Clinical Laboratory Techniques
Medical Laboratory Personnel
Clinical Laboratory Information Systems
Laboratory Proficiency Testing
Laboratory Animal Science
Medical Laboratory Science
Clinical Laboratory Services
Sensitivity and Specificity
Reproducibility of Results
Evaluation Studies as Topic
Reagent Kits, Diagnostic
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Clinical Chemistry Tests
Containment of Biohazards
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
False Positive Reactions
Diagnostic Tests, Routine
Pathology Department, Hospital
Quality Assurance, Health Care
Blood Specimen Collection
Molecular Sequence Data
Predictive Value of Tests
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
False Negative Reactions
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
United States Public Health Service
Bacterial Typing Techniques
Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes
Analysis of Variance
Drug Resistance, Microbial
Severity of Illness Index
World Health Organization
Pest Control, Biological
Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures
Costs and Cost Analysis
Disease Models, Animal
Guidelines as Topic
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Blood Cell Count
Statistics as Topic
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
European interlaboratory comparison of breath 13CO2 analysis. (1/1696)The BIOMED I programme Stable Isotopes in Gastroenterology and Nutrition (SIGN) has focused upon evaluation and standardisation of stable isotope breath tests using 13C labelled substrates. The programme dealt with comparison of 13C substrates, test meals, test conditions, analysis techniques, and calculation procedures. Analytical techniques applied for 13CO2 analysis were evaluated by taking an inventory of instrumentation, calibration protocols, and analysis procedures. Two ring tests were initiated measuring 13C abundances of carbonate materials. Evaluating the data it was found that seven different models of isotope ratio mass spectrometers (IRMS) were used by the participants applying both the dual inlet system and the continuous flow configuration. Eight different brands of certified 13C reference materials were used with a 13C abundance varying from delta 13CPDB -37.2 to +2.0/1000. CO2 was liberated from certified material by three techniques and different working standards were used varying from -47.4 to +0.4/1000 in their delta 13CPDB value. The standard deviations (SDs) found for all measurements by all participants were 0.25/1000 and 0.50/1000 for two carbonates used in the ring tests. The individual variation for the single participants varied from 0.02 /1000 (dual inlet system) to 0.14/1000 (continuous flow system). The measurement of the difference between two carbonates showed a SD of 0.33/1000 calculated for all participants. Internal precision of IRMS as indicated by the specifications of the different instrument suppliers is < 0.3/1000 for continuous flow systems. In this respect it can be concluded that all participants are working well within the instrument specifications even including sample preparation. Increased overall interlaboratory variation is therefore likely to be due to non-instrumental conditions. It is possible that consistent differences in sample handling leading to isotope fractionation are the causes for interlaboratory variation. Breath analysis does not require sample preparation. As such, interlaboratory variation will be less than observed for the carbonate samples and within the range indicated as internal precision for continuous flow instruments. From this it is concluded that pure analytical interlaboratory variation is acceptable despite the many differences in instrumentation and analytical protocols. Coordinated metabolic studies appear possible, in which different European laboratories perform 13CO2 analysis. Evaluation of compatibility of the analytical systems remains advisable, however. (+info)
Analyte comparisons between 2 clinical chemistry analyzers. (2/1696)The purpose of this study was to assess agreement between a wet reagent and a dry reagent analyzer. Thirteen analytes (albumin, globulin, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, amylase, urea nitrogen, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, potassium, total bilirubin, and total protein) for both canine and feline serum were evaluated. Concordance correlations, linear regression, and plots of difference against mean were used to analyze the data. Concordance correlations were excellent for 8 of 13 analytes (r > or = 0.90); the correlations for albumin, potassium, and calcium were clinically unreliable. The linear regression analysis revealed that several analytes had slopes significantly different from unity, which was likely related to methodological differences. Compared to the wet reagent analyzer, the dry reagent analyzer showed excellent agreement for alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, amylase (feline), urea nitrogen, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, total bilirubin (canine), and total protein. However, it showed only slight to substantial agreement for amylase (canine), calcium, albumin, potassium, and total bilirubin (feline). (+info)
Pseudoepidemic of Aspergillus niger infections traced to specimen contamination in the microbiology laboratory. (3/1696)We report a pseudo-outbreak of Aspergillus niger that followed building construction in our clinical microbiology laboratory. Because outbreaks of invasive aspergillosis have been linked to hospital construction, strategies to minimize dust in patient care areas are common practice. We illustrate that the impact of false-positive cultures on patient care should compel laboratories to prevent specimen contamination during construction. (+info)
Preliminary external quality assessment for the biological monitoring of carbon disulfide with urinary 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid. (4/1696)Four laboratories have participated in an external quality control assessment for the determination of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA). TTCA is used as a biomarker for exposure to CS2. Thirteen different urine samples were analyzed by each laboratory. Ten of these were spiked with known amounts of TTCA, and had either a high or intermediate creatinine content. Two samples without any TTCA were used as controls and one sample was a pool of samples of urine from five employees occupationally exposed to CS2. The latter had unknown TTCA content. For each sample, TTCA and creatinine concentration were determined. The samples were supplied in three consecutive deliveries. Several samples were offered more than once. Thus, within-laboratory variability could be established for creatinine and TTCA determination and accuracy could be determined for TTCA analysis. Within-laboratory variability was low for all laboratories for creatinine, although laboratory D seemed to have a slight downward bias. Accuracy for TTCA was good for all laboratories. No significant mean deviation from the expected TTCA value was encountered. There does not seem to be any clear influence of the TTCA concentration level of the samples on the accuracy and within-laboratory variability. Two of the four laboratories (A and C) showed lower within-laboratory variability than the other two for TTCA, although coefficients of variation between replicated samples are high for these two laboratories as well. The laboratory giving the best accuracy, gave the highest within-laboratory variability. A non-systematic, random error is probably the source of this. The results of this preliminary study indicate that analysis of TTCA, although regarded as an established biomarker, can give biases and thus negatively interfere with inferred dose-effect or dose-response relationships in occupational epidemiology. (+info)
Experience with external quality control in spermatology. (5/1696)Results are presented from participation in an external quality control (EQC) programme for semen analysis (UK NEQAS). Formalin-fixed semen samples and videotapes of motile spermatozoa were distributed four times a year over a 3-4 year period. Over the entire period there was close agreement for sperm concentration with, initially, the average of values from the other groups participating in the scheme, and later, values designated as reference values obtained from six laboratories of several chosen that consistently agreed with each other. The initial underestimation of the percentage of normal forms was abolished at the time of change in derivation of designated values and this largely eliminated the difference to establish closer agreement with the designated values. A consistent bias in the assessment of different categories of progressive sperm motility appeared to be resolved by a conscious decision to consider most spermatozoa as grade b and the exceptions as grade a, rather than the converse. Feedback of results to the technicians of the laboratory participating in an external quality control programme leads to reappraisal of subjective evaluation and to harmonization of results between laboratories. (+info)
emm typing and validation of provisional M types for group A streptococci. (6/1696)This report discusses the following issues related to typing of group A streptococci (GAS): The development and use of the 5' emm variable region sequencing (emm typing) in relation to the existing serologic typing system; the designation of emm types in relation to M types; a system for validation of new emm types; criteria for validation of provisional M types to new M-types; a list of reference type cultures for each of the M-type or emm-type strains of GAS; the results of the first culture exchange program for a quality control testing system among the national and World Health Organization collaborating centers for streptococci; and dissemination of new approaches to typing of GAS to the international streptococcal community. (+info)
A national survey of practice patterns in the noninvasive diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis. (7/1696)PURPOSE: Recent studies have recommended unilateral venous duplex scanning for the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in patients who are unilaterally symptomatic. Vascular laboratory accreditation standards, however, imply that bilateral leg scanning should be performed. We examined whether actual practice patterns have evolved toward limited unilateral scanning in such patients. METHODS: A questionnaire was mailed to all 808 vascular laboratories in the United States that were accredited by the Intersocietal Commission for the Accreditation of Vascular Laboratories (ICAVL). To encourage candid responses, the questionnaires were numerically coded and confidentiality was assured. RESULTS: A total of 608 questionnaires (75%) were completed and returned. Most of the respondents (442; 73%) were either community-hospital or office-based laboratories, and the remaining 163 (27%) were university or affiliated-hospital laboratories. Most of the laboratories (460; 76%) had been in existence for 9 years or more, and 65% had been ICAVL-accredited in venous studies for 3 years or more. Board-certified vascular surgeons were the medical directors in 54% of the laboratories. Duplex ultrasound scanning was the diagnostic method used by 98% of the laboratories. In patients with unilateral symptoms, 75% of the laboratories did not routinely scan both legs for DVT. A large majority (75%) believe that bilateral scanning is not clinically indicated. Only 57 laboratories (14%) recalled having patients return with a DVT in the previously unscanned leg, with 93% of these laboratories reporting between one and five such patients. This observation correlated with larger volumes of venous studies performed by those laboratories (P <.05). Similarly, only 52 laboratories (12%) recalled having patients return with subsequent pulmonary emboli. Of these laboratories, only five reported proximal DVT in the previously unscanned legs of such patients. Of all these laboratories, therefore, only 1% (5 of 443) have potentially missed the diagnosis of a DVT that caused a preventable pulmonary embolus with such a policy. Among those laboratories that always perform bilateral examinations, 41% do so because of habit. Most (61%) of the laboratories that perform bilateral scanning would do unilateral scanning if it were specifically approved by ICAVL. CONCLUSION: Three quarters of the ICAVL-accredited vascular laboratories perform limited single-extremity scanning for the diagnosis of DVT in patients with unilateral symptoms. This broad clinical experience suggests that this practice is widespread in selected patients. Clinical protocols should be established to provide guidelines for local laboratory implementation. (+info)
The Calgary Biofilm Device: new technology for rapid determination of antibiotic susceptibilities of bacterial biofilms. (8/1696)Determination of the MIC, based on the activities of antibiotics against planktonic bacteria, is the standard assay for antibiotic susceptibility testing. Adherent bacterial populations (biofilms) present with an innate lack of antibiotic susceptibility not seen in the same bacteria grown as planktonic populations. The Calgary Biofilm Device (CBD) is described as a new technology for the rapid and reproducible assay of biofilm susceptibilities to antibiotics. The CBD produces 96 equivalent biofilms for the assay of antibiotic susceptibilities by the standard 96-well technology. Biofilm formation was followed by quantitative microbiology and scanning electron microscopy. Susceptibility to a standard group of antibiotics was determined for National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) reference strains: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213. Growth curves demonstrated that biofilms of a predetermined size could be formed on the CBD at specific time points and, furthermore, that no significant difference (P > 0.1) was seen between biofilms formed on each of the 96 pegs. The antibiotic susceptibilities for planktonic populations obtained by the NCCLS method or from the CBD were similar. Minimal biofilm eradication concentrations, derived by using the CBD, demonstrated that for biofilms of the same organisms, 100 to 1,000 times the concentration of a certain antibiotic were often required for the antibiotic to be effective, while other antibiotics were found to be effective at the MICs. The CBD offers a new technology for the rational selection of antibiotics effective against microbial biofilms and for the screening of new effective antibiotic compounds. (+info)
DNA, Bacterial refers to the genetic material of bacteria, which is a type of single-celled microorganism that can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the human body. Bacterial DNA is typically circular in shape and contains genes that encode for the proteins necessary for the bacteria to survive and reproduce. In the medical field, bacterial DNA is often studied as a means of identifying and diagnosing bacterial infections. Bacterial DNA can be extracted from samples such as blood, urine, or sputum and analyzed using techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or DNA sequencing. This information can be used to identify the specific type of bacteria causing an infection and to determine the most effective treatment. Bacterial DNA can also be used in research to study the evolution and diversity of bacteria, as well as their interactions with other organisms and the environment. Additionally, bacterial DNA can be modified or manipulated to create genetically engineered bacteria with specific properties, such as the ability to produce certain drugs or to degrade pollutants.
Rodent diseases refer to a group of infectious diseases that are caused by pathogens transmitted by rodents, such as mice and rats. These diseases can affect both humans and animals, and can be transmitted through direct contact with infected rodents, their urine, feces, or saliva, or through the bites of infected fleas or ticks. Some common rodent-borne diseases include: 1. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS): A severe respiratory illness that can be fatal. 2. Rat-bite fever: A bacterial infection that can cause fever, joint pain, and swelling. 3. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM): A viral infection that can cause meningitis and encephalitis. 4. Leptospirosis: A bacterial infection that can cause fever, headache, muscle pain, and liver damage. 5. Salmonellosis: A bacterial infection that can cause diarrhea, fever, and abdominal pain. 6. Plague: A bacterial infection that can cause fever, chills, and swelling of the lymph nodes. Preventing rodent-borne diseases involves controlling rodent populations through sanitation, exclusion, and the use of rodenticides, as well as practicing good hygiene and avoiding contact with rodents and their droppings. If you suspect that you or someone you know may have been exposed to a rodent-borne disease, it is important to seek medical attention immediately.
Bacterial infections are caused by bacteria, which are single-celled microorganisms that can be found almost everywhere in the environment, including on our skin and in our digestive tracts. When bacteria enter the body and multiply, they can cause illness and disease. Bacterial infections can affect any part of the body and can range from mild to severe. Some common examples of bacterial infections include strep throat, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, meningitis, and skin infections. Bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, which are medications that kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. However, it is important to use antibiotics properly and only when necessary, as overuse can lead to antibiotic resistance, which makes it more difficult to treat bacterial infections in the future.
Animal diseases refer to any illness or condition that affects animals, including domesticated animals such as dogs, cats, and livestock, as well as wild animals. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, and environmental factors such as stress, poor nutrition, and exposure to toxins. In the medical field, animal diseases are studied and treated by veterinarians, who are medical professionals trained to diagnose and treat illnesses in animals. Veterinarians may work in a variety of settings, including private practices, research laboratories, and government agencies. Animal diseases can have significant economic and social impacts, particularly in the agricultural industry. For example, outbreaks of diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease or avian influenza can lead to significant losses in livestock and poultry production, as well as disruptions to international trade. Additionally, some animal diseases can pose a risk to human health, particularly if they are zoonotic, meaning they can be transmitted from animals to humans. Examples of zoonotic diseases include rabies, Lyme disease, and West Nile virus.
In the medical field, agar is a gelatinous substance that is commonly used as a growth medium for bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms. It is made from seaweed and is composed of agarose, a polysaccharide that forms a gel when heated. Agar is often used in microbiology laboratories to culture and isolate microorganisms, as well as to study their growth and behavior. It is also used in some medical treatments, such as in the preparation of certain types of vaccines and in the treatment of certain skin conditions.
Bacterial proteins are proteins that are synthesized by bacteria. They are essential for the survival and function of bacteria, and play a variety of roles in bacterial metabolism, growth, and pathogenicity. Bacterial proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, metabolic enzymes, regulatory proteins, and toxins. Structural proteins provide support and shape to the bacterial cell, while metabolic enzymes are involved in the breakdown of nutrients and the synthesis of new molecules. Regulatory proteins control the expression of other genes, and toxins can cause damage to host cells and tissues. Bacterial proteins are of interest in the medical field because they can be used as targets for the development of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. They can also be used as diagnostic markers for bacterial infections, and as vaccines to prevent bacterial diseases. Additionally, some bacterial proteins have been shown to have therapeutic potential, such as enzymes that can break down harmful substances in the body or proteins that can stimulate the immune system.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body, such as the brain, spine, and kidneys. TB is spread through the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks, and can be transmitted to others who are nearby. TB is a serious and sometimes fatal disease, but it is treatable with a combination of antibiotics taken over several months. However, if left untreated, TB can be life-threatening and can spread to others. There are two main types of TB: latent TB and active TB. Latent TB is when the bacteria are present in the body but do not cause symptoms or harm. Active TB, on the other hand, is when the bacteria are multiplying and causing symptoms such as coughing, fever, and weight loss. TB is a major global health problem, with an estimated 10 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths each year. It is most common in low- and middle-income countries, where access to healthcare and treatment may be limited.
Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that is produced by B cells in response to an infection or foreign substance. It is the first antibody to be produced during an immune response and is present in the blood and other body fluids in relatively low concentrations. IgM antibodies are large, Y-shaped molecules that can bind to multiple antigens at once, making them highly effective at neutralizing pathogens and marking them for destruction by other immune cells. They are also able to activate the complement system, a series of proteins that can directly destroy pathogens or mark them for destruction by immune cells. IgM antibodies are often used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, as they are typically the first antibodies to be produced in response to a new infection. They can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of vaccines and to detect the presence of certain diseases, such as viral or bacterial infections, autoimmune disorders, and certain types of cancer.
Antibodies, viral, are proteins produced by the immune system in response to a viral infection. They are also known as immunoglobulins or antibodies. Viral antibodies are specific to a particular virus and can help to neutralize and eliminate the virus from the body. They are typically detected in the blood or other bodily fluids using laboratory tests, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) or immunofluorescence assays. The presence of viral antibodies can be used as a diagnostic tool to confirm a viral infection or to determine the immune status of an individual.
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infections refer to the presence of the HIV virus in the body. HIV is a retrovirus that attacks and weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to infections and diseases. HIV is transmitted through contact with infected bodily fluids, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. The most common modes of transmission include unprotected sexual contact, sharing needles or syringes, and from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. HIV infections can be diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of the virus or antibodies produced in response to the virus. Once diagnosed, HIV can be managed with antiretroviral therapy (ART), which helps to suppress the virus and prevent the progression of the disease to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). It is important to note that HIV is not the same as AIDS. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS, but not everyone with HIV will develop AIDS. With proper treatment and management, individuals with HIV can live long and healthy lives.
In the medical field, "Disease Models, Animal" refers to the use of animals to study and understand human diseases. These models are created by introducing a disease or condition into an animal, either naturally or through experimental manipulation, in order to study its progression, symptoms, and potential treatments. Animal models are used in medical research because they allow scientists to study diseases in a controlled environment and to test potential treatments before they are tested in humans. They can also provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of a disease and help to identify new therapeutic targets. There are many different types of animal models used in medical research, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys. Each type of animal has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model depends on the specific disease being studied and the research question being addressed.
In the medical field, an acute disease is a condition that develops suddenly and progresses rapidly over a short period of time. Acute diseases are typically characterized by severe symptoms and a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Examples of acute diseases include pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, and heart attacks. These diseases require prompt medical attention and treatment to prevent complications and improve outcomes. In contrast, chronic diseases are long-term conditions that develop gradually over time and may persist for years or even decades.
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of protein that is produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins. It is the most abundant type of immunoglobulin in the blood and is responsible for the majority of the body's defense against infections. IgG is produced by B cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune response. When a B cell encounters a foreign substance, it produces IgG antibodies that can recognize and bind to the substance, marking it for destruction by other immune cells. IgG antibodies can also be transferred from mother to child through the placenta during pregnancy, providing the baby with some protection against infections during the first few months of life. In addition, some vaccines contain IgG antibodies to help stimulate the immune system and provide protection against specific diseases. Overall, IgG is an important component of the immune system and plays a critical role in protecting the body against infections and diseases.
Antibodies, Bacterial are proteins produced by the immune system in response to bacterial infections. They are also known as bacterial antibodies or bacterial immunoglobulins. These antibodies are specific to bacterial antigens, which are molecules found on the surface of bacteria that trigger an immune response. When the immune system detects a bacterial infection, it produces antibodies that bind to the bacterial antigens and mark them for destruction by other immune cells. This helps to neutralize the bacteria and prevent them from causing harm to the body. Bacterial antibodies can be detected in the blood or other bodily fluids using laboratory tests. These tests are often used to diagnose bacterial infections and to monitor the effectiveness of antibiotic treatments.
DNA primers are short, single-stranded DNA molecules that are used in a variety of molecular biology techniques, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. They are designed to bind to specific regions of a DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of new DNA strands. In PCR, DNA primers are used to amplify specific regions of DNA by providing a starting point for the polymerase enzyme to begin synthesizing new DNA strands. The primers are complementary to the target DNA sequence, and are added to the reaction mixture along with the DNA template, nucleotides, and polymerase enzyme. The polymerase enzyme uses the primers as a template to synthesize new DNA strands, which are then extended by the addition of more nucleotides. This process is repeated multiple times, resulting in the amplification of the target DNA sequence. DNA primers are also used in DNA sequencing to identify the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. In this application, the primers are designed to bind to specific regions of the DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of short DNA fragments. The fragments are then sequenced using a variety of techniques, such as Sanger sequencing or next-generation sequencing. Overall, DNA primers are an important tool in molecular biology, and are used in a wide range of applications to study and manipulate DNA.
In the medical field, a virus disease is a condition caused by a virus, which is a tiny infectious agent that can only replicate inside living cells. Viruses can infect a wide range of organisms, including humans, animals, plants, and even bacteria. When a virus enters the body, it attaches to and invades host cells, taking over the cell's machinery to produce more copies of itself. This can cause damage to the host cells and trigger an immune response, which can lead to symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, and fatigue. Some common examples of virus diseases in humans include the common cold, influenza, herpes simplex virus (HSV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis B and C. These diseases can range from mild to severe and can be treated with antiviral medications, vaccines, or supportive care.
Mycoses are a group of infections caused by fungi. They can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, hair, nails, respiratory system, and internal organs. Mycoses can be classified into superficial mycoses, which affect the skin and nails, and systemic mycoses, which can spread throughout the body and cause serious health problems. Superficial mycoses are usually mild and can be treated with antifungal creams, ointments, or powders. Examples of superficial mycoses include athlete's foot, ringworm, and jock itch. Systemic mycoses, on the other hand, are more severe and require stronger antifungal medications. Examples of systemic mycoses include candidiasis, aspergillosis, and cryptococcosis. Mycoses can be caused by different types of fungi, including dermatophytes, yeasts, and molds. They can be acquired through contact with contaminated surfaces or objects, inhaling fungal spores, or through weakened immune systems.
Influenza, Human, also known as the flu, is a highly contagious respiratory illness caused by the influenza virus. It can cause mild to severe illness, and in some cases, can lead to death. The virus is transmitted through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes, or by touching a surface contaminated with the virus and then touching the mouth, nose, or eyes. Symptoms of the flu can include fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, headache, chills, and fatigue. In severe cases, the flu can lead to pneumonia, which can be life-threatening. The flu is preventable through vaccination, and antiviral medications can be used to treat the illness.
"Communicable Diseases, Emerging" refers to infectious diseases that have recently emerged or re-emerged in a population, and for which there is limited understanding or experience in controlling or preventing their spread. These diseases can be caused by new pathogens, changes in the behavior of existing pathogens, or changes in the environment or population dynamics that facilitate their transmission. Emerging communicable diseases can pose a significant public health threat, as they can rapidly spread and cause widespread illness, death, and social disruption. Examples of emerging communicable diseases include Ebola, Zika virus, SARS, and COVID-19. The emergence of these diseases is often linked to factors such as globalization, urbanization, deforestation, climate change, and the movement of people and animals across borders. To control and prevent the spread of emerging communicable diseases, public health officials and healthcare providers must work together to identify and track outbreaks, develop and implement effective prevention and control measures, and provide education and resources to the public. This requires ongoing surveillance, research, and collaboration among healthcare professionals, government agencies, and international organizations.
Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment that is produced when red blood cells are broken down in the body. It is primarily produced in the liver and is then excreted in the bile, which is released into the small intestine. Bilirubin is an important part of the body's waste removal system and helps to remove old red blood cells from the bloodstream. In the medical field, bilirubin levels are often measured as part of a routine blood test. High levels of bilirubin in the blood can be a sign of liver disease, such as hepatitis or cirrhosis, or of problems with the gallbladder or bile ducts. Bilirubin levels can also be affected by certain medications, infections, or genetic disorders. Low levels of bilirubin can be a sign of anemia or other blood disorders.
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is an enzyme that is found in many different tissues throughout the body, including the liver, heart, muscles, and kidneys. It plays a role in the metabolism of amino acids and is involved in the production of energy. In the medical field, AST is often measured as part of a routine blood test to assess liver function. When the liver is damaged or diseased, AST levels may increase in the blood. This can be an indication of a variety of liver conditions, including viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. AST levels may also be elevated in other conditions that affect the heart, muscles, or kidneys. For example, AST levels may be increased in people with heart muscle damage or inflammation, such as from a heart attack or myocarditis. In addition, AST levels may be elevated in people with muscle damage or inflammation, such as from a muscle strain or injury. Overall, AST is an important biomarker that can provide valuable information about the health of the liver and other organs in the body.
Occupational diseases are illnesses or injuries that are caused by exposure to hazards or conditions in the workplace. These hazards or conditions can include chemicals, dusts, fumes, radiation, noise, vibration, and physical demands such as repetitive motions or awkward postures. Occupational diseases can affect various systems in the body, including the respiratory system, skin, eyes, ears, cardiovascular system, and nervous system. Examples of occupational diseases include asbestosis, silicosis, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and hearing loss. Occupational diseases are preventable through proper safety measures and regulations in the workplace. Employers are responsible for providing a safe and healthy work environment for their employees, and workers have the right to report hazards and seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms related to their work.
In the medical field, "dog diseases" refers to any illness or condition that affects dogs. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, infections, environmental factors, and lifestyle. Some common examples of dog diseases include: 1. Canine Influenza: A highly contagious respiratory disease caused by the influenza virus. 2. Canine Distemper: A highly contagious viral disease that affects the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems. 3. Canine Leukemia: A type of cancer that affects the white blood cells. 4. Canine Hip Dysplasia: A genetic disorder that affects the development of the hip joint. 5. Canine Heartworm: A parasitic disease that affects the heart and blood vessels. 6. Canine Cancers: A group of diseases that affect the body's cells and tissues. 7. Canine Arthritis: A joint disease that causes inflammation and pain. 8. Canine Allergies: A condition in which the immune system overreacts to certain substances, such as pollen or food. 9. Canine Eye Diseases: A group of conditions that affect the eyes, including cataracts, glaucoma, and retinal detachment. 10. Canine Skin Diseases: A group of conditions that affect the skin, including allergies, mange, and acne. These are just a few examples of the many diseases that can affect dogs. It is important for pet owners to be aware of the common diseases that affect their dogs and to take steps to prevent and treat them.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. It is characterized by fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, and fatigue. In severe cases, it can lead to anemia, respiratory distress, organ failure, and death. Malaria is primarily found in tropical and subtropical regions, particularly in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. There are four main species of Plasmodium that can cause malaria in humans: P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae. Malaria is preventable and treatable, but，。
In the medical field, communicable diseases are infections that can be transmitted from one person to another through various means such as direct contact, respiratory droplets, bodily fluids, or contaminated surfaces. These diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, and can affect people of all ages, genders, and backgrounds. Examples of communicable diseases include influenza, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox, hepatitis B and C, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and foodborne illnesses. These diseases can spread rapidly in crowded or poorly ventilated environments, and can cause serious health complications if left untreated. Preventing the spread of communicable diseases involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and getting vaccinated when possible. Healthcare professionals also play a crucial role in identifying and treating communicable diseases, as well as implementing public health measures to control their spread.
In the medical field, aerosols refer to tiny particles or droplets of liquid or solid matter that are suspended in the air and can be inhaled into the respiratory system. Aerosols can be generated by various sources, including human activities such as talking, coughing, and sneezing, as well as natural phenomena such as volcanic eruptions and dust storms. Aerosols can contain a variety of substances, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, pollutants, and other particles. When inhaled, these particles can enter the lungs and potentially cause respiratory infections, allergies, and other health problems. In the context of infectious diseases, aerosols are of particular concern because they can transmit pathogens over long distances and remain suspended in the air for extended periods of time. To prevent the spread of infectious diseases, it is important to take measures to reduce the generation and dispersion of aerosols in indoor environments, such as wearing masks, practicing good respiratory hygiene, and improving ventilation systems.
Hemoglobins are a group of proteins found in red blood cells (erythrocytes) that are responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs. Hemoglobin is composed of four subunits, each of which contains a heme group that binds to oxygen. The oxygen binds to the iron atom in the heme group, allowing the hemoglobin to transport oxygen throughout the body. Hemoglobin also plays a role in regulating the pH of the blood and in the immune response. Abnormalities in hemoglobin can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, sickle cell disease, and thalassemia.
In the medical field, neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors of cells that can occur in any part of the body. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. They can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, or difficulty moving the affected area. Examples of benign neoplasms include lipomas (fatty tumors), hemangiomas (vascular tumors), and fibromas (fibrous tumors). Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. They can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the location and stage of the cancer. Examples of malignant neoplasms include carcinomas (cancers that start in epithelial cells), sarcomas (cancers that start in connective tissue), and leukemias (cancers that start in blood cells). The diagnosis of neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy (the removal of a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope). Treatment options for neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.
Diarrhea is a medical condition characterized by the passage of loose, watery stools more than three times a day. It can be acute, meaning it lasts for a short period of time, or chronic, meaning it persists for more than four weeks. Diarrhea can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, food poisoning, medications, underlying medical conditions, and stress. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. Diarrhea can cause dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and malnutrition if it persists for an extended period of time. Treatment for diarrhea depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, dietary changes, and fluid replacement therapy. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S is a type of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) that is found in bacteria and archaea. It is a small subunit of the ribosome, which is the cellular machinery responsible for protein synthesis. The 16S rRNA is located in the 30S subunit of the ribosome and is essential for the binding and decoding of messenger RNA (mRNA) during translation. The sequence of the 16S rRNA is highly conserved among bacteria and archaea, making it a useful target for the identification and classification of these organisms. In the medical field, the 16S rRNA is often used in molecular biology techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing to study the diversity and evolution of bacterial and archaeal populations. It is also used in the development of diagnostic tests for bacterial infections and in the identification of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria.
4-Hydroxycoumarins are a class of organic compounds that are commonly used as anticoagulants, or blood thinners. They work by inhibiting the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of vitamin K, which is necessary for blood clotting. As a result, 4-hydroxycoumarins can prevent blood clots from forming, making them useful for treating conditions such as deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and stroke. Some examples of 4-hydroxycoumarins include warfarin and phenprocoumon. It is important to note that 4-hydroxycoumarins can have serious side effects, including bleeding, and require careful monitoring by a healthcare professional.
In the medical field, "DNA, Viral" refers to the genetic material of viruses, which is composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Viruses are infectious agents that can only replicate inside living cells of organisms, including humans. The genetic material of viruses is different from that of cells, as viruses do not have a cellular structure and cannot carry out metabolic processes on their own. Instead, they rely on the host cell's machinery to replicate and produce new viral particles. Understanding the genetic material of viruses is important for developing treatments and vaccines against viral infections. By studying the DNA or RNA (ribonucleic acid) of viruses, researchers can identify potential targets for antiviral drugs and design vaccines that stimulate the immune system to recognize and fight off viral infections.
Blood coagulation disorders refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the blood's ability to clot properly. These disorders can either result in excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) or the formation of blood clots (thrombosis), which can lead to serious health complications such as stroke, heart attack, and pulmonary embolism. There are several types of blood coagulation disorders, including: 1. Hemophilia: A genetic disorder that affects the production of clotting factors in the blood, leading to excessive bleeding. 2. Von Willebrand disease: A genetic disorder that affects the production or function of von Willebrand factor, a protein that helps platelets stick together and form blood clots. 3. Thrombophilia: A condition that increases the risk of blood clots forming in the blood vessels, which can lead to stroke, heart attack, and pulmonary embolism. 4. Antiphospholipid syndrome: A condition in which the immune system mistakenly attacks phospholipids, which are important components of blood clots, leading to the formation of excessive blood clots. 5. Factor V Leiden mutation: A genetic mutation that increases the risk of blood clots forming in the blood vessels. Blood coagulation disorders can be diagnosed through blood tests and other medical procedures, and treatment options may include medications, blood transfusions, and surgery. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you may have a blood coagulation disorder, as prompt diagnosis and treatment can help prevent serious health complications.
Bacteremia is a medical condition in which bacteria are present in the bloodstream. It is a serious condition that can lead to sepsis, a life-threatening condition that occurs when the body's response to an infection causes widespread inflammation and organ damage. Bacteremia can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. It can be diagnosed through blood cultures, which involve taking a sample of blood and growing the bacteria in a laboratory to confirm the presence of the bacteria. Treatment for bacteremia typically involves antibiotics to kill the bacteria and manage the symptoms of the infection.
Fever is a medical condition characterized by an elevated body temperature above the normal range of 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F). It is typically a response to an infection or inflammation in the body, and can also be caused by certain medications or other medical conditions. Fever is usually accompanied by other symptoms such as chills, sweating, fatigue, headache, muscle aches, and loss of appetite. While a fever can be uncomfortable, it is generally not considered a serious medical condition in itself, and can be a sign that the body is fighting off an infection. In some cases, a fever may be a sign of a more serious underlying condition, such as sepsis or meningitis. If a fever persists for more than a few days, or if it is accompanied by other severe symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention.
Bacteriuria is a medical condition characterized by the presence of bacteria in the urine. It is typically defined as the presence of at least 100,000 colony-forming units (CFUs) of bacteria per milliliter of urine. Bacteriuria can be asymptomatic, meaning that the individual does not experience any symptoms, or it can cause symptoms such as a strong, persistent urge to urinate, frequent urination, pain or burning during urination, cloudy or strong-smelling urine, and fever or chills. Bacteriuria can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. It is often associated with urinary tract infections (UTIs), which can range from mild to severe and can affect any part of the urinary tract, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Treatment for bacteriuria typically involves antibiotics to eliminate the bacteria causing the infection. In some cases, additional treatment may be necessary to prevent the recurrence of the infection or to address any underlying medical conditions that may have contributed to the development of bacteriuria.
In the medical field, a syndrome is a set of symptoms and signs that occur together and suggest the presence of a particular disease or condition. A syndrome is often defined by a specific pattern of symptoms that are not caused by a single underlying disease, but rather by a combination of factors, such as genetic, environmental, or hormonal. For example, Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that is characterized by a specific set of physical and intellectual characteristics, such as a flattened facial profile, short stature, and intellectual disability. Similarly, the flu syndrome is a set of symptoms that occur together, such as fever, cough, sore throat, and body aches, that suggest the presence of an influenza virus infection. Diagnosing a syndrome involves identifying the specific set of symptoms and signs that are present, as well as ruling out other possible causes of those symptoms. Once a syndrome is diagnosed, it can help guide treatment and management of the underlying condition.
Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is a form of tuberculosis that affects the lungs. It is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is typically spread through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. PTB can cause a range of symptoms, including coughing, chest pain, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. It can also cause coughing up blood or phlegm, shortness of breath, and fatigue.，PTB，、、。
Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. It can affect both men and women and can cause infections in the reproductive system, including the cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries in women, and the urethra, prostate gland, and epididymis in men. Gonorrhea can also infect the mouth, throat, and anus, and can be transmitted through oral, anal, or vaginal sex. It is a common STI worldwide, and，，、、、、。
Gentian violet is a synthetic dye that is used in the medical field as an antiseptic and to treat certain skin conditions. It is typically applied topically as a solution or ointment, and is used to treat conditions such as thrush, ringworm, and other fungal infections. Gentian violet is also sometimes used as a stain to help identify certain types of bacteria and other microorganisms. It is generally considered safe for use on the skin, but it can cause irritation or allergic reactions in some people.
Brucellosis is a bacterial infection caused by the Brucella species of bacteria. It is a zoonotic disease, meaning it can be transmitted from animals to humans. The bacteria can be found in the milk, urine, and reproductive fluids of infected animals, such as cattle, goats, sheep, pigs, and dogs. The symptoms of brucellosis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the part of the body that is affected. Common symptoms include fever, sweats, headache, muscle and joint pain, fatigue, and weakness. In some cases, the infection can also cause more serious complications, such as meningitis, endocarditis (inflammation of the heart valves), and arthritis. Brucellosis is diagnosed through blood tests, cultures of blood or other body fluids, and imaging tests such as X-rays or ultrasounds. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics, which can be given for several weeks or months depending on the severity of the infection. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary. Prevention of brucellosis involves avoiding contact with infected animals and their products, practicing good hygiene, and cooking meat thoroughly. Vaccination of animals is also an important measure to prevent the spread of the disease.
Dengue is a viral infection caused by the dengue virus, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito. It is a common disease in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and is estimated to affect between 300 million and 500 million people each year. Dengue fever is the most common form of the disease, and is characterized by fever, headache, joint and muscle pain, nausea, vomiting, and a rash. In some cases, the disease can progress to more severe forms, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome, which can be life-threatening. There is no specific treatment for dengue fever, but supportive care such as hydration and pain management can help alleviate symptoms. Prevention measures include eliminating mosquito breeding sites, using insect repellent, and wearing protective clothing. Vaccines are currently being developed for dengue fever, but are not yet widely available.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are laboratory-made proteins that can mimic the immune system's ability to fight off harmful pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria. They are produced by genetically engineering cells to produce large quantities of a single type of antibody, which is specific to a particular antigen (a molecule that triggers an immune response). In the medical field, monoclonal antibodies are used to treat a variety of conditions, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, and infectious diseases. They can be administered intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously, depending on the condition being treated. Monoclonal antibodies work by binding to specific antigens on the surface of cells or pathogens, marking them for destruction by the immune system. They can also block the activity of specific molecules involved in disease processes, such as enzymes or receptors. Overall, monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized the treatment of many diseases, offering targeted and effective therapies with fewer side effects than traditional treatments.
In the medical field, a chronic disease is a long-term health condition that persists for an extended period, typically for more than three months. Chronic diseases are often progressive, meaning that they tend to worsen over time, and they can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life. Chronic diseases can affect any part of the body and can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Some examples of chronic diseases include heart disease, diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and arthritis. Chronic diseases often require ongoing medical management, including medication, lifestyle changes, and regular monitoring to prevent complications and manage symptoms. Treatment for chronic diseases may also involve rehabilitation, physical therapy, and other supportive care.
Creatinine is a waste product that is produced by the muscles in the body as a result of normal metabolism. It is filtered out of the blood by the kidneys and excreted in the urine. In the medical field, creatinine is often used as a marker of kidney function. A high level of creatinine in the blood can indicate that the kidneys are not functioning properly, while a low level can indicate that the kidneys are overworking. Creatinine levels can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatment for kidney disease.
DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that carries genetic information in living organisms. It is composed of four types of nitrogen-containing molecules called nucleotides, which are arranged in a specific sequence to form the genetic code. In the medical field, DNA is often studied as a tool for understanding and diagnosing genetic disorders. Genetic disorders are caused by changes in the DNA sequence that can affect the function of genes, leading to a variety of health problems. By analyzing DNA, doctors and researchers can identify specific genetic mutations that may be responsible for a particular disorder, and develop targeted treatments or therapies to address the underlying cause of the condition. DNA is also used in forensic science to identify individuals based on their unique genetic fingerprint. This is because each person's DNA sequence is unique, and can be used to distinguish one individual from another. DNA analysis is also used in criminal investigations to help solve crimes by linking DNA evidence to suspects or victims.
Rubella, also known as German measles, is a viral infection caused by the rubella virus. It is a highly contagious disease that spreads through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Rubella is primarily spread to pregnant women, who can then transmit the virus to their developing fetus, leading to serious birth defects. The symptoms of rubella typically include a high fever, headache, fatigue, and a rash that starts on the face and spreads to the rest of the body. In severe cases, rubella can cause pneumonia, encephalitis, and even death. Rubella is preventable through vaccination. The rubella vaccine is typically given as part of the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine, which is recommended for all children. In addition, pregnant women who have not been vaccinated should receive the rubella vaccine to protect their developing fetus.
Staphylococcal infections are caused by bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus. These bacteria are commonly found on the skin and in the nose of healthy individuals, but can sometimes cause infections when they enter the body through cuts, wounds, or other openings. Staphylococcal infections can range from mild skin infections like impetigo to more serious infections like pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. Some types of staphylococcal bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are resistant to certain antibiotics and can be more difficult to treat. Treatment for staphylococcal infections typically involves antibiotics, although in some cases surgery may be necessary.
Gastroenteritis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the lining of the stomach and intestines. It is commonly referred to as "stomach flu" or "gastritis." The inflammation can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral or bacterial infections, food poisoning, or certain medications. Symptoms of gastroenteritis can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, cramping, and loss of appetite. In severe cases, dehydration can occur, which can be life-threatening, especially in young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. Treatment for gastroenteritis typically involves managing symptoms and preventing dehydration. This may include drinking plenty of fluids, getting plenty of rest, and avoiding solid foods until symptoms improve. In some cases, antibiotics may be prescribed if the cause of the inflammation is bacterial. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen, or if there are signs of dehydration.
Cross infection is the transmission of an infectious agent from one person or animal to another through direct or indirect contact with contaminated objects, surfaces, or bodily fluids. It can occur in a variety of settings, including hospitals, schools, homes, and workplaces. Cross infection can be prevented through proper hygiene practices such as hand washing, using personal protective equipment (PPE), and disinfecting surfaces. It is also important to follow proper infection control procedures, such as isolation of infected individuals and proper disposal of contaminated materials. In the medical field, cross infection is a serious concern as it can lead to the spread of nosocomial infections, which are infections acquired in a healthcare setting. These infections can be particularly dangerous for patients with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. Therefore, healthcare workers are trained to follow strict infection control protocols to prevent the spread of cross infection.
Poliomyelitis, also known as polio, is a highly infectious viral disease that primarily affects children under the age of 5. The virus is transmitted through contaminated food and water or through contact with an infected person's feces. The symptoms of polio can vary widely, but they often include fever, fatigue, headache, and muscle pain. In some cases, the virus can cause inflammation of the spinal cord or brainstem, leading to paralysis or even death. There are three types of poliovirus: poliovirus 1, poliovirus 2, and poliovirus 3. Poliovirus 1 is the most common and is responsible for the majority of polio cases worldwide. The best way to prevent polio is through vaccination. The inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) and the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) are both effective in preventing the disease. It is important to continue to vaccinate children and adults to prevent the spread of polio and to protect vulnerable populations, such as those with weakened immune systems.
Autoantibodies are antibodies that are produced by the immune system against the body's own cells, tissues, or organs. In other words, they are antibodies that mistakenly target and attack the body's own components instead of foreign invaders like viruses or bacteria. Autoantibodies can be present in people with various medical conditions, including autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and multiple sclerosis. They can also be found in people with certain infections, cancer, and other diseases. Autoantibodies can cause damage to the body's own cells, tissues, or organs, leading to inflammation, tissue destruction, and other symptoms. They can also interfere with the normal functioning of the body's systems, such as the nervous system, digestive system, and cardiovascular system. Diagnosis of autoantibodies is typically done through blood tests, which can detect the presence of specific autoantibodies in the blood. Treatment for autoimmune diseases that involve autoantibodies may include medications to suppress the immune system, such as corticosteroids or immunosuppressants, as well as other therapies to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
Sepsis is a serious medical condition that occurs when the body's response to an infection causes widespread inflammation throughout the body. It is a life-threatening condition that can lead to organ failure, septic shock, and even death if not treated promptly and effectively. Sepsis can develop from any type of infection, including bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections. The body's immune system responds to the infection by releasing chemicals called cytokines, which can cause inflammation throughout the body. This inflammation can damage tissues and organs, leading to a range of symptoms, including fever, chills, rapid heartbeat, rapid breathing, confusion, and decreased urine output. Diagnosis of sepsis typically involves a combination of clinical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat the underlying infection, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In severe cases, treatment may include fluid resuscitation, vasopressors to maintain blood pressure, and organ support. Early recognition and prompt treatment of sepsis are critical for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of death.
Cattle diseases refer to any illness or condition that affects cattle, which are domesticated animals commonly raised for meat, milk, and other products. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and environmental conditions. In the medical field, cattle diseases are typically studied and treated by veterinarians who specialize in animal health. Some common cattle diseases include bovine respiratory disease (BRD), Johne's disease, foot-and-mouth disease, and mastitis. These diseases can have significant economic impacts on farmers and the cattle industry, as they can lead to decreased productivity, increased mortality rates, and the need for costly treatments. To prevent and control cattle diseases, veterinarians and farmers may use a variety of strategies, including vaccination, proper nutrition and hygiene, and the use of antibiotics and other medications when necessary. Additionally, monitoring and surveillance efforts are often implemented to detect and respond to outbreaks of new or emerging diseases.
RNA, Viral refers to the genetic material of viruses that are composed of RNA instead of DNA. Viral RNA is typically single-stranded and can be either positive-sense or negative-sense. Positive-sense RNA viruses can be directly translated into proteins by the host cell's ribosomes, while negative-sense RNA viruses require a complementary positive-sense RNA intermediate before protein synthesis can occur. Viral RNA is often encapsidated within a viral capsid and can be further protected by an envelope made of lipids and proteins derived from the host cell. RNA viruses include a wide range of pathogens that can cause diseases in humans and other organisms, such as influenza, hepatitis C, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus responsible for COVID-19).
Streptococcal infections are a group of illnesses caused by bacteria of the genus Streptococcus. These bacteria can cause a wide range of infections, including throat infections (strep throat), skin infections (impetigo), ear infections, and pneumonia. Streptococcal infections are typically spread through contact with infected individuals or contaminated surfaces, and they can be treated with antibiotics. Some types of streptococcal infections can also cause more serious complications, such as rheumatic fever and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, which can damage the kidneys.
Mycobacterium infections are a group of diseases caused by bacteria of the Mycobacterium genus. These bacteria are known for their ability to cause persistent infections in the body, often in the lungs, but can also affect other organs such as the lymph nodes, skin, and bones. The most well-known mycobacterial infection is tuberculosis (TB), which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB is a highly contagious disease that spreads through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Other mycobacterial infections include leprosy (caused by Mycobacterium leprae), which affects the skin and nerves, and Buruli ulcer (caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans), which affects the skin and underlying tissue. Mycobacterial infections can be difficult to diagnose and treat because the bacteria are slow-growing and can become resistant to antibiotics. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics taken over a long period of time, and in some cases, surgery or other medical interventions may be necessary.
Parasitic diseases are infections caused by parasites, which are organisms that live on or inside a host organism and obtain nutrients from it. Parasites can be protozoa, helminths, or arthropods, and they can cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. Parasitic diseases can be transmitted through various routes, including contaminated food and water, sexual contact, insect bites, and contact with contaminated soil or surfaces. Some common parasitic diseases include malaria, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, giardiasis, and tapeworm infections. The symptoms of parasitic diseases can vary depending on the type of parasite and the severity of the infection. Some common symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, fever, and weight loss. In severe cases, parasitic infections can lead to organ damage, anemia, and even death. Treatment for parasitic diseases typically involves the use of antiparasitic medications, which can be effective in eliminating the parasites from the body. In some cases, supportive care may also be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Prevention measures include practicing good hygiene, avoiding contaminated food and water, using insect repellent, and taking appropriate precautions when traveling to areas where parasitic diseases are common.
Chlamydia infections are a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The infection can affect both men and women and can cause a range of symptoms, including burning during urination, abnormal vaginal discharge, and pain during sexual intercourse. In women, chlamydia can also cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which can lead to serious complications such as infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Chlamydia infections are typically diagnosed through a urine or vaginal swab test. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, which can cure the infection and prevent complications. However, many people with chlamydia do not experience any symptoms and may not know they have the infection, which is why routine testing and treatment are important for preventing the spread of the disease.
Alanine transaminase (ALT) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of amino acids in the liver. It is also known as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and is found in high concentrations in liver cells. When liver cells are damaged or destroyed, ALT is released into the bloodstream, where it can be measured in a blood test. Elevated levels of ALT in the blood are often an indication of liver damage or disease, such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, or fatty liver disease. ALT is also found in other tissues, including the heart, skeletal muscle, and kidneys, but in lower concentrations than in the liver. In these tissues, elevated levels of ALT can indicate injury or disease. Overall, ALT is an important biomarker for liver function and can be used to diagnose and monitor liver diseases.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. It is transmitted through direct contact with an infected person's sores or other mucous membranes during sexual activity, including vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Syphilis can also be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy or childbirth. Syphilis has three stages: primary, secondary, and tertiary. The primary stage is characterized by a single, painless sore called a chancre, usually on the genital area, anus, or mouth. The secondary stage can occur weeks to months after the initial infection and is characterized by a rash on the skin and mucous membranes, fever, swollen lymph nodes, and sore throat. The tertiary stage, which can occur years after the initial infection, can cause serious damage to the heart, brain, and other organs. Syphilis can be diagnosed through a blood test, and treatment typically involves antibiotics. If left untreated, syphilis can lead to serious health complications and even death. It is important to practice safe sex and get tested regularly for sexually transmitted infections.
Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections refer to illnesses caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli. E. coli is a common type of bacteria that is found in the gut of humans and animals. Most strains of E. coli are harmless and even beneficial to our health, but some strains can cause illness. E. coli infections can be classified into several types, including: 1. Foodborne illness: This type of infection occurs when a person consumes contaminated food or water that contains E. coli bacteria. Symptoms may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. 2. Urinary tract infection (UTI): E. coli bacteria can enter the urinary tract through the urethra and cause an infection. Symptoms may include a strong, persistent urge to urinate, pain or burning during urination, and cloudy or strong-smelling urine. 3. Bloodstream infection (sepsis): In rare cases, E. coli bacteria can enter the bloodstream and cause a serious infection called sepsis. Symptoms may include fever, chills, rapid heartbeat, and confusion. 4. Infections in other parts of the body: E. coli bacteria can also cause infections in other parts of the body, such as the abdomen, skin, and joints. Treatment for E. coli infections typically involves antibiotics, although some strains of E. coli are becoming resistant to antibiotics. Prevention measures include proper hand hygiene, safe food handling and preparation, and avoiding contaminated water.
Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are a group of infections that affect the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat, sinuses, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs. RTIs can be caused by a variety of viruses, bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms. Common symptoms of RTIs include coughing, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, fever, and difficulty breathing. RTIs can range from mild to severe and can affect people of all ages, although young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems are more susceptible to severe infections. Treatment for RTIs depends on the specific cause and severity of the infection, and may include medications, rest, and fluids. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by the Candida species of yeast. It can affect various parts of the body, including the mouth, throat, esophagus, genitals, and skin. In the mouth and throat, candidiasis is commonly known as thrush and can cause white patches on the tongue, inner cheeks, and roof of the mouth. In the esophagus, it can cause a burning sensation during swallowing and difficulty swallowing. In the genitals, it can cause itching, burning, and white discharge. Candidiasis can be treated with antifungal medications, which are available in various forms such as creams, ointments, tablets, and suppositories. The choice of treatment depends on the location and severity of the infection. In some cases, candidiasis can recur, and long-term treatment may be necessary.
In the medical field, "Reagins" refers to a type of protein that is produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance, such as a virus or bacteria. Reagins are also known as antibodies, and they play a crucial role in the body's defense against infections. There are several types of reagins, including immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin A (IgA). Each type of reagin has a specific function and is produced at different stages of an immune response. Reagins can be detected in the blood or other bodily fluids using laboratory tests, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) or immunofluorescence assays. These tests are commonly used to diagnose infections, monitor the effectiveness of treatments, and detect the presence of certain diseases or conditions. Overall, reagins are an important part of the immune system and play a critical role in protecting the body against infections and diseases.
Antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins, are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens. Antibodies are designed to recognize and bind to specific molecules on the surface of these foreign substances, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. There are five main classes of antibodies: IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE. Each class of antibody has a unique structure and function, and they are produced by different types of immune cells in response to different types of pathogens. Antibodies play a critical role in the immune response, helping to protect the body against infection and disease. They can neutralize pathogens by binding to them and preventing them from entering cells, or they can mark them for destruction by other immune cells. In some cases, antibodies can also help to stimulate the immune response by activating immune cells or by recruiting other immune cells to the site of infection. Antibodies are often used in medical treatments, such as in the development of vaccines, where they are used to stimulate the immune system to produce a response to a specific pathogen. They are also used in diagnostic tests to detect the presence of specific pathogens or to monitor the immune response to a particular treatment.
Parasitic diseases in animals refer to infections caused by parasites, which are organisms that live on or inside a host organism and obtain nutrients at the host's expense. These parasites can be protozoa, helminths (worms), or arthropods such as ticks and fleas. Parasitic diseases in animals can have a significant impact on animal health and welfare, as well as on human health if the parasites are zoonotic (able to be transmitted from animals to humans). Examples of parasitic diseases in animals include: - Toxoplasmosis, caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, which can infect a wide range of animals including cats, dogs, livestock, and wildlife. - Roundworm infections, caused by various species of helminths such as Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina, which can infect dogs and cats and can be transmitted to humans. - Tapeworm infections, caused by various species of tapeworms such as Dipylidium caninum and Taenia solium, which can infect dogs, cats, and humans. - Flea-borne diseases, such as plague and typhus, which are caused by bacteria transmitted by fleas that feed on infected animals. Treatment of parasitic diseases in animals typically involves the use of antiparasitic drugs, although in some cases, prevention through vaccination or other measures may be more effective. It is important for veterinarians and animal owners to be aware of the risks of parasitic diseases in animals and to take appropriate measures to prevent and control them.
DNA, ribosomal, refers to the specific type of DNA found within ribosomes, which are the cellular structures responsible for protein synthesis. Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is transcribed into ribosomal RNA (rRNA), which then forms the core of the ribosome. The rRNA molecules are essential for the assembly and function of the ribosome, and the rDNA sequences that code for these molecules are highly conserved across different species. Mutations in rDNA can lead to defects in ribosome function and can be associated with various medical conditions, including some forms of cancer and inherited disorders.
Leptospirosis is a bacterial infection caused by the Leptospira bacteria. It is a zoonotic disease, meaning it can be transmitted from animals to humans. The bacteria are shed in the urine of infected animals, and humans can become infected through contact with contaminated water, soil, or food. Symptoms of leptospirosis can vary widely and may include fever, headache, muscle aches, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. In severe cases, the infection can cause jaundice, kidney failure, meningitis, and even death. Leptospirosis is diagnosed through blood tests and can be treated with antibiotics. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with contaminated water and soil, wearing protective clothing and footwear when working with animals or in areas with potential exposure to contaminated water, and practicing good hygiene.
Tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB) is a form of tuberculosis caused by bacteria that are resistant to at least two of the most effective first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs: isoniazid and rifampin. MDR-TB is a serious public health concern because it is more difficult to treat and is associated with higher rates of morbidity and mortality compared to drug-susceptible tuberculosis. MDR-TB can occur in both new and previously treated cases of tuberculosis. It is typically diagnosed through the use of drug susceptibility testing, which can determine the resistance of the bacteria to different anti-tuberculosis drugs. Treatment for MDR-TB typically involves a combination of second-line drugs, which may be more toxic and have more side effects than first-line drugs. It is important to diagnose and treat MDR-TB promptly to prevent the spread of the disease and to improve outcomes for patients.
In the medical field, body weight refers to the total mass of an individual's body, typically measured in kilograms (kg) or pounds (lbs). It is an important indicator of overall health and can be used to assess a person's risk for certain health conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Body weight is calculated by measuring the amount of mass that a person's body contains, which includes all of the organs, tissues, bones, and fluids. It is typically measured using a scale or other weighing device, and can be influenced by factors such as age, gender, genetics, and lifestyle. Body weight can be further categorized into different types, such as body mass index (BMI), which takes into account both a person's weight and height, and waist circumference, which measures the size of a person's waist. These measures can provide additional information about a person's overall health and risk for certain conditions.
Measles is a highly contagious viral infection caused by the measles virus. It is characterized by a fever, cough, runny nose, and a distinctive red rash that spreads from the head to the rest of the body. Measles can also cause complications such as pneumonia, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and blindness. It is primarily spread through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Measles is preventable through vaccination, which is recommended for all children.
Enterobacteriaceae infections refer to a group of bacterial infections caused by members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. This family includes a wide range of bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia, among others. Enterobacteriaceae infections can affect various parts of the body, including the urinary tract, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and bloodstream. They can cause a range of infections, from mild to severe, including urinary tract infections, pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, and wound infections. Enterobacteriaceae infections are typically treated with antibiotics, although antibiotic resistance is becoming an increasingly serious problem. Proper hygiene and infection control measures are also important in preventing the spread of these infections.
Fluconazole is an antifungal medication that is used to treat a variety of fungal infections, including candidiasis (a yeast infection), cryptococcal meningitis, and aspergillosis (a lung infection caused by a fungus). It is available in both oral and intravenous forms and is often used to treat fungal infections that are resistant to other antifungal medications. Fluconazole works by inhibiting the growth of fungi and preventing them from multiplying in the body. It is generally well-tolerated, but like all medications, it can cause side effects in some people. These may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
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- If a person is ill for more than six months and does not have a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of EBV infection, other causes of chronic illness or chronic fatigue syndrome should be considered. (cdc.gov)
- Clinical laboratory technologists perform laboratory tests that are crucial to the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of disease. (encyclopedia.com)
- They summed up their experiences in the Laboratory, where two urgent tasks were in need: the search for new psychogical theories and practices and the reexamination of graduate courses of Psychology, in order to cope with the Brazilian social problems. (bvsalud.org)
- A generous research infrastructure grant from the National Science Foundation helped the department reconfigure and renovate the Wright Laboratory of Physics research and teaching labs. (oberlin.edu)
Timely and reliable2
- As part of the revised IHR requirements, WHO aims at supporting Member States efforts to enhance their capacity to detect, confirm and report public health events in a safe, timely and reliable manner by laboratory testing. (who.int)
- Public health laboratories are responsible for providing timely and reliable results primarily for the purpose of disease control and prevention. (who.int)
- Baylor Genetics is a joint venture between Baylor College of Medicine and H.U. Group Holdings, Inc. We are the largest laboratory in the United States that focuses on genetic diagnostic testing. (bcm.edu)
- In addition to offering comprehensive standard diagnostic testing methods for constitutional and somatic (tumor) testing, the laboratory offers cutting edge testing including whole exome sequencing, advanced oligonucleotide/SNP array comparative genomic hybridization, expanded carrier screening, and large scale metabolomics. (bcm.edu)
- It is based on training sessions and modules provided by CDC and WHO in more than 25 countries, and on guidelines for implementation of ISO 15189 in diagnostic laboratories developed by CLSI. (who.int)
- The laboratory tests ordered for the evaluation of hematuria must be based on the clinical history and the physical examination. (medscape.com)
- Technologists perform exacting microscopic chemical and bacteriological tests, much more complex than performed by clinical laboratory technicians. (encyclopedia.com)
- Clinical laboratory technologists also work as supervisors, teachers, and administrators. (encyclopedia.com)
- Clinical laboratory technologists test blood, urine, other body fluids, and tissue samples that doctors send to the laboratory. (encyclopedia.com)
- Clinical laboratory technologists identify parasites and bacteria through their tests. (encyclopedia.com)
- Clinical laboratory technologists work in large hospital laboratories, laboratories of private physicians, public health laboratories, and in medical research institutes. (encyclopedia.com)
- To become a clinical laboratory technologist, you need a bachelor's degree with a major in medical technology or in one of the life sciences. (encyclopedia.com)
- Colleges and universities offer medical technology programs accredited by the National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences (NAACLS). (encyclopedia.com)
- View information on how to apply to both the Clinical Biochemical Genetics Fellowship and the Laboratory Genetics & Genomics Program. (bcm.edu)
- Systems - and the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). (who.int)
- An elevated arterial or free venous serum ammonia level is the classic laboratory abnormality reported in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. (medscape.com)
- Technologists also work in colleges and universities , companies that manufacture drugs and laboratory test equipment, and the armed services. (encyclopedia.com)
- Many universities offer graduate programs in medical technology and related subjects for technologists who want to do certain types of laboratory work or for those who want to work in teaching, administration, or research. (encyclopedia.com)
- Scientists from two national laboratories used Argonne's Advanced Photon Source to answer a decades-old question. (anl.gov)
- I developed collaborations with military and academic scientists and physicians including in the Department of Defense (DOD), the Veterans Administration, the U.S. Geological Survey, and laboratory-based scientists at National Jewish Health. (nationaljewish.org)
- Overview of ICT certification laboratories Earlier today, ENISA published the study 'Overview of the ICT Certification Laboratories practices in Europe' which seeks to identify and analyse the current landscape of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) security certification laboratories within the EU Member States. (europa.eu)
- Too much course work emphasis is based on theory and fundamentals and too little on the practical, and general approved laboratory practices. (bio.net)
- This training toolkit is intended to provide comprehensive materials that will allow for designing and organizing training workshops for all stakeholders in health laboratory processes, from management, to administration, to bench-work laboratorians. (who.int)
- This lab is used by students in the Intermediate (Phys 314) and Advanced Laboratory (Phys 414) courses as well as to support faculty and student research. (oberlin.edu)
- describe the laboratory evaluation for the possible health effects of chronic exposure to cadmium. (cdc.gov)
- This article will look at the increasing use of automation in microbiology and how it is aiding modern laboratory-based research. (news-medical.net)
- Automation has been used in laboratories for decades, and, indeed, any use of machinery in the laboratory can be considered automation. (news-medical.net)
- A prime example of automation that has been in use for many years in laboratories is the centrifuge. (news-medical.net)
- There are two principal components to laboratory automation: hardware and workflow. (news-medical.net)
- An ideal laboratory automation system in microbiological research studies must be able to process different agar plates, broths, slides, and specimen containers, for instance. (news-medical.net)
- Laboratory automation can significantly improve the quality and efficiency of traditional assays, which are a significant element of microbiological studies. (news-medical.net)
- The mechanical engineering building would include a thermal power laboratory, a hydropower laboratory and laboratories for textile technology, paper technology and wood technology. (aalto.fi)
- The thermal power laboratory comprised a steam generator department, a steam engine department with steam turbines and piston steam engines, and an internal combustion engine department. (aalto.fi)
- The new laboratories are supplied with thermal energy by using the residual heat from the company's waste incinerator, which is released via underfloor heating. (basf.com)
- There are over two dozen laboratory directors as well as 30+ physicians and genetic counselors who support the fellowship training program through direct supervision of fellows as well as through the didactic curriculum. (bcm.edu)
- Erythema appeared at the injury site to laboratory examination. (cdc.gov)
- A similar type swab specimens were obtained for 512 on postinjury days 11 and 28, of vaccinia virus infection has also laboratory examination. (cdc.gov)
- In addition to sample examination facilities, the laboratory included wood-grinding equipment and a cellulose drying machine. (aalto.fi)
- Prior to 1999, the public health laboratory infrastructure in the United States was on the decline. (cdc.gov)
- The term 'classic workflow' describes the manual processes currently in use in many microbiology laboratories worldwide. (news-medical.net)
- In the third section of the machine laboratory building, a textile industry laboratory was placed and equipped with machinery mostly donated by the English company Dobson & Barlow. (aalto.fi)
- Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. (medlineplus.gov)
- Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup to look for changes in your health. (medlineplus.gov)
- Baylor Genetics Laboratories offers over 3000 different tests and performs over 100,000 tests per year. (bcm.edu)
- and provide member laboratories with the necessary supplies to support tests developed by the LRN. (cdc.gov)
- Today, LRN laboratories can perform rapid tests for high-priority biological agents including those that cause anthrax, smallpox, and plague. (cdc.gov)
- Methods A sample was selected in the period from2005 to 2008 in order to assess the prevalence of oral lesions in a Public Laboratory (MT Laboratório). (bvsalud.org)
- Laboratory testing can help distinguish whether someone is susceptible to EBV infection or has a recent or past infection. (cdc.gov)
- Microbiology laboratories are undergoing a rapid transformation, with several changes presenting challenges for researchers. (news-medical.net)
- The Yount laboratory aims to understand and combat human respiratory and cardiac viral diseases , with a focus on influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2 infections. (google.com)
- As the Laboratory was an appendage of the Physics Department, all of its staff members were physicists. (mit.edu)
- The Department maintains the following laboratories for instruction and research: Experimental Stress Analysis, Vibration and Control, Material Testing, Machines and Mechanisms, Fluid Mechanics, Energy Conversion, Heat Transfer, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning and Manufacturing Science. (iitk.ac.in)
- The hydropower laboratory included low-, medium- and high-pressure departments, a model testing department and a department for the study of the cavitation phenomenon. (aalto.fi)
- This paper reports the creation of the Laboratory of Popular Education and Health at the Psychology Department of University of Santa Catarina, Brazil. (bvsalud.org)
- Laboratory directors and fellows are employees of Baylor College of Medicine. (bcm.edu)
- After the completion of the Albertinkatu electrical laboratory, HUT began planning and building laboratories for mechanical engineering. (aalto.fi)
- Most state and local public health laboratories were not capable of rapid molecular testing for biological threat agents. (cdc.gov)
- The purpose of this document is to raise awareness on the need to strengthen public health laboratory services and propose actions for building national laboratory capacity. (who.int)
- The Spatial and Contextual Exposomics and Epidemiology Laboratory (SpaCE 2 Lab), based at the Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, the Channing Division of Network Medicine at Brigham and Women's Hospital, the Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, and Harvard Medical School, broadly focuses on the impact of location-based exposures on health. (harvard.edu)
- A credible and accessible laboratory service is a cornerstone of any country's capacity to investigate public health events. (who.int)
- Well-functioning and sustainable laboratory services are essential for strong health systems and crucial for improving public health. (who.int)
- Because getting test results within hours, not days, is critical in the event of a biological or chemical attack, it was clear that the LRN was needed to improve laboratory capacity in the public health system. (cdc.gov)
- In a 1998 Association of Public Health Laboratories survey of state public health laboratories, 12 of 38 responding states reported having Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3) capability. (cdc.gov)
- This online course is designed to describe and explain five of the building blocks that are considered to be the basics of a laboratory quality management system. (who.int)
- The study concludes that most laboratories currently operate under their respective Member State schemes. (europa.eu)
- Visit the CST LAP site for a program description, information on applying for laboratory accreditation , applicable fees , NVLAP Handbooks, and associated laboratory bulletins . (nist.gov)
- BASF opened a new laboratory building for the development of automotive refinish coatings and innovations beyond paint at its site in Münster, Germany. (basf.com)
- Objective The aim of this study was to perform a retrospective study of 1,894 maxillofacial injuries diagnosed in a public laboratory in Mato Grosso and verify the association by considering the following variables: gender, age, anatomical locationand origin of the patient (capital, interior). (bvsalud.org)
- The two men concluded that these needs could not be met in the Eastman building, and they decided to put up an additional building adjacent to the main research laboratories, especially designed to house spectroscopic equipment. (mit.edu)
- Although the Laboratory was just founded, it had many visitors from other laboratories in the United States and abroad, who worked on special problems for which the unique equipment developed in the Spectroscopy Laboratory was needed. (mit.edu)
- WHO helps countries by advising them on establishing or accessing laboratory services, specimen transport systems, biorisk management and laboratory quality systems, in order to meet their commitments under IHR. (who.int)
- In smaller laboratories they usually perform a variety of duties. (encyclopedia.com)
- Workers will be needed to fill supervisory positions in all laboratories. (encyclopedia.com)
- These tables, first published in 1939, by the MIT Press, contain 110,000 seven-figure wavelengths assigned to their elements of origin, in accordance with the measurements in the Spectroscopy Laboratory as well as those given in the literature, and are still in daily use in laboratories throughout the world. (mit.edu)
- An automobile laboratory and repair shop were also located in the same facilities. (aalto.fi)
- Despite the progress and efforts being made to strengthen laboratory capacities in the Region, challenges remain. (who.int)