Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Strains of mice arising from a parental inbred stock that was subsequently used to produce substrains of knockout and other mutant mice with targeted mutations.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Mouse strains constructed to possess identical genotypes except for a difference at a single gene locus.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Health care professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES in research or health care facilities.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Laboratory mice, flies, fish, and worms are inbred through many generations to create strains with defined characteristics. ... Festing, M., "Inbred Strains of Mice and their Characteristics", The Jackson Laboratory . Retrieved 30 January 2008. Peichel CL ... the International Knockout Mouse Consortium, for example, aims to provide knockout mice for every gene in the mouse genome. In ... Most laboratories breed and raise flies and worms themselves, using strains and mutants supplied from a few main stock centers ...
Effects of Aspiculuris tetraptera and Syphacia obvelata on exploratory behaviour of an inbred mouse strain. Laboratory Animal ...
"Susceptibility of inbred and outbred mouse strains to Sendai virus and prevalence of infection in laboratory rodents". ... Ohita and Hamanatsu strains were isolated from separate epidemics in laboratory mice. According to the personal memory of Alisa ... Viral Infections of Laboratory Mice". In Hedrich HJ (ed.). The Laboratory Mouse (Second ed.). Academic Press. pp. 427-480. doi: ... C57BL/6 mice are highly resistant to the virus, while DBA/2J mice are sensitive. C57BL/6 mice showed slight loss of body weight ...
Inbred strains are also available but are not as commonly used as inbred mice. ... "Rules and Guidelines for Nomenclature of Mouse and Rat Strains". Mouse Genome Informatics. Jackson Laboratory. Retrieved 5 ... Index of Inbred Rat Strains database, Jacskson Laboratory. *Rat Model Summary database, Knock Out Rat Consortium (archived copy ... is an inbred strain that spontaneously develops autoimmune type 1 diabetes. Like NOD mice, Biobreeding rats are used as an ...
Some inbred laboratory mouse strains, such as BALB/c and C57BL/6, also have different proteins expressed in their urine. ... Wild mice (unlike laboratory mice that are genetically identical and which therefore also have identical patterns of Mups in ... using white-footed mice, it was found that when mice derived from wild populations were inbred, there was reduced survival when ... Mice are instinctively afraid of the smell of their natural predators, including cats and rats. This occurs even in laboratory ...
In 1921 he inbred the mouse strain C57BL/6 or "black 6", which is the most popular laboratory mouse to date. His most important ... and by 1944 they were shipping 9000 mice a week to other laboratories. The laboratory and all of the livestock were destroyed ... The lab was quickly rebuilt and most mouse strains were recovered from other labs around the world. By 1950 the lab was ... Little developed the "DBA (Dilute, Brown and non-Agouti)" strain of mice while at Harvard. For his research, he received ...
... also known as the BB or BBDP rat is an inbred laboratory rat strain that spontaneously develops autoimmune Type ... Like the NOD mice, BB rats are used as an animal model for Type 1 diabetes. The strain re-capitulates many of the features of ... One in Worcester, Massachusetts, has been inbred and known as BBDP/Wor and another one in Ottawa, Canada, an outbred strain ... NOD mice Type 1 Diabetes Autoimmunity Mordes JP, Poussier P, Blankenhorn EP, Greiner DL: Rat models of type 1 diabetes: ...
Karin Knorr Cetina wrote in 2009 that at least five of the primary strains of laboratory mice in use may derive from a single ... Abbie E. C. Lathrop (1868 - 1918) was a rodent fancier who bred fancy mice and inbred strains for animal models, particularly ... Black 6 became the most frequently used strain of laboratory mouse. While Little patronizingly called Lathrop a "talented pet- ... She bred Japanese waltzing mice as well as fancy mice. The mice had straw bedding and lived in wooden boxes. They were fed a ...
Familiar albino animals include in-bred strains of laboratory animals (rats, mice and rabbits), but populations of naturally ... Examples include the BALB/c mouse and Wistar and Sprague Dawley rat strains, laboratory rabbits and ferrets. Albino axolotl (an ... In mice, a total of 100 genes are known to affect albinism. All the genetic traits for albinism are recessive traits. This ... The Okinawa strain of this species is deficient in [His7]-corazonin and is albino. One of the typical features of Locusta ...
... inbred mouse strain and the systematic generation of other inbred strains. The mouse has since been used extensively as a model ... 2004-08-21). "The house mouse as a laboratory model: a historical perspective". The Laboratory Mouse. Elsevier Science. ISBN ... "Dirty" mice are possibly better suitable for mimicking human pathologies. In addition, inbred mouse strains are used in the ... Use mouse biobanks or lose them Knock Out Mouse Project - KOMP Mouse Biology Program Mutant Mouse Resource & Research Centers, ...
... strains are generated in the laboratory by mating two inbred strains (usually rats or mice), and back-crossing the ... Congenic strains are discussed in detail in Lee Silver's online book Mouse Genetics: Concepts and Applications: "Mouse Genetics ... Congenic mice or rats can then be compared to the pure recipient strain to determine whether they are phenotypically different ... November 1997). "Theoretical and empirical issues for marker-assisted breeding of congenic mouse strains". Nat. Genet. 17 (3): ...
"A rating scale for wildness and ease of handling laboratory mice: results for 21 inbred strains tested in two laboratories", ... In a clinical setting, wildness has been used as a scale to rate the ease with which various strains of laboratory mice can be ... guinea pigs and laboratory mice. This classification system does not account for several complicating factors: genetically ...
... laboratory inbred mouse strains (Mus musculus) exhibit extremely long telomeres of 30-150 Kb in length, however the wild mouse ... specifically inbred mice and chicken lines. In fact, some of the largest mega-telomere arrays were reported in highly inbred ... These sequences, which ranged from 30 to 150 kilobases in size, were first identified in laboratory mice by David Kipling and ... including those of highly inbred lines. Analysis of siblings from highly inbred chicken-lines have suggested that these ultra- ...
... or deliberately inbred mouse strains which are histocompatible. An individual's immune response of passive immunity is "faster ... However, this specialized form of passive immunity is most often used in a laboratory setting in the field of immunology, to ... A disadvantage to passive immunity is that producing antibodies in a laboratory is expensive and difficult to do. In order to ...
Inbred strains are also available, but are not as commonly used as inbred mice. Much of the genome of Rattus norvegicus has ... "Rules and Guidelines for Nomenclature of Mouse and Rat Strains". Mouse Genome Informatics. Jackson Laboratory. Retrieved 5 ... "Rat Genome", Nature Rat Genome Database, Medical College of Wisconsin Index of Inbred Rat Strains database, Jacskson Laboratory ... is an inbred strain that spontaneously develops autoimmune type 1 diabetes. Like NOD mice, biobreeding rats are used as an ...
The MRL/MpJ mouse strain was selectively bred by scientists to have an autoimmune genetic disorder (retained through inbreeding ... Murphy Roths large (MRL/MpJ) is a strain of laboratory mouse developed in 1999 at The Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, PA. ... In further research, this mouse strain has been observed to have the ability to also regenerate cardiac tissue, displays a ... mouse strain is naturally resistant to high fat diet-induced hyperglycemia". Metabolism. 63 (12): 1577-1586. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Laboratory mice typically belong to standardized inbred strains selected for the stability or clarity of specific harmful ... The house mouse has been domesticated as the pet or fancy mouse, and as the laboratory mouse, which is one of the most ... Western European house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus); includes the fancy mouse and the laboratory mouse (Western Europe, ... The Methuselah Mouse Prize is a competition to breed or engineer extremely long-lived laboratory mice. As of 2005[update], the ...
FVB is an albino, inbred laboratory mouse strain that is named after its susceptibility to Friend leukemia virus B. This strain ... These mice were bred into the modern FVB strain at the Jackson Laboratory, with no subsequent selection for histamine ... 1991). FVB/N: an inbred mouse strain preferable for transgenic analyses. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences, 88(6 ... A derivative strain called sighted FVB was developed from this strain via backcrossing. The full name of this strain is FVB. ...
... is a brand of immunodeficient laboratory mice, developed and marketed by Jackson Laboratory, which carries the strain NOD.Cg- ... Leonard Shultz at Jackson Laboratory, which owns the NSG trade mark. The genetic background, derived from inbred NOD mouse ... 1.^ Mouse Genome Informatics entry for Prkdcscid 2.^ Mouse Genome Informatics entry for Il2rgtm1Wjl NSG strain datasheet at The ... NSG branded mice lack mature T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. NSG branded mice are also deficient in multiple ...
"BALB/c". Inbred Strains of Mice. Jackson Laboratory. Retrieved 2007-04-16. "BALB/cByJ". Jax Mice Data Sheet. Jackson Laboratory ... inbred mouse strain and initiated the systematic generation of inbred strains. The mouse has since been used extensively as a ... were C57BL/6 laboratory mice. Sequencing of the laboratory mouse genome was completed in late 2002 using the C57BL/6 strain. ... Over 400 standardized, inbred strains have been developed.[citation needed] Most laboratory mice are hybrids of different ...
Systematic inbreeding and maintenance of inbred strains of laboratory mice and rats is of great importance for biomedical ... In order to achieve a mouse strain that is considered inbred, a minimum of 20 sequential generations of sibling matings must ... The mice that are inbred typically show considerably lower survival rates. Inbreeding increases homozygosity, which can ... 2006). "Selection and Inbreeding Depression: Effects of Inbreeding Rate and Inbreeding Environment". Evolution. 60 (5): 1014- ...
MMHCdb contains genetic and genomic information about inbred mouse strains, genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) and ... MMHCdb MGI The Jackson Laboratory PDXFinder MMHCdb Tutorial NOMENCLATURE FOR MOUSE STRAINS. ... Inbred mouse strains are the result of at least 20 generations of successive brother/sister matings which lead to a population ... Inbred strains of mice allow researchers to investigate the role that genetics plays in cancer susceptibility and treatment ...
Strains are used in laboratory experiments. Mouse strains can be inbred, mutated, or genetically modified, while rat strains ... Coli Genetic Stock Center EcoliWiki E. coli strain index International Mouse Strain Resource (IMSR) Rat strain index. ... A laboratory mouse or rat strain is a group of animals that is genetically uniform. ... In biology, a strain is a genetic variant, a subtype or a culture within a biological species. Strains are often seen as ...
"Rules for Nomenclature of Inbred Strains". In Green, Margaret C. (ed.). Genetic Variants and Strains of the Laboratory Mouse. ... Such strains are useful in the analysis of variance within an inbred strain or between inbred strains because any differences ... A genealogical chart of mouse inbred strains can be found here on the Jackson Laboratory website and is currently being ... Thus outbred strains of most laboratory animals are also available, where an outbred strain is a strain of an organism that is ...
... were generated by Donald Bailey at the Jackson Laboratory from an intercross between a female BALB/cBy mouse (abbreviated C) ... Recombinant inbred strains or lines were first developed using inbred strains of mice but are now used to study a wide range of ... In the case of a typical mouse recombinant inbred strain made by crossing maternal strain BALB/cBy (C) with paternal strain ... pairs of the F2 progeny are then mated to establish inbred strains through long-term inbreeding. Families of recombinant inbred ...
West, D. B.; Boozer, C. N.; Moody, D. L.; Atkinson, R. L. (1992-06-01). "Dietary obesity in nine inbred mouse strains". The ... Laboratories temperature which are usually (18-22 °C) are lower than the thermoneutrality of model organisms like mice which ... In the strain of mice most commonly used for DIO models, C57BL/6J, mice who started the diet at 10 weeks old showed lower ... Furthermore, the strain and sex of the rodent impacts the response to the model. Some common mouse strains show large ...
The average litter size is 10-12 during optimum production, but is highly strain-dependent. As a general rule, inbred mice tend ... Mice are common experimental animals in laboratory research of biology and psychology fields primarily because they are mammals ... "Mouse Info". Retrieved 15 August 2016. Tembo, Mwizenge S. "Mice as a Delicacy: the Significance of Mice in the Diet of the ... The mouse genome has been sequenced, and virtually all mouse genes have human homologs. The mouse has approximately 2.7 billion ...
... and thus came the Ak strain of mice. Further inbreeding was undertaken with Ak mice at the Rockefeller Institute in 1936, ... AKT8 was isolated by Stephen Staal in the laboratory of Wallace P. Rowe; he subsequently cloned v-akt and human AKT1 and AKT2 ... leading to the designation of the AKR mouse strain. In 1977, a transforming retrovirus was isolated from the AKR mouse. This ... Mice from three different stocks were studied, and the stocks were designated A, R, and S. Stock A was noted to yield many ...
Both mice and rats are relatively small, easily handled, have a short generation time, and are genetically inbred. While mice ... resulting in the draft sequence of a laboratory strain of the brown or Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus). Additional developments ... Mouse Genome Sequencing Consortium, Initial sequencing and comparative analysis of the mouse genome. Nature, 2002. 420(6915): p ... Knockout rat models can also complement existing transgenic mouse models. Comparing mouse and rat mutants can facilitate the ...
To create a coisogenic strain through breeding, a mouse with the specific mutation on a locus is mated to an inbred strain (e.g ... "MGI-Guidelines for Nomenclature of Mouse and Rat Strains: Coisogenic". Mouse Genome Informatics website, The Jackson Laboratory ... There are numerous ways to create an inbred strain and each of these strains are unique. Genetically engineered mice can be ... C57BL/6J) mouse. The offspring of the mutated mouse with the inbred strain has a 50% chance of carrying the mutation. From this ...
Unexpected complexity in the haplotypes of commonly used inbred strains of laboratory mice. B. Yalcin, J. Fullerton, S. Miller ... Studies of sequence variation between inbred strains of laboratory mice suggest that the distribution of polymorphisms has a ... Unexpected complexity in the haplotypes of commonly used inbred strains of laboratory mice ... Unexpected complexity in the haplotypes of commonly used inbred strains of laboratory mice ...
Helminth Parasites of Conventionally Maintained Laboratory Mice - II- Inbred Strains with an Adaptation of the Anal Swab ... Worm burdens recovered from inbred mice strains, namely C57Bl/6, C57Bl/10, CBA, BALB/c, DBA/2 and C3H/He, conventionally ... Based on our results, we can conclude that among the studied inbred strains, the CBA was that in which the mice were negative ... Except for this latter strain, A. tetraptera was found together S. obvelata in mice of the other studied strains. A. tetraptera ...
Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME 04609.. *Find this author on Google Scholar ... FVB/N: an inbred mouse strain preferable for transgenic analyses.. M Taketo, A C Schroeder, L E Mobraaten, K B Gunning, G ... FVB/N: an inbred mouse strain preferable for transgenic analyses.. M Taketo, A C Schroeder, L E Mobraaten, K B Gunning, G ... FVB/N: an inbred mouse strain preferable for transgenic analyses.. M Taketo, A C Schroeder, L E Mobraaten, K B Gunning, G ...
The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME 04609, USA.. Abstract. OBJECTIVE: The C57BL/6 (B6) and 129 mouse inbred strains differ ... trait loci analysis for plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations and atherosclerosis susceptibility between inbred mouse strains ...
Eight standard inbred mouse strains were evaluated for ethanol effects on a refined battery of behavioral tests in a study that ... was originally designed to assess the influence of rat odors in the colony on mouse behaviors. As part of the design of the ... Keywords: Accelerating rotarod; Balance beam; Grip strength; Laboratory environment; Motor coordination; Open field activity. ... Eight standard inbred mouse strains were evaluated for ethanol effects on a refined battery of behavioral tests in a study that ...
The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine, United States of America.. Abstract. To evaluate the effect of increased mouse ... Effects of housing density in five inbred strains of mice.. Morgan JL1, Svenson KL1, Lake JP1, Zhang W1, Stearns TM1, Marion MA ... Five strains of mice (129S1/SvImJ, A/J, BALB/cByJ, C57BL/6J, and DBA/2J) were evaluated throughout 3- and 8-month timeframes ... Percent fat increased slightly in strains 129S1/SvImJ, A/J, and DBA/2J, but did not increase in strains BALB/cByJ, and C57BL/6J ...
Mice from eight inbred strains were studied for their acute sensitivity to ethanol as indexed by the degree of hypothermia (HT ... A rating scale for wildness and ease of handling laboratory mice: results for 21 inbred strains tested in two laboratories. ... Mice from eight inbred strains were studied for their acute sensitivity to ethanol as indexed by the degree of hypothermia (HT ... Acute tolerance chronic tolerance ethanol hypothermia inbred mouse strains loss of righting reflex pharmacogenetics ...
Festing MF: Origins and characteristics of inbred strains of mice. In Genetic Variants and Strains of the Laboratory Mouse. ... Recombinant inbred (RI) strains are derived by inbreeding different sets of F2 progeny from a cross between two inbred strains ... Male mice of parental (SM/J, A/J) strains, (SM/J × A/J)F1 mice, and 19 SMXA RI strains were obtained from The Institute for ... Belknap JK: Effect of within-strain sample size on QTL detection and mapping using recombinant inbred mouse strains. Behav ...
Animals, Inbred Strains [B01.050.050.157]. *Mice, Inbred Strains [B01.050.050.157.520]. *Animals, Laboratory [B01.050.050.199] ... Inbred Strains" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Mice, Inbred Strains" was a major or minor topic ... "Mice, Inbred Strains" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Mice, Inbred Strains*Mice, Inbred Strains. *Mouse, Inbred Strain. *Inbred Strain of Mouse ...
Most laboratory mice belong to a species of house mouse, Mus musculus. So far, at least three subspecies groups have been ... Some of these alleles have avoided selection during breeding as either fancy mice or laboratory mice. The MSM-specific genetic ... The MSM/Ms inbred strain was established in 1986 and 21 years later it reached F100. During breeding, no significant ... We started to establish our unique strain, MSM/Ms, from MUS in Japan in 1978. In the beginning, we kept wild mice trapped in ...
... is among the most versatile inbred mouse strains and the preferred genetic background for several applications. ... A Comparison of Diet-Induced Obese Mice From Taconic and the Jackson Laboratory ... One of the most used inbred mouse models, the C57BL/6 is used in nearly every research application, and its commonly used as ... "The MRC Mary Lyon Centre located at MRC Harwell uses Taconics inbred mouse lines (specifically C57BL/6NTac) to generate and ...
... showed that all human class III genes tested thusfar seem to have homologous counterparts in the mouse genome. Furthermore, the ... Analysis of the class III region of the mouse, using human probes, ... Congenic and segregating inbred strains. In M.F. Lyon and A.G. Searle (eds.): Genetic variants and strains of the laboratory ... Lafuse, W.P., Lee, S.T., Castle, L., and David, S.C.: Restriction fragment analysis of H-2 recombinant mouse strains with ...
Progeny from an interspecific backcross between laboratory mice and Mus spretus were typed for inheritance of eight genetic ... Mice. Mice, Inbred C3H. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Muridae / genetics*. Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length. Recombination, ... Comparison of linkage maps of mouse chromosome 12 derived from laboratory strain intraspecific and Mus spretus interspecific ... Progeny from an interspecific backcross between laboratory mice and Mus spretus were typed for inheritance of eight genetic ...
1.1 Mice. 1.2 Rats. 2. Laboratory codes. 3. Inbred Strains and Hybrids. 3.1 Definition 3.2 Nomenclature of Inbred Strains. 3.3 ... 4. Strains Made from Multiple Inbred Strains. 4.1 Recombinant Inbred Strains. 4.2 Collaborative Cross Strains. 4.3 Mixed Inbred ... 4.3 Mixed Inbred Strains. Incipient inbred stocks or inbred strains that are derived from up to three parental strains (one of ... Rules for nomenclature of inbred strains. In: Genetic Variants and Strains of the Laboratory Mouse, Lyon, M.F., A.G. Searle ( ...
all with correlations r,0.4). This hierarchy agrees well with the known ancestry of laboratory mouse strains [25], [26]. ... Mice. Inbred mouse strains were selected from the priority strains list of the Mouse Phenome Database (MPD: http://www.jax.org/ ... We report the characterisation of 27 cardiovascular-related traits in 23 inbred mouse strains. Mice were phenotyped either in ... Cardiovascular Response to Beta-Adrenergic Blockade or Activation in 23 Inbred Mouse Strains. Corinne Berthonneche,#1,2 Bastian ...
We have developed a high-resolution map of the origin of the laboratory mouse by generating 25,400 phylogenetic trees at 100-kb ... The genome of the laboratory mouse is thought to be a mosaic of regions with distinct subspecific origins. ... Mice, Inbred Strains / classification * Mice, Inbred Strains / genetics* * Phylogeny * Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ... Finally, mouse strains derived from the wild that are supposed to represent different mouse subspecies show substantial ...
"BALB/c". Inbred Strains of Mice. Jackson Laboratory. Retrieved 2007-04-16. "BALB/cByJ". Jax Mice Data Sheet. Jackson Laboratory ... inbred mouse strain and initiated the systematic generation of inbred strains. The mouse has since been used extensively as a ... were C57BL/6 laboratory mice. Sequencing of the laboratory mouse genome was completed in late 2002 using the C57BL/6 strain. ... Over 400 standardized, inbred strains have been developed.[citation needed] Most laboratory mice are hybrids of different ...
Festing, M.F.W. Origins and characteristics of inbred strains of mice. in Genetic variants and strains of the laboratory mouse ... Festing, M.F.W. Inbred strains of mice. Mouse Genome Database (MGD), Mouse Genome Informatics, The Jackson Laboratory, Bar ... Evolution in inbred strains of mice appears to berapid. Science 228, 1169-1175 (1985). 9.. Nishida, S. Inbred strains of mice, ... Inbred strains of mice, no. 6. Companion to Mouse News Letter, 75 (1969). 47.. Abujiang, P. et al. The origin of SL family mice ...
Table S1 - Imputed genotypes and confidence scores for 88 classical laboratory mouse strains (.zip, 146.1 MB) ... Figure S1 - The set of mouse strains genotyped at medium-density on the Mouse Diversity Array are shown on the right (PDF, 94 ... Imputation of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Inbred Mice Using Local Phylogeny. Jeremy R. Wang, Fernando Pardo-Manuel de ...
Inbred strains are also available but are not as commonly used as inbred mice. ... "Rules and Guidelines for Nomenclature of Mouse and Rat Strains". Mouse Genome Informatics. Jackson Laboratory. Retrieved 5 ... Index of Inbred Rat Strains database, Jacskson Laboratory. *Rat Model Summary database, Knock Out Rat Consortium (archived copy ... is an inbred strain that spontaneously develops autoimmune type 1 diabetes. Like NOD mice, Biobreeding rats are used as an ...
... we tested the impact of OP and glucocorticoid exposure in a genetic reference population of 30 inbred mouse strains. We also ... Laboratory animals; Laboratory testing; Animal studies; Immune reaction; Neurological disorders; Synergism; RNA; Ribonucleic ... acids; Sex factors; Biomarkers; Pathology; Author Keywords: BXD mice; recombinant inbred strains; candidate gene; DFP; ... In a mouse model of GWI we developed, corticosterone was shown to act synergistically with an OP (diisopropylflurophosphate) to ...
Quantitative trait loci mapping of three loci controlling morphine preference using inbred mouse strains BERRETTINI W. H. ... Genetic mapping of genes regulating the thymus size in back-cross rats between the laboratory BUF/Mna strain and the MITE ... T-Lymphomagenesis is determined by a dominant host gene Thymic Lymphoma Susceptible Mouse-1 (Tlsm-1) in murine models YAMADA Y ... Strain difference in carcinogenesis by urethan administration to suckling rats MATSUYAMA M. ...
C57BL/6 and 129 inbred mouse strains differ in Gbp2 and Gbp2b expression in response to inflammatory stimuli in vivo. ... Notably, Toxoplasma infections induce robust Gbp2b protein expression in both strains of mice, suggestive of a Toxoplasma- ... Individual Gbp deletion strains differ in their design, as some strains exist on a pure C57BL/6 genetic background, while other ... We further find that the higher expression of Gbp2b mRNA in 129/Sv mice correlates with a gene duplication event at the Gbp2b ...
1989). Recombinant inbred strains. In Genetic Variation in the Laboratory Mouse (ed. Lyon M. L., Searle A. G.), pp. 773-796. ... Both HRD-methylating and non-methylating strains are spread throughout the phylogeny of inbred laboratory mice (Tsang et al., ... 2005). A comprehensive SNP-based genetic analysis of inbred mouse strains. Mamm. Genome 16, 476-480. doi:10.1007/s00335-005- ... Mecp2-deficient mice. Two lines of Mecp2-deficient mice were obtained from Jackson Laboratory: B6.129P2(C)-Mecp2tm1.Bird/J (Guy ...
Mouse; Inbred Strains; Pulmonary Brosis; Silica; Silicosis ... Laboratory-animals; Animals; Animal-studies; Collagen-fibrils; ... We exposed C57B1/6 and 129 strains of mice by aerosol to cristobalite silica (70 mg/m3, 12 days, 5 hours/day) or sham-air and ... Total lung OH-proline was significantly increased in silica-exposed mice from both stains at both time points. Comparing all 8 ... and was increased significantly by image analysis in C57B1/6 and 129 mice with silicosis 16 weeks after exposure. ...
"Origins of mouse inbred strains deduced from whole-genome scanning by polymorphic microsatellite loci, Mammalian Genome" on ... Evidence from mtDNA sequences that common laboratory strains of inbred mice are descended from a single female ... Origins of mouse inbred strains deduced from whole-genome scanning by polymorphic microsatellite loci. Origins of mouse inbred ... we carried out whole-genome scanning using eight common inbred strains (CIS) of laboratory mice, including A/J, C57BL/6J, CBA/J ...
"Within-strain variation in behavior differs consistently between common inbred strains of mice, Mammalian Genome" on DeepDyve, ... A reason for the limited success of a 30 year long effort to standardize laboratory animals? ... Within-strain variation in behavior differs consistently between common inbred strains of mice. Within-strain variation in ... Within-strain variation in behavior differs consistently between common inbred strains of mice. Loos, Maarten; Koopmans, ...
This strain is also known as CD-1. FVB inbred mice. The Jackson Laboratory. 1800. 5-6 weeks of age. ... PicoLab Mouse diet 20, #5058. This is our standard breeder chow. High fat rodent chow (alternative). Harlan Laboratories. ... Officially called a mouse and neonatal rat adaptor. Biohazard disposal bags with sterile indicator. VWR. 14220-030. Important ... Chakrabarty, P., et al. Capsid serotype and timing of injection determines AAV transduction in the neonatal mice brain. PloS ...
The nutrition of the mouse. I. A difference in the riboflavin requirements of two highly inbred strains. J. Nutr. 34:273-283. ... Effect of open and closed formula rations on the performance of three strains of laboratory mice. Lab. Anim. Sci. 24:480-487. ... Strain difference in vitamin E and B12 and certain mineral trace-element requirements for reproduction in A and Z mice. Am. J. ... The effect of varying zinc levels on growth and antibody mediated response in two strains of mice. J. Nutr. 109:1373-1376. ...
"Rules for Nomenclature of Inbred Strains". In Green, Margaret C. (ed.). Genetic Variants and Strains of the Laboratory Mouse. ... Such strains are useful in the analysis of variance within an inbred strain or between inbred strains because any differences ... A genealogical chart of mouse inbred strains can be found here on the Jackson Laboratory website and is currently being ... Thus outbred strains of most laboratory animals are also available, where an outbred strain is a strain of an organism that is ...
  • Previously, besides the considered Swiss Webster mice, only two inbred strains (C57Bl/6, DBA/2) were investigated for the presence of helminths in Brazil (Pinto et al. (scielo.br)
  • The group B was represented by the strains C57Bl/6, CBA, BALB/c and C3H/He, with 25 mice each. (scielo.br)
  • In the study regarding the prevalence of species, the strains C57Bl/6, C57Bl/10 and C3H/He showed high percentages (88-96%) for A. tetraptera , whereas BALB/c, DBA/2 and C3H/He presented higher prevalence (80-100%) for S . obvelata , while the prevalence of V. nana was higher (92%) in the C3H/He strain. (scielo.br)
  • A. tetraptera was associated to V. nana in C57Bl/6, C57Bl/10 and C3H/He mice. (scielo.br)
  • In experiments to generate transgenic mice, the same DNA constructs were injected into three different types of zygotes: FVB/N, C57BL/6J, and (C57BL/6J x SJL/J)F1. (pnas.org)
  • Quantitative trait loci analysis for plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations and atherosclerosis susceptibility between inbred mouse strains C57BL/6J. (nih.gov)
  • The C57BL/6 (B6) and 129 mouse inbred strains differ markedly in plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations and atherosclerosis susceptibility after a high-fat diet consumption. (nih.gov)
  • Percent fat increased slightly in strains 129S1/SvImJ, A/J, and DBA/2J, but did not increase in strains BALB/cByJ, and C57BL/6J. (nih.gov)
  • One of the most used inbred mouse models, the C57BL/6 is used in nearly every research application, and it's commonly used as the genetic background for transgenic mouse models. (taconic.com)
  • Historical data shows that hydrocephaly occurs in the C57BL/6 mouse in 0.05% of the population and may not be evident until the animal is more than two months of age. (taconic.com)
  • Ssm1 family members in C57BL/6 (B6) and DBA/2 (D2) mice have various amino acid changes in their ZF domain and in the linker between the KRAB and ZF domains. (biologists.org)
  • When HRD is carried in certain inbred strains of mice ( Mus musculus ), such as C57BL/6 (B6), it is highly methylated at CpG nucleotides. (biologists.org)
  • C57BL/6 and 129 inbred mouse strains differ in Gbp2 and Gbp2b expression in response to inflammatory stimuli in vivo. (crick.ac.uk)
  • C57BL/6 and 129 inbred mo. (crick.ac.uk)
  • Individual Gbp deletion strains differ in their design, as some strains exist on a pure C57BL/6 genetic background, while other strains contain a 129-derived genetic interval encompassing the Gbp gene cluster on an otherwise C57BL/6 genetic background. (crick.ac.uk)
  • Methods: To determine whether the presence of 129 alleles of paralogous Gbps could influence the phenotypes of 129-congenic Gbp-deficient strains, we studied the expression of Gbps in both C57BL/6J and 129/Sv mice following in vivo stimulation with adjuvants and after infection with either Toxoplasma gondii or Shigella flexneri. (crick.ac.uk)
  • Results: We show that C57BL/6J relative to 129/Sv mice display moderately elevated expression of Gbp2, but more prominently, are also defective for Gbp2b (formerly Gbp1) mRNA induction upon immune priming. (crick.ac.uk)
  • Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate functional differences between 129 and C57BL/6 Gbp alleles which need to be considered in the design and interpretation of studies utilizing mouse models, particularly for phenotypes influenced by Gbp2 or Gbp2b expression. (crick.ac.uk)
  • Strikingly, across a multidimensional set of 115 behavioral parameters, several strains consistently ranked high in within-strain variability (DBA/2J, 129S1/Sv A/J and NOD/LtJ), whereas other strains ranked low (C57BL/6J and BALB/c). (deepdyve.com)
  • Two common strains of laboratory mice, C57BL/6J and DBA/2J, have telomeres several times longer than most other mammals surveyed. (mendeley.com)
  • Telomeres of all three inbred lines are significantly lengthened relative to outbred P. leucopus, and the three lines display strain-specific significantly different telomere lengths, much like the C57BL/6J and DBA/2J strains of M. musculus. (mendeley.com)
  • The AKR6 segment spanning the two substitutions, but not the entire AKR6 env -LTR, exists as an ERV, termed Xmv67 , in AKR, but not in the C57BL/6 mice. (mdpi.com)
  • The oxytocin receptor (OXTR) has been observed in the periphery of neonatal C57BL/6J mice ( Mus musculus ), including facial regions and the anogenital area. (frontiersin.org)
  • While there were some areas that showed conserved OXTR ligand binding in the prairie vole (e.g., ciliary body of the eye and the anogenital area), areas showing OXTR ligand binding in the neonatal prairie vole were not identical to OXTR ligand binding in the periphery of the C57BL/6J neonatal mouse. (frontiersin.org)
  • Previous work from our lab examined OXTR in the periphery of neonatal C57Bl/6J mice, finding OXTR ligand binding was regionally specific in wild-type mice and absent in the Oxtr knockout mouse ( Greenwood and Hammock, 2017 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • and the across-generation accumulated genetic variability on litter size in 46 generations of a C57BL/6J inbred strain. (genetics.org)
  • First, we designed to develop a measuring system for the respiratory gas exchange of running mice and to determine the physical capacity of two widely used mouse strains, C57BL/6J and BALB/c. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The founder mice were selected on the basis of their producing sterile male offspring in matings with C57BL/10J mice. (jax.org)
  • In considering the positive selective pressure to maintain inflammasomes in defense against infection, many infectious studies were performed using knockout (KO) mice, typically on the C57BL/6 background. (jimmunol.org)
  • To study the genetic inheritance of resistant/susceptibility to P. berghei ANKA infection we analysed backcross and F2 cohorts derived from crossing the WLA wild-derived strain with a laboratory mouse strain (C57BL/6). (diva-portal.org)
  • p. 1508 ) have detected differences in cocaine response between the widely used C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J mouse strains and used quantitative trait locus analysis to identify a mutation in an inducible gene, Cyfip , that interacts with the Fragile X protein (FMRP) to regulate sensitivity and sensitization to cocaine through regulation of neuronal connectivity. (sciencemag.org)
  • The inbred mouse C57BL/6J is the reference strain for genome sequence and for most behavioral and physiological phenotypes. (sciencemag.org)
  • However, the International Knockout Mouse Consortium uses an embryonic stem cell line derived from a related C57BL/6N substrain. (sciencemag.org)
  • mMSCs were obtained from 4 inbred strains of mice (Jackson Labs, Bar Harbor, ME): C57Bl/6J (Bl/6), BALB/c, FVB/N, and DBA1. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In addition, mMSCs were also obtained from the inbred transgenic strain C57Bl/6-TgN(ACTbEGFP)1Osb (GFPtg) that ubiquitously expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (Jackson Labs). (bloodjournal.org)
  • C57BL/6) mice is usually subclinical, with lower levels of viral replication in the visceral organs and development of nonfatal lesions. (asm.org)
  • Genetic regulation of this response has been localized to the Lps locus on mouse chromosome 4, through study of the C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr inbred strains. (rupress.org)
  • Both C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice are homozygous for a mutant Lps allele ( Lps d/d ) that confers hyporesponsiveness to LPS challenge, and therefore exhibit natural tolerance to its lethal effects. (rupress.org)
  • C3H/HeJ mice have a point mutation within the coding region of the Tlr4 gene, resulting in a nonconservative substitution of a highly conserved proline by histidine at codon 712, whereas C57BL/ 10ScCr mice exhibit a deletion of Tlr4 . (rupress.org)
  • C57BL/6J mice (sIgM −/− ) that were deficient in the production of secreted IgM but capable of expressing surface IgM and secreting other immunoglobulin isotypes were vulnerable to lethal infection, even after inoculation with low doses of WNV. (rupress.org)
  • We found that strains with the P451 allele (BALB/cJ and 129X1/SvJ) had stronger femurs and higher levels of the bone resorption marker C-telopeptide collagen (CTX) compared to C57Bl/6 (B6) and DBA/2J mice. (hindawi.com)
  • To determine whether the enhanced influenza virus susceptibility is due to intrinsically reduced antiviral activity of the CAST-derived Mx1 allele, we generated a congenic C57BL/6J mouse line that carries the Mx locus of CAST/EiJ mice. (asm.org)
  • Adult animals of this line were almost as susceptible to influenza virus challenge as standard C57BL/6J mice lacking functional Mx1 alleles but exhibited far more pronounced resistance to Thogoto virus. (asm.org)
  • Herein, we show that MAITs are 20 times more frequent in clean wild-derived inbred CAST/EiJ mice than in C57BL/6J mice. (jci.org)
  • Two strains, DBA/2J and C57BL/6J, differed in trait and restraint-induced anxiety-related behavior (dark/light exploration, elevated plus maze). (jneurosci.org)
  • FVB/N mice offer a system suitable for most transgenic experiments and subsequent genetic analyses. (pnas.org)
  • Genetic markers of the FVB/N strain have been analyzed for 44 loci that cover 15 chromosomes and were compared with those of commonly used inbred strains. (pnas.org)
  • Recombinant inbred (RI) strains are a powerful tool for analyzing not only single genetic traits but also multifactorial genetic traits. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • For minimizing the variation of glucose tolerance in each strain, all mice were fed the high-carbohydrate diet and subjected to phenotypic and genetic analyses. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Inbred strains are genetically homogeneous, and the genetic and environmental components can be strictly controlled in the experimental setting. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The genetic analysis of a multifactorial disease in experimental animals such as mice and rats is much more revealing than that of a similar disease in human subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A natural mouse model reveals genetic determinants of systemic capillary leak syndrome (Clarkson disease). (harvard.edu)
  • Genetic comparison between subspecies' groups and common inbred strains (CIS) have revealed that the genetic background of CIS is derived mainly from DOM. (go.jp)
  • This shows the importance of non-DOM wild mice as valuable genetic resources. (go.jp)
  • Extensive genetic analyses of chromosome C-banding pattern, biochemical markers and microsatellite DNA (MIT) markers of this strain have demonstrated the characteristics of MUS. (go.jp)
  • Genetic variants and strains of the laboratory mouse , pp. 797-825. (springer.com)
  • Progeny from an interspecific backcross between laboratory mice and Mus spretus were typed for inheritance of eight genetic markers on chromosome 12. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It should be borne in mind that genetic drift means that there may still be unknown genetic differences between individuals within strains. (jax.org)
  • This indicates that cardiovascular phenotypes are unlikely to segregate according to global phylogeny, but rather be governed by smaller, local differences in the genetic architecture of the various strains. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Genetic analysis of 117 albino rat strains collected from all parts of the world carried out by a team led by Takashi Kuramoto at Kyoto University in 2012, showed that the albino rats descended from hooded rats and all the albino rats descended from a single ancestor. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was the first in a series of development that have begun to make rats tractable as genetic research subjects, although they still lag behind mice, which lend themselves better to the embryonic stem cell techniques typically used for genetic manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many investigators who wish to trace observations on behavior and physiology to underlying genes regard aspects of these in rats as more relevant to humans and easier to observe than in mice, giving impetus to the development of genetic research techniques applicable to rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • To address this question of genetic liability, we tested the impact of OP and glucocorticoid exposure in a genetic reference population of 30 inbred mouse strains. (cdc.gov)
  • A laboratory animal's nutritional status influences its ability to reach its genetic potential for growth, reproduction, and longevity and to respond to pathogens and other environmental stresses. (nap.edu)
  • Together, these show that genetically inbred mouse strains consistently differ in phenotypic robustness against environmental variation, suggesting that genetic factors contribute to variation in robustness. (deepdyve.com)
  • With carefully controlled lineages and environments, samples derived from inbred mouse strains are amenable to powerful statistical dissection of complex genetic and environmental interactions ( 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Certain plants including the genetic model organism Arabidopsis thaliana naturally self-pollinate, which makes it quite easy to create inbred strains in the laboratory (other plants, including important genetic models such as maize require transfer of pollen from one flower to another). (wikipedia.org)
  • Such strains are useful in the analysis of variance within an inbred strain or between inbred strains because any differences would be due to the single genetic change, or to a difference in environmental conditions between two individuals of the same strain, One of the more specific uses of Drosophila inbred strains are the use of Gal4/UAS lines in research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inbreeding animals will sometimes lead to genetic drift. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, the two inbred laboratory mouse strains display significantly different telomere lengths, suggesting the existence of strain-specific genetic determinants. (mendeley.com)
  • To further characterize the genetic inheritance of telomere length, we carried out several crosses to obtain hybrid F(1) mice between parental strains displaying the phenotype of long and short telomeres. (mendeley.com)
  • is the lower limit of the genetic variability in inbred strains of mice, although greater values could be expected due to the accumulation of new mutations in successive generations. (genetics.org)
  • within the mixed-model framework, and the heritability obtained highlighted the significant and continuous influence of new genetic variability affecting the genetic stability of inbred strains. (genetics.org)
  • Moreover, a long time is needed for generating the strains, and the analysis using the response to selection typically ignores information on covariances between relatives within lines, a proportion of which can be genetic ( K eightley and H ill 1992 ). (genetics.org)
  • coming from current and previous generations and the loss of genetic variability due to selection, genetic drift, and/or inbreeding ( H ill 1982a , b ). (genetics.org)
  • Screening wheel-running behavior in inbred mouse strains highlighted differences among strains, showing that even very limited genetic differences deeply affect mouse behavior. (hindawi.com)
  • 1999). Sterility of male hybrid offspring of crosses between PWD and most inbred laboratory strains provides a tool for analysis of the genetic bases for interspecies hybrid sterility. (jax.org)
  • This thesis focuses on the genetic analysis of resistance to murine malaria induced by the lethal Plasmodium berghei ANKA using a wild-derived-inbred strain (WDIS). (diva-portal.org)
  • By necessity and design, elucidation of circadian mechanisms has mostly relied on using model organisms that are amenable to genetic manipulation and standard laboratory housing. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • However, new genetically-diverse mouse resources have now been developed to better simulate the genetic diversity found in human populations and overcome many of the limitations of linkage mapping in the human population in an experimental model system. (nih.gov)
  • These features of mMSCs greatly limited the ability to test the cells in the large number of interesting genetic models that are now available as transgenic mice. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Given that most genetic diseases attributed to the lack of a single gene have consistently similar defects in every affected individual, the highly varied abnormalities observed in the maternal TRIM28-deficient, yet genetically identical mice, were peculiar. (innovations-report.com)
  • Genetic resistance to clinical mousepox (ectromelia virus) varies among inbred laboratory mice and is characterized by an effective natural killer (NK) response and the early onset of a strong CD8 + cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response in resistant mice. (asm.org)
  • In this chapter, we suggest that mouse models are useful for studying genetic background effects for acquired hearing loss. (intechopen.com)
  • The genetic analysis of mouse models identified the genetic modifiers. (intechopen.com)
  • We review the genetic research in mouse models for acquired hearing loss to identify and confirm the modifiers by both forward and reverse genetics approaches. (intechopen.com)
  • The ongoing research in my laboratory is focused on the genetic dissection of behavioral traits associated with risk for the development of alcohol and drug use disorders. (ohsu.edu)
  • Mice with naturally-occurring genetic variants or engineered or selectively bred to possess genetic alterations are utilized in pharmacological, genetic mapping, and gene expression studies to identify mechanisms underlying differences in drug risk and response. (ohsu.edu)
  • Genetic models we use include selectively bred mouse lines, panels of inbred strains, transgenic mice, knockout mice, recombinant inbred strains, and congenic strains. (ohsu.edu)
  • The complexity, depth and associated high cost of information which can now be acquired from exploring mouse model systems mean that strict, stable genetic standards are paramount. (imgs.org)
  • Any genetic change in a strain can potentially lead to phenotypic change. (imgs.org)
  • Furthermore, genetic contamination of inbred strains can occur even in the best mouse house leading to unexpected and confounding outcomes. (imgs.org)
  • We present how The Jackson Laboratory controls for genetic contamination and is reducing genetic drift to almost negligible levels by continual Genetic Quality Control monitoring and the creative use of in vitro fertilization and cryopreservation. (imgs.org)
  • The upholding of stable genetic standards for inbred lines enables the international community to develop valid massive comparative data sets which can be used for the foreseeable future. (imgs.org)
  • The goal of this study was simultaneously to map two genetic loci which, collectively, have a large effect on intake of sucrose, saccharin and quinine solutions in mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The mice Snell had bred, which he called "congenic," had made it possible to follow the effects of a single gene in a constant genetic background. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Many of these sources of variability can be eliminated in a laboratory setting using mouse models, in which rigorous genetic and experimental control can be achieved. (jneurosci.org)
  • Currently, most of our genetic studies of social behaviors use the mouse as a model organism, because of the experimental control that a model organism provides, and because of the many resources available for mouse genetics. (upenn.edu)
  • 2002). Currently, we are fine-mapping these genetic loci by breeding interval-specific congenic strains, and we are sequencing and analyzing positional candidate genes for aggression. (upenn.edu)
  • He has used recombinant inbred strains and genetic mapping techniques to identify the chromosomal location of the ocular angiogenesis modifying loci. (childrenshospital.org)
  • By identifying the genetic determinates of angiogenic responsiveness within inbred mouse strains, he hopes to further understand the factors that regulate ocular angiogenesis in humans. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Genetic heterogeneity of angiogenesis in mice. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Other approaches include studies of multiple inbred strains of mice examining the basis for genetic correlations between susceptibilities to different effects of ethanol and different drugs of abuse. (ohsu.edu)
  • These studies have explored the specificity of genetic influences across different environments, including multiple laboratories. (ohsu.edu)
  • The Collaborative Cross (CC) represents a large collection of new inbred mouse strains created by the mouse genetics community aimed at revolutionizing the study of complex genetic traits and diseases. (redorbit.com)
  • Derived from classical inbred strains and wild-derived strains, the CC captures nearly 90% of known genetic variation in laboratory mice, far surpassing more commonly used inbred strains. (redorbit.com)
  • In this work, Aylor and colleagues performed an experiment called the "the pre-CC study," the first genetic data and analysis from the emerging strains of the CC. Their investigation revealed that the genomes of CC strains are genetically diverse and contain balanced contributions from each founding strain. (redorbit.com)
  • utilized ancestry information of the CC strains to map genetic loci for a Mendelian trait (white head-spotting), a complex trait (body weight), and a molecular trait (gene expression in the liver), demonstrating the ancestry-based approach to be superior to established marker-based methods for trait loci discovery. (redorbit.com)
  • The development of the Collaborative Cross presents a unique opportunity to investigate how the breeding of inbred strains affects genetic structure and the diversity of phenotypes. (redorbit.com)
  • The mouse has been an important model for studying Aspergillus infection, but classical laboratory strains of mice used in these studies arose from a small set of founders and lack most of the genetic variation present in wild mice, limiting researchers' ability to identify additional genetic loci relevant to disease. (redorbit.com)
  • In this study, Durrant and colleagues utilized inbred mouse strains from the Collaborative Cross, taking advantage of the genetic contribution of wild-derived strains, to identify novel loci that confer susceptibility to infection with the fungus Aspergillus. (redorbit.com)
  • By integrating genetic variation data from the genomes of the founding strains of the CC, Durrant et al. (redorbit.com)
  • Inbred mouse strains provide a relatively stable and restricted range of genetic and environmental variability that is valuable for disentangling gene-stress interactions. (jneurosci.org)
  • A panel of different mouse strains represents a significant but restricted degree of genetic diversity in which environmental variance can be carefully controlled. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our laboratory is using a relatively new eight-way recombinant inbred mouse population, the Collaborative Cross (CC), which offers increased genetic and phenotypic diversity over traditional inbred mouse strains. (easychair.org)
  • We performed genetic mapping in a F2 intercross population derived from the CC strain with low cocaine locomotor activation and identified three significant quantitative trait loci (QTL). (easychair.org)
  • Three inbred strains with different origins were used, these were CPBs (Balb), CBA and C 57 Black. (brillonline.com)
  • Learn how the original BALB/c strain separated into two major substrains (BALB/cJ and BALB/cByJ) and how to decide which one. (jax.org)
  • We extended this observation to substrains of the same inbred mouse strain, that is, BALB/c mice. (hindawi.com)
  • BALB/c) mice, the disease is an acute systemic infection with high viral titers in the liver and spleen with resultant necrosis and high mortality. (asm.org)
  • By sequencing the most common strains of inbred mice, we found that only a few strains (BALB, NOD, NZW, and 129) were harboring the wild allelic version of the mutation (P451) in the gene for the purinergic receptor P2X7. (hindawi.com)
  • Our studies indicate that the BALB/cJ inbred strain shows reduced sociability and other behavioral and neurobiological traits relevant to autism (Brodkin, in press). (upenn.edu)
  • A new set of studies in our laboratory is aimed at elucidating the brain pathways that underlie this reduced sociability of BALB/cJ mice. (upenn.edu)
  • Susceptible C3H/HeJ mice had markedly higher burdens of bacterial DNA than resistant BALB/c mice, and penicillin G treatment significantly reduced the numbers of spirochetes. (asm.org)
  • The apparent mosaic structure of the mouse genome can be exploited for QTL mapping in two ways. (pnas.org)
  • The approach is identical to the exploitation of haplotype blocks (regions of complete or almost complete linkage disequilibrium) in the human genome for association mapping ( 9 ) but requires a different analysis to take advantage of the small number of founder animals from which laboratory strains are descended. (pnas.org)
  • If the genome is sequenced so that each nucleotide position is covered with good-quality sequence x times on average, then the probability that a polymorphism is not covered in one strain will be e - x , assuming a Poisson distribution. (pnas.org)
  • Although 71,000 SNPs were analyzed, just 7.8% of the genome was covered in all strains ( x = 1.3 and n = 8 gives 0.727 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Analysis of the class III region of the mouse, using human probes, showed that all human class III genes tested thusfar seem to have homologous counterparts in the mouse genome. (springer.com)
  • Mouse strain names should be registered through the Mouse Genome Database (MGD) at http://www.informatics.jax.org/mgihome/submissions/amsp_submission.cgi . (jax.org)
  • Rat strain names should be registered through the Rat Genome Database (RGD) at http://rgd.mcw.edu/tools/strains/strainRegistrationIndex.cgi . (jax.org)
  • The genome of the laboratory mouse is thought to be a mosaic of regions with distinct subspecific origins. (nih.gov)
  • We have developed a high-resolution map of the origin of the laboratory mouse by generating 25,400 phylogenetic trees at 100-kb intervals spanning the genome. (nih.gov)
  • The laboratory mouse genome has been sequenced and many mouse genes have human homologues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The laboratory is also the world's source for more than 8,000 strains of genetically defined mice and is home of the Mouse Genome Informatics database. (wikipedia.org)
  • We further find that the higher expression of Gbp2b mRNA in 129/Sv mice correlates with a gene duplication event at the Gbp2b locus resulting in two copies of the Gbp2b gene on the haploid genome of the 129/Sv strain. (crick.ac.uk)
  • M. m. musculus is estimated to have diverged approximately 1 million years ago from M. m. domesticus , the subspecies from which derives most of the genome of practically every laboratory mouse strain. (jax.org)
  • Genome-wide microsatellite typing for 248 loci of PWD/Ph, PWK/Ph (distributed as PWK/PhJ, Stock No. 0003715) and/or PWB/Ph - very similar inbred strains derived from M. m. musculus pairs caught in the central Czech Republic - versus mice of three inbred laboratory strains revealed upto 80% of the loci to be polymorphic between at least one PW strain and at least one inbred strain analyzed. (jax.org)
  • knockout mouse a mouse that has had a specific gene artificially deleted from its genome. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Through whole-genome sequencing analysis, we report that a homozygous splice site mutation in coiled-coil domain containing 39 ( Ccdc39 ) is responsible for early postnatal hydrocephalus in the progressive hydrocephal us ( prh ) mouse mutant. (biologists.org)
  • We report genome sequences of 17 inbred strains of laboratory mice and identify almost ten times more variants than previously known. (sanger.ac.uk)
  • Sequence-based characterization of structural variation in the mouse genome. (sanger.ac.uk)
  • Previously, in a whole genome scan, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on chromosome 10 and chromosome X that affect intermale aggressive behaviors in a cross of NZB/B1NJ and A/J inbred mice (Brodkin et al. (upenn.edu)
  • Xenotropic retroviruses, first discovered in mice, have the unusual characteristic of being endogenous to animal species, i.e., integrated into the animal's genome, but not able to reinfect cells from that species. (sciencemag.org)
  • Genome-Wide Expression Profiles Drive Discovery of Novel Compounds that Reduce Binge Drinking in Mice. (ohsu.edu)
  • Genome Research has published three articles online in-advance utilizing strains from the emerging Collaborative Cross mouse strains. (redorbit.com)
  • Furthermore, it has been suggested that allelic strain distribution patterns also occur in well defined blocks and consequently could be used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) in comparisons between inbred strains. (pnas.org)
  • However, sampling has so far been carried out at a low density: Wiltshire and colleagues ( 3 ) sequenced 2,600 evenly distributed loci at intervals of ≈1.1 megabases (Mb) in eight inbred strains. (pnas.org)
  • An examination in the F 16 sample of eight adiposity quantitative trait loci previously identified in an F 2 intercross of SM/J and LG/J mouse strains reveals locus-by-diet interactions for all previously mapped loci. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A strain is inbred when it has undergone at least 20 generations of brother x sister or offspring x parent mating, at which point at least 98.6% of the loci in an individual of the strain will be homozygous, and each individual can be treated effectively as clones. (wikipedia.org)
  • We concluded that inbreeding, through unknown mechanisms, results in the elongation of telomeres, and that telomere length for a given species and/or sub-strain is genetically determined by multiple segregating loci. (mendeley.com)
  • This strain is an excellent tool for mapping both single-gene (Mendelian) traits and quantitative trait loci (QTL) contributing to complex phenotypes. (jax.org)
  • 1997). It has been estimated that no more than 3-4 loci contribute to the sterility phenotype of laboratory strain x M. m. musculus hybrid males (Gregorova and Forejt 2000). (jax.org)
  • PWD exhibited alleles at three loci that were uncommon among laboratory mice, but were identified in wild-caught M. m. musculus . (jax.org)
  • The high level of both phenotypic variation and DNA sequence polymorphism between PWD/PhJ and inbred laboratory strains and the fertility of hybrid offspring of both sexes from crosses between PWD/PhJ and some laboratory strain mice make this strain an excellent tool for mapping both single-gene (Mendelian) traits and quantitative trait loci (QTL) contributing to complex phenotypes. (jax.org)
  • Identification of two cerebral malaria resistance loci using an inbred wild-derived mouse strain. (diva-portal.org)
  • Quantitative trait loci associated with short-term intake of sucrose, saccharin and quinine solutions in laboratory mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In addition to the albino FVB/N strain, pigmented congenic strains of FVB/N are being constructed. (pnas.org)
  • Because of the wealth of data accumulated, we applied integrative analyses such as comprehensive bi-clustering to investigate the structure of the response across the different phenotypes, strains and experimental conditions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Finally, we observe little concordance between strain similarity based on the phenotypes and genotypic relatedness computed from genomic SNP profiles. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Breeding of inbred strains is often towards specific phenotypes of interest such as behavioural traits like alcohol preference or physical traits like aging, or they can be selected for traits that make them easier to use in experiments like being easy to use in transgenic experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the key strengths of using inbred strains as a model is that strains are readily available for whatever study one is performing and that there are resources such as the Jackson Laboratory, and Flybase, where one can look up strains with specific phenotypes or genotypes from among inbred lines, recombinant lines, and coisogenic strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mouse genomic variation and its effect on phenotypes and gene regulation. (sanger.ac.uk)
  • Dr. Brayton's expertise includes the spontaneous pathology and genetics of research mice, as well as the impacts of infectious and other environmental factors on pathology, disease expression, and other phenotypes in diverse research models. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Dr. Brayton's expertise includes the spontaneous pathology and genetics of research mice, as well as the impact of infectious and other environmental factors on pathology, disease expression and other phenotypes in diverse species. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • have evaluated the range of many traits in late inbreeding populations of the CC, including such phenotypes as body weight, tail length, heart weight, and behavioral traits. (redorbit.com)
  • Here, we screened a panel of inbred strains for anxiety- and depression-related phenotypes at baseline (trait) and after exposure to repeated restraint. (jneurosci.org)
  • Previous studies have found differences in various "emotion-related" phenotypes across inbred strains. (jneurosci.org)
  • Mice and rats used in the laboratory derive from a variety of sources. (jax.org)
  • Little and Castle collaborated closely with Abbie Lathrop who was a breeder of fancy mice and rats which she marketed to rodent hobbyists and keepers of exotic pets, and later began selling in large numbers to scientific researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • While less commonly used for research than mice , rats have served as an important animal model for research in psychology and biomedical science . (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the next 30 years rats were used for several more experiments and eventually the laboratory rat became the first animal domesticated for purely scientific reasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] As there is evidence that the hooded rat was known as the "Japanese rat" in the early 20th century, Kuramoto concluded that one or more Japanese hooded rats might have been brought to Europe or the Americas and an albino rat that emerged as a product of the breeding of these hooded rats was the common ancestor of all the albino laboratory rats in use today. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] Laboratory rats are frequently subject to dissection or microdialysis to study internal effects on organs and the brain, such as for cancer or pharmacological research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory rats not sacrificed may be euthanized or, in some cases, become pets . (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists have bred many strains or "lines" of rats specifically for experimentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other common strains are the Sprague Dawley, Fischer 344, [8] Holtzman albino strains, Long-Evans, and Lister black hooded rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • [9] In October 2003, researchers succeeded in cloning two laboratory rats by nuclear transfer . (wikipedia.org)
  • This essay presents some practical advice and suggestions for those who wish to use mice and rats in experiments on the biology of aging. (afar.org)
  • This article is intended to convey some rules-of-thumb for investigators just starting to think about the design of experiments on aging using mice and rats. (afar.org)
  • In addition the word "mice" will be used throughout to mean "mice and rats," except in those cases where mice are different from rats. (afar.org)
  • Vom Saal's latest hijinks, conveniently timed for aB 319, are centered around his new claim that of 115 published studies on BPa, 94 of them reported significant effects in rats and mice, while 21 studies did not. (canadafreepress.com)
  • The idea that a low-calorie diet would extend life originated in the 1930s with a study of laboratory rats. (nytimes.com)
  • In all but the most restrictive use of the term (genus Mus ), the main distinction between mice and rats is a matter of size, with relatively smaller animals, perhaps 12 centimeters (5 inches) or less, considered as mice and similarly looking animals that are larger designated as rats. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • As rodents, both mice and rats are characterized by dentition specialized for gnawing, including a single pair of upper incisors, a single pair of lower incisors, and a gap followed by one or more molars, as well as no canine teeth and not more than one incisor in each quadrant (Myers 2000). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The original motivation for the domestication of cats is thought to have been for their predation of mice and their relatives, the rats . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In Webster's Third New International Dictionary , a mouse is broadly defined as "any of numerous small rodents typically resembling diminutive rats with pointed snout, rather small ears, elongated body and slender hairless or sparsely haired tail, including all the small members of the genus Mus and many members of other rodent genera and families having little more in common than their relatively small size" (Silver 1995). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • 2006) designate Muridae as including Old World mice and rats (as well as gerbils, whistling rats, and others), Cricetidae as including New World mice and rats (as well as voles, hamsters, and relatives), and Nesomyidae as including African and Malagasy endemic mice and rats. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • A quick survey of the literature shows that there is lot of information on the physiological and anatomical changes in mice, rats and guinea pigs, following noise exposure. (case.edu)
  • Research title: Molecular Genetics of Laboratory Animal (mice/rats). (ncyu.edu.tw)
  • This resistance was not attributable to differences in lipid composition (specifically, docosahexaenoic acid) between A. ansorgei and susceptible strains of mice and rats. (arvojournals.org)
  • We ue selected rats rather than mice beacause our studies focus on complex operant and other procedures that are difficult to perform in mice. (easychair.org)
  • however, development of clinical mousepox among inbred mouse strains differs greatly ( 44 ). (asm.org)
  • In addition to our work on aggressive behaviors, we have demonstrated differences among inbred mouse strains in sociability, using a social choice behavioral paradigm (Brodkin et al. (upenn.edu)
  • Abstract: The use of mice and, in particular, genetically engineered mice to study normal and pathological biology pathways has increased exponentially in the last decade. (imgs.org)
  • Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME 04609. (pnas.org)
  • The Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine is currently one of the world's largest suppliers of laboratory mice, at around 3 million mice a year. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Jackson Laboratory is committed to setting quality standards in animal care and ensuring that these standards are maintained throughout all of our mouse colonies. (jax.org)
  • The definitive resource for anyone working with laboratory mice, this is the 6th edition of The Jackson Laboratory Handbook on Genetically. (jax.org)
  • Learn about the barrier facilities maintained at The Jackson Laboratory and the husbandry restrictions that apply to each. (jax.org)
  • The Jackson Laboratory, founded by the geneticist Clarence Cook Little, was a center for study on mammalian genetics and renowned for its program on mouse genetics. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In 1946 Peter Gorer of Guy's Hospital in London, England, joined Snell in his research at the Jackson Laboratory. (encyclopedia.com)
  • We report a detailed analysis of polymorphism distribution in multiple inbred mouse strains over a 4.8-megabase region containing a QTL influencing anxiety. (pnas.org)
  • We do not yet know whether claims for the utility of the mosaic structure of inbred strain sequences for QTL mapping will be supported by higher resolution data on polymorphism distribution. (pnas.org)
  • suggesting either that it represents an ancient polymorphism found in the wild ancestors of laboratory mice or that a mutation occurred very early in the history of mouse domestication which then assorted itself among inbred strains. (biologists.org)
  • Comparisons of these strains to laboratory inbred strains confirmed a higher rate of polymorphism among the WDIS. (diva-portal.org)
  • IRG protein polymorphism in inbred mouse strains. (elifesciences.org)
  • These features make the FVB/N strain advantageous to use for research with transgenic mice. (pnas.org)
  • The protocol should make it possible to undertake a large number of experiments with MSCs in transgenic mice that have previously not been possible. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Inbreeding and Cryopreservation of Human Serum Albumin (HSA) Transgenic Mice. (ncyu.edu.tw)
  • Gasser, D.L., Yadvish, K.N., Trammell, M.A., and Goldman, A.S.: Recombinants in the H-2S/H-2D interval of mouse chromosome 17 define the map position of a gene for cleft palate susceptibility. (springer.com)
  • Oomen, L.C.J.M., Van der Valk, M.A., and Demant, P.: MHC and non-MHC genes in lung tumor susceptibility in the mouse: Implications for the study of different lung tumor types and their cell of origin. (springer.com)
  • Overall, the reviewed evidence suggests that, in laboratory rodents, elevated DA transmission increases susceptibility to premature responding, while low DA increases preference for immediately available rewards over larger but more distal or difficult to attain ones. (frontiersin.org)
  • PWD/Ph mice exhibit differences are genetically distinct from common laboratory mice for a number of complex phenotypic characteristics, including body mass, distribution of adipose tissue, serum concentrations of intermediary metabolites, susceptibility to type I diabetes and various behavioral traits (Gregorova and Forejt 2000). (jax.org)
  • Although inflammasome-deficient mice have increased susceptibility to many pathogens, the effect of inflammasomes on experimental survival studies is typically incremental. (jimmunol.org)
  • Most inbred strains of laboratory mice exhibit reproducible susceptibility to the proinflammatory and toxic properties of LPS. (rupress.org)
  • Most other laboratory inbred mouse strains carry truncated nonfunctional Mx1 alleles and, consequently, exhibit high virus susceptibility. (asm.org)
  • Thus, the enhanced influenza virus susceptibility of CAST/EiJ mice can be explained by minor alterations in the MX1 restriction factor that negatively affect its enzymatic activity and reduce its half-life. (asm.org)
  • Collaborative Cross mice and their power to map host susceptibility to Aspergillus fumigatus infection. (redorbit.com)
  • An Automated Method To Predict Mouse Gene and Protein Sequences Using Variant Data. (harvard.edu)
  • In a mouse model of GWI we developed, corticosterone was shown to act synergistically with an OP (diisopropylflurophosphate) to dramatically increase proinflammatory cytokine gene expression in the brain. (cdc.gov)
  • This may imply that mice that do not have the Ssm1b gene may use another member of the Ssm1 family to control the potentially harmful expression of certain endogenous or exogenous genes. (biologists.org)
  • To study the physiological functions of Gbp family members, the most commonly chosen in vivo models are mice harbouring loss-of-function mutations in either individual Gbp genes or the entire Gbp gene cluster on mouse chromosome 3. (crick.ac.uk)
  • To model gene-by-environment interactions in a mouse model system, our group has generated an F 16 advanced intercross line (AIL) from the SM/J and LG/J inbred strains. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Influences of inbreeding and gene. (mendeley.com)
  • Inbreeding also helps to ascertain the type of gene action affecting a trait. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inbreeding can significantly influence gene expression which can prevent inbreeding depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • A ) Linear order of IRG gene clusters on Chr 11 and Chr 18 of mouse strain BL/6. (elifesciences.org)
  • Polymorphisms in the taste receptor gene (Tas1r3) region are associated with saccharin preference in 30 mouse strains. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Identification of distinct mutations involving the same gene at the Lps locus in two different hyporesponsive inbred mouse strains strongly supports the hypothesis that altered Tlr4 function is responsible for endotoxin tolerance. (rupress.org)
  • Later, he helped develop a standardized gene nomenclature for mice. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For virtually every mouse gene, there is a homologous human gene, and vice versa. (upenn.edu)
  • We also are using single-gene mutant mice (e.g. knockouts) to dissect pathways that mediate aggressive behaviors. (upenn.edu)
  • The interferon-regulated Mx1 gene of the A2G mouse strain confers a high degree of resistance against influenza A and Thogoto viruses. (asm.org)
  • Interestingly, CAST/EiJ mice, derived from wild Mus musculus castaneus , possess a seemingly intact Mx1 gene but are highly susceptible to influenza A virus challenge. (asm.org)
  • This sequence, referred to as the A. phagocytophilum human anaplasmosis (AP-ha) signature sequence, differs by 2 bp from the sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of a variant strain, AP-Variant 1. (cdc.gov)
  • To maximise the robustness of transcriptome results, we have tested the performance and reproducibility of rat and mouse gene expression data obtained with Affymetrix, Illumina and Operon platforms. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The earlier tests used some of the exact substrains tested currently, while for some strains, different substrains (usually, Nih versus Jax) were tested. (springer.com)
  • Substrains should be identified by Laboratory codes, as should congenic and other strains where several different forms exist that are not otherwise distinguishable. (jax.org)
  • The behaviour of each strain was strain specific as appeared from a comparison with earlier reports on related substrains. (brillonline.com)
  • Second, QTL mapping can be carried out by associating phenotypic variation in inbred strains with their strain distribution pattern (SDP) [ in silico mapping ( 8 )], where an SDP is the pattern of allelic similarities and differences among strains at a locus. (pnas.org)
  • The results showed wide differences among strains and overall that females were less sensitive to the combined treatment than males. (cdc.gov)
  • The differences among MSCs from different strains may explain some of the conflicting data recently published on the engraftment of mouse MSCs or other bone marrow cells into nonhematopoietic tissues. (bloodjournal.org)
  • If single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are randomly distributed across the genomes of inbred strains, mapping QTL by SDP association with phenotype will require a very dense set of markers, but if the distribution is segmented, then a few markers will be sufficient to identify common haplotypes. (pnas.org)
  • Neither C3H/He nor C3H/HeN mice have the LPS tolerance phenotype characteristic of C3H/HeJ. (rupress.org)
  • Because P2X7 receptors are expressed in bone cells and are implicated in bone physiology, we asked whether strains with the P451L mutation have a different bone phenotype. (hindawi.com)
  • Phenotype and cytokine production by mouse MAITs. (jci.org)
  • Most QTL are mapped in F2 or back-crosses between inbred strains, a method with great power to detect small effects but with poor resolution: The 95% confidence interval often encompasses half a chromosome ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Hence, the probability that a site is covered in each of N strains will be (1 - e - x ) N . For example, analyzing shotgun reads covering chromosome 16 in four strains ( 3 , 10 ), enough sequence was generated to cover the chromosome 1.3 times for each strain, assuming every strain made an equal contribution. (pnas.org)
  • Comparison of linkage maps of mouse chromosome 12 derived from laboratory strain intraspecific and Mus spretus interspecific backcrosses. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The cardiac actin locus (Actc-1) is not on mouse chromosome 17 but is linked to beta 2-microglobulin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1 Mb region on mouse chromosome 3. (jimmunol.org)
  • He wrote his doctoral dissertation on linkage in mice (that is, the means by which two or more genes on a chromosome are interrelated). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Influenza virus resistance in mice is determined largely by the Mx locus on chromosome 16, which contains two interferon (IFN)-regulated genes, designated Mx1 and Mx2 ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • This guideline is reviewed annually by the international nomenclature committees for mouse and rat and updated as required. (jax.org)
  • Reference to former rules for rat strain nomenclature can be found in Committee on Rat Nomenclature (1992). (jax.org)
  • Production of inbred strains means that these backgrounds can be defined and thus require nomenclature conventions. (jax.org)
  • A key feature of mouse and rat nomenclature is the Laboratory Registration Code or Laboratory code, which is a code of usually three to four letters (first letter uppercase, followed by all lowercase) that identifies a particular institute, laboratory, or investigator that produced, and may hold stocks of, a mouse or rat strain. (jax.org)
  • Learn the highlights of mouse strain nomenclature with this poster. (jax.org)
  • Helpful hints for understanding hybrid strain nomenclature. (jax.org)
  • One type of inbred strain that either has been altered, or naturally mutated so that it is different at a single locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strains also have been found to differ in the new LRR test, as well as in the development of acute functional tolerance (AFT) to this response. (springer.com)
  • Earlier work also indicates that inbred strains differ in their response to stress as measured by various neural, neuroendocrine, and behavioral endpoints. (jneurosci.org)
  • Lafuse, W.P. and David, C.S.: Recombination hot spots within the I region of the mouse H-2 complex map to the Eß and Eα genes. (springer.com)
  • The phosphofructokinase (PFK) C ( Pfkp ) and the pitrilysin metalloprotease 1 ( Pitrm1 ) genes are compelling positional candidate genes in this region that show coding sequence differences between the parental strains in functional domains. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A hybrid between two inbred strains can be used to cancel out deleterious recessive genes resulting in an increase in the mentioned areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Six esterase genes were identified in PWD that had also been detected in Mus molossinus but whose products were absent from laboratory strains. (jax.org)
  • A ) Phylogenetic trees of five IRG genes sequenced from DNA of wild mice collected from various sites in Eurasia. (elifesciences.org)
  • Alleles found in heterozygous condition in certain mice are indicated by numbers appended to individual mouse identifiers (some haplotypes contain 2 Irgb6 paralogous genes ( Figure 2B ), hence potentially up to 4 alleles). (elifesciences.org)
  • B ) The nucleotide pairwise diversities (π) of genes across seven laboratory and wild-derived inbred mouse strains (BL/6, AKR/J, MSM/Ms, CAST/Ei, PWK/PhJ, WSB/Ei and Spretus/EiJ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Nucleotide diversities of 50 random genes in seven mouse strains. (elifesciences.org)
  • After many generations, he had two strains of mice that were genetically identical except for the genes that controlled transplant rejection. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The immunogeneticist Jean Dausset identified the first human his to compatibility protein and hypothesized correctly that there was a single set of MHC genes in humans that corresponded to the H-2 system in the mouse. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Also, we have initiated studies of mice with knockouts of autism candidate genes. (upenn.edu)
  • The laboratory is currently screening candidate genes and performing positional cloning techniques to isolate the responsible genes. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Strain patterns of sensitivity sometimes indicate the important influence of single genes on drug responses. (ohsu.edu)
  • Restraint produced strain-dependent expression alterations in various genes including glutamate receptors (e.g. (jneurosci.org)
  • We believe that this unique mouse population will be useful for identifying genes associated with increased vulnerability and/or resistance to the development of SUDs. (easychair.org)
  • This analysis revealed the scope of phenotypic variation that will be present in the finished strains of the CC. (redorbit.com)
  • The parental strains, SM/J and A/J, were nondiabetic, and the differences of the mean values of diabetes-related traits were small. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Most laboratory mice belong to a species of house mouse, Mus musculus . (go.jp)
  • Therefore, they should not be referred to by species name, but rather as laboratory mice or by use of a specific strain or stock name. (jax.org)
  • In addition, some recently developed laboratory mouse strains are derived wholly from other Mus species or other subspecies, such as M. spretus ). (jax.org)
  • Laboratory rat strains derive from the Rattus norvegicus species. (jax.org)
  • Another species, Rattus rattus , also is used as an experimental model, but has not contributed to the common laboratory rat strains. (jax.org)
  • Laboratory mice are usually of the species Mus musculus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other mouse species sometimes used in laboratory research include two American species, the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) and the North American deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1902 Lucien Cuénot published the results of his experiments using mice which showed that Mendel's laws of inheritance were also valid for animals - results that were soon confirmed and extended to other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • A laboratory rat or lab rat is a rat of the species Rattus norvegicus domestica which is bred and kept for scientific research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The historical importance of this species to scientific research is reflected by the amount of literature on it: roughly 50% more than that on laboratory mice . (wikipedia.org)
  • L -gulonolactone oxidase activity differs among rodent species, among rat strains, and between sexes within rat strains (Jenness et al. (nap.edu)
  • As a result, for most nutrients, it is not currently possible to establish separate requirements for various stages of life for individual laboratory animal species. (nap.edu)
  • Inbred strains (also called inbred lines, or rarely for animals linear animals) are individuals of a particular species which are nearly identical to each other in genotype due to long inbreeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Now in its fourth edition, Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits has become a standard text for veterinary pathologists, laboratory animal veterinarians, students, and others interested in these species. (wiley.com)
  • Mice are the most widely used model species for drug discovery and scientific research. (nature.com)
  • After all, the aging process, which creates decrepit old mice from healthy, fit, young ones, takes many months to do this, and age-dependent changes in many cells, tissue, and organ systems can usually be demonstrated well before the median survival time for the species or stock. (afar.org)
  • We measured telomere lengths of blood leukocytes in several inbred and outbred mammalian species, using a telomere-specific fluorescent probe and flow cytometry. (mendeley.com)
  • The MLVs with an ecotropic host range (E-MLVs) infect only the rodent cells, while the various xenotropic and polytropic MLVs (X-, P-MLVs, and collectively, X/P-MLVs) infect different subsets of the mouse taxa and other mammalian species [ 2 , 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Scientists reported that in species as diverse as yeast, flies, worms and mice, eating less meant living longer. (nytimes.com)
  • For the most part, these analyses have been carried out using model organisms in standard laboratory housing, but to begin to understand the adaptive significance of the clock, we must expand our scope to study diverse animal species from different taxonomic groups, showing diverse activity patterns, in their natural environments. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The best known mouse species is the common house mouse ( Mus musculus ). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • These species of mice generally live commensally with humans (that is, they benefit from humans without affecting humans either positively or negatively). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • However, the order Rodentia (phylum Chordata ) contains over 2,000 species and about 30 families (Myers 2000), many of which contain some animals that may be referred to as mice. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The latter text further specifies that "Species in other rodent families (e.g. deer mouse, pocket mouse) are called mice without scientific basis " (italics added). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The xenotropic murine leukemia virus (X-MLV), for example, infects cells from several species including humans but cannot infect many mouse cells ( 1 - 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Three mammalian species are reservoir competent: the white-footed mouse ( Peromyscus leucopus ), raccoon ( Procyon lotor ), and gray squirrel ( Sciurus carolinensis ), although serologic and molecular evidence has suggested that numerous other small, medium, and large mammals may also be reservoirs ( 1 , 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Investigation of sequence variation in common inbred mouse strains has revealed a segmented pattern in which regions of high and low variant density are intermixed. (pnas.org)
  • Studies of sequence variation between inbred strains of laboratory mice suggest that the distribution of polymorphisms has a mosaic structure of alternating segments of high and low frequency ( 1 - 3 ), consistent with descent of the most commonly used strains from a few subspecies, such as Mus musculus musculus ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Here, we compared robustness between cohorts of isogenic mice of eight different commonly used strains by analyzing to what extent environmental variation contributed to individuality in each of the eight genotypes, using a previously published dataset. (deepdyve.com)
  • We use these genomes to explore the phylogenetic history of the laboratory mouse and to examine the functional consequences of allele-specific variation on transcript abundance, revealing that at least 12% of transcripts show a significant tissue-specific expression bias. (sanger.ac.uk)
  • Eight standard inbred mouse strains were evaluated for ethanol effects on a refined battery of behavioral tests in a study that was originally designed to assess the influence of rat odors in the colony on mouse behaviors. (nih.gov)
  • We examined correlations of strain means to see whether patterns of strain differences were stable across time and across different test variants assessing the same behavioral construct. (springer.com)
  • Sensitivity to ethanol in inbred mice: genotypic correlations among several behavioral responses. (springer.com)
  • Strain rankings of within-strain variability in behavior were confirmed in an independent, previously published behavioral dataset using conventional behavioral tests administered to different mice from the same breeding colonies. (deepdyve.com)
  • Different laboratories often use different strains of inbred animals, but one cannot make behavioral comparisons and assume that their reaction to interventions will necessarily be similar. (sciencemag.org)
  • We are exploring the pharmacological characteristics of the neural circuitry underlying this drinking as well as the behavioral characteristics of these mice. (ohsu.edu)
  • An alcohol withdrawal test battery measuring multiple behavioral symptoms in mice. (ohsu.edu)
  • We have extensively characterized the two strains and found divergent behavioral profiles for cocaine-related behaviors including initial locomotor sensitivity to cocaine. (easychair.org)
  • Behavior was assessed in the home-cage, providing control over environmental factors, to reveal within-strain variability in numerous spontaneous behaviors. (deepdyve.com)
  • For example, acute stress typically produces heightened anxiety-like behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activation in some strains (e.g. (jneurosci.org)
  • Finally, mouse strains derived from the wild that are supposed to represent different mouse subspecies show substantial intersubspecific introgression, which has strong implications for evolutionary studies that assume these are pure representatives of a given subspecies. (nih.gov)
  • PWD/PhJ is an inbred mouse strain of the subspecies Mus musculus musculus . (jax.org)
  • PWD/Ph is an inbred mouse strain descended from a single pair of mice of the subspecies Mus musculus musculus caught in 1972 in the "Kunratice" locality near Prague, in the central part of the Czech Repubic. (jax.org)
  • Some inbred strains have been bred for over 150 generations, leaving individuals in the population to be isogenic in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of considerable value in this regard are isogenic inbred mouse strains. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our analysis indicates that it is only partly true that the genomes of inbred strains exist as a patchwork of segments of sequence identity and difference. (pnas.org)
  • These data suggest that comparisons of different mouse crosses may facilitate the understanding of underlying mechanisms that govern recombination events in complex genomes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Combining experimental with automated analyses, we identified 711,920 SVs at 281,243 sites in the genomes of thirteen classical and four wild-derived inbred mouse strains. (sanger.ac.uk)
  • One impetus for this has been the completion of sequence drafts for human, mouse and recently the rat genomes. (imgs.org)
  • Inbreeding is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are closely related genetically . (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, we discuss viral pathogenesis in cutaneous and mucosal tissues as well as in different mouse strains, immune responses to the virus, and local host-restricted factors that may be involved in MmuPV1 infections and associated disease progression. (mdpi.com)
  • nine of these markers were previously analyzed in wild-caught M. m. musculus mice, whose prevalent allele of all except one marker, Mod1 , was fixed in PWD. (jax.org)
  • however, because the increased proportion of deleterious homozygotes exposes the allele to natural selection , in the long run its frequency decreases more rapidly in inbred populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • In strains with the 451L allele, pore-formation activity in osteoclasts in vitro was lower after application of ATP. (hindawi.com)
  • In conclusion, two strains with the 451L allele of the naturally occurring mutation P451L, have weaker bones and lower levels of CTX, suggesting lower resorption levels in these animals, which could be related to the decreased ATP-induced pore formation observed in vitro . (hindawi.com)
  • Further, MX1 protein was substantially less abundant in organs of interferon-treated mice carrying the CAST Mx1 allele than in those of mice carrying the A2G Mx1 allele. (asm.org)
  • The Mx1 allele of mouse strain A2G codes for a 72-kDa GTPase, designated MX1, that accumulates in the nuclei of IFN-stimulated cells. (asm.org)
  • Thus, polymorphisms for the methylation patterns seen among laboratory inbred strains are also found in a free-living population. (biologists.org)
  • The first edition of Manipulating the Mouse Embryo appeared in 1986 as an outgrowth of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory courses on the molecular embryology of the mouse held in the early 1980s, and authors of the first two editions included Brigid Hogan, Rosa Beddington, Frank Costantini, and Liz Lacy. (cshlpress.com)
  • In 1935 he accepted a position as a research associate at the Roscoe B. Jackson Memorial Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Results suggest that white-tailed deer harbor a variant strain not associated with human infection, but contrary to published reports, white-tailed deer are not a reservoir for strains that cause human disease. (cdc.gov)
  • FVB/N: an inbred mouse strain preferable for transgenic analyses. (pnas.org)
  • Marker order determined by segregation analyses of 115 meiotic events was in good agreement with that determined previously using intraspecific laboratory strain backcrosses. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Data were sent to the Mouse Specifics, Inc. website ( www.mousespecifics.com ) using standard file-transfer protocols for analyses. (jax.org)
  • Inbred strains of animals are frequently used in laboratories for experiments where for the reproducibility of conclusions all the test animals should be as similar as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human exposure levels are typically more than one million times lower than levels shown to be safe in experiments involving multiple generations of laboratory animals. (canadafreepress.com)
  • In 2001, for example, he claimed that his experiments on laboratory mice supposedly showed that very low doses of some chemicals - thousands of times lower than safety standards - increased prostate weight in male mice and advanced puberty in female mice. (canadafreepress.com)
  • His experiments involved a unique strain of mice that he inbred in his laboratory for about 20 years. (canadafreepress.com)
  • Without the same strain of mouse, vom Saal's experiments can't be reproduced by others and his work can't be thoroughly evaluated. (canadafreepress.com)
  • Whereas most laboratory strains were susceptible to experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) after infection with P. berghei ANKA, several WDIS were found to be resistant. (diva-portal.org)
  • Mousepox-resistant mice also display the early activation of a strong virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response ( 20 , 32 ) and produce high levels of type 1 cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-12, IFN-γ, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in response to ECTV infection, whereas these factors are absent or produced at low levels in susceptible mice ( 19 , 36 ). (asm.org)
  • I have developed mouse pharmacogenetic models for dependence on ethanol by selectively breeding lines of mice resistant, or susceptible, to the severity of withdrawal from ethanol dependence. (ohsu.edu)
  • Humans, non-human primates, and three outbred populations of Peromyscus mice ( Peromyscus leucopus, Peromyscus maniculatus, and Peromyscus polionotus) have short telomeres. (mendeley.com)
  • Recent studies that compared the prevalence of AP-ha to AP-Variant 1 in tick populations showed the variant to be the predominant strain at 2 of 3 sites and suggest that AP-Variant 1 is common in nature ( 4 , 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation. (harvard.edu)
  • Inbred strains that have a common origin, but are separated before F20 are related inbred strains, and symbols should reflect this relationship. (jax.org)
  • The specific ERVs can be present or absent in the mouse strains, and can be shared by the strains sharing a common ancestry. (mdpi.com)
  • Check the most common PCR questions and answers regarding genotyping research mice. (jax.org)
  • PWD/Ph mice exhibit differences that are genetically distinct from common laboratory mice for a number of complex phenotypic characteristics. (jax.org)
  • This mouse papillomavirus provides, for the first time, the opportunity to study papillomavirus infections in the context of a small common laboratory animal for which abundant reagents are available and for which many strains exist. (mdpi.com)
  • In the few years since it was first reported, MmuPV1 has become a valuable animal papillomavirus because it provides, for the first time, the opportunity to study papillomavirus infections in the context of a small common laboratory animal for which abundant reagents are available and for which many strains exist. (mdpi.com)
  • Most laboratory mice have contributions from both Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus . (jax.org)
  • Indeed, important aspects of the physiology and behaviour of wild animals may not be mirrored by their inbred models. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • By using the SMXA RI mice, we genetically dissected diabetes-related traits (BMI, nonfasting blood glucose concentration, and blood glucose concentration during intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In contrast, an impaired glucose tolerance was observed in (SM × A)F1 mice, and marked differences in diabetes-related traits were observed in 19 SMXA RI strains. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We report the characterisation of 27 cardiovascular-related traits in 23 inbred mouse strains. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We then focused on the drug-, dose-, and strain-specific responses to β -stimulation and β -blockade of a selection of traits including heart rate, systolic blood pressure, cardiac weight indices, ECG parameters and body weight. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • For example, we observe that traits related to ventricular weight in most strains respond only to the high dose of isoproterenol, while heart rate and atrial weight are already affected by the low dose. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The purpose of this study is to explore inter-individual variance of cardiovascular-related traits induced by sustained pharmacological perturbations of the β -adrenergic system, using inbred mouse strains as a model. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Inbreeding results in homozygosity , which can increase the chances of offspring being affected by deleterious or recessive traits . (wikipedia.org)
  • An individual who inherits such deleterious traits is colloquially referred to as inbred . (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, mapping complex traits in mice was also very challenging. (nih.gov)
  • Learn what is in the name of genetically engineered and mutant mouse strains. (jax.org)
  • At The Rockefeller University (1989-1992), she became specifically interested in genetically engineered mice (GEM) models in translational research, and in their pathology and characterization (phenotyping). (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The elucidation of the biochemistry of appetite control in mouse models generally depends on transgenic or knockout mice ( 7 - 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Mice belong to the Euarchontoglires clade, which includes humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • This close relationship, the associated high homology with humans, their ease of maintenance and handling, and their high reproduction rate, make mice particularly suitable models for human-oriented research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice are mammals of the clade (a group consisting of an ancestor and all its descendants) Euarchontoglires, which means they are amongst the closest non-primate relatives of humans along with lagomorphs, treeshrews, and flying lemurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans and mice alike, GBPs restrict the intracellular replication of invasive microbes and promote inflammation. (crick.ac.uk)
  • Versions of all five tasks have been used in laboratory rodents and humans, but the 5-CSRT literatures consist predominantly of animal studies ( Winstanley, 2011 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The charge specifically calls for evaluation of (1) the efficacy of the anthrax vaccine (AVA) in protecting humans from inhalational anthrax, (2) the efficacy of AVA against all known strains of Bacillus anthracis , and (3) the correlation of the effectiveness of the vaccine in animal models to its ability to protect humans. (nap.edu)
  • The strain-specific modifier Ssm1 is responsible for the strain-dependent methylation of particular E. coli gpt- containing transgenic sequences. (biologists.org)
  • Consistent with previous reports, we detected MLV sequences in commercial laboratory reagents. (sciencemag.org)
  • Taq polymerase) ( 15 ) with mouse DNA containing MLV-like sequences has been reported. (sciencemag.org)
  • A similar method was developed to quantify mouse actin genomic sequences to allow for the standardization of spirochete load. (asm.org)
  • In particular, several SMXA RI strains showed markedly impaired glucose tolerance and hyperglycemia. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Within 96 h, markedly higher levels of infectious virus were detected in the serum of sIgM −/− mice compared with wild-type mice. (rupress.org)
  • Our laboratory uses methods of genetics and genomics to dissect the neurobiological pathways mediating social behaviors, including aggression and sociability (tendency to seek social interaction). (upenn.edu)
  • To evaluate the effect of increased mouse density in a cage, mice were housed at the density recommended by the 1996 Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and at densities that were approximately 2, 2.6, and 3 times greater. (nih.gov)
  • N = 16-18 animals per sex/strain. (nih.gov)
  • In a separate test, naive animals of the same strains were tested for HT repeatedly to assess the development of rapid (RTOL) and chronic tolerance (CTOL). (springer.com)
  • A nutritionally balanced diet is important both for the welfare of laboratory animals and to ensure that experimental results are not biased by unintended nutritional factors. (nap.edu)
  • Laboratory animals require about 50 nutrients in appropriate dietary concentrations. (nap.edu)
  • Tables detailing the estimated minimum nutrient requirements of laboratory animals are presented in this report. (nap.edu)
  • Thus outbred strains of most laboratory animals are also available, where an outbred strain is a strain of an organism that is effectively wildtype in nature, where there is as little inbreeding as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, understanding the experiences of mice used in research is of significant importance in order to be able to provide evidence-based improvements to housing and husbandry that will bring welfare benefits to a large number of animals, and ensure that empirical findings are robust 3 , 8 . (nature.com)
  • Until now, most laboratory mouse strains were inbred or outbred from a small group of founder animals. (nih.gov)
  • There is lack of consensus over what range of animals is encompassed by the term mouse (plural mice ). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Narrower definitions variously recognize mice as small, rat-like animals within the Muridae family, or within the Muridae and Cricetidae families, or within these two families and additional rodent families. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Unlike mice, which die of cancer by the crateful, not a single one of her animals has ever developed a naturally occurring tumor. (slate.com)
  • At the massive rodent-breeding facilities in Massachusetts and Maine, where standard lab mice are manufactured by the millions, industrial technicians stalk around in what look like spacesuits, and the animals are housed in airtight isolator cages or ventilated barrier rooms that protect them from a list of 40 specific pathogens . (slate.com)
  • The albino laboratory rat with its red eyes and white fur is an iconic model organism for scientific research in a variety of fields. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first time one of these albino mutants was brought into a laboratory for a study was in 1828, in an experiment on fasting . (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the vast majority of studies have been conducted in nocturnal, albino rod-dominant rat and mouse strains, and the pertinence of such findings to human pathology and cone loss is debatable. (arvojournals.org)
  • The MSM/Ms inbred strain was established in 1986 and 21 years later it reached F 100 . (go.jp)
  • Indeed, despite standardization and in line with previous studies, substantial variability among mice of the same inbred strain was observed. (deepdyve.com)
  • CPBs mice, which showed a relatively high variability for fraying, appeared to be heterozygous for this character. (brillonline.com)
  • Despite the high overall density of coverage, not all variants are assayed in all strains. (pnas.org)
  • HT strain sensitivity scores were generally highly correlated across a 10-23 years period and test variants. (springer.com)
  • There are functionally distinct XPR1 variants in the genus Mus , but the majority of mouse strains carry Xpr1 n , which allows for the infection of P-MLVs but not X-MLVs [ 8 ]. (mdpi.com)