Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
Health care professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES in research or health care facilities.
Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative and clinical activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical laboratory services.
Professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES.
Assessments aimed at determining agreement in diagnostic test results among laboratories. Identical survey samples are distributed to participating laboratories, with results stratified according to testing methodologies.
The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.
The specialty related to the performance of techniques in clinical pathology such as those in hematology, microbiology, and other general clinical laboratory applications.
Organized services provided by MEDICAL LABORATORY PERSONNEL for the purpose of carrying out CLINICAL LABORATORY TECHNIQUES used for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
A subspecialty of pathology applied to the solution of clinical problems, especially the use of laboratory methods in clinical diagnosis. (Dorland, 28th ed.)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Laboratory tests demonstrating the presence of physiologically significant substances in the blood, urine, tissue, and body fluids with application to the diagnosis or therapy of disease.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.
Chemicals necessary to perform experimental and/or investigative procedures and for the preparation of drugs and other chemicals.
Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.
Controlled operations of analytic or diagnostic processes, or systems by mechanical or electronic devices.
Provision of physical and biological barriers to the dissemination of potentially hazardous biologically active agents (bacteria, viruses, recombinant DNA, etc.). Physical containment involves the use of special equipment, facilities, and procedures to prevent the escape of the agent. Biological containment includes use of immune personnel and the selection of agents and hosts that will minimize the risk should the agent escape the containment facility.
The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.
Assistants to a veterinarian, biological or biomedical researcher, or other scientist who are engaged in the care and management of animals, and who are trained in basic principles of animal life processes and routine laboratory and animal health care procedures. (Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Techniques used in microbiology.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Diagnostic procedures, such as laboratory tests and x-rays, routinely performed on all individuals or specified categories of individuals in a specified situation, e.g., patients being admitted to the hospital. These include routine tests administered to neonates.
The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.
Hospital department which administers and provides pathology services.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with morphology, physiology, and pathology of the blood and blood-forming tissues.
Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.
A specialty concerned with the nature and cause of disease as expressed by changes in cellular or tissue structure and function caused by the disease process.
The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)
Certification as complying with a standard set by non-governmental organizations, applied for by institutions, programs, and facilities on a voluntary basis.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.
The use of animals as investigational subjects.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
An infant during the first month after birth.
An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
The room or rooms in which the physician and staff provide patient care. The offices include all rooms in the physician's office suite.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A vocabulary database of universal identifiers for laboratory and clinical test results. Its purpose is to facilitate the exchange and pooling of results for clinical care, outcomes management, and research. It is produced by the Regenstrief Institute. (LOINC and RELMA [Internet]. Indianapolis: The Regenstrief Institute; c1995-2001 [cited 2002 Apr 2]. Available from http://www.regenstrief.org/loinc)
Organized services for the purpose of providing diagnosis to promote and maintain health.
Animal diseases refer to illnesses or conditions that affect the health and well-being of animals, including domesticated and wild species.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.
The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
Substances used to destroy or inhibit the action of rats, mice, or other rodents.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.
Methods, procedures, and tests performed to diagnose disease, disordered function, or disability.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Measurement of rate of settling of erythrocytes in anticoagulated blood.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The educational process of instructing.
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.
Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Data processing largely performed by automatic means.
The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Description of pattern of recurrent functions or procedures frequently found in organizational processes, such as notification, decision, and action.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.
A scientific or medical discipline concerning the study of male reproductive biology, diseases of the male genital organs, and male infertility. Major areas of interest include ENDOCRINOLOGY; SPERMATOGENESIS; semen analysis; FERTILIZATION; CONTRACEPTION; and CRYOPRESERVATION.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.
Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Serologic tests for syphilis.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.

European interlaboratory comparison of breath 13CO2 analysis. (1/1696)

The BIOMED I programme Stable Isotopes in Gastroenterology and Nutrition (SIGN) has focused upon evaluation and standardisation of stable isotope breath tests using 13C labelled substrates. The programme dealt with comparison of 13C substrates, test meals, test conditions, analysis techniques, and calculation procedures. Analytical techniques applied for 13CO2 analysis were evaluated by taking an inventory of instrumentation, calibration protocols, and analysis procedures. Two ring tests were initiated measuring 13C abundances of carbonate materials. Evaluating the data it was found that seven different models of isotope ratio mass spectrometers (IRMS) were used by the participants applying both the dual inlet system and the continuous flow configuration. Eight different brands of certified 13C reference materials were used with a 13C abundance varying from delta 13CPDB -37.2 to +2.0/1000. CO2 was liberated from certified material by three techniques and different working standards were used varying from -47.4 to +0.4/1000 in their delta 13CPDB value. The standard deviations (SDs) found for all measurements by all participants were 0.25/1000 and 0.50/1000 for two carbonates used in the ring tests. The individual variation for the single participants varied from 0.02 /1000 (dual inlet system) to 0.14/1000 (continuous flow system). The measurement of the difference between two carbonates showed a SD of 0.33/1000 calculated for all participants. Internal precision of IRMS as indicated by the specifications of the different instrument suppliers is < 0.3/1000 for continuous flow systems. In this respect it can be concluded that all participants are working well within the instrument specifications even including sample preparation. Increased overall interlaboratory variation is therefore likely to be due to non-instrumental conditions. It is possible that consistent differences in sample handling leading to isotope fractionation are the causes for interlaboratory variation. Breath analysis does not require sample preparation. As such, interlaboratory variation will be less than observed for the carbonate samples and within the range indicated as internal precision for continuous flow instruments. From this it is concluded that pure analytical interlaboratory variation is acceptable despite the many differences in instrumentation and analytical protocols. Coordinated metabolic studies appear possible, in which different European laboratories perform 13CO2 analysis. Evaluation of compatibility of the analytical systems remains advisable, however.  (+info)

Analyte comparisons between 2 clinical chemistry analyzers. (2/1696)

The purpose of this study was to assess agreement between a wet reagent and a dry reagent analyzer. Thirteen analytes (albumin, globulin, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, amylase, urea nitrogen, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, potassium, total bilirubin, and total protein) for both canine and feline serum were evaluated. Concordance correlations, linear regression, and plots of difference against mean were used to analyze the data. Concordance correlations were excellent for 8 of 13 analytes (r > or = 0.90); the correlations for albumin, potassium, and calcium were clinically unreliable. The linear regression analysis revealed that several analytes had slopes significantly different from unity, which was likely related to methodological differences. Compared to the wet reagent analyzer, the dry reagent analyzer showed excellent agreement for alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, amylase (feline), urea nitrogen, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, total bilirubin (canine), and total protein. However, it showed only slight to substantial agreement for amylase (canine), calcium, albumin, potassium, and total bilirubin (feline).  (+info)

Pseudoepidemic of Aspergillus niger infections traced to specimen contamination in the microbiology laboratory. (3/1696)

We report a pseudo-outbreak of Aspergillus niger that followed building construction in our clinical microbiology laboratory. Because outbreaks of invasive aspergillosis have been linked to hospital construction, strategies to minimize dust in patient care areas are common practice. We illustrate that the impact of false-positive cultures on patient care should compel laboratories to prevent specimen contamination during construction.  (+info)

Preliminary external quality assessment for the biological monitoring of carbon disulfide with urinary 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid. (4/1696)

Four laboratories have participated in an external quality control assessment for the determination of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA). TTCA is used as a biomarker for exposure to CS2. Thirteen different urine samples were analyzed by each laboratory. Ten of these were spiked with known amounts of TTCA, and had either a high or intermediate creatinine content. Two samples without any TTCA were used as controls and one sample was a pool of samples of urine from five employees occupationally exposed to CS2. The latter had unknown TTCA content. For each sample, TTCA and creatinine concentration were determined. The samples were supplied in three consecutive deliveries. Several samples were offered more than once. Thus, within-laboratory variability could be established for creatinine and TTCA determination and accuracy could be determined for TTCA analysis. Within-laboratory variability was low for all laboratories for creatinine, although laboratory D seemed to have a slight downward bias. Accuracy for TTCA was good for all laboratories. No significant mean deviation from the expected TTCA value was encountered. There does not seem to be any clear influence of the TTCA concentration level of the samples on the accuracy and within-laboratory variability. Two of the four laboratories (A and C) showed lower within-laboratory variability than the other two for TTCA, although coefficients of variation between replicated samples are high for these two laboratories as well. The laboratory giving the best accuracy, gave the highest within-laboratory variability. A non-systematic, random error is probably the source of this. The results of this preliminary study indicate that analysis of TTCA, although regarded as an established biomarker, can give biases and thus negatively interfere with inferred dose-effect or dose-response relationships in occupational epidemiology.  (+info)

Experience with external quality control in spermatology. (5/1696)

Results are presented from participation in an external quality control (EQC) programme for semen analysis (UK NEQAS). Formalin-fixed semen samples and videotapes of motile spermatozoa were distributed four times a year over a 3-4 year period. Over the entire period there was close agreement for sperm concentration with, initially, the average of values from the other groups participating in the scheme, and later, values designated as reference values obtained from six laboratories of several chosen that consistently agreed with each other. The initial underestimation of the percentage of normal forms was abolished at the time of change in derivation of designated values and this largely eliminated the difference to establish closer agreement with the designated values. A consistent bias in the assessment of different categories of progressive sperm motility appeared to be resolved by a conscious decision to consider most spermatozoa as grade b and the exceptions as grade a, rather than the converse. Feedback of results to the technicians of the laboratory participating in an external quality control programme leads to reappraisal of subjective evaluation and to harmonization of results between laboratories.  (+info)

emm typing and validation of provisional M types for group A streptococci. (6/1696)

This report discusses the following issues related to typing of group A streptococci (GAS): The development and use of the 5' emm variable region sequencing (emm typing) in relation to the existing serologic typing system; the designation of emm types in relation to M types; a system for validation of new emm types; criteria for validation of provisional M types to new M-types; a list of reference type cultures for each of the M-type or emm-type strains of GAS; the results of the first culture exchange program for a quality control testing system among the national and World Health Organization collaborating centers for streptococci; and dissemination of new approaches to typing of GAS to the international streptococcal community.  (+info)

A national survey of practice patterns in the noninvasive diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis. (7/1696)

PURPOSE: Recent studies have recommended unilateral venous duplex scanning for the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in patients who are unilaterally symptomatic. Vascular laboratory accreditation standards, however, imply that bilateral leg scanning should be performed. We examined whether actual practice patterns have evolved toward limited unilateral scanning in such patients. METHODS: A questionnaire was mailed to all 808 vascular laboratories in the United States that were accredited by the Intersocietal Commission for the Accreditation of Vascular Laboratories (ICAVL). To encourage candid responses, the questionnaires were numerically coded and confidentiality was assured. RESULTS: A total of 608 questionnaires (75%) were completed and returned. Most of the respondents (442; 73%) were either community-hospital or office-based laboratories, and the remaining 163 (27%) were university or affiliated-hospital laboratories. Most of the laboratories (460; 76%) had been in existence for 9 years or more, and 65% had been ICAVL-accredited in venous studies for 3 years or more. Board-certified vascular surgeons were the medical directors in 54% of the laboratories. Duplex ultrasound scanning was the diagnostic method used by 98% of the laboratories. In patients with unilateral symptoms, 75% of the laboratories did not routinely scan both legs for DVT. A large majority (75%) believe that bilateral scanning is not clinically indicated. Only 57 laboratories (14%) recalled having patients return with a DVT in the previously unscanned leg, with 93% of these laboratories reporting between one and five such patients. This observation correlated with larger volumes of venous studies performed by those laboratories (P <.05). Similarly, only 52 laboratories (12%) recalled having patients return with subsequent pulmonary emboli. Of these laboratories, only five reported proximal DVT in the previously unscanned legs of such patients. Of all these laboratories, therefore, only 1% (5 of 443) have potentially missed the diagnosis of a DVT that caused a preventable pulmonary embolus with such a policy. Among those laboratories that always perform bilateral examinations, 41% do so because of habit. Most (61%) of the laboratories that perform bilateral scanning would do unilateral scanning if it were specifically approved by ICAVL. CONCLUSION: Three quarters of the ICAVL-accredited vascular laboratories perform limited single-extremity scanning for the diagnosis of DVT in patients with unilateral symptoms. This broad clinical experience suggests that this practice is widespread in selected patients. Clinical protocols should be established to provide guidelines for local laboratory implementation.  (+info)

The Calgary Biofilm Device: new technology for rapid determination of antibiotic susceptibilities of bacterial biofilms. (8/1696)

Determination of the MIC, based on the activities of antibiotics against planktonic bacteria, is the standard assay for antibiotic susceptibility testing. Adherent bacterial populations (biofilms) present with an innate lack of antibiotic susceptibility not seen in the same bacteria grown as planktonic populations. The Calgary Biofilm Device (CBD) is described as a new technology for the rapid and reproducible assay of biofilm susceptibilities to antibiotics. The CBD produces 96 equivalent biofilms for the assay of antibiotic susceptibilities by the standard 96-well technology. Biofilm formation was followed by quantitative microbiology and scanning electron microscopy. Susceptibility to a standard group of antibiotics was determined for National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) reference strains: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213. Growth curves demonstrated that biofilms of a predetermined size could be formed on the CBD at specific time points and, furthermore, that no significant difference (P > 0.1) was seen between biofilms formed on each of the 96 pegs. The antibiotic susceptibilities for planktonic populations obtained by the NCCLS method or from the CBD were similar. Minimal biofilm eradication concentrations, derived by using the CBD, demonstrated that for biofilms of the same organisms, 100 to 1,000 times the concentration of a certain antibiotic were often required for the antibiotic to be effective, while other antibiotics were found to be effective at the MICs. The CBD offers a new technology for the rational selection of antibiotics effective against microbial biofilms and for the screening of new effective antibiotic compounds.  (+info)

DNA, Bacterial refers to the genetic material of bacteria, which is a type of single-celled microorganism that can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the human body. Bacterial DNA is typically circular in shape and contains genes that encode for the proteins necessary for the bacteria to survive and reproduce. In the medical field, bacterial DNA is often studied as a means of identifying and diagnosing bacterial infections. Bacterial DNA can be extracted from samples such as blood, urine, or sputum and analyzed using techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or DNA sequencing. This information can be used to identify the specific type of bacteria causing an infection and to determine the most effective treatment. Bacterial DNA can also be used in research to study the evolution and diversity of bacteria, as well as their interactions with other organisms and the environment. Additionally, bacterial DNA can be modified or manipulated to create genetically engineered bacteria with specific properties, such as the ability to produce certain drugs or to degrade pollutants.

Rodent diseases refer to a group of infectious diseases that are caused by pathogens transmitted by rodents, such as mice and rats. These diseases can affect both humans and animals, and can be transmitted through direct contact with infected rodents, their urine, feces, or saliva, or through the bites of infected fleas or ticks. Some common rodent-borne diseases include: 1. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS): A severe respiratory illness that can be fatal. 2. Rat-bite fever: A bacterial infection that can cause fever, joint pain, and swelling. 3. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM): A viral infection that can cause meningitis and encephalitis. 4. Leptospirosis: A bacterial infection that can cause fever, headache, muscle pain, and liver damage. 5. Salmonellosis: A bacterial infection that can cause diarrhea, fever, and abdominal pain. 6. Plague: A bacterial infection that can cause fever, chills, and swelling of the lymph nodes. Preventing rodent-borne diseases involves controlling rodent populations through sanitation, exclusion, and the use of rodenticides, as well as practicing good hygiene and avoiding contact with rodents and their droppings. If you suspect that you or someone you know may have been exposed to a rodent-borne disease, it is important to seek medical attention immediately.

Bacterial infections are caused by bacteria, which are single-celled microorganisms that can be found almost everywhere in the environment, including on our skin and in our digestive tracts. When bacteria enter the body and multiply, they can cause illness and disease. Bacterial infections can affect any part of the body and can range from mild to severe. Some common examples of bacterial infections include strep throat, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, meningitis, and skin infections. Bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, which are medications that kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. However, it is important to use antibiotics properly and only when necessary, as overuse can lead to antibiotic resistance, which makes it more difficult to treat bacterial infections in the future.

Animal diseases refer to any illness or condition that affects animals, including domesticated animals such as dogs, cats, and livestock, as well as wild animals. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, and environmental factors such as stress, poor nutrition, and exposure to toxins. In the medical field, animal diseases are studied and treated by veterinarians, who are medical professionals trained to diagnose and treat illnesses in animals. Veterinarians may work in a variety of settings, including private practices, research laboratories, and government agencies. Animal diseases can have significant economic and social impacts, particularly in the agricultural industry. For example, outbreaks of diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease or avian influenza can lead to significant losses in livestock and poultry production, as well as disruptions to international trade. Additionally, some animal diseases can pose a risk to human health, particularly if they are zoonotic, meaning they can be transmitted from animals to humans. Examples of zoonotic diseases include rabies, Lyme disease, and West Nile virus.

In the medical field, agar is a gelatinous substance that is commonly used as a growth medium for bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms. It is made from seaweed and is composed of agarose, a polysaccharide that forms a gel when heated. Agar is often used in microbiology laboratories to culture and isolate microorganisms, as well as to study their growth and behavior. It is also used in some medical treatments, such as in the preparation of certain types of vaccines and in the treatment of certain skin conditions.

Bacterial proteins are proteins that are synthesized by bacteria. They are essential for the survival and function of bacteria, and play a variety of roles in bacterial metabolism, growth, and pathogenicity. Bacterial proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, metabolic enzymes, regulatory proteins, and toxins. Structural proteins provide support and shape to the bacterial cell, while metabolic enzymes are involved in the breakdown of nutrients and the synthesis of new molecules. Regulatory proteins control the expression of other genes, and toxins can cause damage to host cells and tissues. Bacterial proteins are of interest in the medical field because they can be used as targets for the development of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. They can also be used as diagnostic markers for bacterial infections, and as vaccines to prevent bacterial diseases. Additionally, some bacterial proteins have been shown to have therapeutic potential, such as enzymes that can break down harmful substances in the body or proteins that can stimulate the immune system.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body, such as the brain, spine, and kidneys. TB is spread through the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks, and can be transmitted to others who are nearby. TB is a serious and sometimes fatal disease, but it is treatable with a combination of antibiotics taken over several months. However, if left untreated, TB can be life-threatening and can spread to others. There are two main types of TB: latent TB and active TB. Latent TB is when the bacteria are present in the body but do not cause symptoms or harm. Active TB, on the other hand, is when the bacteria are multiplying and causing symptoms such as coughing, fever, and weight loss. TB is a major global health problem, with an estimated 10 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths each year. It is most common in low- and middle-income countries, where access to healthcare and treatment may be limited.

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that is produced by B cells in response to an infection or foreign substance. It is the first antibody to be produced during an immune response and is present in the blood and other body fluids in relatively low concentrations. IgM antibodies are large, Y-shaped molecules that can bind to multiple antigens at once, making them highly effective at neutralizing pathogens and marking them for destruction by other immune cells. They are also able to activate the complement system, a series of proteins that can directly destroy pathogens or mark them for destruction by immune cells. IgM antibodies are often used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, as they are typically the first antibodies to be produced in response to a new infection. They can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of vaccines and to detect the presence of certain diseases, such as viral or bacterial infections, autoimmune disorders, and certain types of cancer.

Antibodies, viral, are proteins produced by the immune system in response to a viral infection. They are also known as immunoglobulins or antibodies. Viral antibodies are specific to a particular virus and can help to neutralize and eliminate the virus from the body. They are typically detected in the blood or other bodily fluids using laboratory tests, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) or immunofluorescence assays. The presence of viral antibodies can be used as a diagnostic tool to confirm a viral infection or to determine the immune status of an individual.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infections refer to the presence of the HIV virus in the body. HIV is a retrovirus that attacks and weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to infections and diseases. HIV is transmitted through contact with infected bodily fluids, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. The most common modes of transmission include unprotected sexual contact, sharing needles or syringes, and from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. HIV infections can be diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of the virus or antibodies produced in response to the virus. Once diagnosed, HIV can be managed with antiretroviral therapy (ART), which helps to suppress the virus and prevent the progression of the disease to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). It is important to note that HIV is not the same as AIDS. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS, but not everyone with HIV will develop AIDS. With proper treatment and management, individuals with HIV can live long and healthy lives.

In the medical field, "Disease Models, Animal" refers to the use of animals to study and understand human diseases. These models are created by introducing a disease or condition into an animal, either naturally or through experimental manipulation, in order to study its progression, symptoms, and potential treatments. Animal models are used in medical research because they allow scientists to study diseases in a controlled environment and to test potential treatments before they are tested in humans. They can also provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of a disease and help to identify new therapeutic targets. There are many different types of animal models used in medical research, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys. Each type of animal has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model depends on the specific disease being studied and the research question being addressed.

In the medical field, an acute disease is a condition that develops suddenly and progresses rapidly over a short period of time. Acute diseases are typically characterized by severe symptoms and a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Examples of acute diseases include pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, and heart attacks. These diseases require prompt medical attention and treatment to prevent complications and improve outcomes. In contrast, chronic diseases are long-term conditions that develop gradually over time and may persist for years or even decades.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of protein that is produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins. It is the most abundant type of immunoglobulin in the blood and is responsible for the majority of the body's defense against infections. IgG is produced by B cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune response. When a B cell encounters a foreign substance, it produces IgG antibodies that can recognize and bind to the substance, marking it for destruction by other immune cells. IgG antibodies can also be transferred from mother to child through the placenta during pregnancy, providing the baby with some protection against infections during the first few months of life. In addition, some vaccines contain IgG antibodies to help stimulate the immune system and provide protection against specific diseases. Overall, IgG is an important component of the immune system and plays a critical role in protecting the body against infections and diseases.

Antibodies, Bacterial are proteins produced by the immune system in response to bacterial infections. They are also known as bacterial antibodies or bacterial immunoglobulins. These antibodies are specific to bacterial antigens, which are molecules found on the surface of bacteria that trigger an immune response. When the immune system detects a bacterial infection, it produces antibodies that bind to the bacterial antigens and mark them for destruction by other immune cells. This helps to neutralize the bacteria and prevent them from causing harm to the body. Bacterial antibodies can be detected in the blood or other bodily fluids using laboratory tests. These tests are often used to diagnose bacterial infections and to monitor the effectiveness of antibiotic treatments.

DNA primers are short, single-stranded DNA molecules that are used in a variety of molecular biology techniques, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. They are designed to bind to specific regions of a DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of new DNA strands. In PCR, DNA primers are used to amplify specific regions of DNA by providing a starting point for the polymerase enzyme to begin synthesizing new DNA strands. The primers are complementary to the target DNA sequence, and are added to the reaction mixture along with the DNA template, nucleotides, and polymerase enzyme. The polymerase enzyme uses the primers as a template to synthesize new DNA strands, which are then extended by the addition of more nucleotides. This process is repeated multiple times, resulting in the amplification of the target DNA sequence. DNA primers are also used in DNA sequencing to identify the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. In this application, the primers are designed to bind to specific regions of the DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of short DNA fragments. The fragments are then sequenced using a variety of techniques, such as Sanger sequencing or next-generation sequencing. Overall, DNA primers are an important tool in molecular biology, and are used in a wide range of applications to study and manipulate DNA.

In the medical field, a virus disease is a condition caused by a virus, which is a tiny infectious agent that can only replicate inside living cells. Viruses can infect a wide range of organisms, including humans, animals, plants, and even bacteria. When a virus enters the body, it attaches to and invades host cells, taking over the cell's machinery to produce more copies of itself. This can cause damage to the host cells and trigger an immune response, which can lead to symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, and fatigue. Some common examples of virus diseases in humans include the common cold, influenza, herpes simplex virus (HSV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis B and C. These diseases can range from mild to severe and can be treated with antiviral medications, vaccines, or supportive care.

Mycoses are a group of infections caused by fungi. They can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, hair, nails, respiratory system, and internal organs. Mycoses can be classified into superficial mycoses, which affect the skin and nails, and systemic mycoses, which can spread throughout the body and cause serious health problems. Superficial mycoses are usually mild and can be treated with antifungal creams, ointments, or powders. Examples of superficial mycoses include athlete's foot, ringworm, and jock itch. Systemic mycoses, on the other hand, are more severe and require stronger antifungal medications. Examples of systemic mycoses include candidiasis, aspergillosis, and cryptococcosis. Mycoses can be caused by different types of fungi, including dermatophytes, yeasts, and molds. They can be acquired through contact with contaminated surfaces or objects, inhaling fungal spores, or through weakened immune systems.

Influenza, Human, also known as the flu, is a highly contagious respiratory illness caused by the influenza virus. It can cause mild to severe illness, and in some cases, can lead to death. The virus is transmitted through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes, or by touching a surface contaminated with the virus and then touching the mouth, nose, or eyes. Symptoms of the flu can include fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, headache, chills, and fatigue. In severe cases, the flu can lead to pneumonia, which can be life-threatening. The flu is preventable through vaccination, and antiviral medications can be used to treat the illness.

"Communicable Diseases, Emerging" refers to infectious diseases that have recently emerged or re-emerged in a population, and for which there is limited understanding or experience in controlling or preventing their spread. These diseases can be caused by new pathogens, changes in the behavior of existing pathogens, or changes in the environment or population dynamics that facilitate their transmission. Emerging communicable diseases can pose a significant public health threat, as they can rapidly spread and cause widespread illness, death, and social disruption. Examples of emerging communicable diseases include Ebola, Zika virus, SARS, and COVID-19. The emergence of these diseases is often linked to factors such as globalization, urbanization, deforestation, climate change, and the movement of people and animals across borders. To control and prevent the spread of emerging communicable diseases, public health officials and healthcare providers must work together to identify and track outbreaks, develop and implement effective prevention and control measures, and provide education and resources to the public. This requires ongoing surveillance, research, and collaboration among healthcare professionals, government agencies, and international organizations.

Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment that is produced when red blood cells are broken down in the body. It is primarily produced in the liver and is then excreted in the bile, which is released into the small intestine. Bilirubin is an important part of the body's waste removal system and helps to remove old red blood cells from the bloodstream. In the medical field, bilirubin levels are often measured as part of a routine blood test. High levels of bilirubin in the blood can be a sign of liver disease, such as hepatitis or cirrhosis, or of problems with the gallbladder or bile ducts. Bilirubin levels can also be affected by certain medications, infections, or genetic disorders. Low levels of bilirubin can be a sign of anemia or other blood disorders.

Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is an enzyme that is found in many different tissues throughout the body, including the liver, heart, muscles, and kidneys. It plays a role in the metabolism of amino acids and is involved in the production of energy. In the medical field, AST is often measured as part of a routine blood test to assess liver function. When the liver is damaged or diseased, AST levels may increase in the blood. This can be an indication of a variety of liver conditions, including viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. AST levels may also be elevated in other conditions that affect the heart, muscles, or kidneys. For example, AST levels may be increased in people with heart muscle damage or inflammation, such as from a heart attack or myocarditis. In addition, AST levels may be elevated in people with muscle damage or inflammation, such as from a muscle strain or injury. Overall, AST is an important biomarker that can provide valuable information about the health of the liver and other organs in the body.

Occupational diseases are illnesses or injuries that are caused by exposure to hazards or conditions in the workplace. These hazards or conditions can include chemicals, dusts, fumes, radiation, noise, vibration, and physical demands such as repetitive motions or awkward postures. Occupational diseases can affect various systems in the body, including the respiratory system, skin, eyes, ears, cardiovascular system, and nervous system. Examples of occupational diseases include asbestosis, silicosis, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and hearing loss. Occupational diseases are preventable through proper safety measures and regulations in the workplace. Employers are responsible for providing a safe and healthy work environment for their employees, and workers have the right to report hazards and seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms related to their work.

In the medical field, "dog diseases" refers to any illness or condition that affects dogs. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, infections, environmental factors, and lifestyle. Some common examples of dog diseases include: 1. Canine Influenza: A highly contagious respiratory disease caused by the influenza virus. 2. Canine Distemper: A highly contagious viral disease that affects the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems. 3. Canine Leukemia: A type of cancer that affects the white blood cells. 4. Canine Hip Dysplasia: A genetic disorder that affects the development of the hip joint. 5. Canine Heartworm: A parasitic disease that affects the heart and blood vessels. 6. Canine Cancers: A group of diseases that affect the body's cells and tissues. 7. Canine Arthritis: A joint disease that causes inflammation and pain. 8. Canine Allergies: A condition in which the immune system overreacts to certain substances, such as pollen or food. 9. Canine Eye Diseases: A group of conditions that affect the eyes, including cataracts, glaucoma, and retinal detachment. 10. Canine Skin Diseases: A group of conditions that affect the skin, including allergies, mange, and acne. These are just a few examples of the many diseases that can affect dogs. It is important for pet owners to be aware of the common diseases that affect their dogs and to take steps to prevent and treat them.

Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. It is characterized by fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, and fatigue. In severe cases, it can lead to anemia, respiratory distress, organ failure, and death. Malaria is primarily found in tropical and subtropical regions, particularly in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. There are four main species of Plasmodium that can cause malaria in humans: P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae. Malaria is preventable and treatable, but,。

In the medical field, communicable diseases are infections that can be transmitted from one person to another through various means such as direct contact, respiratory droplets, bodily fluids, or contaminated surfaces. These diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, and can affect people of all ages, genders, and backgrounds. Examples of communicable diseases include influenza, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox, hepatitis B and C, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and foodborne illnesses. These diseases can spread rapidly in crowded or poorly ventilated environments, and can cause serious health complications if left untreated. Preventing the spread of communicable diseases involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and getting vaccinated when possible. Healthcare professionals also play a crucial role in identifying and treating communicable diseases, as well as implementing public health measures to control their spread.

In the medical field, aerosols refer to tiny particles or droplets of liquid or solid matter that are suspended in the air and can be inhaled into the respiratory system. Aerosols can be generated by various sources, including human activities such as talking, coughing, and sneezing, as well as natural phenomena such as volcanic eruptions and dust storms. Aerosols can contain a variety of substances, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, pollutants, and other particles. When inhaled, these particles can enter the lungs and potentially cause respiratory infections, allergies, and other health problems. In the context of infectious diseases, aerosols are of particular concern because they can transmit pathogens over long distances and remain suspended in the air for extended periods of time. To prevent the spread of infectious diseases, it is important to take measures to reduce the generation and dispersion of aerosols in indoor environments, such as wearing masks, practicing good respiratory hygiene, and improving ventilation systems.

Hemoglobins are a group of proteins found in red blood cells (erythrocytes) that are responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs. Hemoglobin is composed of four subunits, each of which contains a heme group that binds to oxygen. The oxygen binds to the iron atom in the heme group, allowing the hemoglobin to transport oxygen throughout the body. Hemoglobin also plays a role in regulating the pH of the blood and in the immune response. Abnormalities in hemoglobin can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, sickle cell disease, and thalassemia.

In the medical field, neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors of cells that can occur in any part of the body. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. They can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, or difficulty moving the affected area. Examples of benign neoplasms include lipomas (fatty tumors), hemangiomas (vascular tumors), and fibromas (fibrous tumors). Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. They can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the location and stage of the cancer. Examples of malignant neoplasms include carcinomas (cancers that start in epithelial cells), sarcomas (cancers that start in connective tissue), and leukemias (cancers that start in blood cells). The diagnosis of neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy (the removal of a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope). Treatment options for neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.

Diarrhea is a medical condition characterized by the passage of loose, watery stools more than three times a day. It can be acute, meaning it lasts for a short period of time, or chronic, meaning it persists for more than four weeks. Diarrhea can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, food poisoning, medications, underlying medical conditions, and stress. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. Diarrhea can cause dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and malnutrition if it persists for an extended period of time. Treatment for diarrhea depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, dietary changes, and fluid replacement therapy. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

RNA, Ribosomal, 16S is a type of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) that is found in bacteria and archaea. It is a small subunit of the ribosome, which is the cellular machinery responsible for protein synthesis. The 16S rRNA is located in the 30S subunit of the ribosome and is essential for the binding and decoding of messenger RNA (mRNA) during translation. The sequence of the 16S rRNA is highly conserved among bacteria and archaea, making it a useful target for the identification and classification of these organisms. In the medical field, the 16S rRNA is often used in molecular biology techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing to study the diversity and evolution of bacterial and archaeal populations. It is also used in the development of diagnostic tests for bacterial infections and in the identification of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria.

4-Hydroxycoumarins are a class of organic compounds that are commonly used as anticoagulants, or blood thinners. They work by inhibiting the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of vitamin K, which is necessary for blood clotting. As a result, 4-hydroxycoumarins can prevent blood clots from forming, making them useful for treating conditions such as deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and stroke. Some examples of 4-hydroxycoumarins include warfarin and phenprocoumon. It is important to note that 4-hydroxycoumarins can have serious side effects, including bleeding, and require careful monitoring by a healthcare professional.

In the medical field, "DNA, Viral" refers to the genetic material of viruses, which is composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Viruses are infectious agents that can only replicate inside living cells of organisms, including humans. The genetic material of viruses is different from that of cells, as viruses do not have a cellular structure and cannot carry out metabolic processes on their own. Instead, they rely on the host cell's machinery to replicate and produce new viral particles. Understanding the genetic material of viruses is important for developing treatments and vaccines against viral infections. By studying the DNA or RNA (ribonucleic acid) of viruses, researchers can identify potential targets for antiviral drugs and design vaccines that stimulate the immune system to recognize and fight off viral infections.

Blood coagulation disorders refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the blood's ability to clot properly. These disorders can either result in excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) or the formation of blood clots (thrombosis), which can lead to serious health complications such as stroke, heart attack, and pulmonary embolism. There are several types of blood coagulation disorders, including: 1. Hemophilia: A genetic disorder that affects the production of clotting factors in the blood, leading to excessive bleeding. 2. Von Willebrand disease: A genetic disorder that affects the production or function of von Willebrand factor, a protein that helps platelets stick together and form blood clots. 3. Thrombophilia: A condition that increases the risk of blood clots forming in the blood vessels, which can lead to stroke, heart attack, and pulmonary embolism. 4. Antiphospholipid syndrome: A condition in which the immune system mistakenly attacks phospholipids, which are important components of blood clots, leading to the formation of excessive blood clots. 5. Factor V Leiden mutation: A genetic mutation that increases the risk of blood clots forming in the blood vessels. Blood coagulation disorders can be diagnosed through blood tests and other medical procedures, and treatment options may include medications, blood transfusions, and surgery. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you may have a blood coagulation disorder, as prompt diagnosis and treatment can help prevent serious health complications.

Bacteremia is a medical condition in which bacteria are present in the bloodstream. It is a serious condition that can lead to sepsis, a life-threatening condition that occurs when the body's response to an infection causes widespread inflammation and organ damage. Bacteremia can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. It can be diagnosed through blood cultures, which involve taking a sample of blood and growing the bacteria in a laboratory to confirm the presence of the bacteria. Treatment for bacteremia typically involves antibiotics to kill the bacteria and manage the symptoms of the infection.

Fever is a medical condition characterized by an elevated body temperature above the normal range of 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F). It is typically a response to an infection or inflammation in the body, and can also be caused by certain medications or other medical conditions. Fever is usually accompanied by other symptoms such as chills, sweating, fatigue, headache, muscle aches, and loss of appetite. While a fever can be uncomfortable, it is generally not considered a serious medical condition in itself, and can be a sign that the body is fighting off an infection. In some cases, a fever may be a sign of a more serious underlying condition, such as sepsis or meningitis. If a fever persists for more than a few days, or if it is accompanied by other severe symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention.

Bacteriuria is a medical condition characterized by the presence of bacteria in the urine. It is typically defined as the presence of at least 100,000 colony-forming units (CFUs) of bacteria per milliliter of urine. Bacteriuria can be asymptomatic, meaning that the individual does not experience any symptoms, or it can cause symptoms such as a strong, persistent urge to urinate, frequent urination, pain or burning during urination, cloudy or strong-smelling urine, and fever or chills. Bacteriuria can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. It is often associated with urinary tract infections (UTIs), which can range from mild to severe and can affect any part of the urinary tract, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Treatment for bacteriuria typically involves antibiotics to eliminate the bacteria causing the infection. In some cases, additional treatment may be necessary to prevent the recurrence of the infection or to address any underlying medical conditions that may have contributed to the development of bacteriuria.

In the medical field, a syndrome is a set of symptoms and signs that occur together and suggest the presence of a particular disease or condition. A syndrome is often defined by a specific pattern of symptoms that are not caused by a single underlying disease, but rather by a combination of factors, such as genetic, environmental, or hormonal. For example, Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that is characterized by a specific set of physical and intellectual characteristics, such as a flattened facial profile, short stature, and intellectual disability. Similarly, the flu syndrome is a set of symptoms that occur together, such as fever, cough, sore throat, and body aches, that suggest the presence of an influenza virus infection. Diagnosing a syndrome involves identifying the specific set of symptoms and signs that are present, as well as ruling out other possible causes of those symptoms. Once a syndrome is diagnosed, it can help guide treatment and management of the underlying condition.

Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is a form of tuberculosis that affects the lungs. It is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is typically spread through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. PTB can cause a range of symptoms, including coughing, chest pain, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. It can also cause coughing up blood or phlegm, shortness of breath, and fatigue.,PTB,、、。

Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. It can affect both men and women and can cause infections in the reproductive system, including the cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries in women, and the urethra, prostate gland, and epididymis in men. Gonorrhea can also infect the mouth, throat, and anus, and can be transmitted through oral, anal, or vaginal sex. It is a common STI worldwide, and,,、、、、。

Gentian violet is a synthetic dye that is used in the medical field as an antiseptic and to treat certain skin conditions. It is typically applied topically as a solution or ointment, and is used to treat conditions such as thrush, ringworm, and other fungal infections. Gentian violet is also sometimes used as a stain to help identify certain types of bacteria and other microorganisms. It is generally considered safe for use on the skin, but it can cause irritation or allergic reactions in some people.

Brucellosis is a bacterial infection caused by the Brucella species of bacteria. It is a zoonotic disease, meaning it can be transmitted from animals to humans. The bacteria can be found in the milk, urine, and reproductive fluids of infected animals, such as cattle, goats, sheep, pigs, and dogs. The symptoms of brucellosis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the part of the body that is affected. Common symptoms include fever, sweats, headache, muscle and joint pain, fatigue, and weakness. In some cases, the infection can also cause more serious complications, such as meningitis, endocarditis (inflammation of the heart valves), and arthritis. Brucellosis is diagnosed through blood tests, cultures of blood or other body fluids, and imaging tests such as X-rays or ultrasounds. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics, which can be given for several weeks or months depending on the severity of the infection. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary. Prevention of brucellosis involves avoiding contact with infected animals and their products, practicing good hygiene, and cooking meat thoroughly. Vaccination of animals is also an important measure to prevent the spread of the disease.

Dengue is a viral infection caused by the dengue virus, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito. It is a common disease in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and is estimated to affect between 300 million and 500 million people each year. Dengue fever is the most common form of the disease, and is characterized by fever, headache, joint and muscle pain, nausea, vomiting, and a rash. In some cases, the disease can progress to more severe forms, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome, which can be life-threatening. There is no specific treatment for dengue fever, but supportive care such as hydration and pain management can help alleviate symptoms. Prevention measures include eliminating mosquito breeding sites, using insect repellent, and wearing protective clothing. Vaccines are currently being developed for dengue fever, but are not yet widely available.

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are laboratory-made proteins that can mimic the immune system's ability to fight off harmful pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria. They are produced by genetically engineering cells to produce large quantities of a single type of antibody, which is specific to a particular antigen (a molecule that triggers an immune response). In the medical field, monoclonal antibodies are used to treat a variety of conditions, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, and infectious diseases. They can be administered intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously, depending on the condition being treated. Monoclonal antibodies work by binding to specific antigens on the surface of cells or pathogens, marking them for destruction by the immune system. They can also block the activity of specific molecules involved in disease processes, such as enzymes or receptors. Overall, monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized the treatment of many diseases, offering targeted and effective therapies with fewer side effects than traditional treatments.

In the medical field, a chronic disease is a long-term health condition that persists for an extended period, typically for more than three months. Chronic diseases are often progressive, meaning that they tend to worsen over time, and they can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life. Chronic diseases can affect any part of the body and can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Some examples of chronic diseases include heart disease, diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and arthritis. Chronic diseases often require ongoing medical management, including medication, lifestyle changes, and regular monitoring to prevent complications and manage symptoms. Treatment for chronic diseases may also involve rehabilitation, physical therapy, and other supportive care.

Creatinine is a waste product that is produced by the muscles in the body as a result of normal metabolism. It is filtered out of the blood by the kidneys and excreted in the urine. In the medical field, creatinine is often used as a marker of kidney function. A high level of creatinine in the blood can indicate that the kidneys are not functioning properly, while a low level can indicate that the kidneys are overworking. Creatinine levels can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatment for kidney disease.

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that carries genetic information in living organisms. It is composed of four types of nitrogen-containing molecules called nucleotides, which are arranged in a specific sequence to form the genetic code. In the medical field, DNA is often studied as a tool for understanding and diagnosing genetic disorders. Genetic disorders are caused by changes in the DNA sequence that can affect the function of genes, leading to a variety of health problems. By analyzing DNA, doctors and researchers can identify specific genetic mutations that may be responsible for a particular disorder, and develop targeted treatments or therapies to address the underlying cause of the condition. DNA is also used in forensic science to identify individuals based on their unique genetic fingerprint. This is because each person's DNA sequence is unique, and can be used to distinguish one individual from another. DNA analysis is also used in criminal investigations to help solve crimes by linking DNA evidence to suspects or victims.

Rubella, also known as German measles, is a viral infection caused by the rubella virus. It is a highly contagious disease that spreads through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Rubella is primarily spread to pregnant women, who can then transmit the virus to their developing fetus, leading to serious birth defects. The symptoms of rubella typically include a high fever, headache, fatigue, and a rash that starts on the face and spreads to the rest of the body. In severe cases, rubella can cause pneumonia, encephalitis, and even death. Rubella is preventable through vaccination. The rubella vaccine is typically given as part of the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine, which is recommended for all children. In addition, pregnant women who have not been vaccinated should receive the rubella vaccine to protect their developing fetus.

Staphylococcal infections are caused by bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus. These bacteria are commonly found on the skin and in the nose of healthy individuals, but can sometimes cause infections when they enter the body through cuts, wounds, or other openings. Staphylococcal infections can range from mild skin infections like impetigo to more serious infections like pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. Some types of staphylococcal bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are resistant to certain antibiotics and can be more difficult to treat. Treatment for staphylococcal infections typically involves antibiotics, although in some cases surgery may be necessary.

Gastroenteritis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the lining of the stomach and intestines. It is commonly referred to as "stomach flu" or "gastritis." The inflammation can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral or bacterial infections, food poisoning, or certain medications. Symptoms of gastroenteritis can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, cramping, and loss of appetite. In severe cases, dehydration can occur, which can be life-threatening, especially in young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. Treatment for gastroenteritis typically involves managing symptoms and preventing dehydration. This may include drinking plenty of fluids, getting plenty of rest, and avoiding solid foods until symptoms improve. In some cases, antibiotics may be prescribed if the cause of the inflammation is bacterial. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen, or if there are signs of dehydration.

Cross infection is the transmission of an infectious agent from one person or animal to another through direct or indirect contact with contaminated objects, surfaces, or bodily fluids. It can occur in a variety of settings, including hospitals, schools, homes, and workplaces. Cross infection can be prevented through proper hygiene practices such as hand washing, using personal protective equipment (PPE), and disinfecting surfaces. It is also important to follow proper infection control procedures, such as isolation of infected individuals and proper disposal of contaminated materials. In the medical field, cross infection is a serious concern as it can lead to the spread of nosocomial infections, which are infections acquired in a healthcare setting. These infections can be particularly dangerous for patients with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. Therefore, healthcare workers are trained to follow strict infection control protocols to prevent the spread of cross infection.

Poliomyelitis, also known as polio, is a highly infectious viral disease that primarily affects children under the age of 5. The virus is transmitted through contaminated food and water or through contact with an infected person's feces. The symptoms of polio can vary widely, but they often include fever, fatigue, headache, and muscle pain. In some cases, the virus can cause inflammation of the spinal cord or brainstem, leading to paralysis or even death. There are three types of poliovirus: poliovirus 1, poliovirus 2, and poliovirus 3. Poliovirus 1 is the most common and is responsible for the majority of polio cases worldwide. The best way to prevent polio is through vaccination. The inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) and the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) are both effective in preventing the disease. It is important to continue to vaccinate children and adults to prevent the spread of polio and to protect vulnerable populations, such as those with weakened immune systems.

Autoantibodies are antibodies that are produced by the immune system against the body's own cells, tissues, or organs. In other words, they are antibodies that mistakenly target and attack the body's own components instead of foreign invaders like viruses or bacteria. Autoantibodies can be present in people with various medical conditions, including autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and multiple sclerosis. They can also be found in people with certain infections, cancer, and other diseases. Autoantibodies can cause damage to the body's own cells, tissues, or organs, leading to inflammation, tissue destruction, and other symptoms. They can also interfere with the normal functioning of the body's systems, such as the nervous system, digestive system, and cardiovascular system. Diagnosis of autoantibodies is typically done through blood tests, which can detect the presence of specific autoantibodies in the blood. Treatment for autoimmune diseases that involve autoantibodies may include medications to suppress the immune system, such as corticosteroids or immunosuppressants, as well as other therapies to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Sepsis is a serious medical condition that occurs when the body's response to an infection causes widespread inflammation throughout the body. It is a life-threatening condition that can lead to organ failure, septic shock, and even death if not treated promptly and effectively. Sepsis can develop from any type of infection, including bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections. The body's immune system responds to the infection by releasing chemicals called cytokines, which can cause inflammation throughout the body. This inflammation can damage tissues and organs, leading to a range of symptoms, including fever, chills, rapid heartbeat, rapid breathing, confusion, and decreased urine output. Diagnosis of sepsis typically involves a combination of clinical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat the underlying infection, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In severe cases, treatment may include fluid resuscitation, vasopressors to maintain blood pressure, and organ support. Early recognition and prompt treatment of sepsis are critical for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of death.

Cattle diseases refer to any illness or condition that affects cattle, which are domesticated animals commonly raised for meat, milk, and other products. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and environmental conditions. In the medical field, cattle diseases are typically studied and treated by veterinarians who specialize in animal health. Some common cattle diseases include bovine respiratory disease (BRD), Johne's disease, foot-and-mouth disease, and mastitis. These diseases can have significant economic impacts on farmers and the cattle industry, as they can lead to decreased productivity, increased mortality rates, and the need for costly treatments. To prevent and control cattle diseases, veterinarians and farmers may use a variety of strategies, including vaccination, proper nutrition and hygiene, and the use of antibiotics and other medications when necessary. Additionally, monitoring and surveillance efforts are often implemented to detect and respond to outbreaks of new or emerging diseases.

RNA, Viral refers to the genetic material of viruses that are composed of RNA instead of DNA. Viral RNA is typically single-stranded and can be either positive-sense or negative-sense. Positive-sense RNA viruses can be directly translated into proteins by the host cell's ribosomes, while negative-sense RNA viruses require a complementary positive-sense RNA intermediate before protein synthesis can occur. Viral RNA is often encapsidated within a viral capsid and can be further protected by an envelope made of lipids and proteins derived from the host cell. RNA viruses include a wide range of pathogens that can cause diseases in humans and other organisms, such as influenza, hepatitis C, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus responsible for COVID-19).

Streptococcal infections are a group of illnesses caused by bacteria of the genus Streptococcus. These bacteria can cause a wide range of infections, including throat infections (strep throat), skin infections (impetigo), ear infections, and pneumonia. Streptococcal infections are typically spread through contact with infected individuals or contaminated surfaces, and they can be treated with antibiotics. Some types of streptococcal infections can also cause more serious complications, such as rheumatic fever and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, which can damage the kidneys.

Mycobacterium infections are a group of diseases caused by bacteria of the Mycobacterium genus. These bacteria are known for their ability to cause persistent infections in the body, often in the lungs, but can also affect other organs such as the lymph nodes, skin, and bones. The most well-known mycobacterial infection is tuberculosis (TB), which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB is a highly contagious disease that spreads through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Other mycobacterial infections include leprosy (caused by Mycobacterium leprae), which affects the skin and nerves, and Buruli ulcer (caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans), which affects the skin and underlying tissue. Mycobacterial infections can be difficult to diagnose and treat because the bacteria are slow-growing and can become resistant to antibiotics. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics taken over a long period of time, and in some cases, surgery or other medical interventions may be necessary.

Parasitic diseases are infections caused by parasites, which are organisms that live on or inside a host organism and obtain nutrients from it. Parasites can be protozoa, helminths, or arthropods, and they can cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. Parasitic diseases can be transmitted through various routes, including contaminated food and water, sexual contact, insect bites, and contact with contaminated soil or surfaces. Some common parasitic diseases include malaria, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, giardiasis, and tapeworm infections. The symptoms of parasitic diseases can vary depending on the type of parasite and the severity of the infection. Some common symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, fever, and weight loss. In severe cases, parasitic infections can lead to organ damage, anemia, and even death. Treatment for parasitic diseases typically involves the use of antiparasitic medications, which can be effective in eliminating the parasites from the body. In some cases, supportive care may also be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Prevention measures include practicing good hygiene, avoiding contaminated food and water, using insect repellent, and taking appropriate precautions when traveling to areas where parasitic diseases are common.

Chlamydia infections are a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The infection can affect both men and women and can cause a range of symptoms, including burning during urination, abnormal vaginal discharge, and pain during sexual intercourse. In women, chlamydia can also cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which can lead to serious complications such as infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Chlamydia infections are typically diagnosed through a urine or vaginal swab test. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, which can cure the infection and prevent complications. However, many people with chlamydia do not experience any symptoms and may not know they have the infection, which is why routine testing and treatment are important for preventing the spread of the disease.

Alanine transaminase (ALT) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of amino acids in the liver. It is also known as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and is found in high concentrations in liver cells. When liver cells are damaged or destroyed, ALT is released into the bloodstream, where it can be measured in a blood test. Elevated levels of ALT in the blood are often an indication of liver damage or disease, such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, or fatty liver disease. ALT is also found in other tissues, including the heart, skeletal muscle, and kidneys, but in lower concentrations than in the liver. In these tissues, elevated levels of ALT can indicate injury or disease. Overall, ALT is an important biomarker for liver function and can be used to diagnose and monitor liver diseases.

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. It is transmitted through direct contact with an infected person's sores or other mucous membranes during sexual activity, including vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Syphilis can also be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy or childbirth. Syphilis has three stages: primary, secondary, and tertiary. The primary stage is characterized by a single, painless sore called a chancre, usually on the genital area, anus, or mouth. The secondary stage can occur weeks to months after the initial infection and is characterized by a rash on the skin and mucous membranes, fever, swollen lymph nodes, and sore throat. The tertiary stage, which can occur years after the initial infection, can cause serious damage to the heart, brain, and other organs. Syphilis can be diagnosed through a blood test, and treatment typically involves antibiotics. If left untreated, syphilis can lead to serious health complications and even death. It is important to practice safe sex and get tested regularly for sexually transmitted infections.

Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections refer to illnesses caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli. E. coli is a common type of bacteria that is found in the gut of humans and animals. Most strains of E. coli are harmless and even beneficial to our health, but some strains can cause illness. E. coli infections can be classified into several types, including: 1. Foodborne illness: This type of infection occurs when a person consumes contaminated food or water that contains E. coli bacteria. Symptoms may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. 2. Urinary tract infection (UTI): E. coli bacteria can enter the urinary tract through the urethra and cause an infection. Symptoms may include a strong, persistent urge to urinate, pain or burning during urination, and cloudy or strong-smelling urine. 3. Bloodstream infection (sepsis): In rare cases, E. coli bacteria can enter the bloodstream and cause a serious infection called sepsis. Symptoms may include fever, chills, rapid heartbeat, and confusion. 4. Infections in other parts of the body: E. coli bacteria can also cause infections in other parts of the body, such as the abdomen, skin, and joints. Treatment for E. coli infections typically involves antibiotics, although some strains of E. coli are becoming resistant to antibiotics. Prevention measures include proper hand hygiene, safe food handling and preparation, and avoiding contaminated water.

Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are a group of infections that affect the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat, sinuses, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs. RTIs can be caused by a variety of viruses, bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms. Common symptoms of RTIs include coughing, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, fever, and difficulty breathing. RTIs can range from mild to severe and can affect people of all ages, although young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems are more susceptible to severe infections. Treatment for RTIs depends on the specific cause and severity of the infection, and may include medications, rest, and fluids. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by the Candida species of yeast. It can affect various parts of the body, including the mouth, throat, esophagus, genitals, and skin. In the mouth and throat, candidiasis is commonly known as thrush and can cause white patches on the tongue, inner cheeks, and roof of the mouth. In the esophagus, it can cause a burning sensation during swallowing and difficulty swallowing. In the genitals, it can cause itching, burning, and white discharge. Candidiasis can be treated with antifungal medications, which are available in various forms such as creams, ointments, tablets, and suppositories. The choice of treatment depends on the location and severity of the infection. In some cases, candidiasis can recur, and long-term treatment may be necessary.

In the medical field, "Reagins" refers to a type of protein that is produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance, such as a virus or bacteria. Reagins are also known as antibodies, and they play a crucial role in the body's defense against infections. There are several types of reagins, including immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin A (IgA). Each type of reagin has a specific function and is produced at different stages of an immune response. Reagins can be detected in the blood or other bodily fluids using laboratory tests, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) or immunofluorescence assays. These tests are commonly used to diagnose infections, monitor the effectiveness of treatments, and detect the presence of certain diseases or conditions. Overall, reagins are an important part of the immune system and play a critical role in protecting the body against infections and diseases.

Antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins, are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens. Antibodies are designed to recognize and bind to specific molecules on the surface of these foreign substances, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. There are five main classes of antibodies: IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE. Each class of antibody has a unique structure and function, and they are produced by different types of immune cells in response to different types of pathogens. Antibodies play a critical role in the immune response, helping to protect the body against infection and disease. They can neutralize pathogens by binding to them and preventing them from entering cells, or they can mark them for destruction by other immune cells. In some cases, antibodies can also help to stimulate the immune response by activating immune cells or by recruiting other immune cells to the site of infection. Antibodies are often used in medical treatments, such as in the development of vaccines, where they are used to stimulate the immune system to produce a response to a specific pathogen. They are also used in diagnostic tests to detect the presence of specific pathogens or to monitor the immune response to a particular treatment.

Parasitic diseases in animals refer to infections caused by parasites, which are organisms that live on or inside a host organism and obtain nutrients at the host's expense. These parasites can be protozoa, helminths (worms), or arthropods such as ticks and fleas. Parasitic diseases in animals can have a significant impact on animal health and welfare, as well as on human health if the parasites are zoonotic (able to be transmitted from animals to humans). Examples of parasitic diseases in animals include: - Toxoplasmosis, caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, which can infect a wide range of animals including cats, dogs, livestock, and wildlife. - Roundworm infections, caused by various species of helminths such as Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina, which can infect dogs and cats and can be transmitted to humans. - Tapeworm infections, caused by various species of tapeworms such as Dipylidium caninum and Taenia solium, which can infect dogs, cats, and humans. - Flea-borne diseases, such as plague and typhus, which are caused by bacteria transmitted by fleas that feed on infected animals. Treatment of parasitic diseases in animals typically involves the use of antiparasitic drugs, although in some cases, prevention through vaccination or other measures may be more effective. It is important for veterinarians and animal owners to be aware of the risks of parasitic diseases in animals and to take appropriate measures to prevent and control them.

DNA, ribosomal, refers to the specific type of DNA found within ribosomes, which are the cellular structures responsible for protein synthesis. Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is transcribed into ribosomal RNA (rRNA), which then forms the core of the ribosome. The rRNA molecules are essential for the assembly and function of the ribosome, and the rDNA sequences that code for these molecules are highly conserved across different species. Mutations in rDNA can lead to defects in ribosome function and can be associated with various medical conditions, including some forms of cancer and inherited disorders.

Leptospirosis is a bacterial infection caused by the Leptospira bacteria. It is a zoonotic disease, meaning it can be transmitted from animals to humans. The bacteria are shed in the urine of infected animals, and humans can become infected through contact with contaminated water, soil, or food. Symptoms of leptospirosis can vary widely and may include fever, headache, muscle aches, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. In severe cases, the infection can cause jaundice, kidney failure, meningitis, and even death. Leptospirosis is diagnosed through blood tests and can be treated with antibiotics. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with contaminated water and soil, wearing protective clothing and footwear when working with animals or in areas with potential exposure to contaminated water, and practicing good hygiene.

Tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB) is a form of tuberculosis caused by bacteria that are resistant to at least two of the most effective first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs: isoniazid and rifampin. MDR-TB is a serious public health concern because it is more difficult to treat and is associated with higher rates of morbidity and mortality compared to drug-susceptible tuberculosis. MDR-TB can occur in both new and previously treated cases of tuberculosis. It is typically diagnosed through the use of drug susceptibility testing, which can determine the resistance of the bacteria to different anti-tuberculosis drugs. Treatment for MDR-TB typically involves a combination of second-line drugs, which may be more toxic and have more side effects than first-line drugs. It is important to diagnose and treat MDR-TB promptly to prevent the spread of the disease and to improve outcomes for patients.

In the medical field, body weight refers to the total mass of an individual's body, typically measured in kilograms (kg) or pounds (lbs). It is an important indicator of overall health and can be used to assess a person's risk for certain health conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Body weight is calculated by measuring the amount of mass that a person's body contains, which includes all of the organs, tissues, bones, and fluids. It is typically measured using a scale or other weighing device, and can be influenced by factors such as age, gender, genetics, and lifestyle. Body weight can be further categorized into different types, such as body mass index (BMI), which takes into account both a person's weight and height, and waist circumference, which measures the size of a person's waist. These measures can provide additional information about a person's overall health and risk for certain conditions.

Measles is a highly contagious viral infection caused by the measles virus. It is characterized by a fever, cough, runny nose, and a distinctive red rash that spreads from the head to the rest of the body. Measles can also cause complications such as pneumonia, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and blindness. It is primarily spread through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Measles is preventable through vaccination, which is recommended for all children.

Enterobacteriaceae infections refer to a group of bacterial infections caused by members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. This family includes a wide range of bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia, among others. Enterobacteriaceae infections can affect various parts of the body, including the urinary tract, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and bloodstream. They can cause a range of infections, from mild to severe, including urinary tract infections, pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, and wound infections. Enterobacteriaceae infections are typically treated with antibiotics, although antibiotic resistance is becoming an increasingly serious problem. Proper hygiene and infection control measures are also important in preventing the spread of these infections.

Fluconazole is an antifungal medication that is used to treat a variety of fungal infections, including candidiasis (a yeast infection), cryptococcal meningitis, and aspergillosis (a lung infection caused by a fungus). It is available in both oral and intravenous forms and is often used to treat fungal infections that are resistant to other antifungal medications. Fluconazole works by inhibiting the growth of fungi and preventing them from multiplying in the body. It is generally well-tolerated, but like all medications, it can cause side effects in some people. These may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.

... (Latin America) ADAC Laboratories (Netherlands) (European H.Q.) ADAC Laboratories (Pacific) ADAC Laboratories ... ADAC Laboratories (Canada) ADAC Laboratories (Denmark) (Jellingvej 5 9230 Svenstrup, Denmark, DK) ADAC Laboratories (France) ... "ADAC Laboratories Home Page". Archived from the original on 18 October 1996. Retrieved 2021-12-20. "ADAC LABORATORIES , JOC.com ... ADAC Laboratories were once the US domestic market leaders and as of 2021 are still in clinical use around the world and are ...
... expanding the Hohenstein Group's laboratory network overseas and founding the Hohenstein Academy. Laboratory locations were ... In 2023, the laboratory QAT Services Limited in Hong Kong was acquired. The acquisition expanded the testing spectrum to ... The Hohenstein Laboratories (also known as Hohenstein Group) is an international research and testing company founded in 1946. ... Accredited test laboratory and research service provider] (PDF). Hohenstein Group (in German). Retrieved 2023-08-22. "Starkes ...
Allen B. DuMont Laboratories, Inc. (printed on products as Allen B. Du Mont Laboratories, Inc., commonly referred to as DuMont ... "ALLEN B DUMONT LABORATORIES INC. Trademark of Levin, Alan Serial Number: 85601141 :: Trademarkia Trademarks". "ALLEN B DUMONT ... On April 18, 2012, a US federal trademark registration was filed for "Allen B. DuMont Laboratories, Inc." by Alan Levin of ... DuMont set up a company in 1931 that later was known as Allen B. DuMont Laboratories, Inc. Weinstein, David (2009). The ...
... was a company in the pharmaceutical industry incorporated in Delaware, with its principal office in New ... Forest Laboratories has been accused of using unlawful deals to prevent generic versions of its Alzheimer's disease drug ... "Forest Laboratories, Inc. 2013 Form 10-K Annual Report". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. DOYLE, JIM (October 4, 2010 ... "Actavis Completes Forest Laboratories Acquisition" (Press release). PR Newswire. July 1, 2014. "OIG Fact Sheet on Forest ...
... was an American research company based in Austin, Texas. Craven Laboratories was the first chemical testing ... Good Laboratory Practice Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories Pesticide regulation in the United States Jensen, Carl (1997). " ... In 1991, a federal grand jury indicted the laboratory's owner, Don Allen Craven, with felony counts of conspiracy, mail fraud, ... Following Craven Laboratory's investigation, 11 multinational corporations filed suit against Craven for losses secondary to ...
... (also known as Philos Laboratories Software Developer Ltd. or Philos Labs and later Philos Entertainment, ...
... (OTC:UGNE) was a biopharmaceutical company, engaged in the research and development of peptides for ...
... , Inc. (Audyssey) is an American-based company specializing in technologies that address acoustical ...
... , Inc. is a company founded in 1982 which develops and manufactures products targeting the dermatological ... CBI Laboratories is also a member of ICMAD (Independent Cosmetic Manufacturers and Distributors). Official Website Vegan ...
... , Inc. U.S. News. Access February 7, 2023. "IDEXX Laboratories Announces Fourth Quarter and Full Year 2020 ... "IDEXX Laboratories , 2021 Fortune 500". Fortune.com. Retrieved 12 November 2021. [1][dead link] "Today's Stock Market News and ... IDEXX Laboratories, Inc. is an American multinational corporation engaged in the development, manufacture, and distribution of ... Official website Business data for IDEXX Laboratories, Inc.: Google SEC filings Yahoo! v t e (Pages with non-numeric formatnum ...
... , Inc., later renamed Tartan, Inc., was an American software company founded in 1981 and based in Pittsburgh ... "Tartan Laboratories and Rational ...". Journal of Pascal, Ada & Modula-2. March-April 1987. p. 69. Nielsen, Morten Rytter. " ... As the 1980s came to a close there were manifest problems at Tartan Laboratories. Delays in getting products ready, or trouble ...
Gottsdanker v. Cutter Laboratories, 182 Cal.App.2d 602, 6 Cal.Rptr. 320, 79 A.L.R.2d 290 (Cal.App. 1 Dist. Jul 12, 1960) Offit ... The NIH Laboratory of Biologics Control, which had certified the Cutter polio vaccine, had received advance warnings of ... Cutter Laboratories was a family-owned pharmaceutical company located in Berkeley, California, founded by Edward Ahern Cutter ... and Haver-Glover Laboratories of Kansas City Plastic manufacturers Plastron Specialties, Pacific Plastics Company in San ...
... Acquisitions Abbott Laboratories (Est. 1885, Abbott Alkaloidal Company) Ross Laboratories (Acq 1964) ... McCoyd v. Abbott Laboratories, 1:07-cv-00081 (W.D. Va.); U.S. ex rel. Mulcahy v. Abbott Laboratories, 1:08-cv-0054 (W.D. Va.); ... Dietzler v. Abbott Laboratories, 1:09-cv-00051 (W.D. Va.); U.S. ex rel. Spetter v. Abbott Laboratories, 1:10-cv-00006 (W.D. Va ... Form 10-K Abbott Laboratories". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. 18 February 2022. "Abbott Laboratories Revenue 2006- ...
The laboratory grew out of the World War II era Dayton Project (a site within the Manhattan Project) where the neutron ... Mound Laboratory in Miamisburg, Ohio was an Atomic Energy Commission (later Department of Energy) facility for nuclear weapon ... Video of panel discussion with former Mound Laboratory employees Voices of the Manhattan Project (Infobox mapframe without OSM ...
... ; then, in 1935, the name was again changed, to Miles Laboratories. In 1947, Miles Laboratories purchased ... Miles Laboratories was founded as the Dr. Miles Medical Company in Elkhart, Indiana, in 1884 by Dr. Franklin Lawrence Miles, a ... Miles Laboratories also operated sites in other parts of the United States, including West Haven, Connecticut, which are now ... In 2007, the Miles Laboratories campus of Bayer AG in Connecticut was sold to Yale University and now comprises Yale West ...
... , Laboratories in the United States, Technology companies of the United States, Companies based in Kane ... The acoustical laboratory building was funded and built by Colonel George Fabyan on his vast Riverbank Estate in Geneva, ... Riverbank Acoustical Laboratories (RAL), (often referred to as Riverbank or Riverbank Labs), is a NVLAP accredited acoustical ... Fabyan allowed the U.S. Government to use Riverbank Laboratories to their disposal during World War I and German and Mexican ...
... was created from E. Machlett & Sons in order to exploit the then new technology of X-rays. They made X- ... Machlett Laboratories was a Northeastern United States-based company that manufactured X-ray and high-power vacuum tubes. ... Machlett Laboratories, Inc. was established in 1934 on Hope Street and Camp Avenue Stamford, Connecticut. This manufacturing ...
Cedarlane is a Canadian private corporation headquartered in Burlington, Ontario, Canada, that manufactures and distributes life science research products. Cedarlane's manufactured products include monoclonal antibodies, polyclonal antibodies, cell separation media, complement for tissue typing, and immunocolumns. Cedarlane is an ISO 9001:2008 and ISO 13485:2003 registered company. Cedarlane has become a multi-national corporation with over 100 employees in Canada and the United States. The two main locations are in Burlington, Ontario, Canada and coincidentally, in Burlington, North Carolina, US. In recent years, Cedarlane has partnered with a number of charitable Canadian organizations to raise funding for cancer research, economically impoverished children, men's health initiatives and much more. Cedarlane has partnered with the likes of the Canadian Cancer Society, Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation, SickKids Foundation, and others. In 2017, Cedarlane will celebrate its 60th anniversary after ...
... , Inc. is an American manufacturer of pro audio equipment, including microphones, signal processors, dynamic ... EveAnna worked her way through every segment of the company, eventually managing the Manley Laboratories, Inc. factory, sales, ... Manley Laboratories, Inc.. Inspired by her stepfather Albert J. Dauray, who had been part owner of vacuum tube amplifier ... CEO and sole owner of Manley Laboratories, Inc. when he resigned as President and assigned his share of the company to her. ...
... Inc. (former NASDAQ: NFLD) was the maker of PolyHeme, a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC). The ...
... may refer to: The ACME Laboratories Ltd, a Bangladeshi pharmaceutical company ACME Laboratories, open source ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title ACME Laboratories. If an internal link led you here, you may ...
... offers analytical laboratory testing services. The company rents industrial hygiene equipment directly to ... Galson is also one of fewer than 250 laboratories to qualify for the Industrial Hygiene Laboratory Accreditation Program. ... F. Joseph Unangst purchased Galson's laboratory operations and continued operating it under the Galson Laboratories name. In ... Galson Laboratories was founded by Allen Galson in 1970 in Syracuse, New York. The company was created in direct response to ...
... (formerly Hughes Research Laboratories) is a research center in Malibu, California, established in 1960. ... The laboratory opened in 1960. In 1970 the Webb Construction Company built the second building. In 1984 the U.S. Federal Courts ... HRL Laboratories, LLC received its first patent on September 12, 2000. HRL focuses on advanced developments in microelectronics ... GM sold the Hughes aerospace and defense operations to Raytheon in 1997, and spun off Hughes Research Laboratories (legally ...
1985 - URL opens 1998 - Work begins to decommission the Whiteshell laboratory 2010 - Underground Research Laboratory is ... Canadian Nuclear Laboratories (CNL) has proposed an in situ decommissioning plan, meaning the reactor will be left in place. ... The Whiteshell Laboratories, originally known as the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment (WNRE) was an Atomic Energy of ... Their existing research site at the Chalk River Laboratories outside Ottawa appeared to be "at saturation" and too small to ...
... is a Singapore-based vaccine research organization. The firm is an equal-joint venture between US drug ... Hilleman Laboratories is involved in the development of both new vaccines for area of unmet needs and optimizing existing ... Hilleman Laboratories has initiated a two-pronged strategy to develop low-cost combination vaccine for treatment of invasive ... Hilleman Laboratories, in association with the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Cambridge, UK, has started an ETEC vaccine ...
... , Inc. Retrieved 7 May 2017. "Richard N. Aslin". Haskins Laboratories. Haskins Laboratories, Inc. Retrieved ... Haskins Laboratories. Haskins Laboratories, Inc. Retrieved 7 May 2017. "Haskins Global Literacy Summit". Haskins Laboratories. ... Haskins Laboratories. The Science of the Spoken and Written Word. Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT, 2005. [2] James F. ... Haskins Laboratories, Inc. Retrieved 31 January 2020. Media related to Haskins Laboratories at Wikimedia Commons (All articles ...
... , Inc. began operations in El Segundo, California as a testing laboratory. Frank S. Wyle was married to Edith ... Commercial laboratories, Defense companies of the United States, Laboratories in California, Technology companies based in ... It still operates laboratories, but its primary business focus is on securing long term services contracts from the Department ... Wyle Laboratories (Wyle) is an American privately held provider of engineering, scientific and technical services to the ...
AK Jain, Executive Director, Ipca Laboratories Ltd". Indiainfoline.com. Retrieved 1 December 2010. "IPCA Laboratories Ltd Term ... "Ipca Laboratories Ltd plans to diversify into Ayurveda business". AyurvedNews.com. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. ... "Ipca Laboratories targets Rs 425cr turnover this year". Expressindia.com. 15 September 2000. Retrieved 2 December 2010. "Pawan ... Ipca Laboratories Limited is an Indian multinational pharmaceutical company based in Mumbai. It produces theobromine, ...
United Agricultural Services Laboratories, commonly referred to as UAS Laboratories, is a private biotechnology company ... UAS Laboratories was founded in 1979 by Dr. S.K. Dash, who had previously served as the Director of the South Dakota Food and ... "UAS Laboratories". Natural Products Insider. Virgo Publishing, LLC. Retrieved 21 December 2009. Company website v t e v t e ( ... S.K. Dash, UAS Laboratories expanded its production capacity and tripled its probiotic manufacturing capacity in 2012.[citation ...
Official website Aravind Laboratories v/s V. Annamalai Chettiar (1980) Aravind Laboratories vs V.A. Samy Chemical Works on 8 ... "Aravind Laboratories eyeing Rs.32 crore business". DNA India. 28 June 2007. "Star Plus ropes in five sponsors for 'Nach Baliye ... Aravind Laboratories garnered a turnover of ₹24.50 crore (US$3 million) in the year 2007. The company also claims for ... Aravind Laboratories is an Indian cosmetic manufacturing company, founded in 1938. It is based in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. ...
Information for Laboratory Directors and Staff. *Influenza Reagent Resource (IRR): The IRR website provides registered users ... Rapid Diagnostic Testing: Information for Clinical Laboratory Directors. *Guidance for Standards-Based Electronic Reporting for ...
Laboratory tests help doctors determine what is going on within your body. Many factors affect test results. Find a list of ... How Reliable Is Laboratory Testing? (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) * How to Cope with Medical Test Anxiety ( ... Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor analyzes the test samples to ... laboratory-testers in New York State (excluding... * Article: Interventions to reduce repetitive ordering of low-value ...
Laboratory Testing for Ricin Brief outline of how lab testing is done on environmental & clinical samples that may contain ... CDCs Laboratory Response to Suspicious Substances Explains how federal, state, & local agencies respond to threatening letters ...
Laboratory Studies. Venous plasma glucose concentrations greater than 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L) after an overnight fast are within ... Although the patients may be asymptomatic, they may be subjected to unnecessary testing based on the abnormal laboratory result ...
The Yount laboratory aims to understand and combat human respiratory and cardiac viral diseases, with a focus on influenza ... With robust support from extramural funding sources, the Yount Laboratorys research aims to disentangle the beneficial and ...
ATTN: Incident Response Laboratory/ERB. Point of Contacts Telephone Number. Email: [email protected] ...
Laboratory Studies. The laboratory tests ordered for the evaluation of hematuria must be based on the clinical history and the ... Other laboratory studies. Elevated levels of BUN and creatinine suggest significant renal disease as the cause of hematuria. ... or other imaging/laboratory abnormalities may justify a kidney biopsy. ...
The information in this database is provided as a service to our users. Any use of information in the web site should be accompanied by an acknowledgment of WHO as the source. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the user. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for any damages arising from the use of the information linked to this section ...
... Name and Address. Fisher Wallace Laboratories. News office: United States. Phones. Phone news ...
Laboratory Studies. Noninvasive diagnostic studies include the carbon 13 urea breath test (UBT), fecal antigen test, and ...
Information for Laboratories about Coronavirus (COVID-19). Information for Laboratories about Coronavirus (COVID-19) ...
... ; Building Alliances to Enhance Training ... National Laboratory Training Network; Building Alliances to Enhance Training U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, ... The Association of State and Territorial Public Health Laboratory Directors (ASTPHLD) Publication date: 01/01/1993. Table of ...
describe the laboratory evaluation for the possible health effects of chronic exposure to cadmium. ... describe the laboratory tests that can detect the effects of acute cadmium poisoning, and ...
... high-containment laboratories - Sharing our stories on preparing for and responding to public health events ... Milestones in Laboratory Science CDCs high-containment laboratories (HCL), which study some of the worlds Read More , ... Tags drug-resistant infections, ebola, foodborne illness, high-containment laboratories, Laboratory Response Network, National ...
WHO has developed several technical resources and training materials designed to support laboratory workforce development in a ... More information on WHO laboratory services. WHO helps countries by advising them on establishing or accessing laboratory ... Laboratory. As part of the revised IHR requirements, WHO aims at supporting Member States efforts to enhance their capacity to ... Training laboratory managers, senior biologists, and technologists in quality management systems is a step towards obtaining ...
Although the Laboratory was just founded, it had many visitors from other laboratories in the United States and abroad, who ... The Laboratory has wide interdisciplinary efforts and, in fact, was in the first group of MITs interdepartmental laboratories ... George R. Harrison Spectroscopy Laboratory History. The history of the Spectroscopy Laboratory falls naturally into five ... as an Interdepartmental Laboratory under the direction of Richard C. Lord (1946-1976), and the expansion of the Laboratory ...
Laboratory Name. Laboratory Coordinator(s). Information Flyer. Engine Research Laboratory. Dr. Avinash Kumar Agarwal. ME-Lab-1 ... Micro-scale Transport Laboratory. Dr. P. K. Panigrahi. ME-Lab-13. Gas Turbine Heat Transfer Laboratory. Dr. Arun K. Saha. ME- ... Energy Storage Systems Laboratory. Dr. Jishnu Bhattacharya. ME-Lab-3. Gas-Hydrate Research Laboratory. Dr. Malay K. Das. ME-Lab ... Phase Change Thermal Systems Laboratory. Dr. Sameer Khandekar. ME-Lab-10. Solidification Laboratory. Dr. Arvind Kumar. ME-Lab- ...
Overview of the ICT Certification Laboratories practices in Europe which seeks to identify and analyse the current landscape ... of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) security certification laboratories within the EU Member States. ... Earlier today, ENISA published the study Overview of the ICT Certification Laboratories practices in Europe which seeks to ... Overview of ICT certification laboratories Earlier today, ENISA published the study Overview of the ICT Certification ...
Laboratory for Biome.... Research Lab Laboratory for Biomechanics The Laboratory for Biomechanics is located at Gemini-South ... Whereas for histology the Laboratory for Cell & Tissue Engineering and the Microscopy Laboratory are available. ... The Laboratory for Biomechanics, Biolab, hosts a variety of equipment and experimental setups to facilitate the ongoing ... Direct access of the Biolab to the PULS/e Laboratory for Photoacoustics & Ultrasound, ensures that US scanners and Photo ...
The Laboratories and Health Technology area supports Member states in attaining improved health and reduced morbidity and ... Strengthening public health laboratories in the WHO African Region Strengthening public health laboratories in the WHO African ... Strengthening public health laboratories in the WHO African Region: A critical need for disease control (1.3 MB) ... The Laboratories and Health Technology area supports Member states in attaining improved health and reduced morbidity and ...
DOE, Laboratory Directed R&D, Physical Science, Research Area Gallium nitride (GaN) is a very hard, mechanically stable wide- ... DOE, Laboratory Directed R&D, Nanodevices & Microsystems, Research Area Data-heavy workflows such as AI require in to increase ... Laboratory Directed R&D, NNSA, Radiation Effects & High Energy Physics, Research Area Low density plasmas are predicted to ... Laboratory Directed R&D (LDRD). This R&D funding source encourages revolutionary explorations of science and technology to ...
CCS-2007 - Duster General Purpose 7 oz from CAIG Laboratories, Inc.. Pricing and Availability on millions of electronic ...
Scientists from two national laboratories used Argonnes Advanced Photon Source to answer a decades-old question. ...
We are the largest laboratory in the United States that focuses on genetic diagnostic testing. Laboratory directors and fellows ... The laboratory is housed in a modern facility in the Texas Medical Center and is among the largest academic genetics ... Baylor Genetics Laboratories offers over 3000 different tests and performs over 100,000 tests per year. There are over two ... We are accredited by the American Board of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ABMGG) for clinical laboratory fellowship training in ...
Evil Mad Scientist Laboratories. - Established 2006 - Newest Articles. * Tracing the Line: the art of drawing machines and pen ... Evil Mad Scientist Laboratories. Making the world a better place, one Evil Mad Scientist at a time.. ...
Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories (MERL) - Communications - Wireless and optical communications. ...
... and laboratory-based scientists at National Jewish Health. I was principal investigator on a DOD-funded study to examine lung ...
... john doe nobody at nowhere.com Thu Oct 16 11:48:52 EST 1997 *Previous message: Laboratory Safety ... and general approved laboratory practices. There are very few locks on anything, and there are more open lab environments than ...
  • If a person is ill for more than six months and does not have a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of EBV infection, other causes of chronic illness or chronic fatigue syndrome should be considered. (cdc.gov)
  • Clinical laboratory technologists perform laboratory tests that are crucial to the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • They summed up their experiences in the Laboratory, where two urgent tasks were in need: the search for new psychogical theories and practices and the reexamination of graduate courses of Psychology, in order to cope with the Brazilian social problems. (bvsalud.org)
  • A generous research infrastructure grant from the National Science Foundation helped the department reconfigure and renovate the Wright Laboratory of Physics research and teaching labs. (oberlin.edu)
  • As part of the revised IHR requirements, WHO aims at supporting Member States efforts to enhance their capacity to detect, confirm and report public health events in a safe, timely and reliable manner by laboratory testing. (who.int)
  • Public health laboratories are responsible for providing timely and reliable results primarily for the purpose of disease control and prevention. (who.int)
  • Baylor Genetics is a joint venture between Baylor College of Medicine and H.U. Group Holdings, Inc. We are the largest laboratory in the United States that focuses on genetic diagnostic testing. (bcm.edu)
  • In addition to offering comprehensive standard diagnostic testing methods for constitutional and somatic (tumor) testing, the laboratory offers cutting edge testing including whole exome sequencing, advanced oligonucleotide/SNP array comparative genomic hybridization, expanded carrier screening, and large scale metabolomics. (bcm.edu)
  • It is based on training sessions and modules provided by CDC and WHO in more than 25 countries, and on guidelines for implementation of ISO 15189 in diagnostic laboratories developed by CLSI. (who.int)
  • The laboratory tests ordered for the evaluation of hematuria must be based on the clinical history and the physical examination. (medscape.com)
  • Technologists perform exacting microscopic chemical and bacteriological tests, much more complex than performed by clinical laboratory technicians. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Clinical laboratory technologists also work as supervisors, teachers, and administrators. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Clinical laboratory technologists test blood, urine, other body fluids, and tissue samples that doctors send to the laboratory. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Clinical laboratory technologists identify parasites and bacteria through their tests. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Clinical laboratory technologists work in large hospital laboratories, laboratories of private physicians, public health laboratories, and in medical research institutes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • To become a clinical laboratory technologist, you need a bachelor's degree with a major in medical technology or in one of the life sciences. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Colleges and universities offer medical technology programs accredited by the National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences (NAACLS). (encyclopedia.com)
  • View information on how to apply to both the Clinical Biochemical Genetics Fellowship and the Laboratory Genetics & Genomics Program. (bcm.edu)
  • Systems - and the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). (who.int)
  • An elevated arterial or free venous serum ammonia level is the classic laboratory abnormality reported in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. (medscape.com)
  • Technologists also work in colleges and universities , companies that manufacture drugs and laboratory test equipment, and the armed services. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Many universities offer graduate programs in medical technology and related subjects for technologists who want to do certain types of laboratory work or for those who want to work in teaching, administration, or research. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Scientists from two national laboratories used Argonne's Advanced Photon Source to answer a decades-old question. (anl.gov)
  • I developed collaborations with military and academic scientists and physicians including in the Department of Defense (DOD), the Veterans Administration, the U.S. Geological Survey, and laboratory-based scientists at National Jewish Health. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Overview of ICT certification laboratories Earlier today, ENISA published the study 'Overview of the ICT Certification Laboratories practices in Europe' which seeks to identify and analyse the current landscape of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) security certification laboratories within the EU Member States. (europa.eu)
  • Too much course work emphasis is based on theory and fundamentals and too little on the practical, and general approved laboratory practices. (bio.net)
  • This training toolkit is intended to provide comprehensive materials that will allow for designing and organizing training workshops for all stakeholders in health laboratory processes, from management, to administration, to bench-work laboratorians. (who.int)
  • This lab is used by students in the Intermediate (Phys 314) and Advanced Laboratory (Phys 414) courses as well as to support faculty and student research. (oberlin.edu)
  • describe the laboratory evaluation for the possible health effects of chronic exposure to cadmium. (cdc.gov)
  • This article will look at the increasing use of automation in microbiology and how it is aiding modern laboratory-based research. (news-medical.net)
  • Automation has been used in laboratories for decades, and, indeed, any use of machinery in the laboratory can be considered automation. (news-medical.net)
  • A prime example of automation that has been in use for many years in laboratories is the centrifuge. (news-medical.net)
  • There are two principal components to laboratory automation: hardware and workflow. (news-medical.net)
  • An ideal laboratory automation system in microbiological research studies must be able to process different agar plates, broths, slides, and specimen containers, for instance. (news-medical.net)
  • Laboratory automation can significantly improve the quality and efficiency of traditional assays, which are a significant element of microbiological studies. (news-medical.net)
  • The mechanical engineering building would include a thermal power laboratory, a hydropower laboratory and laboratories for textile technology, paper technology and wood technology. (aalto.fi)
  • The thermal power laboratory comprised a steam generator department, a steam engine department with steam turbines and piston steam engines, and an internal combustion engine department. (aalto.fi)
  • The new laboratories are supplied with thermal energy by using the residual heat from the company's waste incinerator, which is released via underfloor heating. (basf.com)
  • There are over two dozen laboratory directors as well as 30+ physicians and genetic counselors who support the fellowship training program through direct supervision of fellows as well as through the didactic curriculum. (bcm.edu)
  • Erythema appeared at the injury site to laboratory examination. (cdc.gov)
  • A similar type swab specimens were obtained for 512 on postinjury days 11 and 28, of vaccinia virus infection has also laboratory examination. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition to sample examination facilities, the laboratory included wood-grinding equipment and a cellulose drying machine. (aalto.fi)
  • Prior to 1999, the public health laboratory infrastructure in the United States was on the decline. (cdc.gov)
  • The term 'classic workflow' describes the manual processes currently in use in many microbiology laboratories worldwide. (news-medical.net)
  • In the third section of the machine laboratory building, a textile industry laboratory was placed and equipped with machinery mostly donated by the English company Dobson & Barlow. (aalto.fi)
  • Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup to look for changes in your health. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Baylor Genetics Laboratories offers over 3000 different tests and performs over 100,000 tests per year. (bcm.edu)
  • and provide member laboratories with the necessary supplies to support tests developed by the LRN. (cdc.gov)
  • Today, LRN laboratories can perform rapid tests for high-priority biological agents including those that cause anthrax, smallpox, and plague. (cdc.gov)
  • Methods A sample was selected in the period from2005 to 2008 in order to assess the prevalence of oral lesions in a Public Laboratory (MT Laboratório). (bvsalud.org)
  • Laboratory testing can help distinguish whether someone is susceptible to EBV infection or has a recent or past infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Microbiology laboratories are undergoing a rapid transformation, with several changes presenting challenges for researchers. (news-medical.net)
  • The Yount laboratory aims to understand and combat human respiratory and cardiac viral diseases , with a focus on influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2 infections. (google.com)
  • As the Laboratory was an appendage of the Physics Department, all of its staff members were physicists. (mit.edu)
  • The Department maintains the following laboratories for instruction and research: Experimental Stress Analysis, Vibration and Control, Material Testing, Machines and Mechanisms, Fluid Mechanics, Energy Conversion, Heat Transfer, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning and Manufacturing Science. (iitk.ac.in)
  • The hydropower laboratory included low-, medium- and high-pressure departments, a model testing department and a department for the study of the cavitation phenomenon. (aalto.fi)
  • This paper reports the creation of the Laboratory of Popular Education and Health at the Psychology Department of University of Santa Catarina, Brazil. (bvsalud.org)
  • Laboratory directors and fellows are employees of Baylor College of Medicine. (bcm.edu)
  • After the completion of the Albertinkatu electrical laboratory, HUT began planning and building laboratories for mechanical engineering. (aalto.fi)
  • Most state and local public health laboratories were not capable of rapid molecular testing for biological threat agents. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of this document is to raise awareness on the need to strengthen public health laboratory services and propose actions for building national laboratory capacity. (who.int)
  • The Spatial and Contextual Exposomics and Epidemiology Laboratory (SpaCE 2 Lab), based at the Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, the Channing Division of Network Medicine at Brigham and Women's Hospital, the Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, and Harvard Medical School, broadly focuses on the impact of location-based exposures on health. (harvard.edu)
  • A credible and accessible laboratory service is a cornerstone of any country's capacity to investigate public health events. (who.int)
  • Well-functioning and sustainable laboratory services are essential for strong health systems and crucial for improving public health. (who.int)
  • Because getting test results within hours, not days, is critical in the event of a biological or chemical attack, it was clear that the LRN was needed to improve laboratory capacity in the public health system. (cdc.gov)
  • In a 1998 Association of Public Health Laboratories survey of state public health laboratories, 12 of 38 responding states reported having Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3) capability. (cdc.gov)
  • This online course is designed to describe and explain five of the building blocks that are considered to be the basics of a laboratory quality management system. (who.int)
  • The study concludes that most laboratories currently operate under their respective Member State schemes. (europa.eu)
  • Visit the CST LAP site for a program description, information on applying for laboratory accreditation , applicable fees , NVLAP Handbooks, and associated laboratory bulletins . (nist.gov)
  • BASF opened a new laboratory building for the development of automotive refinish coatings and innovations beyond paint at its site in Münster, Germany. (basf.com)
  • Objective The aim of this study was to perform a retrospective study of 1,894 maxillofacial injuries diagnosed in a public laboratory in Mato Grosso and verify the association by considering the following variables: gender, age, anatomical locationand origin of the patient (capital, interior). (bvsalud.org)
  • The lower story contained the metallurgical laboratory and second story contained the chemical laboratory, store rooms and work rooms. (wikipedia.org)
  • They may choose to specialize in one form of laboratory work or do research. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The two men concluded that these needs could not be met in the Eastman building, and they decided to put up an additional building adjacent to the main research laboratories, especially designed to house spectroscopic equipment. (mit.edu)
  • Although the Laboratory was just founded, it had many visitors from other laboratories in the United States and abroad, who worked on special problems for which the unique equipment developed in the Spectroscopy Laboratory was needed. (mit.edu)
  • WHO helps countries by advising them on establishing or accessing laboratory services, specimen transport systems, biorisk management and laboratory quality systems, in order to meet their commitments under IHR. (who.int)
  • In smaller laboratories they usually perform a variety of duties. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Workers will be needed to fill supervisory positions in all laboratories. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These tables, first published in 1939, by the MIT Press, contain 110,000 seven-figure wavelengths assigned to their elements of origin, in accordance with the measurements in the Spectroscopy Laboratory as well as those given in the literature, and are still in daily use in laboratories throughout the world. (mit.edu)
  • An automobile laboratory and repair shop were also located in the same facilities. (aalto.fi)
  • The paper technology laboratory occupied the third and fourth floors. (aalto.fi)
  • On the top floor of the building was a wood technology laboratory that was not part of the original construction programme. (aalto.fi)
  • Despite the progress and efforts being made to strengthen laboratory capacities in the Region, challenges remain. (who.int)