercise intensity and therefore there was a close correlation between lactate production and fatigue levels . (
  • These activities augment lactate production, albeit to a lesser extent than the lactate derived from glucose catabolism. (
  • a nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide- an alkali Lactate salt mixture and a process for the production of said indicator, are disclosed. (
  • Lactate production, glucose utilization, glucose oxidation, and insulin release were studied in islets from rat and ob / ob mice. (
  • D-Lactate production in mammals, mainly due to the glyoxalase pathway, is extremely low, with normal serum concentrations in the nano to micromolar range. (
  • Thus, the LT represents the point at which a disruption begins in the equilibrium between blood lactate production and blood lactate removal. (
  • How does training affect lactate production? (
  • Reduced lactate production at the same given workload following endurance training can be attributed to increased mitochondria size and number, as well as to enzymes. (
  • Lactate also plays roles in promoting tumor inflammation and in functioning as a signaling molecule that stimulates tumor angiogenesis. (
  • A molecule that helps bacteria to adapt to its environment has now been tricked into measuring lactate for us. (
  • Knowing the exercise intensity at which this occurs is valuable for two reasons: When glucose and glycogen are metabolized to lactate, only two or three ATP molecules are generated per molecule of carbohydrate consumed compared to the 36 to 39 ATP molecules that are generated when pyruvate is produced and consumed through oxidative phosphorylation. (
  • Calcium lactate is also used to treat hypocalcaemia (calcium deficiencies). (
  • This test measures the amount of lactate in the blood or, less commonly, in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). (
  • As the ultimate end product of glucose utilization within the body, lactate can be used in several ways. (