Lacrimal Apparatus: The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases: Diseases of the lacrimal apparatus.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Dacryocystitis: Inflammation of the lacrimal sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Submandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Tears: The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.Harderian Gland: A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Sublingual Gland: A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.Sjogren's Syndrome: Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.Sweat Glands: Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.Sebaceous Glands: Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Dry Eye Syndromes: Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Meibomian Glands: The sebaceous glands situated on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and CONJUNCTIVA.Submandibular Gland DiseasesSalivary Gland DiseasesParathyroid Glands: Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.Brunner Glands: The abundant submucosal mucous glands in the DUODENUM. These glands secrete BICARBONATE IONS; GLYCOPROTEINS; and PEPSINOGEN II.Salivary Glands, Minor: Accessory salivary glands located in the lip, cheek, tongue, floor of mouth, palate and intramaxillary.Xerophthalmia: Dryness of the eye surfaces caused by deficiency of tears or conjunctival secretions. It may be associated with vitamin A deficiency, trauma, or any condition in which the eyelids do not close completely.Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.Scent Glands: Exocrine glands in animals which secrete scents which either repel or attract other animals, e.g. perianal glands of skunks, anal glands of weasels, musk glands of foxes, ventral glands of wood rats, and dorsal glands of peccaries.Mikulicz' Disease: A chronic, benign, and usually painless inflammatory swelling of the lacrimal and salivary glands. It is considered by some to include the glandular enlargement associated with other diseases, such as Sjogren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, lupus erythematosus, etc.Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca: Drying and inflammation of the conjunctiva as a result of insufficient lacrimal secretion. When found in association with XEROSTOMIA and polyarthritis, it is called SJOGREN'S SYNDROME.Apocrine Glands: Large, branched, specialized sweat glands that empty into the upper portion of a HAIR FOLLICLE instead of directly onto the SKIN.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Cholinergic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors.Secretory Component: The extracellular moiety of the POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR found alone or complexed with IGA or IGM, in a variety of external secretions (tears, bile, colostrum.) Secretory component is derived by proteolytic cleavage of the receptor during transcytosis. When immunoglobulins IgA and IgM are bound to the receptor, during their transcytosis secretory component becomes covalently attached to them generating SECRETORY IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or secretory IMMUNOGLOBULIN M.Submandibular Gland NeoplasmsMetrial Gland: Collection of granular epithelial cells in the uterine muscle beneath the placenta that develop during pregnancy in certain species of animals.Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic: Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Conjunctival DiseasesPurinergic P2X Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2X RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are antagonists for specific P2X receptor subtypes.Perianal GlandsParasympathectomy: The removal or interruption of some part of the parasympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Conjunctiva: The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.Salivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Bulbourethral Glands: Glands situated on each side of the prostate that secrete a fluid component of the seminal fluid into the urethra.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Salivary Gland Calculi: Calculi occurring in a salivary gland. Most salivary gland calculi occur in the submandibular gland, but can also occur in the parotid gland and in the sublingual and minor salivary glands.Fibroblast Growth Factor 10: A fibroblast growth factor that is a mitogen for KERATINOCYTES. It activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B and is involved in LUNG and limb development.Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).Acinar Cells: Cells lining the saclike dilatations known as acini of various glands or the lungs.Purinergic P2X Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P2X RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are agonists for specific P2X receptor subtypes.Endocrine Glands: Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Orbital Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.Cyclic CMP: A cyclic nucleotide formed from CYTIDINE TRIPHOSPHATE by the action of cytidylate cyclase. It is a potential cyclic nucleotide intracellular mediator of signal transductions.Salivary Ducts: Any of the ducts which transport saliva. Salivary ducts include the parotid duct, the major and minor sublingual ducts, and the submandibular duct.Eye ProteinsMiotics: Agents causing contraction of the pupil of the eye. Some sources use the term miotics only for the parasympathomimetics but any drug used to induce miosis is included here.Mice, Inbred MRL lpr: A mouse substrain that is genetically predisposed to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome, which has been found to be clinically similar to the human disease. It has been determined that this mouse strain carries a mutation in the fas gene. Also, the MRL/lpr is a useful model to study behavioral and cognitive deficits found in autoimmune diseases and the efficacy of immunosuppressive agents.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Adenoma, Pleomorphic: A benign, slow-growing tumor, most commonly of the salivary gland, occurring as a small, painless, firm nodule, usually of the parotid gland, but also found in any major or accessory salivary gland anywhere in the oral cavity. It is most often seen in women in the fifth decade. Histologically, the tumor presents a variety of cells: cuboidal, columnar, and squamous cells, showing all forms of epithelial growth. (Dorland, 27th ed)Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Sialadenitis: INFLAMMATION of salivary tissue (SALIVARY GLANDS), usually due to INFECTION or injuries.rab3 GTP-Binding Proteins: A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in calcium-dependent EXOCYTOSIS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Pilocarpine: A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.Orbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Aquaporin 5: Aquaporin 5 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed primarily in alveolar, tracheal, and upper bronchial EPITHELIUM. It plays an important role in maintaining water HOMEOSTASIS in the LUNGS and may also regulate release of SALIVA and TEARS in the SALIVARY GLANDS and the LACRIMAL GLAND.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Receptor, Muscarinic M3: A subclass of muscarinic receptor that mediates cholinergic-induced contraction in a variety of SMOOTH MUSCLES.Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Choroiditis: Inflammation of the choroid.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Sweat Gland NeoplasmsBlotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Eyelids: Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Bartholin's Glands: Mucus-secreting glands situated on the posterior and lateral aspect of the vestibule of the vagina.Sebaceous Gland NeoplasmsParasympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). Drugs that stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons (GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS) are not included here.Mice, Inbred BALB CSalivation: The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Anal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the anal gland.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Lactoferrin: An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.Receptors, Purinergic P2X1: A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor found at sympathetically innervated SMOOTH MUSCLE. It may play a functional role regulating the juxtoglomerular apparatus of the KIDNEY.Ganglionectomy: Removal of an autonomic or sensory ganglion by any means.Salivary Proline-Rich Proteins: A family of proline-rich proteins that constitute the majority of the protein component of SALIVA. Salivary proline-rich proteins occur as acidic, basic and glycosylated basic proteins. They perform a variety of functions such as adhering to the acquired ENAMEL PELLICLE, acting as lubricants and precipitating TANNINS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Keratoconjunctivitis: Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.Orbital Diseases: Diseases of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.Buddleja: A plant genus of the family SCROPHULARIACEAE. Members contain mimengoside B, verbascoside, and phenylethanoids.Feminization: Development of female secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the MALE. It is due to the effects of estrogenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.Coronaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by CORONAVIRIDAE.Transcytosis: The transport of materials through a cell. It includes the uptake of materials by the cell (ENDOCYTOSIS), the movement of those materials through the cell, and the subsequent secretion of those materials (EXOCYTOSIS).Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Scleritis: Refers to any inflammation of the sclera including episcleritis, a benign condition affecting only the episclera, which is generally short-lived and easily treated. Classic scleritis, on the other hand, affects deeper tissue and is characterized by higher rates of visual acuity loss and even mortality, particularly in necrotizing form. Its characteristic symptom is severe and general head pain. Scleritis has also been associated with systemic collagen disease. Etiology is unknown but is thought to involve a local immune response. Treatment is difficult and includes administration of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids. Inflammation of the sclera may also be secondary to inflammation of adjacent tissues, such as the conjunctiva.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Blockers: Agents that antagonize the ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 2 RECEPTOR.BALB 3T3 Cells: Cell lines developed from disaggregated BALB/c mouse embryos. They are extremely sensitive to CONTACT INHIBITION, and highly susceptible to transformation by SV40 VIRUS and murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE).Secretory Vesicles: Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Mice, Inbred C57BLMammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Parotid DiseasesCysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Mammary Neoplasms, Animal: Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Hypophysectomy: Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Adrenergic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors.Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.Propoxycaine: A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a rapid onset of action and a longer duration of action than procaine hydrochloride. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1017)Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Lipocalin 1: A lipocalin that was orignally characterized from human TEARS. It is expressed primarily in the LACRIMAL GLAND and the VON EBNER GLANDS. Lipocalin 1 may play a role in olfactory transduction by concentrating and delivering odorants to the ODORANT RECEPTORS.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Conjunctival Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the CONJUNCTIVA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Retrobulbar Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage within the orbital cavity, posterior to the eyeball.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Xerostomia: Decreased salivary flow.Receptors, Polymeric Immunoglobulin: Specialized Fc receptors (RECEPTORS, FC) for polymeric immunoglobulins, which mediate transcytosis of polymeric IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN M into external secretions. They are found on the surfaces of epithelial cells and hepatocytes. After binding to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, the receptor-ligand complex undergoes endocytosis, transport by vesicle, and secretion into the lumen by exocytosis. Before release, the part of the receptor (SECRETORY COMPONENT) that is bound to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A is proteolytically cleaved from its transmembrane tail. (From Rosen et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid: A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Receptors, Purinergic P2X7: A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor that plays a role in pain sensation signaling and regulation of inflammatory processes.Receptors, Muscarinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.Ophthalmic Solutions: Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.ConjunctivitisEpithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Laser Capture Microdissection: Techniques using a laser to cut away and harvest a specific cell or cluster of cells from a tissue section while viewing it under the microscope.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Maxillofacial Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of an appliance for the replacement of areas of the maxilla, mandible, and face. When only portions of the mandible are replaced, it is referred to as MANDIBULAR PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION.Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Fura-2: A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Quinuclidinyl Benzilate: A high-affinity muscarinic antagonist commonly used as a tool in animal and tissue studies.Rats, Inbred F344Feeder Cells: Cells used in COCULTURE TECHNIQUES which support the growth of the other cells in the culture. Feeder cells provide auxillary substances including attachment substrates, nutrients, or other factors that are needed for growth in culture.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Androgen-Binding Protein: Carrier proteins produced in the Sertoli cells of the testis, secreted into the seminiferous tubules, and transported via the efferent ducts to the epididymis. They participate in the transport of androgens. Androgen-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as SEX HORMONE-BINDING GLOBULIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.HSP47 Heat-Shock Proteins: Basic glycoprotein members of the SERPIN SUPERFAMILY that function as COLLAGEN-specific MOLECULAR CHAPERONES in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Retinol O-Fatty-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of acyl COENZYME A to RETINOL to generate COENZYME A and a retinyl ester.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Hemangiopericytoma: A tumor composed of spindle cells with a rich vascular network, which apparently arises from pericytes, cells of smooth muscle origin that lie around small vessels. Benign and malignant hemangiopericytomas exist, and the rarity of these lesions has led to considerable confusion in distinguishing between benign and malignant variants. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1364)Smad8 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS and regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Nestin: A type VI intermediate filament protein expressed mostly in nerve cells where it is associated with the survival, renewal and mitogen-stimulated proliferation of neural progenitor cells.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Milk Proteins: The major protein constituents of milk are CASEINS and whey proteins such as LACTALBUMIN and LACTOGLOBULINS. IMMUNOGLOBULINS occur in high concentrations in COLOSTRUM and in relatively lower concentrations in milk. (Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p554)Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Autonomic Fibers, Preganglionic: NERVE FIBERS which project from the central nervous system to AUTONOMIC GANGLIA. In the sympathetic division most preganglionic fibers originate with neurons in the intermediolateral column of the SPINAL CORD, exit via ventral roots from upper thoracic through lower lumbar segments, and project to the paravertebral ganglia; there they either terminate in SYNAPSES or continue through the SPLANCHNIC NERVES to the prevertebral ganglia. In the parasympathetic division the fibers originate in neurons of the BRAIN STEM and sacral spinal cord. In both divisions the principal transmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE but peptide cotransmitters may also be released.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Interleukin-1alpha: An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Mucin-4: A transmembrane mucin that is found in a broad variety of epithelial tissue. Mucin-4 may play a role in regulating cellular adhesion and in cell surface signaling from the ERBB-2 RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. Mucin-4 is a heterodimer of alpha and beta chains. The alpha and beta chains result from the proteolytic cleavage of a precursor protein.Centrifugation, Isopycnic: A technique used to separate particles according to their densities in a continuous density gradient. The sample is usually mixed with a solution of known gradient materials and subjected to centrifugation. Each particle sediments to the position at which the gradient density is equal to its own. The range of the density gradient is usually greater than that of the sample particles. It is used in purifying biological materials such as proteins, nucleic acids, organelles, and cell types.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.PeroxidasesPlasma Cells: Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 2: A fibroblast growth factor receptor that is found in two isoforms. One receptor isoform is found in the MESENCHYME and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2. A second isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is found mainly in EPITHELIAL CELLS and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 7 and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 10. Mutation of the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 can result in craniosynostotic syndromes (e.g., APERT SYNDROME; and CROUZON SYNDROME).Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Uridine Diphosphate Glucose Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of UDPglucose to UDPglucuronate in the presence of NAD+. EC 1.1.1.22.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Fistula: Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.
"Lacrimal Gland Tumors." eMedicine.com. June 8, 2005. Cancer.Net: Lacrimal Gland Tumor Cancer.Net: Retinoblastoma, Childhood. ...
The lacrimal nerve passes through the orbit superiorly to innervate the lacrimal gland. The nasociliary branch gives off ... lacrimal, frontal, and nasociliary. It carries sensory branches from the eyes, conjunctiva, lacrimal gland, nasal cavity, ... Eye: The eye itself (all the intraocular structures such as cornea) and the lacrimal gland and sac. Compare this to the ... to the lacrimal gland and conjunctiva; to the part of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity; and to the skin of the eyelids, ...
Keratitis filiformis due to lacrimal gland hypofunction. Acts Opthslmol 1933; Suppl 2:1-151. ...
Lachrymal glands, in part. The epicanthus. M. orbitalis. Certain varieties of the pinna of the ear, i.e. Darwin's tubercle. The ... In 1872 Wiedersheim finished a doctoral thesis on the finer structural relations of the glands in the gizzard of birds, a ... Supernumerary mammary glands in women. Alleged vestiges of mammary pouches [?] Supernumerary olfactory ridges. Jacobson's organ ... "Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus IV: Organ Systems: Mammary Gland". www. ...
Establishing human lacrimal gland cultures with secretory function. PLoS One. 2012;7(1):e29458 74. Meena M, Naik M, Honavar S. ... Lacrimal gland CD5-positive, primary, extra-nodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) - Type. ... Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland: role of nuclear survivin (BIRC5) as a prognostic marker. Histopathology. 2013 ... The black lacrimal sac: a clinicopathological correlation of a malignant melanoma with anterior lacrimal crest infiltration. ...
In 80% of cases, the parotid gland is affected. Lacrimal glands are also affected. Benign lymphoepithelial lesion is most ... Benign lymphoepithelial lesion is a type of benign enlargement of the parotid and/or lacrimal glands. This pathologic state is ... Historically, bilateral parotid and lacrimal gland enlargement was characterized by the term Mikulicz's disease if the ... The gland affected has a diffuse swelling. The swelling can be asymptomatic, but mild pain can also be associated. There is a ...
... before synapsing at the lacrimal gland. These parasympathetic to the lacrimal gland control tear production. A separate group ... The M3 receptors are also located in many glands that help to stimulate secretion in salivary glands and other glands of the ... the lacrimal gland, and the glands associated with the nasal cavity. The preganglionic fibers originate within the CNS in the ... One division leaves on the zygomatic division of CN V2 and travels on a communicating branch to unite with the lacrimal nerve ( ...
Rosenmüller's gland: The palpebral portion of the lacrimal gland. Rosenmüller's organ: Also known as the parovarium. "Quaedam ...
These fibers will eventually provide innervation to the lacrimal gland. These parasympathetic preganglionic fibers come from ... It also carries post-synaptic parasympathetic fibers (originating in the pterygopalatine ganglion) to the lacrimal nerve via a ...
FOXE3 Aplasia of lacrimal and salivary glands; 180920; FGF10 Aplastic anemia; 609135; TERC Argininemia; 207800; ARG1 ... salivary gland pleomorphic; 181030; PLAG1 Adenomatous polyposis coli; 175100; APC Adenosine deaminase deficiency, partial; ...
A music video has been shot for the song "Lacrimal Gland." The band embarked on a second European tour in the spring of 2006. ...
They will travel to the lacrimal gland via the lacrimal nerve. Parasympathetic will induce lacrimation and vice versa.. ... to the lacrimal nerve; a branch of the ophthalmic nerve. These neurons derive from the superior cervical ganglion and the ...
Increase protein content of secretions from lacrimal glands. Receptor also present in cerebellum. Bronchiole dilation (targeted ... Thickened secretions from salivary glands. Insulin secretion from pancreas Inhibit histamine-release from mast cells. ...
His name is associated with accessory lacrimal glands known as "Ciaccio's glands". In 1845, he earned his degree in medicine ... Mondofacto Dictionary Ciaccio glands Pagel: Biographical Dictionary excellent doctors of the nineteenth century. Berlin, Vienna ...
... including the nasal gland, palatine gland, lacrimal gland, and pharyngeal gland. It also provides parasympathetic innervation ... Post synaptic fibers of the greater petrosal nerve innervate the lacrimal gland. In the tympanic segment, the facial nerve runs ... It also supplies parasympathetic innervation to the nasal mucosa and the lacrimal gland via the pterygopalatine ganglion. The ... and lacrimal glands, also mucosa of nasal cavity. Axons of type SVE, special visceral efferent, innervate muscles of facial ...
The condition is not congenital and develops over the course of a few months as the lacrimal glands fail to produce tears. ... Solans, R.; Bosch, J.A.; Galofre, P.; others (2001), "Salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction (sicca syndrome) after ...
Tears are produced by the lacrimal gland, situated just outside the eye. Blinking the eyelids distributes the tears to keep the ... Epiphora, or watering eyes, is a condition in which tears flow out of the eyes, bypassing the lacrimal puncta. It is primarily ... Punctoplasty is a surgical procedure to restore proper drainage of tears when the lacrimal punctum (puncta lacrimalia) becomes ...
The lacrimal gland is primarily responsible for producing emotional or reflexive tears. As tears are produced, some fluid ... A neuronal connection between the lacrimal gland (tear duct) and the areas of the human brain involved with emotion has been ... Psychic tears are produced by the lacrimal system and are the tears expelled during emotional states. The lacrimal system is ... reports that the amount of blood passing through the lacrimal glands is tiny in comparison to the body's five liters of blood, ...
ISBN 978-0-230-34367-2. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Dartt DA (May 2009). "Neural regulation of lacrimal gland ... and adrenal glands. Sympathetic activation of the adrenal glands causes the part called the adrenal medulla to release ... These sympathetic ganglia are connected to numerous organs, including the eyes, salivary glands, heart, lungs, liver, ... and it is also released directly into the bloodstream by the adrenal glands. Regardless of how and where it is released, ...
Mauduit, P; Herman, G; Rossignol, B (1984). "Protein secretion induced by isoproterenol or pentoxifylline in lacrimal gland: ...
OMIM entry on aplasia of lacrimal and salivary glands. ... 10 are associated with aplasia of lacrimal and salivary glands ... The mice showed no developing organs such as lungs, salivary glands, kidney or definitive limbs once autopsied. Studies of the ... Therefore, all branching morphogen organs such as the lungs, skin, ear and salivary glands required the constant expression of ... ear and salivary glands. During the limb development Tbx4/Tbx5 stimulate the production of FGF10 in the lateral plate mesoderm ...
... the pterygopalatine ganglion whose parasympathetic postganglionic fibers synapse with the lacrimal gland and the mucosal glands ... it forms part of a chain of nerves that innervate the lacrimal gland. The fibers have synapses in the pterygopalatine ganglion ...
The zygomatic sends signals to the lacrimal nerve that activate the lacrimal gland; which is the reason that spicy foods can ...
Lacrimal defects: The lacrimal glands in the eye secrete tears. Visual Inattentiveness: Defined as an absence of attentive ...
1984). "Differential regulation of alpha 2u globulin gene expression in liver, lachrymal gland, and salivary gland". The ... These include lacrimal, parotid, submaxillary, sublingual, preputial and mammary glands. In some species, such as cats and pigs ... and lachrymal glands and in the liver". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 7 (5): 1947-54. PMC 365300 . PMID 3600653. Smith W, ... The Mup found in pigs, named salivary lipocalin (SAL), is expressed in the salivary gland of males where it tightly binds ...
Its parasympathetic root is derived from the nervus intermedius (a part of the facial nerve) through the greater petrosal nerve. In the pterygopalatine ganglion, the preganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the greater petrosal branch of the facial nerve synapse with neurons whose postganglionic axons, vasodilator, and secretory fibers are distributed with the deep branches of the trigeminal nerve to the mucous membrane of the nose, soft palate, tonsils, uvula, roof of the mouth, upper lip and gums, and upper part of the pharynx. It also sends postganglionic parasympathetic fibers to the lacrimal nerve (a branch of the Ophthalmic nerve, also part of the trigeminal nerve) via the zygomatic nerve, a branch of the maxillary nerve (from the trigeminal nerve), which then arrives at the lacrimal gland. The nasal glands are innervated with secretomotor from the greater petrosal nerve. Likewise, the palatine ...
... s are glands that produce and secrete substances onto an epithelial surface by way of a duct. Examples of exocrine glands include sweat, salivary, mammary, ceruminous, lacrimal, sebaceous, and mucous. Exocrine glands are one of two types of glands in the human body, the other being endocrine glands, which secrete their products directly into the bloodstream. The liver and pancreas are both exocrine and endocrine glands; they are exocrine glands because they secrete products-bile and pancreatic juice-into the gastrointestinal tract through a series of ducts, and endocrine because they secrete other substances directly into the bloodstream. Exocrine glands contain a glandular portion and a ...
The Chloropidae are a family of flies commonly known as frit flies or grass flies. About 2000 described species are in over 160 genera distributed worldwide. These are usually very small flies, yellow or black and appearing shiny due to the virtual absence of any hairs. The majority of the larvae are phytophagous, mainly on grasses, and can be major pests of cereals. However, parasitic and predatory species are known. A few species are kleptoparasites. Some species in the genera Hippelates and Siphunculina (S. funicola being quite well known in Asia) are called eye gnats or eye flies for their habit of being attracted to eyes. They feed on lachrymal secretions and other body fluids of various animals, including humans and are of medical significance. There are scant records of chloropids from amber deposits, mostly from the Eocene and Oligocene periods although some material may suggest the family dates back to the Cretaceous or earlier. For terms see Morphology of Diptera. Chloropidae are ...
... is a surgical procedure to restore proper drainage of tears when the lacrimal punctum (puncta lacrimalia) becomes blocked in one or both eyes. If a blockage is present in the puncti, doctors may suggest a procedure called punctoplasty, performed to widen the drain opening. This usually takes 20-30 minutes and is performed under local anesthesia. Tears are produced by the lacrimal gland, situated just outside the eye. Blinking the eyelids distributes the tears to keep the eyes moist, clean and lubricated. Excess tears are drained via the punctum through the tiny channels called canaliculi located on the inner side of the eyes into the tear sac, from there to the tear duct, the nose and finally down the throat. Epiphora, or watering eyes, is a condition in which tears flow out of the eyes, bypassing the lacrimal puncta. It is primarily caused by excessive tear production (as a result of emotion, ...
Ladd nasqué a Hot Springs (Arkansas) fill de pares immigrants anglesos, i morí a Palm Springs (Califòrnia) d'una sobredosi d'alcohol i sedants a l'edat de 50 anys. Els primers treballs de Ladd consistiren en petites aparicions menors, com el paper d'un periodista en el clàssic d'Orson Welles Ciutadà Kane (1941). Malgrat les dificultats inicials, la persistència del seu agent, l'ex-actriu Sue Carol, ajudava l'actor a aconseguir més papers importants. Després de divorciar-se de la seva primera muller, Ladd i Carol s'implicaven també romànticament i es casaren el 1942. Aquell mateix any l'actor tenia el seu primer gran èxit a les pantalles This Gun for Hire, en la qual feia el paper de l'assassí pagat, Corb. La resposta a la pel·lícula fou tan favorable que Ladd instantàniament es convertí en una estrella. La seva parella a la pel·lícula, Veronica Lake, lligava tan bé amb Ladd (al ser tan menuda) que l'estudi els ajuntà en unes quantes produccions que foren extremadament ...
... s are a cutaneous condition that is a developmental defect present at birth. Skin dimple List of cutaneous conditions Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 1-4160-2999-0 ...
Ladd naceu en Hot Springs, Arcansas, fillo de inmigrantes ingleses. Nos inicios da súa carreira facía pequenos papeis no cine, como o de periodista en Cidadán Kane, de Orson Welles (1941). No ano seguinte adquiriu grande notoriedade polo seu personaxe de asasino sensible en This gun for hire, xunto a Veronica Lake. Ao ser dita actriz tamén miúda, os estudos reuniron á parella noutras producións populares, como The Glass Key, The Blue Dahlia e Saigon. A Ladd chegoulle o estrelato polo seu papel de pistoleiro entrañable no western clásico Raíces profundas (1953), con Jean Arthur e Van Heflin. Ladd foi escolleito 3 veces na lista Quigley 10 de estrelas do ano (anos 1947, 1953 e 1954). En 1954 protagonizou canda Peter Cushing, Patrick Troughton e outros veteranos actores británicos, a película de dita nacionalidade O cabaleiro negro, facendo, cousa rara nel, de cabaleiro medieval farfallán. Ladd traballou tamén na radio, ma serie Box 13. Esta serie funcionou de 1948 a 1949 e foi ...
... or timo cyst is a benign, bluish-gray mass in the inferomedial canthus that forms as a result of a narrowing or obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct, usually during prenatal development. The prevalence of dacryocystocele is 1 in 3884 live births. Complications like swelling, watery eyes and infection might occur. While usually filled with sterile mucus, dacryocystoceles occasionally become infected. The nasolacrimal ducts drain the excess tears from our eyes into the nasal cavity. In dacryocystocele there this tube gets blocked on either end and as a result when mucoid fluid collects in the intermediate patent section it forms a cystic structure. The diagnosis can be made prenatally; routine obstetric ultrasound can identify the characteristic hypoechoic lesion inferior and medial to the globe. It is important to distinguish a dacrocystocele from the more serious encephalocele, which is a neural tube defect. A dacryocystocele can be diagnosed postpartum with a ...
... are small, mucous accessory lacrimal glands that are found underneath the eyelid where the upper and lower conjuctivae meet. Their ducts unite into a rather long sinus which open into the fornix conjunctiva. There are approximately forty Krause glands in the region of the upper eyelid, and around 6 to 8 in the region of the lower lid. The function of these glands are to produce tears which are secreted onto the surface of the conjuctiva. There are rare instances of tumors associated with Krause's glands. They usually occur as retention cysts in cicatricial conditions of the conjunctiva. Krause's glands are named after German anatomist Karl Friedrich Theodor Krause (1797-1868). Ciaccio's glands Friedman, Neil J.; Kaiser, Peter K. (2007). Essentials of Ophthalmology. Elsevier Health ...
... s are a cutaneous condition that is a developmental defect present at birth. Skin dimple List of cutaneous conditions Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 1-4160-2999-0 ...
The medial palpebral ligament (medial canthal tendon) is about 4 mm in length and 2 mm in breadth. Its anterior attachment is to the frontal process of the maxilla in front of the lacrimal groove, and its posterior attachment is the lacrimal bone. Laterally, it is attached to the tarsus of the upper and lower eyelids. Crossing the lacrimal sac, it divides into two parts, upper and lower, each attached to the medial end of the corresponding tarsus. As the ligament crosses the lacrimal sac, a strong aponeurotic lamina is given off from its posterior surface; this expands over the sac, and is attached to the posterior lacrimal crest. Orbicularis oculi muscle This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918 ...
... is a surgical procedure to restore proper drainage of tears when the lacrimal punctum (puncta lacrimalia) becomes blocked in one or both eyes. If a blockage is present in the puncti, doctors may suggest a procedure called punctoplasty, performed to widen the drain opening. This usually takes 20-30 minutes and is performed under local anesthesia. Tears are produced by the lacrimal gland, situated just outside the eye. Blinking the eyelids distributes the tears to keep the eyes moist, clean and lubricated. Excess tears are drained via the punctum through the tiny channels called canaliculi located on the inner side of the eyes into the tear sac, from there to the tear duct, the nose and finally down the throat. Epiphora, or watering eyes, is a condition in which tears flow out of the eyes, bypassing the lacrimal puncta. It is primarily caused by excessive tear production (as a result of emotion, ...
... is a species of frogs in the Hylodidae family. The frog's specific name, japi, comes from a Tupi word meaning "springs", referencing the breeding environment of this species. The closest relatives of Hylodes japi are Hylodes amnicola, Hylodes ornatus, Hylodes perere, and Hylodes sazimai. Hylodes japi is endemic to the Serra do Japi mountains, located in the São Paulo state, Brazil. Play media Hylodes japi is a small, slender frog. When adult, males measure 22.9 to 25.5 millimeters, females - 26.4 to 28.0 millimeters, both with the head longer than wide, straight canthus, sunken lore, medium-sized, almost round tympanum, and side-directed nostril openings. Males additionally possess two lateral vocal sacs, which can distend to a great extent. The fore limbs are slender, and the hind limbs are robust. Several tubercles are present on them. The digits bear lateral fringes, more extensive on the toes than on the fingers, and more pronounced in males than females, as well as weakly ...
... an autoimmune disorder in which the lacrimal gland is disfunctional) lacrimal gland disease, and decreased corneal sensation. ... Common causes of excessive tear evaporation include blepharitis (in which the oil glands around the eyelashes are clogged), ...
The lacrimal gland is located under the outer part of each eyebrow. Lacrimal gland tumors can be harmless (benign) or cancerous ... A lacrimal gland tumor is a tumor in one of the glands that produces tears. ... A lacrimal gland tumor is a tumor in one of the glands that produces tears. The lacrimal gland is located under the outer part ... Lacrimal gland tumors can be harmless (benign) or cancerous (malignant). About half of lacrimal gland tumors are benign. ...
The gland continually secretes tears which moisten, lubricate, and protect the surface of the eye. Excess tears drain into ... The lacrimal gland lies within the orbit on the outer portion of the upper eye. ... The lacrimal gland lies within the orbit on the outer portion of the upper eye. The gland continually secretes tears which ...
... the lacrimal fossa (or fossa for lacrimal gland), for the lacrimal gland. Fossa for lacrimal sac This article incorporates text ...
... Melis Palamar,1 Nazan Ozsan,2 and Fahri Sahin3 ... The lacrimal glands were hypertrophic and edematous bilaterally. Schirmer 1 score was 2 and 1 mm and tear-film break-up time ... An incisional biopsy from the left lacrimal gland revealed diffuse and intense CD20, CD5, and bcl-2 positivity with negative ...
Figure 1: (a) Bilateral puffiness in lacrimal gland region is evident. (b) On MRI bilateral hypertrophic lacrimal glands are ... It is advised that whenever asymmetrical enlargement of parotid or lacrimal glands, palpable masses in the glands, refractory ... Bilateral Lacrimal Gland Lymphoma in Sjögren Syndrome. Melis Palamar,1 Nazan Ozsan,2 and Fahri Sahin3 ... The lacrimal glands were hypertrophic and edematous bilaterally. Schirmer 1 score was 2 and 1 mm and tear-film break-up time ...
Lacrimal gland - Atrophy in a male B6C3F1 mouse from a chronic study (higher magnification of Figure 1). The atrophic glands on ... Lacrimal gland atrophy ( Figure 1. and Figure 2. ) occurs commonly in rats and mice as a spontaneous aging change and can also ... Lacrimal gland - Atrophy in a male B6C3F1 mouse from a chronic study. Atrophy (arrow) is characterized by a focus of shrunken ... Lacrimal gland inflammation is responsible for ocular pathology in TGF-β1 null mice. Am J Pathol 151:1281-1288. Abstract: http ...
Lacrimal Gland - Atrophy - Gallery. Lacrimal gland - Atrophy in a male B6C3F1 mouse from a chronic study. Atrophy (arrow) is ... Lacrimal gland - Atrophy in a male B6C3F1 mouse from a chronic study (higher magnification of Figure 1). The atrophic glands on ... the left can be compared to the normal glands on the right. ...
The tear-producing lacrimal gland is a tubular organ that protects and lubricates the ocular surface. The lacrimal gland ... B) Krt19 (normalized to 8-week lacrimal glands) was robustly expressed early in lacrimal gland development but decreased at ... B) qPCR analysis showed human lacrimal glands express several lineage markers observed in the murine lacrimal gland. All qPCR ... Spatiotemporal analysis reveals dynamic patterns of acinar and duct markers during lacrimal gland development. (A-E) E16 to ...
Cytoplasmic and nuclear leptin expression in lacrimal gland tumours: a pilot study Yong Joon Kim, Young Shin Kim, Susie Chin, ... Lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma and malignant epithelial tumours: clinical and imaging differences Stephanie Ming Young, ... Corneal complications after orbital radiotherapy for primary epithelial malignancies of the lacrimal gland Sri K Gore, Nicholas ...
Epithelial tumors constitute about one third of lacrimal gland fossa lesions(1). The most common epithelial lacrimal gland ... ductal adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal gland(10).. Ophthalmologists and pathologists must remember that the lacrimal gland can ... the lacrimal gland. MMP-2 was previously associated with worse prognosis in several types of salivary gland carcinoma(9). In ... adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal gland is a high-grade neoplasm arising from the ductal epithelium. This subtype of lacrimal ...
You can manage your cookie settings via your browser at any time. To learn more about how we use cookies, please see our cookies policy. ...
ESP1 is a lacrimal peptide synthesized by the extraorbital glands of males of specific mouse strains that modulates the sexual ... ESP1 is a lacrimal peptide synthesized by the extraorbital glands of males of specific mouse strains that modulates the sexual ... The excision of the extraorbital glands reduced but did not abolish the production of ESP1 in the lacrimal fluid of BALB/c mice ... The excision of the extraorbital glands reduced but did not abolish the production of ESP1 in the lacrimal fluid of BALB/c mice ...
List of causes of Dacryoadenitis and Lacrimal gland infection, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient ... Lacrimal gland infection:*Causes: Lacrimal gland infection *Introduction: Lacrimal gland infection *Lacrimal gland infection: ... Lacrimal gland infection: Remove a symptom Results: Causes of Dacryoadenitis AND Lacrimal gland infection 1. Besnier-Boeck- ... Dacryoadenitis and Lacrimal gland infection and Dry eye (2 causes). *Dacryoadenitis and Lacrimal gland infection and Dry mouth ...
ICD-9 code 375.03 for Chronic enlargement of lacrimal gland is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range - ... Chronic enlargement of lacrimal gland (375.03). ICD-9 code 375.03 for Chronic enlargement of lacrimal gland is a medical ...
A New Model System for Studying Lacrimal Physiology Using Cultured Lacrimal Gland Acinar Cells on Matrigel® Rafts ... Lacrimal Gland and Ocular Surface: Signal Transduction, Membrane Traffic and Fluid and Protein Secretion. * Front Matter Pages ... Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film, and Dry Eye Syndromes 3. Basic Science and Clinical Relevance Part A and B. ... ErbB2 and Its Ligand Muc4 (Sialomucin Complex) in Rat Lacrimal Gland Kermit L. Carraway, Maria E. Carvajal, Peter Li, Coralie A ...
... and debris in the lacrimal gland, or bacterial / fungal infection in the lacrimal gland or in lacrimal pathways.. Management is ... Lacrimal gland stones. Subscriber Sign In VisualDx Mobile Feedback Select Language Share Enter a Symptom, Medication, or ... These stones, known as dacryoliths, are found within the lacrimal gland itself, and excision of these results in resolution of ... H04.009 - Unspecified dacryoadenitis, unspecified lacrimal gland. SNOMEDCT:. 86927009 - Dacryoadenitis. Differential Diagnosis ...
D31.50 - Benign neoplasm of unspecified lacrimal gland and duct. SNOMEDCT:. 127004000 - Neoplasm of lacrimal gland. ... Lacrimal gland tumor. Subscriber Sign In VisualDx Mobile Feedback Select Language Share ... Lacrimal gland tumors account for 9% of all orbital lesions with inflammatory, lymphocytic, metastatic, or primary epithelial ... Gradual onset of unilateral proptosis with nasal globe displacement with palpable lacrimal gland mass should warrant radiologic ...
Makarenkova, H. P., et al. FGF10 is an inducer and Pax6 a competence factor for lacrimal gland development. Development. 127, ... Finley, J. K., Farmer, D., Emmerson, E., Cruz Pacheco, N., Knox, S. M. Manipulating the Murine Lacrimal Gland. J. Vis. Exp. (93 ... Dartt, D. A. Neural regulation of lacrimal gland secretory processes: relevance in dry eye diseases. Progress in retinal and ... Qu, X., et al. Glycosaminoglycan-dependent restriction of FGF diffusion is necessary for lacrimal gland development. ...
The major lacrimal gland is divided into two lobes, the orbital and the palpebral. The major lacrimal gland is located in the ... Lacrimal glandular tissue is present in both the major and the accessory lacrimal glands, and, rarely, in ectopic locations ... Tear secretion is a function of both the major and the accessory lacrimal glands. The major glands are located in the anterior ... Ductal cysts of the accessory lacrimal glands of Wolfring and Krause are even more uncommon than those of the major lacrimal ...
Editor,-Sebaceous carcinoma is a rare primary neoplasm of the lacrimal gland and to the best of our knowledge only five cases ... 1981) Malignant mixed tumour of the lacrimal gland: a clinicopathological report of two unusual cases. Graefes Arch Clin Exp ... We report a case of primary sebaceous carcinoma of the lacrimal gland and discuss the histological diagnosis and management of ... Computed tomograph (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans showed the mass was arising from the lacrimal gland (Fig1). ...
Ectopic Lacrimal Gland Presenting as an Orbital Mass in Childhood Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Ectopic Lacrimal Gland Presenting as an Orbital Mass in Childhood. John R. Guy and Ronald G. Quisling ...
... lacrimal gland explanation free. What is lacrimal gland? Meaning of lacrimal gland medical term. What does lacrimal gland mean? ... Looking for online definition of lacrimal gland in the Medical Dictionary? ... Related to lacrimal gland: submandibular gland. lac·ri·mal gland. [TA] the gland that secretes tears into the conjunctival sac ... Lacrimal gland , definition of lacrimal gland by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/lacrimal+ ...
Diabetes Mellitus and Oxidative Stress in Rat Lacrimal Gland A. G. Jorge; C. M. Modulo; A. C. Dias; M. D. Alves; A. M. Braz; R ... Diabetes Mellitus and Oxidative Stress in Rat Lacrimal Gland You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, ... Purpose:: Oxidative stress (OS) has been considered in the mechanism of lacrimal gland (LG) dysfunction in chronic diseases. ... Diabetes Mellitus and Oxidative Stress in Rat Lacrimal Gland. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007;48(13):1918. ...
Benda on lacrimal gland swelling treatment: This is often treated with incision and drainage with accompanying intravenous ... Pituitary gland: How do u know your gland is inflamed? Did u have a ct scan or mri? Do you have pituitary symptoms such a ... Infected gland: An infected bartholins gland can be caused by many different bacteria. These can result is severe pain if left ... Could anybody suggest medicine for parotid gland infection swelling and how to clear gland duct stone with out operation? ...
  • Sjögren syndrome is a chronic autoimmune condition which goes along with lymphocytic and plasma cell infiltration of the salivary and lacrimal glands progressively. (hindawi.com)
  • Development of pancreatitis was accompanied by a decrease in content of adrenaline and noradrenaline in all the glands studied, while histamine content was increased in pancreas and-unaltered in salivary and lacrimal glands. (msk.ru)
  • Mikhaĭlov V.V., Gerina L.S., Levels of biogenic amines in the salivary and lacrimal glands in experimental staphylococcal pancreatitis in rats, Voprosy meditsinskoi khimii, 1984, vol: 30(4), 51-53. (msk.ru)
  • 1997. Lacrimal gland inflammation is responsible for ocular pathology in TGF-β1 null mice. (nih.gov)
  • The tear-producing lacrimal gland is a tubular organ that protects and lubricates the ocular surface. (nih.gov)
  • Also, it was determined that mice naturally developing DED are a consequence of aging reflected by increased numbers of B cells in the lacrimal gland and severe ocular alterations . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The goal of this conference was to provide an international exchange of information that would be of value to basic scientists involved in eye research, to physicians in the ophthalmological community, and to pharmaceutical companies with an interest in the treatment of lacrimal gland, tear film or ocular surface disorders (e. g. (kisch-online.de)
  • Purpose: The lacrimal gland secretes tear fluids that protect the ocular surface epithelium, and its dysfunction leads to dry eye disease (DED). (elsevier.com)
  • Few studies discuss diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging of the extra-ocular muscles [ 17 - 20 ] and the optic nerves [ 21 , 22 ] in patients with thyroid eye disease.To our knowledge, there is no previous study in the English literature that discusses diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the lacrimal glands in patients with thyroid eye disease. (polradiol.com)
  • The results from our study suggest that defects in central tolerance may contribute to SS and provide a new and clinically relevant model to investigate the pathogenic mechanisms in lacrimal gland autoimmunity and associated ocular surface sequelae. (jimmunol.org)
  • Conclusions Our research uncovered that meibomian gland function is certainly inspired after cataract medical procedures accompanying structural adjustments and we were holding correlated with an increase of ocular indicator scores. (experiencefla.com)
  • At the ocular surface, the major gel-forming mucin expressed by the goblet cells of the conjunctiva is MUC5AC, whereas a small nonpolymeric mucin, MUC7, is expressed by acinar cells of the lacrimal gland. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Finally, we show conservation of developmental markers between the developing mouse and human lacrimal gland, supporting the use of mice to understand human development. (nih.gov)
  • Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization with a peptide nucleic acid probe complementary to the telomere repeat sequence was performed on frozen sections from human lacrimal gland tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Sullivan DA, Wickham LA, Rocha EM, Kelleher RS, Silveira LA, Toda I. Influence of gender, sex steroid hormones and the hypothalamic-pituitary axis on the structure and function of the lacrimal gland. (springer.com)
  • This article will discuss the anatomy and function of the lacrimal gland. (kenhub.com)
  • Although normal function of the lacrimal gland is essential for vision (and thus for human well-being), the lacrimal gland remains rather poorly understood at a molecular level. (elsevier.com)
  • MRI head and neck was repeated on 8/2/2017 (Figures 4(f) and 4(g)) and showed increase in enlargement of bilateral lacrimal glands , submandibular glands, parotid glands with intraparotid nodes, and cervical lymph nodes by size and numbers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A lacrimal silicone stent has a very large diameter segment with a diameter greater than the largest diameter stent which can be pulled through the canaliculi readily without damaging the canaliculi, a thin central segment, a moderate diameter segment, and a distal segment with a lumen extending partway. (google.ca)
  • Other rare causes of lacrimal gland masses include tuberculosis , amyloidosis , thyroid-associated orbitopathy , granulomatosis with polyangiitis . (radiopaedia.org)
  • The major causes of lacrimal gland enlargement are neoplastic, inflammatory, and structural. (jcabral.pt)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Contrast-enhanced CT is a valuable tool for noninvasive assessment of canine lacrimal glands. (avmi.net)