Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Alcohol oxidoreductases with substrate specificity for LACTIC ACID.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A species ARTERIVIRUS, occurring in a number of transplantable mouse tumors. Infected mice have permanently elevated serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase.
Acidosis caused by accumulation of lactic acid more rapidly than it can be metabolized. It may occur spontaneously or in association with diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS; LEUKEMIA; or LIVER FAILURE.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
Amino-substituted glyoxylic acid derivative.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains two CHLORINE atoms attached to its methyl group.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The oxygen consumption level above which aerobic energy production is supplemented by anaerobic mechanisms during exercise, resulting in a sustained increase in lactate concentration and metabolic acidosis. The anaerobic threshold is affected by factors that modify oxygen delivery to the tissues; it is low in patients with heart disease. Methods of measurement include direct measure of lactate concentration, direct measurement of bicarbonate concentration, and gas exchange measurements.
Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Glucose in blood.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.
Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC
BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
Diphosphoric acid esters of fructose. The fructose-1,6- diphosphate isomer is most prevalent. It is an important intermediate in the glycolysis process.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
Derivatives of OXALOACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1,4-carboxy aliphatic structure.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC
Infections caused by viruses of the genus ARTERIVIRUS.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).
Solutions prepared for exchange across a semipermeable membrane of solutes below a molecular size determined by the cutoff threshold of the membrane material.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
Allosteric enzymes that regulate glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. These enzymes catalyze phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate to either fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1 reaction), or to fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-2 reaction).
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
A state due to excess loss of carbon dioxide from the body. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria capable of reducing sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide. Organisms are isolated from anaerobic mud of fresh and salt water, animal intestines, manure, and feces.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The release of GLUCOSE from GLYCOGEN by GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE (phosphorolysis). The released glucose-1-phosphate is then converted to GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE by PHOSPHOGLUCOMUTASE before entering GLYCOLYSIS. Glycogenolysis is stimulated by GLUCAGON or EPINEPHRINE via the activation of PHOSPHORYLASE KINASE.
Five-carbon furanose sugars in which the OXYGEN is replaced by a NITROGEN atom.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.
A compound that inhibits aminobutyrate aminotransferase activity in vivo, thereby raising the level of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tissues.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A biotin-dependent enzyme belonging to the ligase family that catalyzes the addition of CARBON DIOXIDE to pyruvate. It is occurs in both plants and animals. Deficiency of this enzyme causes severe psychomotor retardation and ACIDOSIS, LACTIC in infants. EC
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
A family of gram-negative bacteria, in the phylum FIRMICUTES.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
Any method of measuring the amount of work done by an organism, usually during PHYSICAL EXERTION. Ergometry also includes measures of power. Some instruments used in these determinations include the hand crank and the bicycle ergometer.
A ketotriose compound. Its addition to blood preservation solutions results in better maintenance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels during storage. It is readily phosphorylated to dihydroxyacetone phosphate by triokinase in erythrocytes. In combination with naphthoquinones it acts as a sunscreening agent.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.

Induction of bovine polioencephalomalacia with a feeding system based on molasses and urea. (1/3648)

Polioencephalomalacia (PEM), a disease first described in the United States and related to intensive beef production, appeared in Cuba coincident with the use of a new, molasses-urea-based diet to fatten bulls. Because the only experimental means so far of reproducing PEM has been with amprolium, a structural analog of thiamin, the present study attempted to induce the disease using the molasses-urea-based diet. Six Holstein bulls (200-300 kg) were studied during consumption of three successive diets: 1) commercial molasses-urea-restricted forage diet of Cuban feedlots, 2) a period in which forage was gradually withdrawn and 3) a forage-free diet composed only of molasses, urea and fish meal. PEM was reproduced in this way. At ten-day intervals, blood concentrations of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and urea were measured, as well as when clinical signs of PEM appeared. The signs, clinical course and lesions of the experimentally induced disease were comparable to those of field cases. The biochemical results suggested a block in pyruvate oxidation as in PEM elsewhere in the world. No evidence existed of urea intoxication. In addition, brain and liver concentration of total thiamin from field cases and normal animals were found to be similar.  (+info)

Mechanism of citrate metabolism in Lactococcus lactis: resistance against lactate toxicity at low pH. (2/3648)

Measurement of the flux through the citrate fermentation pathway in resting cells of Lactococcus lactis CRL264 grown in a pH-controlled fermentor at different pH values showed that the pathway was constitutively expressed, but its activity was significantly enhanced at low pH. The flux through the citrate-degrading pathway correlated with the magnitude of the membrane potential and pH gradient that were generated when citrate was added to the cells. The citrate degradation rate and proton motive force were significantly higher when glucose was metabolized at the same time, a phenomenon that could be mimicked by the addition of lactate, the end product of glucose metabolism. The results clearly demonstrate that citrate metabolism in L. lactis is a secondary proton motive force-generating pathway. Although the proton motive force generated by citrate in cells grown at low pH was of the same magnitude as that generated by glucose fermentation, citrate metabolism did not affect the growth rate of L. lactis in rich media. However, inhibition of growth by lactate was relieved when citrate also was present in the growth medium. Citrate did not relieve the inhibition by other weak acids, suggesting a specific role of the citrate transporter CitP in the relief of inhibition. The mechanism of citrate metabolism presented here provides an explanation for the resistance to lactate toxicity. It is suggested that the citrate metabolic pathway is induced under the acidic conditions of the late exponential growth phase to make the cells (more) resistant to the inhibitory effects of the fermentation product, lactate, that accumulates under these conditions.  (+info)

Isolation from estuarine sediments of a Desulfovibrio strain which can grow on lactate coupled to the reductive dehalogenation of 2,4, 6-tribromophenol. (3/3648)

Strain TBP-1, an anaerobic bacterium capable of reductively dehalogenating 2,4,6-tribromophenol to phenol, was isolated from estuarine sediments of the Arthur Kill in the New York/New Jersey harbor. It is a gram-negative, motile, vibrio-shaped, obligate anaerobe which grows on lactate, pyruvate, hydrogen, and fumarate when provided sulfate as an electron acceptor. The organism accumulates acetate when grown on lactate and sulfate, contains desulfoviridin, and will not grow in the absence of NaCl. It will not utilize acetate, succinate, propionate, or butyrate for growth via sulfate reduction. When supplied with lactate as an electron donor, strain TBP-1 will utilize sulfate, sulfite, sulfur, and thiosulfate for growth but not nitrate, fumarate, or acrylate. This organism debrominates 2-, 4-, 2,4-, 2,6-, and 2,4,6-bromophenol but not 3- or 2,3-bromophenol or monobrominated benzoates. It will not dehalogenate monochlorinated, fluorinated, or iodinated phenols or chlorinated benzoates. Together with its physiological characteristics, its 16S rRNA gene sequence places it in the genus Desulfovibrio. The average growth yield of strain TBP-1 grown on a defined medium supplemented with lactate and 2,4,6-bromophenol is 3.71 mg of protein/mmol of phenol produced, and the yield was 1.42 mg of protein/mmol of phenol produced when 4-bromophenol was the electron acceptor. Average growth yields (milligrams of protein per millimole of electrons utilized) for Desulfovibrio sp. strain TBP-1 grown with 2,4,6-bromophenol, 4-bromophenol, or sulfate are 0.62, 0.71, and 1.07, respectively. Growth did not occur when either lactate or 2,4,6-bromophenol was omitted from the growth medium. These results indicate that Desulfovibrio sp. strain TBP-1 is capable of growth via halorespiration.  (+info)

Dissimilatory reduction of Fe(III) and other electron acceptors by a Thermus isolate. (4/3648)

A thermophilic bacterium that can use O2, NO3-, Fe(III), and S0 as terminal electron acceptors for growth was isolated from groundwater sampled at a 3.2-km depth in a South African gold mine. This organism, designated SA-01, clustered most closely with members of the genus Thermus, as determined by 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) sequence analysis. The 16S rDNA sequence of SA-01 was >98% similar to that of Thermus strain NMX2 A.1, which was previously isolated by other investigators from a thermal spring in New Mexico. Strain NMX2 A.1 was also able to reduce Fe(III) and other electron acceptors. Neither SA-01 nor NMX2 A.1 grew fermentatively, i.e., addition of an external electron acceptor was required for anaerobic growth. Thermus strain SA-01 reduced soluble Fe(III) complexed with citrate or nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA); however, it could reduce only relatively small quantities (0.5 mM) of hydrous ferric oxide except when the humic acid analog 2,6-anthraquinone disulfonate was added as an electron shuttle, in which case 10 mM Fe(III) was reduced. Fe(III)-NTA was reduced quantitatively to Fe(II); reduction of Fe(III)-NTA was coupled to the oxidation of lactate and supported growth through three consecutive transfers. Suspensions of Thermus strain SA-01 cells also reduced Mn(IV), Co(III)-EDTA, Cr(VI), and U(VI). Mn(IV)-oxide was reduced in the presence of either lactate or H2. Both strains were also able to mineralize NTA to CO2 and to couple its oxidation to Fe(III) reduction and growth. The optimum temperature for growth and Fe(III) reduction by Thermus strains SA-01 and NMX2 A.1 is approximately 65 degrees C; their optimum pH is 6.5 to 7.0. This is the first report of a Thermus sp. being able to couple the oxidation of organic compounds to the reduction of Fe, Mn, or S.  (+info)

Augmentation of killing of Escherichia coli O157 by combinations of lactate, ethanol, and low-pH conditions. (5/3648)

The acid tolerance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains can be overcome by addition of lactate, ethanol, or a combination of the two agents. Killing can be increased by as much as 4 log units in the first 5 min of incubation at pH 3 even for the most acid-tolerant isolates. Exponential-phase, habituated, and stationary-phase cells are all sensitive to incubation with lactate and ethanol. Killing correlates with disruption of the capacity for pH homeostasis. Habituated and stationary-phase cells can partially offset the effects of the lowering of cytoplasmic pH.  (+info)

Metabolism and inflammatory mediators in the peritendinous space measured by microdialysis during intermittent isometric exercise in humans. (6/3648)

1. The metabolic processes that occur around the tendon during mechanical loading and exercise are undescribed in man. These processes are important for understanding the development of overuse inflammation and injury. 2. A microdialysis technique was used to determine interstitial concentrations of glycerol, glucose, lactate, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) as well as to calculate tissue substrate balance in the peritendinous region of the human Achilles tendon. Recovery of 48-62 % (range) at rest and 70-77 % during exercise were obtained for glycerol, glucose and PGE2. 3. Six young healthy humans were studied at rest, during 30 min of intermittent static plantar flexion of the ankle at a workload corresponding to individual body weight, and during 60 min of recovery. Microdialysis was performed in both legs with simultaneous determination of blood flow by 133Xe washout in the same area, and blood sampling from the radial artery. 4. With exercise, the net release of lactate as well as of glycerol from the peritendinous space of the Achilles tendon increased 2-fold (P < 0.05). Furthermore a 100 % increase in interstitial concentration of PGE2 and TXB2 was found, but it was only significant for TXB2(P < 0.05). As peritendinous blood flow increased 2- to 3-fold during intermittent static contractions, this indicates also that the output of these substances from the tissue increased during exercise. 5. This study indicates that both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism as well as inflammatory activity is accelerated in the peritendinous region of the human Achilles tendon with dynamic loading.  (+info)

Arteriovenous differences for amino acids and lactate across kidneys of normal and acidotic rats. (7/3648)

1. Arteriovenous differences fro amino acids across kidneys of normal and chronically acidotic rats were measured. Glutamine was the only amino acid extracted in increased amounts in acidosis. There was a considerable production of serine by kidneys from both normal and acidotic rats. 2. The arterial blood concentration of glutamine was significantly decreased in acidotic animals. 3. The glutamine extracted by kidneys of acidotic rats was largely and probably exclusively derived from the plasma. 4. The blood lactate concentration was unchanged in acidosis, as was the uptake of lactate by the kidney.  (+info)

Effect of ornithine and lactate on urea synthesis in isolated hepatocytes. (8/3648)

1. In hepatocytes isolated from 24 h-starved rats, urea production from ammonia was stimulated by addition of lactate, in both the presence and the absence of ornithine. The relationship of lactate concentration to the rate of urea synthesis was hyperbolic. 2. Other glucose precursors also stimulated urea production to varying degrees, but none more than lactate. Added oleate and butyrate did not stimulate urea synthesis. 3. Citrulline accumulation was largely dependent on ornithine concentration. As ornithine was increased from 0 to 40 mM, the rate of citrulline accumulation increased hyperbolically, and was half-maximal when ornithine was 8-12 mM. 4. The rate of citrulline accumulation was independent of the presence of lactate, but with pyruvate the rate increased. 5. The rate of urea production continued to increase as ornithine was varied from 0 to 40 mM. 6. It was concluded that intermediates provided by both ornithine and lactate are limiting for urea production from ammonia in isolated liver cells. It was suggested that the stimulatory effect of lactate lies in increased availability of cytosolic aspartate for condensation with citrulline.  (+info)

Metformin (MET) is the first-line drug for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, MET increases blood lactate levels in patients with T2DM. Lactate possesses proinflammatory properties and causes insulin resistance (IR). Oxamate (OXA), a lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor, can decrease tissue lactate production and blood lactate levels. This study was conducted to examine the effects of the combination of OXA and MET on inflammation, and IR in diabetic db/db mice. Supplementation of OXA to MET led to lowered tissue lactate production and serum lactate levels compared to MET alone, accompanied with further decreased tissue and blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, along with better insulin sensitivity, beta-cell mass, and glycemic control in diabetic db/db mice ...
Lactate inflection point (LIP), is the exercise intensity at which the blood concentration of lactate and/or lactic acid begins to exponentially increase.[1] It is often expressed as 85% of maximum heart rate or 75% of maximum oxygen intake.[2] When exercising at or below the LT, any lactate produced by the muscles is removed by the body without it building up.[3] The onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA) is often confused with the lactate threshold. With a higher exercise intensity the lactate production exceeds at a rate which it cannot be broken down, the blood lactate concentration will show an increase equal to 4.0mM; it then accumulates at the muscle and then moves to the bloodstream.[2] Regular endurance exercise leads to adaptations in skeletal muscle which prevent lactate levels from rising. This is mediated via activation of PGC-1α which alters the isoenzyme composition of the LDH complex and decreases the activity of the lactate generating enzyme LDHA, while increasing the ...
Aerobic capacity is the intensity you can sustain your workout at. To improve, there is a great deal of research on looking at your lactate threshold levels to help enable you to gain improvement in your training ability.. Glycolysis, so called releasing energy by splitting sugars, provides energy through APT for use in powering your muscle contractions. Lactate is a product of this glycolysis. So, a good predictor of performance can be your lactate threshold, defined as when the bodys lactate production is higher than its lactate clearance.. At the threshold point the lactate measurement increases exponentially. This increase of lactate acid in the muscles is when your feel this burning sensation, aches, pains, even cramps and you can no longer continue at that intensity. When you reach this point of exhaustion but try to carry on you risk overtraining and/or subsequent injury. Ultimately, this will lead to a fall in performance and poor results.. To improve your clearance of lactate you ...
Lactate, perhaps the best-known metabolic waste product, was first isolated from sour milk, in which it is produced by lactobacilli. Whereas microbes also generate other fermentation products, such as ethanol or acetone, lactate dominates in mammals. Lactate production increases when the demand for ATP and oxygen exceeds supply, as occurs during intense exercise and ischaemia. The build-up of lactate in stressed muscle and ischaemic tissues has established lactates reputation as a deleterious waste product. In this Perspective, we summarize emerging evidence that, in mammals, lactate also serves as a major circulating carbohydrate fuel. By providing mammalian cells with both a convenient source and sink for three-carbon compounds, circulating lactate enables the uncoupling of carbohydrate-driven mitochondrial energy generation from glycolysis. Lactate and pyruvate together serve as a circulating redox buffer that equilibrates the NADH/NAD ratio across cells and tissues. This reconceptualization of
Lactic acidosis syndrome is a complication of therapy with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) drugs. Measurement of lactate levels is important in clinical trials of antiretroviral treatments. The preferred collection method for determining plasma lactate is with NaF/KOx tubes, while a number of ACTG studies have stored blood in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) tubes. This study will analyze lactate in samples collected and stored in NaF/KOx and EDTA tubes to investigate the reliability of lactate concentrations over time.. Pre- and post-exercise blood samples are drawn from participants into NaF/KOx and EDTA tubes and a portion is tested for lactate levels immediately. The remaining portions are frozen and tested at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months. ...
Lactate Threshold is the maximum steady state effort that can be maintained without lactate continually increasing. Train above the Lactate Threshold and you will bonk, overtrain, or not gain the benefits of training in the first place. Train suboptimally and your performance will not improve. Your body naturally produces lactate as you train from which it can conveniently create more glycogen to fuel your muscles. However, this isnt an instant process. If you use up too much glycogen before your body can reproduce it from lactic acid you will unfortunately, bonk. Hence, its essential to know your own personal lactate threshold for training and racing to perform optimally and avoid overtraining and the dreaded bonk. Take the guesswork out of training zones!. ...
First 250m went by without any problem. In fact, I reached 600m to go with ease, but then it started to feel hard. But the counting helped, and I managed to even accelerate in the second half. The trick was to watch the SPM and make sure I rated up whenever I saw the stroke rate fall below 32spm. With 150m to go it started to be really hard, but by then I was counting sets of five strokes and I even managed to keep the pace under 1:40 in the 9th 100m interval.. Happy with 3:21.4. Its a Seasons Best. Its just 2 seconds above my PB, and its a nice improvement of my nonathlon score.. The hardest part was taking the lactate measurement one minute after the 1000m. Breathing hard, shaking, sweating, and at the same time trying to go through the lactate routine is not easy. Wipe hands. Wash hand with wet towel. Dry hand. Prick a hole in a finger. Wipe off first drop of blood. Put the lactate strip in the lactate meter. Try to get the drop of blood at the open end of the lactate strip.. That last ...
As you can see, your lactate threshold essentially defines the upper limit of your sustainable efforts in training or even in competition.. Once you reach the point where you rely more heavily on your glycolytic system for energy, then youre exercising on borrowed time. You should try and save precious gylcogen and carbs for the sprint finish or defining moments of a race. The winner of a race usually isnt the strongest but is the one with the most energy left at the end. The longer time you can keep with the pace under or at your threshold the better chance you have of winning in the end. Therefore increasing your LT is like the holy grail of cycling.. When blood lactate accumulates, it will hinder your muscles ability to contract and forcing you to slow down or even stop. So naturally, the more work you can do before you reach your lactate threshold, the better. That will translate into better results.. Think of it this way, if the pace you can hold at your lactate threshold is higher than ...
Lactate, once considered a waste product of glycolysis, has emerged as a critical regulator of cancer development, maintenance, and metastasis. Indeed, tumor lactate levels correlate with increased metastasis, tumor recurrence, and poor outcome. Lactate mediates cancer cell intrinsic effects on metabolism and has additional non-tumor cell autonomous effects that drive tumorigenesis. Tumor cells can metabolize lactate as an energy source and shuttle lactate to neighboring cancer cells, adjacent stroma, and vascular endothelial cells, which induces metabolic reprogramming. Lactate also plays roles in promoting tumor inflammation and in functioning as a signaling molecule that stimulates tumor angiogenesis. Here we review the mechanisms of lactate production and transport and highlight emerging evidence indicating that targeting lactate metabolism is a promising approach for cancer therapeutics.. ...
What is a Lactate Threshold Test?. A Lactate Threshold test is the perfect way to ride and train smarter regardless of what type of cyclist you are: whether you ride sportives, do spin classes, go on a few club runs, or are a keen racer! In terms of general riding, your Lactate Threshold is the intensity that separates sustainable from unsustainable. When you are out riding with a group (or on your own) and you are going hard, you will know how long you are able to sustain such an effort! With regards to racing, it is a key determinant of performance and will decide if you are riding below your Lactate Threshold for the majority of a race when others around you might be riding above theirs. Simply put, you will have more performance left at the end of your ride.. How long does it take?. A Lactate Threshold test takes 1hr.. What do I need?. When attending your test please come equipped with your bike, kit and bike shoes. It is also advised to bring a drink of water and a towel.. ...
EKF Diagnostics Lactate Scout+ has been developed to provide coaches, athletes and clinicians with an accurate and easy-to-use mobile lactate test. Lactate Scout+ is a hand-held lactate analyzer that requires just 0.2 µl of capillary blood and returns results in 10 seconds.
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Information provided by a lactate threshold test has a number of purposes. By understanding the role that lactate plays in exercise metabolism, the exercise physiologist can use the information from lactate threshold tests to predict proper racing and training paces, and assess the fitness of a subject or the efficacy of the training program.
In this retrospective cross-sectional analysis of normotensive trauma patients who met criteria for ALS transport, prehospital lactate concentration as measured by a handheld, point-of-care (POC) assay was predictive of the need for RC. Lactate offered no significant performance benefit over shock index by AUROC. However, we propose that it has several advantages over SI. First, it is less prone to error and easier to calculate in real-time during a patient transport. Second, a PLac cutoff of 3.0 offered superior sensitivity (70.9%) over the commonly used SI cutoff of 0.9 (30.8%). Though this came at a modest cost in specificity (66.9 vs. 89.9%), the emphasis for a screening tool in this population is to avoid false-negatives. Third, because prehospital lactate has been demonstrated to be a useful adjunct in the triage of hypotensive ALS transports, its use in normotensive ALS transports could simplify protocols to include a prehospital lactate for any ALS transport. These advantages should be ...
Specifications Ferrous Lactate CAS No.: 16039-53-5 Molecular formula:C6H10FeO6.3H2O Molecular weight:288.04 Total iron : 18.9% min Ferrous
This site answers questions we have received about lactate, lactate testing, this history of lactate testing. Its importance for training, What is the anaerobic threshold (AT), how to test for the LT and AT and how to train the lactate threshold for optimal performance in endurance events
Synonyms for ammonium lactate in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for ammonium lactate. 1 synonym for ammonium: ammonium ion. What are synonyms for ammonium lactate?
Industrial Forecast of 2-Ethyl Hexyl Lactate market:The research report titled, &lsquo;Global 2-Ethyl Hexyl Lactate Market&nbsp;2018-2025&rsquo;, is an in-depth study of the overall environment of the market. The report sheds light on the highly lucrative Global 2-Ethyl Hexyl Lactate Market&nbsp;and its diversifying nature. The report provides detailed profile assessments and current scenario revenue projections for the most promising industry participants. The Global 2-Ethyl Hexyl Lactate Industry...
Assessment of the Effects of Controlled Frequency Breathing on Lactate Levels in Swimming A randomly assigned maximal effort 100-yd swim test was conducted twice, once..
Lactate threshold has been a term used for many years across all sports and it is one of the most daily pronounced terms in the world of training by athletes and coaches worldwide.
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Givaudan este un lider in arome si sisteme de aroma pentru produsele lactate lichide si congelate: de la inghetata si deserturi instant la branza, produse tartinabile si iaurturi. Experienta noastra in producerea de arome pentru produsele lactate ne permite sa dezvoltam solutii optime pentru cererea mare a pietii. In fiecare an, noi oferim noi produse si suntem cunoscuti pentru succesul pe care il avem in promovarea de noi arome si in sustinerea tendintelor moderne ale pietii, dar suntem de asemenea cunoscuti si pentru cele mai bune arome clasice, cum ar fi vanilia, ciocolata si capsuna.. Echipa noastra de experti in produsele lactate include cercetatori, analisti de piata, specialisti in alimentatie, ceea ce inseamna ca avem talentul si puterea tehnica de a readuce la viata produsele deja existente cat si inspirarea celor noi astfel permitand clientilor nostri sa-si imbunatateasca vanzarile si sa castige piata.. ..., lactate Unt 65% grasime (200 g)|Cu cat mai gras, cu atat mai bun, ziceau batranii nostri. Consuma-l ca atare sau foloseste-l la mancare. O sa te lingi pe degete!
Find all the synonyms and alternative words for lactate at, the largest free online thesaurus, antonyms, definitions and translations resource on the web.
Present the results of a lactate threshold test. You must present your findings in a suitable manner and you must be able to correctly identify the lactate t...
Physician reviewed ammonium lactate and halobetasol topical kit patient information - includes ammonium lactate and halobetasol topical kit description, dosage and directions.
Frank just posted this over in the library. Its a really great study. I have a picture from the power point presentation given by Dr. Vernon last Thursday...
Results: Downward inflection of HRDP was noticed in all subjects. Comparison of the S.Dmax and L.Dmax methods with the criterion method (lactate method) showed that while HRDP determined by the S.Dmax and lactate methods were not significantly different (167±8.83 vs. 168±8.17 b/min; P=0.86), significant difference emerged between determined HRDP by the L.Dmax and lactate methods (167±8.83 vs. 139.56±6.73 b/min; P£0.001). Bland-Altman plots revealed a good agreement between S.Dmax and lactate methods (95% CI=-5 to +3.6 b/min), while there is no agreement between L.Dmax and lactate method (95% CI=+4.9 to +71.3 b/min). Significant correlation was observed between the criterion and S.Dmax model (r=0.944) whereas there was no significant correlation between the criterion and L.Dmax model (r=0.158 ...
The conventional wisdom around lactic acid is wrong. So is what theyre charging for heirloom tomatoes. Plus, bad vegan comedy and more.. Matt Fitzgerald Article on Lactic Acid/Lactate. SMALL STEP INTENSIVE PRIVATE COACHING ...
US diagnostics specialist Heska had added a lactate meter analyzer to its range of blood analyzers. The product, which is the result of a collaboration between Heska and Roche, is a hand-held, portable analyzer that can be used both in-clinic and in the field.. ...
Monitor lactate to assess progress, review current training and adjust future sessions. Ideal for runners and athletes wishing to push their training and performance further.
can you use ammonium lactate lotion for discoloration under your underarms. Answered by Dr. Glynis Ablon: It may help a little: but it can be irritating as it is an acid and th...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Lactate. AU - Igarashi, Yasuhiro. AU - Tanaka, Yasushi. AU - Kawamori, Ryuzo. PY - 2004/11. Y1 - 2004/11. UR - UR - M3 - Article. C2 - 15628508. AN - SCOPUS:14544302358. VL - 62 Suppl 11. SP - 679. EP - 681. JO - Astrophysical Journal. JF - Astrophysical Journal. SN - 0004-637X. ER - ...
Lactate din Bucovina Secretul produselor este laptele zonei, prelucrat astfel încât să-și păstreze gustul și calitățile, totul natural, gustos și sănătos. Gustul specific al lactatelor Tudia este datorat așadar laptelui colectat din sute de gospodării și ferme din Bucovina. Având lapte de calitate, ne permitem să folosim procedee tradiționale - cum ar fi obținerea cășcavalului din lapte nepasteurizat. Această […]
Anca Alungulesei, expert in nutritie si trainer in alimentatie raw-vegan, deschide seria Workshopurilor de Gatit in cadrul EDENLAND PARK. [Lactate vegetale]
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Summary of clinical and metabolic characteristics. (A-F) Statistics for a selection of non-NMR variables for patient groups defined by six districts on the SO
Începând cu anul școlar 2017-2018, actualele programe de încurajare a consumului de fructe și de distribuire a laptelui în școli vor fi unificate într-un singur program cu finanțare europeană, denumit generic „Programul pentru școli, a anunţat Ministerul Agriculturii. Potrivit unui comunicat MADR, „Programul pentru școli este un program cu precădere […]. ...
Our bodies are designed to remain in balance, and when they go out of balance, a natural mechanism has been interfered with. Us. ...
Lactic esters are discussed in this installment of Comparatively Speaking. Here, Tony OLenick explains how the presence of two different reactive groups on a molecule can be used to make a series of related products; but their only relationship is that raw material.
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The lactate shuttle hypothesis was proposed by professor George Brooks of the University of California at Berkeley, describing the movement of lactate intracellularly (within a cell) and intercellularly (between cells). The hypothesis is based on the observation that lactate is formed and utilized continuously in diverse cells under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Further, lactate produced at sites with high rates of glycolysis and glycogenolysis can be shuttled to adjacent or remote sites including heart or skeletal muscles where the lactate can be used as a gluconeogenic precursor or substrate for oxidation. In addition to its role as a fuel source predominantly in the muscles, heart, brain, and liver, the lactate shuttle hypothesis also relates the role of lactate in redox signalling, gene expression, and lipolytic control. These additional roles of lactate have given rise to the term lactormone, pertaining to the role of lactate as a signalling hormone. Prior to the formation of the ...
Functions: Thickener. Calcium lactate is a white crystalline salt with formula C6H10CaO6, consisting of two lactate anions H3C-CHOH-CO−2 for each calcium cation Ca2+. It forms several hydrates, the most common being the pentahydrate C6H10CaO6·5H2O. Calcium lactate is used in medicine, mainly to treat calcium deficiencies; and as a food additive with E number of E327. Some cheese crystals consist of calcium lactate. - Wikipedia ...
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The pathogenesis of hyperlactatemia during sepsis is poorly understood. We have previously described an increase in lactate concentration across the lung in the dog during early endotoxemia. Accordingly, we sought to determine if the lung releases lactate in humans and what relation this has with lung injury. Methods: We measured lactate concentrations across the lung and lung injury scores (LIS) in two groups of patients. Group 1 consisted of nine patients with acute lung injury (LIS ≤2.0) and elevated lactate concentrations (,2.0 mmol/L). Group 2 contained 12 patients with no acute lung injury (LIS scores ≤1.5), with or without increased lactate concentrations. Simultaneous measurements of plasma lactate and blood gases were obtained from indwelling arterial and pulmonary artery, catheters. Measurements of cardiac output were also obtained. Lactate measurements were done using a lactate analyzer (YSI; Yellow Springs, Ohio). Results: For each patient with acute lung injury and ...
In C. glutamicum and E. coli, the expression of d-iLDH is constitutive, whereas the expression of l-iLDH is induced by l-lactate under the control of the l-lactate utilization operon. Owing to the difference between the structures of the l-lactate utilization operons (Fig. 1), in C. glutamicum, the LldP- and l-iLDH-encoding genes are regulated by LldR, but in E. coli, only the l-iLDH-encoding gene is regulated by LldR (4, 8, 15, 20). In P. aeruginosa XMG, the expression of l-iLDH and d-iLDH is coordinately induced by lactate. Unlike the situation in C. glutamicum and E. coli, in most Pseudomonas strains, the l-iLDH- and d-iLDH-encoding genes are adjacent to each other (Fig. 1). The RT-PCR analysis further confirmed the cotranscription of the d-iLDH- and l-iLDH-encoding genes in P. aeruginosa XMG. Thus, the coordinated expression of l-iLDH and d-iLDH in Pseudomonas strains is due to the fact that both the l-iLDH- and d-iLDH-encoding genes are in the same lactate utilization operon and are ...
The aims of this study were, firstly to determine the level of agreement between the fingertip and earlobe for the measurement of blood lactate, and secondly, to examine whether these sample sites may be used interchangeably when distinguishing lactate parameters routinely used in the physiological assessment and exercise prescription. Twenty healthy males performed an incremental cycle ergometry step test. Capillary blood samples were taken simultaneously at the end of each increment from the ear lobe and fingertip to determine blood lactate concentration. Power output and heart rate at different lactate parameters (LT, LT1, 2 mmol.L-1 and 4 mmol.L-1) were calculated from the lactate values. The average bias in blood lactate concentration measured from the fingertip and earlobe was 9.2% with 95% of measures differing by between -24.9 and 58.7%. There were no significant differences between sample sites (P = 0.201), however there was a strong positive relationship (R² = 0.9455). At the ...
Lactate is both a metabolite of glycolysis, and a component of several signaling pathways. Although recent studies indicate that lactate is a critical regulator of cancer development, very little is known about lactate metabolism in the context of metastatic cancer. Epithelial-to mesenchymal transition (EMT) promotes metastasis by inducing invasive properties in epithelial tumors. To determine whether EMT induces metabolic alterations, we have studied two epithelial breast cancer cell lines and their respective EMT-induced mesenchymal progeny for changes in lactate metabolism. Metabolic analysis revealed that EMT induced an enhanced glycolytic profile in mesenchymal breast cancer cells. In contrast, epithelial breast cancer cells preferentially use oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to produce ATP. The strong expression of the lactate importer MCT1 in epithelial breast cancer cells may involve the ERα-inducible GATA3 transcription factor. We detected a specific GATA3 binding site in the DNAse
The Worldwide Lactate Dehydrogenase Test Market is expected to reach $ 6.4 billion by the end of 2023; this market is projecsted to growing at a CAGR of ~ 8.8 % during 2017-2023. The Global Lactate Dehydrogenase Test Market report has been segmented as lactate dehydrogenase 1 (LD1), lactate dehydrogenase 2 (LD2), lactate dehydrogenase 3 (LD3), lactate dehydrogenase 4 (LD4), and lactate dehydrogenase 5 (LD5).. The Global Lactate Dehydrogenase Test Market report explores the major key Players in-depth analysis as LifeSpan BioSciences, Aviva Systems Biology, Accurex Biomedical Pvt. Ltd., Thermo Fisher Scientific, Bioo Scientific Corporation, Quest Diagnostics, Abcam plc., Randox Laboratories Ltd., Sigma-Aldrich Co. LLC., Merck KGaA and others.. Get Sample Copy @ .. The faster market uptake of new technology in the US is also an important driver of the market for global lactate dehydrogenase test. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme ...
Increasing evidence suggests there is a relationship between cognitive impairment and metabolic dysfunction. Diabetes is a chronic disease, and metabolic factors affecting brain metabolisms, such as serum glucose, insulin, and glucagon, are altered according to disease progression. In our previous study, we applied hyperpolarized [1-13C] pyruvate magnetic resonance spectroscopy in prediabetic mice after feeding them a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 months. Ultimately, we detected significantly increased [1-13C]lactate conversion in the whole brain and an almost five-fold increased [1-13C]lactate/pyruvate ratio in the hippocampal region. In the present study, we induced diabetes in mice by injecting streptozotocin and feeding them an HFD for 6 months. Unlike in prediabetic mice, [1-13C]lactate conversion in the diabetic mice did not differ from that in the control group, but [1-13C]lactate/total 13C ratio showed an almost 1.4-fold increase in the hippocampal region. We measured the amount of the lactate
Aerobic capacity is the intensity you can sustain your workout at. To improve, there is a great deal of research on looking at your lactate threshold levels to help enable you to gain improvement in your training ability.. Glycolysis, so called releasing energy by splitting sugars, provides energy through APT for use in powering your muscle contractions. Lactate is a product of this glycolysis. So, a good predictor of performance can be your lactate threshold, defined as when the bodys lactate production is higher than its lactate clearance.. At the threshold point the lactate measurement increases exponentially. This increase of lactate acid in the muscles is when your feel this burning sensation, aches, pains, even cramps and you can no longer continue at that intensity. When you reach this point of exhaustion but try to carry on you risk overtraining and/or subsequent injury. Ultimately, this will lead to a fall in performance and poor results.. To improve your clearance of lactate you ...
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The effect of blood injected into either subarachnoid space or subcortical brain tissue upon lactate and pyruvate concentrations as well as acid-base balance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was studied in the anesthetized dog. CSF lactate and lactate/pyruvate ratio (L/P ratio) increased more ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lactate Is a Preferential Oxidative Energy Substrate over Glucose for Neurons in Culture. AU - Bouzier-Sore, Anne Karine. AU - Voisin, Pierre. AU - Canioni, Paul. AU - Magistretti, Pierre. AU - Pellerin, Luc. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - The authors investigated concomitant lactate and glucose metabolism in primary neuronal cultures using 13C-and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Neurons were incubated in a medium containing either [1- 13C]glucose and different unlabeled lactate concentrations, or unlabeled glucose and different [3-13C]lactate concentrations. Overall, 13C-NMR spectra of cellular extracts showed that more 13C was incorporated into glutamate when lactate was the enriched substrate. Glutamate 13C-enrichment was also found to be much higher in lactate-labeled than in glucose-labeled conditions. When glucose and lactate concentrations were identical (5.5 mmol/L), relative contributions of glucose and lactate to neuronal oxidative metabolism amounted to 21% and 79%, ...
Although the blood lactate response to exercise is used widely to control and monitor training programs, many factors in addition to training adaptation can affect the blood lactate response. Therefore, one needs to consider the following points when collecting, analyzing, and interpreting blood lactate measurements.
Metabolic reprogramming is a key feature of malignant cells. While glucose is one of the primary substrates for malignant cells, cancer cells also display a remarkable metabolic flexibility. Depending on nutrient availability and requirements, cancer cells will utilize alternative fuel sources to maintain the TCA cycle for bioenergetic and biosynthetic requirements. Lactate was typically viewed as a passive byproduct of cancer cells. However, studies now show that lactate is an important substrate for the TCA cycle in breast, lung, and pancreatic cancer. Metabolic analysis of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells was performed using a combination of bioenergetic analysis and 13C stable isotope tracing. We show here that CRC cells use lactate to fuel the TCA cycle and promote growth especially under nutrient-deprived conditions. This was mediated in part by maintaining cellular bioenergetics. Therefore targeting the ability of cancer cells to utilize lactate via the TCA cycle would have a significant therapeutic
The technical field to which the invention relates. The invention relates to electroanalytical systems. Electroanalytical system includes a flow detector type wall-jet (operating in continuous flow mode) with an integrated high-performance the lactate biosensor belonging to the class of electrochemical biosensors, as well as a column for sorption concentration. Concentration is based on ion exchange.. The level of technology. Lactate is one of the most important chemical compounds from the point of view of clinical diagnostics. It is a marker of glycolysis, anaerobic metabolism. leading to the death of tissues in the body. Sports medicine considers the monitoring of lactate as a means of determining the so-called lactate threshold [Faude, O., W. Kindermann, T. Meyer. Lactate threshold concepts: how valid are they? Sports Medicine 39 (2009) 469-90], [H. Heck, R. Beneke. 30 years of lactate thresholds - what remains to be done? Deutsche Zeitschrift Fur Sportmedizin 59 (2008) 297-302) showing the ...
Lactate meaning in Hindi : Get meaning and translation of Lactate in Hindi language with grammar,antonyms,synonyms and sentence usages. Know answer of question : what is meaning of Lactate in Hindi dictionary? Lactate ka matalab hindi me kya hai (Lactate का हिंदी में मतलब ). Lactate meaning in Hindi (हिन्दी मे मीनिंग ) is दूध देना.English definition of Lactate : a salt or ester of lactic acid
Diametrically opposed positions exist regarding the deleterious effects of elevated lactate. There are data suggesting that it is a detrimental proxy for tissue hypoperfusion and anaerobic metabolism in sepsis and an alternative viewpoint is that some of the hyperlactatemia produced maybe adaptive. This study was conducted to explore the relationship between serum lactate levels, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and sympathetic stimulation in patients with sepsis. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected clinical data from four community-based hospitals and one academic medical center. 8173 adults were included. Heart rate (HR) was used as a surrogate marker of sympathetic stimulation. HR, MAP, and lactate levels were measured upon presentation. MAP and HR interacted to affect lactate levels with the highest levels observed in patients with low MAP and high HR (3.6 mmol/L) and the lowest in patients with high MAP and low HR (2.2 mmol/L). The overall mortality rate was 12.4%. Each 10 beats
Sodium Lactate 60% USP Natural Preservative Sodium Lactate is naturally derived from the fermentation of Lactic Acid. It is a clear colorless viscous liquid . Sodium Lactate is considered to have antioxidant properties...
Lactic acid concentration was determined by Boehringer Mannheim D-L Lactic acid kit in the selected best probiotic cultures. After culturing for 24 o C at 37 o C in MRS broth (containing glucose) as shown in Fig 1 and whey (without any nutrients) as shown in Table 1, lactic acid concentration in cell free supernatant (CFS) was determined.. D-L isomers of lactic acid was estimated in all the seven whey samples inoculated with seven probiotic lactic cultures after an incubation period of 24 hrs. Lactic acid concentration in whey reaches maximally up to 29mM (Table 1) for NCDC 291 followed by NCDC 299 and NCDC 17. The low lactic acid concentration resulted in lesser diffusion in agar well method. Moreover, the findings showed that only NCDC 17 produces more of D-lactic acid (7.2mM/l) as compared to other probiotic strains in fermented whey. Low lactic acid concentration was shown by strains DDS-1 and MTCC 1408.. ...
Brooks is not done yet. His most recent research has looked at the role of lactate in cell signaling. It suggests that the high levels of intracellular lactate that arise during intense exercise stimulate some of the beneficial fitness adaptations that occur in response to such training. Specifically, high lactate concentrations trigger the production of free radicals that upregulate a variety of genes. Some of these genes govern mitochondrial biogenesis. So it appears that intracellular lactate accumulation during intense exercise stimulates the muscle cell to produce more mitochondria, thus enhancing its ability to burn lactate (and other fuels) in future workouts.. If I had to package all of the forgoing science into a single upshot, it would be this: According to the classical theory of lactate, one of the highest priorities of training was to reduce the amount of lactate the body produces at higher exercise intensities so that the athlete can race faster without fatiguing due to high ...
Butyrate is the preferred energy source for colonocytes and has an important role in gut health; in contrast, accumulation of high concentrations of lactate is detrimental to gut health. The major butyrate-producing bacterial species in the human colon belong to the Firmicutes. Eubacterium hallii and a new species, Anaerostipes coli SS2/1, members of clostridial cluster XIVa, are able to utilize lactate and acetate via the butyryl CoA : acetate CoA transferase route, the main metabolic pathway for butyrate synthesis in the human colon. Here we provide a mathematical model to analyse the production of butyrate by lactate-utilizing bacteria from the human colon. The model is an aggregated representation of the fermentation pathway. The parameters of the model were estimated using total least squares and maximum likelihood, based on in vitro experimental data with E. hallii L2-7 and A. coli SS2/1. The findings of the mathematical model adequately match those from the bacterial batch culture experiments.
Blood lactate is a normal and important component of our body chemistry. Its metabolism includes simultaneous muscle uptake and release at rest during all intensities of exercise. Specifically, lactate provides an important source of energy, in the form of glucose, that helps replace muscle glycogen stores when they are diminished; it s an important fuel for aerobic metabolism (to help maintain fat-burning); and helps spare blood glucose. These actions occur during all exercise to varying degrees, especially during hard training and competition. Lactate is also utilized as an energy source for many other tissues throughout the body. Its used by cardiac muscle, the liver and kidney, red and white blood cells, and the brain. Lactate is also important for wound repair and regeneration. The largest mass of tissue, skeletal muscle, uses considerable amounts of lactate. Muscle. The old view that lactate, beginning with the muscles production of lactic acid during hard exercise (oxygen debt), is a ...
Lactate levels are assessed for several different reasons such as determining sustainable threshold, peak, tolerance and clearance values. The reason to assess is relative to the desired performance outcome and the lactate levels are often related to speed, power or heart rate. Sustainable threshold values are the most common assessment outcome and are used by endurance athletes primarily. To determine sustainable lactate levels, subjects perform exercise at incremental loads, for 12 to 15 minutes, while having blood drawn in droplets either from a finger or earlobe. A stationary bicycle, a personalized bike and Computrainer or a treadmill are typically used. The test starts with an easy-moderate work load which is maintained for a 3-5 minutes. The load is increased gradually every 3-5 minutes until reaching 1 testing stage above when lactate levels reach 4 mmol/L blood. This is done by increasing the cycling resistance or the speed and/or grade of the treadmill. The lactate levels, heart rate, ...
Sodium Lactate is a liquid salt that is naturally derived from the fermentation of natural sugars. In Cold Process soap, Sodium Lactate helps to produce a harder bar of soap that lasts longer in the shower. As a salt, it is also a natural humectant, providing moisture. This makes it a great additive to lotions, typical
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Explaines how the lactate test is used, when a lactate test is ordered, and what the results of a lactate test might mean. The lactate test is primarily ordered to help determine if someone has lactic acidosis, a level of lactate that is high enough to disrupt a persons acid-base (ph) balance.
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Results 75 patients were enrolled. Pearson correlations and coefficients calculated for lactate to systolic blood pressure were: −0.052 (ρ=0.0011, 95% CI −0.225 to 0.228); lactate and HR: 0.23 (ρ=0.0166, 95% CI −0.211 to 0.242); lactate and RR: 0.23 (ρ=0.054, 95% CI −0.174 to 0.277). BD to systolic blood pressure were: 0.003 (ρ=0.00001, 95% CI −0.229 to 0.224); BD and HR: −0.19 (ρ=0.038, 95% CI −0.399 to 0.038); BD and RR: −0.019 (ρ=0.0004, 95% CI −0.244 to 0.208). Odds of operative intervention were greater in patients with abnormally high lactate, OR 4.17 (95% CI 1.57 to 11), but not for BD, OR 2.53 (95% CI 0.99 to 6.45), or any of the vital signs. ...
The concentration of CSF lactate depends largely on production from CNS glycolysis and is independent of blood lactate. Increases in CSF lactate may be due to diverse processes, such as hypoxia of inflamed tissues, cerebral oedema or granulocyte and bacterial metabolism. In most cases of infectious meningitis, however, the CSF production of lactate is apparently a sequelae of, and proportional to, increased numbers of leukocytes.. ...
Author: von Pföstl, V et al.; Genre: Poster; Published in Print: 2010-11; Title: Effects of lactate on primary visual cortex of non-human primates investigated by pharmaco mri and neurochemical analysis
During cardiovascular exercise there are different levels of intensity you can choose to work at depending on your goal and ability. Each threshold intensity is identified by a percentage of your maximum heart rate (MHR); for instance, the aerobic zone is between 70%-80% of your MHR and focusses on developing the cardiovascular system. This article will address the lactate training threshold, which is a high-intensity state of cardiovascular exercise that still relies on oxygen for performance.. Depending on a individuals level of cardiovascular fitness, the lactate zone varies. For athletes this zone is usually between 75%-85% of MHR; those who have a higher level of fitness will tend to fall closer to the 85% mark than the 75% mark, and vice versa. As for untrained athletes, this zone can be around the 50%-60% mark. The lactate threshold edges very closely toward the anaerobic threshold, which is the zone of heart rate in which the body is performing at too high an intensity to gather enough ...
Clearance of lactate from the blood can occur either through oxidation within the muscle fibre in which it was produced or it can be transported to other muscles fibres for oxidation (31,30). Lactate that is not oxidized in this way diffuses from the exercising muscle into the capillaries and it is transported via the blood to the liver (31). Through a process known as the Cori cycle, lactate can be converted to pyruvate in the presence of oxygen, which can then be converted into glucose (2). This glucose can either be metabolized by working muscles or stored in the muscles as glycogen for later use (2 ...
It requires no enormous effort of the intellect to expect a substance to build up in the body fluids when you have disabled that organ which is responsible for its clearance. So with lactate, the loss of enough liver cells will give rise to a lactic acidosis. To a lesser extent, renal failure will diminish the kidneys meager contribution to the task of lactate clearance.
Lactate Control Solution for Accutrend Analyser. After about 25 tests, it is recommended to use the Control Solution to make sure you are getting the most accurate test results possible. Accutrend BM lactate control solution is used to check the function of the Accutrend Plus, Accusport and Accutrend Lactate measuring devices. BM lactate test strips are required to perform the test.
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Detection of lactate using MR spectroscopy plays an important clinical role in the assessment of a number of brain abnormalities, including tumor, stroke, and mitochondrial disorders. The presence of lactate in the context of a tumor can be considered diagnostic for glioblastoma multiforme. Lactate is also elevated as a consequence of mitochondrial abnormalities in neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington disease. Since for very short echo times, there are often residual fat peaks visible in the spectral region of the lactate doublet, one has to resort to echo times near multiples of 1/J (J being the coupling constant) for proper lactate detection and quantification. As an inverted doublet can be discriminated more easily against other resonances like lipids, PRESS with TE = 144 ms is often considered the most appropriate method for unambiguous lactate detection at 1.5T. Although the effect of anomalous J-modulation and the potential signal loss for lactate at TE = 144 ms have been ...
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Lactate is not simply a dead-end metabolite which is produced in skeletal muscle in response to hypoxia. Instead, lactate is produced by many tissues under many different conditions, transported throughout the body, and taken up and metabolized by many tissues. This lactate shuttle necessarily involves lactate metabolism and the membrane transport of lactate, especially in skeletal muscle. Historically, skeletal muscle was viewed as a producer of lactate; however, skeletal muscle (both at rest and during exercise) is now known as not only a major source of lactate, but also as the most important consumer of lactate. (p. S74). Stephen Seiler ( commented on this symposium. Some of his remarks, which summarize the content of the presentations and are appropriate for coaching science, are listed below.. ...
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Bielenda Professional Peeling Activator with Glycerin and Sodium Lactate Intended for: Activates the 3in1 30% Powder Brightening Peeling
Sodium lactate, when addedto your soap recipe at 2% gives a stable bar of soap with great lathering, great feel, and makes it easy to remove from your mould. 2% in lotions and cream also gives them a great silky feel when they are used
The biochip, sized 2mm x 4mm x 0.5mm, is a dual sensing element coated with hydrogels to prevent it from being rejected by human tissue. The sensor has the ability to transmit life saving readings to the medical personnel. The implantation of the chip will only be temporary, although long term biochip implants are also being tested and may be used as a precaution in some cases.. Blood glucose and lactate levels are very important for medical staff in the first stages of dealing with a trauma patient. These measurements can imply what the oxygen level in the patients blood is and can indicate the overall metabolic state of the patient. The blood lactate level is sometimes used to determine whether or not a trauma patient can survive surgery. Getting these measurements in real time can help the medics in a hospital or out in the field make decisions much faster and by doing so will help save lives.. The chip has undergone some tests and the developers assume it will be tested on humans within ...
The next section of the graph is the Stamina section. This zone corresponds to when you are running between two and half hour race pace to about your 25 minute race pace. Optimal Stamina training occurs when your heart rate is between 83 and 92% of its maximum (though this can vary from runner to runner), and oxygen consumption is 85-90% of max. In this zone, your breathing is fast but under control. The effort has been described as comfortably hard and your lactate level hangs around 2.5 to five millimolar, right about where your lactate threshold occurs.. Research has shown that training in the Stamina zone helps push several critical thresholds (lactate, ventilatory and anaerobic) to faster paces. The result is that you can run faster before crossing these thresholds. The key cardiorespiratory adaptations that result from Stamina training deal with what scientists call the Lactate Shuttle. While we used to think that lactate simply started being produced and eventually accumulated to ...
Ammonium lactate lotion for dark spots. Ammonium lactate may exfoliate (remove) the darker skin cells and reduce the darkness of age spots. It is a combination of lactic acid and ammonium
In the lactate threshold test, the lactic acid concentration in the blood, the heart rate and perceived exertion are measured during a stress phase. Based on these values it is possible to determine precisely the pulse range (intensity) in which the training should be carried out. This test is recommended for everyone engaging in regular exercise, not just elite athletes ...
BioAssay Systems L-Lactate Assay Kit (ECLC-100) is based on LDH catalyzed oxidation of lactate, where the formed NADH reduces MTT. The color (565 nm) is proportional to the lactate concentration in the sample. Samples: plasma, urine, cell media, wine, and beverages. Detection range: 0.05-2 mM.
High levels of the metabolic acid known as lactate can be a sobering clue that cancer is growing inside the body. And now Chilean and U.S. researchers have developed a non-invasive way to diagnose its presence it individual cells: a molecular biosensor.
Both VO2max and lactate turnpoint are valuable and independent physiological markers for your current state of fitness, in addition the gas analysis measurements will allow you to determine the point at which your body is using fat as the primary energy source as opposed to carbohydrates. The threshold calculations are crucial for development of accurate heart rate zones and training parameters. Utilising information from the VO2max and lactate tests can identify the most appropriate training intensity and type of training for you specifically rather than a handed down program from a mate or a predetermined heart rate zone program designed for the general population who are just interested in getting fit, but not focused on improving their best time or getting to the top of their game.. Athletes who make the common mistake of engaging in training structures that are much too intense are subject to reduced aerobic efficiencies. It is always a shocking discovery for any athlete to be confronted ...
Look up lactate or Lactate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Lactate may refer to: Lactation, the secretion of milk from the ... the conjugate base of lactic acid This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Lactate. If an internal ...
... is a white crystalline salt with formula C 6H 10CaO 6, consisting of two lactate anions H 3C(CHOH)CO− 2 for ... Calcium lactate has several uses in human and veterinary medicine. Calcium lactate is used in medicine as an antacid. It is ... Calcium lactate is also known as cheese lactate because it coagulates milk, making the chhena used in the production of paneer ... Some cheese crystals consist of calcium lactate. The lactate ion is chiral, with two enantiomers, D (−,R) and L (+,S). The L ...
... at Discogs (list of releases) v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from ... Lactating Purple is the fifth album by Helios Creed, released in 1991 through Amphetamine Reptile Records. Spin called the ... "Lactating Purple". Allmusic. Retrieved May 27, 2013. Frampton, Scott (2007). "Helios Creed". Trouser Press. Retrieved May 27, ...
... may therefore also be used to confirm a diagnosis of panic disorder.: 19 Sodium lactate is not chemically ... November 2004). "Sodium Lactate (sodium lactate) Injection, Solution, Concentrate". DailyMed. U.S. National Library of Medicine ... Sodium lactate is the sodium salt of lactic acid, and has a mild saline taste. It is produced by fermentation of a sugar source ... Sodium lactate is used as a medication, and is included on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. As a ...
Other LDHs act on D-lactate and/or are dependent on cytochrome c: D-lactate dehydrogenase (cytochrome) and L-lactate ... Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH or LD) is an enzyme found in nearly all living cells. LDH catalyzes the conversion of lactate to ... Within the heart, lactate dehydrogenase plays the role of converting lactate back into pyruvate so that the pyruvate can be ... Lactate dehydrogenase-A deficiency is caused by a mutation to the LDHA gene, while lactate dehydrogenase-B deficiency is caused ...
... is a compound with formula NH4(C2H4(OH)COO). It is the ammonium salt of lactic acid. It has mild anti- ... Ammonium lactate is the chemical combination of lactic acid and ammonium hydroxide. It is used as a skin moisturizer lotion to ... Ammonium lactate makes skin more sensitive to sunlight, and skin is more likely to sunburn.[1] "DailyMed: View Drug Label: Lac- ... as ammonium lactate to provide a lotion pH of 4.4-5.5. ... Lactic acid is an alpha-hydroxy acid. It is a normal constituent of ...
... is a compound with formula KC3H5O3, or H3C-CHOH-COOK. It is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is produced ... Potassium lactate is commonly used in meat and poultry products to extend shelf life and increase food safety as it has a broad ... It has E number "E326". Potassium lactate is a liquid product that is usually 60% solids but is available at up to 78% solids. ... Lactates, Food additives, Potassium compounds, E-number additives, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs, Food stubs, ...
2. Also by mixing boiling solutions of lactate of lime and cadmium sulphate. Cadmium lactate forms colorless (white) crystals. ... Cadmium lactate is an organic chemical compound, a salt of cadmium and lactic acid with the formula Cd(C3H5O3)2. 1. Dissolving ... Cadmium lactate (Articles without InChI source, Articles without EBI source, Articles without KEGG source, Articles without ...
... is a chemical compound, a salt of cobalt and lactic acid with the formula Co(C3H5O3)2. Cobalt lactate can be ... Cobalt lactate is used as a ruminal source of cobalt in a high-forage total mixed ration fed to late-lactation dairy cows. "CAS ... Cobalt lactate forms peach-blossom red salt. It is soluble in water. When heated, the compound becomes black, takes fire, and ... Casper, David P.; Pretz, Jon P.; Purvis, Heb T. (October 2021). "Supplementing additional cobalt as cobalt lactate in a high- ...
Muscles are producing lactate even at rest, usually about 1-2 mmol/L. Although the lactate threshold is defined as the point ... Lactate inflection point (LIP), is the exercise intensity at which the blood concentration of lactate and/or lactic acid begins ... The blood lactate concentration at the anaerobic threshold is called the "maximum steady-state lactate concentration" (MLSS). ... When exercising at or below the lactate threshold, any lactate produced by the muscles is removed by the body without it ...
... appears as a white powder which is soluble in water. Aluminium lactate is used as a mordant. It is suitable ... Aluminium lactate is a chemical compound, a salt of aluminium and lactic acid with the formula Al(C3H5O3)3. Aluminium lactate ... Aluminium lactate is also used as a precursor for sol-gel synthesis of alumina-based glasses. Vargel, Christian (12 May 2020). ... "Aluminium Lactate - mordant for natural dyeing plant (cellulose) fibres". DT Craft and Design. Retrieved 24 January 2022. Hunt ...
The enzyme lactate aldolase (EC catalyzes the chemical reaction (S)-lactate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ... Other names in common use include lactate synthase, and (S)-lactate acetaldehyde-lyase. This enzyme participates in pyruvate ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is (S)-lactate acetaldehyde-lyase (formate-forming). ...
Most biologically sourced ethyl lactate is ethyl (−)-L-lactate (ethyl (S)-lactate). Ethyl lactate is also produced industrially ... The odor of ethyl lactate when dilute is mild, buttery, creamy, with hints of fruit and coconut. Ethyl lactate is produced from ... "Ethyl lactate". "ETHYL LACTATE , CAMEO Chemicals , NOAA". Stoye, Dieter (2000). "Solvents". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ... Ethyl lactate, also known as lactic acid ethyl ester, is the organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)CO2CH2CH3. It is the ...
... forms crystalline hydrates of composition Mn(C3H5O3)2•n H2O, where n = 2 and 3. Each lactate is a bidentate ... "Manganese(II) Lactate Trihydrate". American Elements. Retrieved 17 January 2022. "Jost Chemical - Manganese Lactate, CAS Number ... Manganese lactate is an organic chemical compound, a salt of manganese and lactic acid with the formula Mn(C3H5O3)2. The ... "Manganese(II) lactate trihydrate". Sigma Aldrich. Retrieved 17 January 2022. Ke, Zeng-Bo; Fan, Xin-Hui; Di, You-Ying; Chen, ...
... , the magnesium salt of lactic acid, is a mineral supplement. Added to some food and beverages as an acidity ... Lactates, All stub articles, Gastrointestinal system drug stubs). ...
... forms light gray crystals. Silver lactate is soluble in water, slightly soluble in ethanol. Silver lactate forms ... "Silver Lactate". American Elements. Retrieved 18 January 2022. "Silver lactate". Sigma Aldrich. Retrieved 18 January 2022. ... Silver lactate is an organic chemical compound, a salt of silver and lactic acid with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOAg. Silver ... Silver lactate is a reagent for the precipitation of uric acid. The compound reacts with triphenylphosphine gold chloride in a ...
... is the zirconium salt of lactic acid. It is used in some deodorants. It is a colourless solid. Zirconium ... "Zirconium lactate and barium zirconate. Acute toxicity and inhalation effects in experimental animals", Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J ...
L. plantarum initially produces L-lactate, which induces the activity of lactate racemase. By contrast, D-lactate represses ... Therefore, Lar activity appears to be regulated by the ratio of L-lactate/D-lactate. L. plantarum LarA represents a new type of ... 2005). "Lactate racemization as a rescue pathway for supplying D-lactate to the cell wall biosynthesis machinery in ... In other species, such as L. plantarum, the cellular role is to transform L-lactate into D-lactate for incorporation into the ...
"Lithium lactate". Retrieved 22 January 2022. "Lithium Lactate". American Elements. Retrieved 17 ... Lithium lactate is a chemical compound, a salt of lithium and lactic acid with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOLi, an amorphous solid, ... "Lithium lactate". Sigma Aldrich. Retrieved 17 January 2022. Lewis, Robert A. (31 May 2016). Hawley's Condensed Chemical ... "27848-80-2 - L-(+)-Lactic acid lithium salt, Thermo Scientific - Lithium Lactate - J18160 - Alfa Aesar". Alfa Aesar. Retrieved ...
... is nearly odourless, highly soluble in water, and insoluble in ethanol. Zinc lactate forms dihydrates with the ... Zinc lactate is a chemical compound, a salt of zinc and lactic acid with the formula Zn(C3H5O3)2. Reaction of lactic acid with ... "Jost Chemical - Zinc Lactate Dihydrate Powder, CAS Number 63179-81-7". Jost Chemical Co. Retrieved 23 January 2022. Tang, ... "Zinc Lactate - Jungbunzlauer". Jungbunzlauer. Retrieved 23 January 2022. "Clinical Effect of Toothpaste and Mouth Rinse ...
Ethyl lactate, a more commonly used ester of lactic acid GHS: Record of Methyl lactate in the GESTIS Substance Database of the ... Methyl lactate, also known as lactic acid methyl ester, is the organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)CO2CH3. It is the ... The synthesis of 1,2-propanediol from methyl lactate has been commercialized using a MACHO catalyst. ...
... (ethacridine monolactate monohydrate, acrinol, trade name Rivanol) is an aromatic organic compound based on ...
... (EC, glyoxylase III) is an enzyme with systematic name (R)-lactate hydro-lyase. This enzyme ... D-lactate+dehydratase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology v t e (EC 4.2.1, ... lactate. Misra K, Banerjee AB, Ray S, Ray M (February 1995). "Glyoxalase III from Escherichia coli: a single novel enzyme for ... the conversion of methylglyoxal into D-lactate without reduced glutathione". The Biochemical Journal. 305 (3): 999-1003. doi: ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LDHB gene. This gene encodes the B subunit of lactate ... "Differences and similarities in binding of pyruvate and L-lactate in the active site of M4 and H4 isoforms of human lactate ... Zha X, Wang F, Wang Y, He S, Jing Y, Wu X, Zhang H (2011). "Lactate dehydrogenase B is critical for hyperactive mTOR-mediated ... "Entrez Gene: Lactate dehydrogenase B". Retrieved 2017-10-01. Philibert RA, Nelson JJ, Sandhu HK, Crowe RR, Coryell WH (2003). " ...
Local lactate use depends on exercise exertion. During rest, approximately 50% of lactate disposal take place through lactate ... Brooks, G.A. (1999). "Role of mitochondrial lactate dehydrogenase and lactate oxidation in the intracellular lactate shuttle". ... that acts as a lactate sensor, inhibiting lipolysis in response to lactate . As found by Brooks, et al., while lactate is ... pertaining to the role of lactate as a signalling hormone. Prior to the formation of the lactate shuttle hypothesis, lactate ...
In enzymology, a lactate-malate transhydrogenase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (S)-lactate + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is (S)-lactate:oxaloacetate oxidoreductase. This enzyme is also called malate-lactate ... Allen SH, Patil JR (1972). "Studies on the structure and mechanism of action of the malate-lactate transhydrogenase". J. Biol. ... Allen SH (1966). "The isolation and characterization of malate-lactate transhydrogenase from Micrococcus lactilyticus". J. Biol ...
... lactate oxygenase, lactic oxidase, L-lactate monooxygenase, lactate monooxygenase, and L-lactate-2-monooxygenase. This enzyme ... lactate:oxygen 2-oxidoreductase (decarboxylating). Other names in common use include lactate oxidative decarboxylase, lactate ... In enzymology, a lactate 2-monooxygenase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (S)-lactate + O2 ⇌ {\ ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } acetate + CO2 + H2O Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are (S)-lactate and O2, whereas ...
Núñez MF, Kwon O, Wilson TH, Aguilar J, Baldoma L, Lin EC (January 2002). "Transport of L-Lactate, D-Lactate, and glycolate by ... The lactate permease (LctP) family (TC# 2.A.14) is a family of transport proteins belonging to the ion transporter (IT) ... The original text was at "2.A.14 The Lactate Permease (LctP) Family" (Protein pages needing a picture, Articles with imported ... Transport reactions catalyzed by functionally characterized members of the LctP family include: D- or L-lactate or glycolate ( ...
... is an industrial chemical and food additive. In an industrial context, n-butyl lactate is used as a solvent and ... n-Butyl lactate reacts with strong acids, strong bases, and oxidizers. It is also flammable. Exposure to dangerous amounts can ... "n-Butyl lactate". OSHA. (PubChem ID (CID) same as Wikidata, Articles without KEGG source, ECHA InfoCard ID from Wikidata, Pages ... 0082". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). CID 8738 from PubChem "N-butyl lactate". CDC/NIOSH. " ...
... , also referred to as cupric lactate, is the chemical compound with the formula Cu(C3H5O3)2. It is a green ... Copper(II) lactate can be prepared by heating copper(II) oxide with lactic acid.[citation needed] The reaction does not usually ...
Ammonium Lactate Topical: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before using ammonium lactate,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to ammonium lactate, any other medications ... Ammonium lactate comes as a cream and a lotion to apply to the skin. It is usually applied to the affected skin area twice ... Apply ammonium lactate exactly as directed. Do not use more or less of it or use it more often than prescribed by your doctor. ...
Butyl lactate Clear, colorless to white liquid with a mild, transient odor. ... Butyl ester of 2-hydroxypropanoic acid, Butyl ester of lactic acid, Butyl lactate ...
Whether legalization of marijuana has led to its increased use among pregnant/lactating women or whether it is a function of ... Cite this: AAP: Counsel Pregnant, Lactating Women Against Marijuana Use - Medscape - Aug 27, 2018. ... to be transferred from a cannabis-using lactating mother into her breast milk," Ryan writes in an accompanying commentary. ...
Lactates Products. Aluminum L-lactate. Calcium Lactate Anhydrous. Calcium Lactate Hydrate. Calcium Lactate Pentahydrate. Iron( ... Lithium L-Lactate. Lithium Lactate. Magnesium L-lactate Hydrate. Magnesium L-lactate Trihydrate. Manganese(II) Lactate ... About Lactates. Lactates are salts of lactic acid and contain the lactate ion, CH3CH(OH)COO−. Many metal lactates are soluble ... II) Lactate. Iron(II) Lactate Trihydrate. L-(+)-Lactic Acid Silver Salt. ...
Coach Jack Daniels talks about how Marathon to 5K runners can increase their lactate threshold. ... Coach Jack Daniels: Improve Your Lactate Threshold Coach Jack Daniels: Improve Your Lactate Threshold. Coach Jack Daniels talks ... about how Marathon to 5K runners can increase their lactate threshold. ...
Research confirms that lactate threshold training is an effective way to enhance endurance performance. Heres what you need to ... Lactate Threshold Defined. The lactate threshold is the fastest a person can continuously run, cycle, swim or aerobically ... Developing a Lactate Threshold Training Program. Now, with the understanding of the lactate threshold and its production and ... How does training effect lactate removal?. Endurance training appears to cause an increase in lactate utilization by muscles, ...
lactate dehydrogenase A. (subunit M). File:Lactate dehydrogenase M4 (muscle) 1I10.png. Human lactate dehydrogenase M4 (the ... lactate dehydrogenase B. (subunit H). File:Lactate Dehydrogenase B.png. Crystal structure of B-lactate dehydrogenase. From PDB ... Other LDHs act on D-lactate and/or are dependent on cytochrome c: D-lactate dehydrogenase (cytochrome) and L-lactate ... Lactate dehydrogenase catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate and lactate with concomitant interconversion of NADH and NAD+. ...
Study finds mRNA from COVID vaccines in breast milk of lactating mothers. The new study claims it is safe to breastfeed ... "So is every CA doctor who told pregnant and lactating mothers that the vaccine was completely safe going to lose their ... "It is critical that lactating individuals be included in future vaccination trials to better evaluate the effect of mRNA ...
A Battlestar Galactica Podcast by two dudes watching it for the first time... but in a completely random order!
... immunity for pregnant and lactating women, who can also pass protective antibodies to newborns. ... Study finds pregnant, lactating women protected by COVID-19 vaccines, pass antibodies to newborns. By Kelly Hayes. ... The initial COVID-19 vaccine trials did not include data on pregnant and lactating women. And while the overall risk for severe ... But it also holds special importance for pregnant and lactating women because IgA is a key antibody present in breast milk. ...
... ... Tables of food frequency and nutrient intake were created for a r and om sample of 266 lactating women from different areas of ... Ayatollahi, S.M.T. (‎2004)‎. Nutritional assessment of lactating women in Shiraz in relation to recommended dietary allowances ...
... the target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs in the lactating mammary glands of Laoshan dairy goats are predicted, and ... Z. Li, H. Liu, X. Jin, L. Lo, and J. Liu, "Expression profiles of microRNAs from lactating and non-lactating bovine mammary ... Target Gene and Function Prediction of Differentially Expressed MicroRNAs in Lactating Mammary Glands of Dairy Goats. Fei Dong ... The goat is an ideal lactation research model for studying the molecular mechanisms of mammary gland development and lactating ...
NOSB Comments: Sodium Lactate and Potassium Lactate Comments for the Handling Subcommittee regarding concerns about how the ... proposal does not address another lactate salt that is briefly mentioned or alluded to in past NOP memos: calcium lactate. ...
"This will help your body process lactate more efficiently, helping push your lactate threshold pace slightly faster." ... One-Hour Workout: Lactate Clearance Run. Use this tough-but-simple workout to bulletproof your run against changes in pace.. ... "The surge introduces more lactate into the bloodstream, so when you settle back into tempo pace, the body is forced to clear ... Ideally done in the middle phase of training, the lactate clearance run is deceptively difficult but effective at "teaching" ...
Ethyl lactate. ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate, ethyl (S)-2-hydroxypropionate, ethyl lactate, ethyl 2-hydroxypropionate, 2- ... View products detecting gaseous Ethyl lactate. TVOC 2 Continuous VOC Gas Detector. TVOC 2 is a fixed, continuous VOC gas ... How to detect Ethyl lactate. Formula: C5H10O3 , CAS: 97-64-3. Synonyms: ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate, ethyl (S)-2- ...
View and buy high purity Lactate Dehydrogenase A inhibitors from Tocris Bioscience. ...
In addition, secretion of lactate, a byproduct of glycolysis, was shown to mediate insulin-dependent HSD11B2 downregulation. In ... summary, we demonstrate that insulin downregulates HSD11B2 through increased LIP expression and augmented lactate secretion. ...
Conditions that are associated with Lactate dehydrogenase. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z ...
Short-term clinical outcome of normotensive patients with acute PE and high plasma lactate ... Short-term clinical outcome of normotensive patients with acute PE and high plasma lactate ... Short-term clinical outcome of normotensive patients with acute PE and high plasma lactate ...
... ammonium lactate), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation ... encoded search term (ammonium lactate (AmLactin%2C Lac Hydrin)) and ammonium lactate (AmLactin, Lac Hydrin) What to Read Next ... ammonium lactate-emu oil topical NO MONOGRAPH AVAILABLE AT THIS TIME USES: Consult your pharmacist. HOW TO USE: Consult your ... ammonium lactate (OTC). Brand and Other Names:AmLactin, Lac Hydrin, more...proxymetacaine ...
The goal of this project was to determine the levels of PBDEs in breast milk of lactating women from the Seacoast region of New ... Dunn, Rebecca L., "Biomonitoring polybrominated diphenyl ethers in lactating women" (2008). Doctoral Dissertations. 443. https ... The goal of this project was to determine the levels of PBDEs in breast milk of lactating women from the Seacoast region of New ...
1.80 g/L Glucose 0.45 g/L Lactate,/p> ... 1530 L-Lactate Standard, 30 mmol/L (125 mL) 1530 L-Lactate ... 2747 Glucose/Lactate Standard, 1.80 g/L Glucose 0.45 g/L Lactate. ... 2323 Glucose/Lactate Starter Kit (2300 Stat Plus) 2323 Glucose/Lactate Starter Kit (2300 Stat Plus) ... 2325 Lactate Starter Kit (2300 Stat Plus) 2325 Lactate Starter Kit (2300 Stat Plus) ...
Mechanisms of entry of L-lactate into frog skeletal muscle : A micro-electrode study ...
title = "Mustard bran in lactating dairy cow diets",. abstract = "Two trials using lactating Holstein cows were conducted to ... Mustard bran in lactating dairy cow diets. / Maiga, H. A.; Bauer, M. L.; Dahlen, C. R. et al. ... Mustard bran in lactating dairy cow diets. Journal of Dairy Science. 2011 Jun;94(6):3054-3062. doi: 10.3168/jds.2010-3971 ... Mustard bran in lactating dairy cow diets. In: Journal of Dairy Science. 2011 ; Vol. 94, No. 6. pp. 3054-3062. ...
Central venous-arterial carbon dioxide tension to arterial-central venous oxygen content ratio combined with lactate clearance ... Combination of arterial lactate levels and venous-arterial CO2 to arterial-venous O 2 content difference ratio as markers of ... Lactic acid, lactate clearance and procalcitonin in assessing the severity and predicting prognosis in sepsis]. ... Prognostic value of arterial lactate combined with central venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference to arterial-to-central ...
Lactating women (LW),Pregnant women (PW). ...
Pregnant/lactating women with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) ...
Momoi, K. ; Goldberg, E. ; Markert, C. L. / Expression of the human lactate dehydrogenase-C gene in transgenic mice. In: ... Momoi, K., Goldberg, E., & Markert, C. L. (1990). Expression of the human lactate dehydrogenase-C gene in transgenic mice. ... Momoi, K, Goldberg, E & Markert, CL 1990, Expression of the human lactate dehydrogenase-C gene in transgenic mice., Progress ... Expression of the human lactate dehydrogenase-C gene in transgenic mice. / Momoi, K.; Goldberg, E.; Markert, C. L. ...
  • I was expected to have a lactate level at about 0.8mmol/l. (
  • My lactate levels were about 2.5mmol/l. (
  • Apart from tion (hemoglobin 17.1 g/dL, hematocrit of 52%) and edema and tachypnea while on 2 L nasal cannula, a lactic acid level of 3.7 mmol/L. Despite resuscitation her cardiopulmonary examination was otherwise with 5.5 L Ringer's lactate and 2.5 L normal saline IV normal. (
  • Comments for the Handling Subcommittee regarding concerns about how the proposal does not address another lactate salt that is briefly mentioned or alluded to in past NOP memos: calcium lactate. (
  • The blend of two carbohydrates - maltodextrin & fructose, along with calcium lactate, provide for a premium energy solution. (
  • Human lactate dehydrogenase M 4 (the isoenzyme found in skeletal muscle ). (
  • The aim of this present work was to clarify whether metformin at high dose also increases skeletal muscle lactate production. (
  • In skeletal muscle, a high dose of metformin increases interstitial lactate levels, a finding consistent with local lactate overproduction. (
  • Purasal Powder S100 Sodium Lactate by Corbion has been specially formulated for cosmetic use. (
  • If your formula calls for 1 ounce of Sodium Lactate 60% Solution, you can simply use .6 ounces of powder. (
  • Or reconstitute to a 60% solution by combining 2.4 ounces of powder with 1.6 ounces of distilled water to make 4 ounces of Sodium Lactate 60% Solution. (
  • Ammonium lactate is used to treat xerosis (dry or scaly skin) and ichthyosis vulgaris (an inherited dry skin condition) in adults and children. (
  • Ammonium lactate is in a class of medications called alpha-hydroxy acids. (
  • Ammonium lactate comes as a cream and a lotion to apply to the skin. (
  • Apply ammonium lactate at around the same time(s) every day. (
  • Apply ammonium lactate exactly as directed. (
  • To use ammonium lactate topical, apply a small amount of cream or lotion to cover the affected area of skin and rub it in gently. (
  • Keep ammonium lactate topical away from your eyes, mouth, and vaginal area, and do not swallow it. (
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to ammonium lactate, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in ammonium lactate cream or lotion. (
  • If you become pregnant while using ammonium lactate, call your doctor. (
  • Ammonium lactate can cause your affected skin area to be sensitive to sunlight. (
  • Ammonium lactate topical may cause side effects. (
  • If someone swallows ammonium lactate, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. (
  • După încheierea studiilor, și-a creat propria întreprindere în domeniul producției, prelucrării și standardizării produselor lactate, pe baza unor norme ecologice. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Serum lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in early malignancy. (
  • Through the process of glycolysis (which means the splitting of sugar), blood glucose or muscle glycogen is converted to pyruvate, which will either enter the mitochondria (energy factory of the cell) or be converted to lactate, depending on the intensity of exercise. (
  • Pyruvate enters the mitochondria at exercise intensity levels below the LT, while at intensity levels above LT the capacity for mitochondrial respiration (the complete breakdown of carbohydrate) is exceeded and pyruvate is converted to lactate. (
  • LDH catalyzes the conversion of lactate to pyruvate and back, as it converts NAD + to NADH and back. (
  • Lactate dehydrogenase catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate and lactate with concomitant interconversion of NADH and NAD + . (
  • It converts pyruvate, the final product of glycolysis , to lactate when oxygen is absent or in short supply, and it performs the reverse reaction during the Cori cycle in the liver . (
  • At high concentrations of lactate, the enzyme exhibits feedback inhibition, and the rate of conversion of pyruvate to lactate is decreased. (
  • Coach Jack Daniels talks about how Marathon to 5K runners can increase their lactate threshold. (
  • From the research, it is apparent that lactate threshold training is a well-established system to enhance endurance performance. (
  • and (2) How should lactate threshold training be progressed? (
  • 2005). This article uses this approach in designing an exercise program that will optimize lactate threshold training. (
  • The lactate threshold is the fastest a person can continuously run, cycle, swim or aerobically exercise in a steady state bout without fatiguing. (
  • This will help your body process lactate more efficiently, helping push your lactate threshold pace slightly faster. (
  • Recent reports have shown that the lactate threshold (LT) can be used to evaluate the clinical significance of aerobic power ( ovrhdot VO-2max) and its effect of exercise training in the elderly. (
  • For instance, knowledge of whether an athlete has approached or exceeded lactate threshold provides invaluable information for tactical adjustment in sports competition [4]. (
  • Lactic acidosis during metformin intoxication is mainly attributed to impaired hepatic lactate clearance [ 1 ]. (
  • Lactic acid or lactate? (
  • Cellular release of lactate dehydrogenase, measured in parallel experiments to compare dust apoptotic and necrotic activities, indicated that components of serum as well as surfactant may affect kaolin in vitro expression of those activities. (
  • The serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase isoenzyme (CKMB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LD) were determined in diabetic Wistar albino. (
  • The main objective of the present study was to examine the association between dietary Fe intake and dietary predictors of Fe status and Hb concentration among lactating women in Bhaktapur, Nepal. (
  • Variables from sepsis prognosis and screening criteria and venous lactate concentration at enrolment were recorded. (
  • Outflow lactate concentration was measured every 3 hours, up to 12 hours. (
  • At rest and under steady-state exercise conditions, there is a balance between lactate production and removal, as lactate can be used as substrate (fuel) by the heart, liver and muscles (Brooks, 2000). (
  • It also catalyzes the dehydrogenation of 2-Hydroxybutyrate , but it is a much poorer substrate than lactate. (
  • Recent reviews have provided an understanding of contemporary theories of lactate , including the role of lactate in energy production, its contributions to metabolic acidosis and its role as an energy substrate for a variety of tissues. (
  • The findings by Bertrand and colleagues are "extremely important in documenting the ability of cannabinoids, including cannabidiol, which is increasingly being used for medicinal purposes, to be transferred from a cannabis-using lactating mother into her breast milk," Ryan writes in an accompanying commentary . (
  • But it also holds special importance for pregnant and lactating women because IgA is a key antibody present in breast milk. (
  • The goal of this project was to determine the levels of PBDEs in breast milk of lactating women from the Seacoast region of New Hampshire and to examine potential relationships between PBDE levels in breast milk and stage of lactation, maternal characteristics, living environment and dietary intake. (
  • Berlin, CM 1995, ' Terfenadine pharmacokinetics in breast milk in lactating women ', Clinical Pediatrics , vol. 34, no. 11. (
  • Glucose and Lactate standard solution. (
  • Approximately 1/3 of your total carbohydrate energy is from lactate, the rest is from blood glucose and muscle glycogen. (
  • Lactate is the body's preferred fuel over glucose. (
  • Monitoring metabolic processes through analytes (e.g., lactate, glucose, etc.) could provide critical information about the condition of athletes for timely intervention. (
  • dom sample of healthy lactating mothers in Shiraz, one of the five principal cities in the Current guidelines published by national ad- country and the most developed city in the visory bodies for nutrient intakes during south. (
  • A 2% random sample of 266 lactating tion places nutritional demands on the mothers was selected in 1998. (
  • The women were visited at home and and lactating women and their effects on given a face-to-face interview by a trained mothers and children. (
  • So is every CA doctor who told pregnant and lactating mothers that the vaccine was 'completely safe' going to lose their license for spreading misinformation now? (
  • We still have inadequate support for our working lactating mothers. (
  • To investigate the prognostic significance of central venous-arterial carbon dioxide tension to arterial-venous oxygen content ratio (Pcv-aCO(2)/Ca-cvO(2)) combined with lactate clearance rate (LCR) as early resuscitation goals of septic shock. (
  • cartridges CG4+) was used to measure mixed venous/arterial P CO2 , P O2 , pH, and lactate. (
  • Lactate clearance vs central venous oxygen saturation as goals of early sepsis therapy: a randomized clinical trial. (
  • ABSTRACT Tables of food frequency and nutrient intake were created for a random sample of 266 lactating women from different areas of Shiraz city, Islamic Republic of Iran. (
  • Knowledge about the nutritional status of lactating women in the Islamic Republic i of Iran is minimal and inadequate. (
  • The largest study of its kind to date found that the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines provide 'robust' immunity for pregnant and lactating women, who can also pass protective vaccine-generated antibodies to newborns. (
  • The initial COVID-19 vaccine trials did not include data on pregnant and lactating women. (
  • The study found that the vaccines generated 'robust humoral immunity in pregnant and lactating women,' and the immune response generated by the shots was similar to that observed in the women who weren't pregnant. (
  • OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether fasting or postprandial ghrelin or PYY is different between lactating and nonlactating postpartum women matched for age, body weight, and adiposity. (
  • DESIGN: Ten postpartum lactating women (mean + or - SD: 28.1 + or - 4.9 y of age, 69.2 + or - 11.3 kg, 35.4 + or - 6.6% body fat) and 8 nonlactating women (28.8 + or - 7.6 y of age, 75.6 + or - 13.7 kg, 37.5 + or - 6.5% body fat) at 4-5 wk postpartum underwent measurements of body weight, body composition, and ghrelin and PYY responses to a standardized meal (350 kcal). (
  • 0.05) in response to the meal, but fasting or meal-induced changes were not significantly different between lactating and nonlactating women. (
  • We included 500 randomly selected lactating women in a cross-sectional survey. (
  • Pregnant Hookups is a free adult website which connects you with lactating and pregnant women from your area, all listings are private and registration only requires an email. (
  • 1. Describe the importance of lead testing among children and pregnant or lactating women. (
  • Pregnant and lactating women can use all U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellents according to the product label. (
  • Two trials using lactating Holstein cows were conducted to evaluate effects of a diet containing oriental mustard bran on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk components, and organoleptic properties. (
  • Feeding this level of MB presents a hemolytic danger to lactating dairy cows. (
  • Today is a one-day mastitis treatment for lactating cows. (
  • Therefore, selection of these cultivars should be in response to very specific producer objectives, such as maximizing weight gains of a specific group or class of animals during the fall and early winter, extending the fall grazing season for lactating cows, or providing emergency forage following summer drought. (
  • We propose that attenuated improvement in EF after repeated HIIE relates to reduced cerebral lactate metabolism and is, thereby, linked to systemic metabolism as an example of the lactate shuttle mechanism. (
  • It was believed that this change to anaerobic metabolism led to an abrupt increase in blood lactate levels, resulting in a metabolic acidosis. (
  • The scientific thinking has evolved over the past 30 years, and new understandings of the role of lactate in energy metabolism have altered these traditional teachings. (
  • Although the exact mechanisms by which lactate metabolism affects endurance (performance) outcomes continue to be defined in the literature, several key concepts are important for all members of medicine and sports performance to understand. (
  • We hypothesized that serial blood lactate concentrations could predict postsurgical survival in fish. (
  • To screen out miRNAs that should have important regulatory function in the development of mammary gland from miRNA expression profiles and to predict their function, in this study, the target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs in the lactating mammary glands of Laoshan dairy goats are predicted, and then the functions of these miRNAs are analyzed via bioinformatics. (
  • The Laoshan dairy goat, one of the most outstanding dairy goat breeds in China, is an ideal lactation research model for studying the molecular mechanisms of mammary gland development and lactating. (
  • Masterfeeds Lactating CS Dairy Premix - No Salt caters to all mineral and vitamin requirements of the lactating dairy cow, in alignment with NASEM 2021 (nutrient requirements of dairy cattle). (
  • In addition, patients will receive either Squalamine lactate 0.2% eye drops or Placebo eye drops. (
  • Patients with elevated lactate levels may have an associated metabolic acidosis due to an increased anion gap. (
  • Therefore, the proposal of this paper was to conduct a literature review aiming to inform dentists about drug prescription in the dentistry treatment of pregnant and lactating patients. (
  • Unfortunately, I-131 is not safe for lactating patients . (
  • Mesotherapy can also be performed on patients who are suffering from a form of skin cancer, though it is not usually recommended for patients who are pregnant or lactating. (
  • The prognostic accuracy of the quick SOFA (qSOFA) without or with lactate criteria has not been prospectively investigated in low and middle income countries. (
  • Conclusions The prognostic accuracy of the qSOFA-lactate criteria is as good as the SOFA score in the emergency department of a hospital with limited resources. (
  • Lactate dehydrogenase ( LDH or LD ) is an enzyme found in nearly all living cells (animals, plants, and prokaryotes ). (
  • Ideally done in the middle phase of training, the lactate clearance run is deceptively difficult but effective at "teaching" your body to respond to mid-race surges-whether it's due to changing conditions, terrain, race strategy, or simply excitement out of T2. (
  • Blood lactate levels are often elevated as a result of both impaired tissue perfusion, which increases production, and decreased clearance by the liver. (
  • Furthermore, we found that lactate , which is a downstream metabolite, promotes PEDV replication, even when added in excess to the cell culture medium. (
  • The goat is an ideal lactation research model for studying the molecular mechanisms of mammary gland development and lactating. (
  • Lactate dehydrogenase is composed of four subunits (tetramer). (
  • The more lactate you use during exercise, the less muscle glycogen you have to use, which means your glycogen stores will last longer and this equates to more energy. (
  • Going into detail, lactate contributes to increase the contractile capacity of the muscle cell, allows the prolongation of work time above a critical level and contributes to the rapid establishment of a level of oxygen consumption more suitable for the demand of power, and of this there is no doubt in the scientific literature. (
  • In addition, 18 of our study samples were sent to the central laboratory for analysis due to a defect in the lactate module of OMNI S. The median time for these samples from blood draw to availability of the central laboratory results at the clinical area was 133 min. (
  • The POC handheld device produced accurate, efficient and timely lactate measurements with the potential to influence clinical decision making sooner. (
  • 1,4 However, there has been no evaluation of blood lactate in fish undergoing clinical procedures nor correlation with postoperative survival. (
  • A lactate level greater than 4 has been associated with high mortality rates. (
  • Adding 8% of MB to lactating cow diets had a mixed effect on DMI and milk production. (
  • The lactating patient now must stop to allow the milk channels and ducts to dry up. (
  • Increased intensity of training just above the LT results in an abrupt increase in blood lactate levels. (
  • Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels often are elevated, sometimes as early as the prodromal phase of HCPS. (
  • The aims of this study were to a) compare the lactate measurement of a Point of Care (POC) handheld device to near patient blood gas analysers, and b) determine the differential reporting times between the analysers. (
  • It is critical that lactating individuals be included in future vaccination trials to better evaluate the effect of mRNA vaccines on lactation outcomes," the study concluded. (
  • We hope this study will catalyze vaccine developers to recognize the importance of studying pregnant and lactating individuals, and include them in trials. (
  • Phase 3 Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Squalamine Lactate Ophthalmic Solution 0.2% Twice Daily in Subjects with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration Methodology: Phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study conducted in 2 periods (Year 1 and Year 2). (
  • So, what small achievements should producers look for in relation to the lactating sow? (
  • American Elements manufactures multiple forms of lactate compounds including solutions , nanopowders, submicron, and -325 mesh powders, and high surface area materials with particle distribution and particle size controlled and certified. (
  • Lactate production should not be viewed as a negative metabolic event, but as a consequence of high-intensity exercise. (
  • High-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) improves cerebral executive function (EF), but the improvement in EF is attenuated after repeated HIIE, perhaps because of lower lactate availability for the brain. (
  • Should I be on chemo if BCHG, Lactate Dehydrogenase, and AFP are high? (
  • That is, in a high intensity exercise it is desired that more lactate be producedand the good trainers and exercise physiologists look for strategies so that during this exercise more lactate is produced. (
  • Thus, the LT represents the point at which a disruption begins in the equilibrium between blood lactate production and blood lactate removal. (
  • Median time from blood draw to i-STAT lactate results was 5 min (Q1-Q3 5-7). (
  • Median time from blood draw to GEM 4000 lactate results was 10 min (Q1-Q3 7.75-13). (
  • Median time from blood draw to OMNIS lactate results was 11 min (Q1-Q3 8-22). (
  • Effects of Anesthesia and Elective Ovariectomy on Serial Blood Gases and Lactates in Yellow Perch and Walleye Pike: Can Lactate Predict Postoperative Survival? (
  • Blood gases and lactate have been used as indicators of anesthetic depth and physiologic distress in many species, including fish. (
  • 1-4 Blood lactate has been evaluated in fish under stress-induced or toxic experimental conditions. (
  • Reduced lactate production at the same given workload following endurance training can be attributed to increased mitochondria size and number, as well as to enzymes. (
  • Expression of the human lactate dehydrogenase-C gene in transgenic mice. (
  • 2007. Impact of pH on lactate formation and utilization by human fecal microbial communities . (
  • HEXTEND (6% Hetastarch in Lactated Electrolyte Injection) is indicated in the treatment of hypovolemia when plasma volume expansion is desired in settings where adequate alternative treatment is. (