Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Labor, Induced: Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.Labor Onset: The beginning of true OBSTETRIC LABOR which is characterized by the cyclic uterine contractions of increasing frequency, duration, and strength causing CERVICAL DILATATION to begin (LABOR STAGE, FIRST ).Labor Pain: Pain associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR in CHILDBIRTH. It is caused primarily by UTERINE CONTRACTION as well as pressure on the CERVIX; BLADDER; and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Labor pain mostly occurs in the ABDOMEN; the GROIN; and the BACK.Obstetric Labor, Premature: Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Placenta Diseases: Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.Placenta Previa: Abnormal placentation in which the PLACENTA implants in the lower segment of the UTERUS (the zone of dilation) and may cover part or all of the opening of the CERVIX. It is often associated with serious antepartum bleeding and PREMATURE LABOR.Placenta Accreta: Abnormal placentation in which all or parts of the PLACENTA are attached directly to the MYOMETRIUM due to a complete or partial absence of DECIDUA. It is associated with POSTPARTUM HEMORRHAGE because of the failure of placental separation.Placenta, Retained: A placenta that fails to be expelled after BIRTH of the FETUS. A PLACENTA is retained when the UTERUS fails to contract after the delivery of its content, or when the placenta is abnormally attached to the MYOMETRIUM.Obstetric Labor Complications: Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.Trial of Labor: Allowing a woman to be in LABOR, OBSTETRIC long enough to determine if vaginal birth may be anticipated.Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).Labor Presentation: The position or orientation of the FETUS at near term or during OBSTETRIC LABOR, determined by its relation to the SPINE of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the NECK.Labor Stage, Third: The final period of OBSTETRIC LABOR that is from the expulsion of the FETUS to the expulsion of the PLACENTA.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Extraembryonic Membranes: The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Oxytocics: Drugs that stimulate contraction of the myometrium. They are used to induce LABOR, OBSTETRIC at term, to prevent or control postpartum or postabortion hemorrhage, and to assess fetal status in high risk pregnancies. They may also be used alone or with other drugs to induce abortions (ABORTIFACIENTS). Oxytocics used clinically include the neurohypophyseal hormone OXYTOCIN and certain prostaglandins and ergot alkaloids. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p1157)Chorionic Villi: The threadlike, vascular projections of the chorion. Chorionic villi may be free or embedded within the DECIDUA forming the site for exchange of substances between fetal and maternal blood (PLACENTA).Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Amnion: The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.Myometrium: The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.Pregnancy Proteins: Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Placentation: The development of the PLACENTA, a highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products between mother and FETUS. The process begins at FERTILIZATION, through the development of CYTOTROPHOBLASTS and SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS, the formation of CHORIONIC VILLI, to the progressive increase in BLOOD VESSELS to support the growing fetus.Chorion: The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.Term Birth: CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.Chorioamnionitis: INFLAMMATION of the placental membranes (CHORION; AMNION) and connected tissues such as fetal BLOOD VESSELS and UMBILICAL CORD. It is often associated with intrauterine ascending infections during PREGNANCY.Amniotic Fluid: A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).Analgesia, Epidural: The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Tocolytic Agents: Drugs that prevent preterm labor and immature birth by suppressing uterine contractions (TOCOLYSIS). Agents used to delay premature uterine activity include magnesium sulfate, beta-mimetics, oxytocin antagonists, calcium channel inhibitors, and adrenergic beta-receptor agonists. The use of intravenous alcohol as a tocolytic is now obsolete.Parturition: The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.Uterine Contraction: Contraction of the UTERINE MUSCLE.Pre-Eclampsia: A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.Cervical Ripening: A change in the CERVIX UTERI with respect to its readiness to relax. The cervix normally becomes softer, more flexible, more distensible, and shorter in the final weeks of PREGNANCY. These cervical changes can also be chemically induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Decidua: The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture: Spontaneous tearing of the membranes surrounding the FETUS any time before the onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR. Preterm PROM is membrane rupture before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Fetal Monitoring: Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during LABOR, OBSTETRIC and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Pregnancy, Prolonged: A term used to describe pregnancies that exceed the upper limit of a normal gestational period. In humans, a prolonged pregnancy is defined as one that extends beyond 42 weeks (294 days) after the first day of the last menstrual period (MENSTRUATION), or birth with gestational age of 41 weeks or more.Postpartum Hemorrhage: Excess blood loss from uterine bleeding associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH. It is defined as blood loss greater than 500 ml or of the amount that adversely affects the maternal physiology, such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEMATOCRIT. Postpartum hemorrhage is divided into two categories, immediate (within first 24 hours after birth) or delayed (after 24 hours postpartum).Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Pregnancy Trimester, First: The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Anesthesia, Obstetrical: A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.Placental Lactogen: A polypeptide hormone of approximately 25 kDa that is produced by the SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS of the PLACENTA, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin. It has both GROWTH HORMONE and PROLACTIN activities on growth, lactation, and luteal steroid production. In women, placental lactogen secretion begins soon after implantation and increases to 1 g or more a day in late pregnancy. Placental lactogen is also an insulin antagonist.Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Placental Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD, of both the mother and the FETUS, through the PLACENTA.Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Uterine Monitoring: Measurement or recording of contraction activity of the uterine muscle. It is used to determine progress of LABOR, OBSTETRIC and assess status of pregnancy. It is also used in conjunction with FETAL MONITORING to determine fetal response to stress of maternal uterine contractions.Dystocia: Slow or difficult OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Apgar Score: A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.Uterine Rupture: A complete separation or tear in the wall of the UTERUS with or without expulsion of the FETUS. It may be due to injuries, multiple pregnancies, large fetus, previous scarring, or obstruction.Vaginal Birth after Cesarean: Delivery of an infant through the vagina in a female who has had a prior cesarean section.Choriocarcinoma: A malignant metastatic form of trophoblastic tumors. Unlike the HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, choriocarcinoma contains no CHORIONIC VILLI but rather sheets of undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). It is characterized by the large amounts of CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN produced. Tissue origins can be determined by DNA analyses: placental (fetal) origin or non-placental origin (CHORIOCARCINOMA, NON-GESTATIONAL).Umbilical Cord: The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Placental Hormones: Hormones produced by the placenta include CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN as well as steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE), and neuropeptide hormones similar to those found in the hypothalamus (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES).Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Tocolysis: Any drug treatment modality designed to inhibit UTERINE CONTRACTION. It is used in pregnant women to arrest PREMATURE LABOR.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.Midwifery: The practice of assisting women in childbirth.Natural Childbirth: Labor and delivery without medical intervention, usually involving RELAXATION THERAPY.Meperidine: A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Fetal Distress: A nonreassuring fetal status (NRFS) indicating that the FETUS is compromised (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 1988). It can be identified by sub-optimal values in FETAL HEART RATE; oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD; and other parameters.Abortion, Veterinary: Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Pelvimetry: Measurement of the dimensions and capacity of the pelvis. It includes cephalopelvimetry (measurement of fetal head size in relation to maternal pelvic capacity), a prognostic guide to the management of LABOR, OBSTETRIC associated with disproportion.Cesarean Section, Repeat: Extraction of the fetus by abdominal hysterotomy anytime following a previous cesarean.Obstetric Nursing: A nursing specialty involving nursing care given to the pregnant patient before, after, or during childbirth.Uterine Hemorrhage: Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.Uterine Inertia: Failure of the UTERUS to contract with normal strength, duration, and intervals during childbirth (LABOR, OBSTETRIC). It is also called uterine atony.Sufentanil: An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.Anesthesia, Epidural: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.Pregnancy Trimesters: The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Abruptio Placentae: Premature separation of the normally implanted PLACENTA from the UTERUS. Signs of varying degree of severity include UTERINE BLEEDING, uterine MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, and FETAL DISTRESS or FETAL DEATH.Hydatidiform Mole: Trophoblastic hyperplasia associated with normal gestation, or molar pregnancy. It is characterized by the swelling of the CHORIONIC VILLI and elevated human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Hydatidiform moles or molar pregnancy may be categorized as complete or partial based on their gross morphology, histopathology, and karyotype.Gravidity: The number of pregnancies, complete or incomplete, experienced by a female. It is different from PARITY, which is the number of offspring borne. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Yolk Sac: The first of four extra-embryonic membranes to form during EMBRYOGENESIS. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it arises from endoderm and mesoderm to incorporate the EGG YOLK into the DIGESTIVE TRACT for nourishing the embryo. In placental MAMMALS, its nutritional function is vestigial; however, it is the source of INTESTINAL MUCOSA; BLOOD CELLS; and GERM CELLS. It is sometimes called the vitelline sac, which should not be confused with the VITELLINE MEMBRANE of the egg.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Pregnancy in Diabetics: The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.Misoprostol: A synthetic analog of natural prostaglandin E1. It produces a dose-related inhibition of gastric acid and pepsin secretion, and enhances mucosal resistance to injury. It is an effective anti-ulcer agent and also has oxytocic properties.Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Cervical Length Measurement: A parameter usually used in PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY to measure the length of the uterine neck (CERVIX UTERI). Cervical length or its shortening is used to identify and prevent early cervical opening and PRETERM BIRTH.Endometritis: Inflammation of the ENDOMETRIUM, usually caused by intrauterine infections. Endometritis is the most common cause of postpartum fever.Receptors, Oxytocin: Cell surface proteins that bind oxytocin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Oxytocin receptors in the uterus and the mammary glands mediate the hormone's stimulation of contraction and milk ejection. The presence of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors in neurons of the brain probably reflects an additional role as a neurotransmitter.Hospitals, Maternity: Special hospitals which provide care to women during pregnancy and parturition.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Heart Rate, Fetal: The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Placental Extracts: Extracts prepared from placental tissue; they may contain specific but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific activities.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Amniocentesis: Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Perineum: The body region lying between the genital area and the ANUS on the surface of the trunk, and to the shallow compartment lying deep to this area that is inferior to the PELVIC DIAPHRAGM. The surface area is between the VULVA and the anus in the female, and between the SCROTUM and the anus in the male.Puerperal Disorders: Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.Episiotomy: An incision of the posterior vaginal wall and a portion of the pudenda which enlarges the vaginal introitus to facilitate delivery and prevent lacerations.Ritodrine: An adrenergic beta-2 agonist used to control PREMATURE LABOR.Allantois: An extra-embryonic membranous sac derived from the YOLK SAC of REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. It lies between two other extra-embryonic membranes, the AMNION and the CHORION. The allantois serves to store urinary wastes and mediate exchange of gas and nutrients for the developing embryo.Obstetrics: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Stillbirth: The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.Aborted Fetus: A mammalian fetus expelled by INDUCED ABORTION or SPONTANEOUS ABORTION.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Betamethasone: A glucocorticoid given orally, parenterally, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. Its lack of mineralocorticoid properties makes betamethasone particularly suitable for treating cerebral edema and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p724)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Pregnancy, High-Risk: Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Unemployment: The state of not being engaged in a gainful occupation.Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and management of services provided for obstetric and gynecologic patients.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Hysterectomy: Excision of the uterus.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Breech Presentation: A malpresentation of the FETUS at near term or during OBSTETRIC LABOR with the fetal cephalic pole in the fundus of the UTERUS. There are three types of breech: the complete breech with flexed hips and knees; the incomplete breech with one or both hips partially or fully extended; the frank breech with flexed hips and extended knees.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Coriolaceae: A family of fungi, order POLYPORALES, found on decaying wood.Meconium: The thick green-to-black mucilaginous material found in the intestines of a full-term fetus. It consists of secretions of the INTESTINAL GLANDS; BILE PIGMENTS; FATTY ACIDS; AMNIOTIC FLUID; and intrauterine debris. It constitutes the first stools passed by a newborn.
Pain is expected during labor and is seen as part of the natural labor process. There is little knowledge about options such as ... After the placenta is delivered, the cord is cut and an herbal oil, face powder, or ash mixture is rubbed on the cut section. ... The placenta is buried near the home, or in some communities burned. Nine days after birth, a ceremony is conducted at the ... Some women are told to increase their activity levels in order to prepare the body for the hard work of labor, while other rest ...
The period from just after the fetus is expelled until just after the placenta is expelled is called the third stage of labour ... The latent phase of labour is also called the quiescent phase, prodromal labour, or pre-labour. It is a subclassification of ... Obstructed labour, also known as labor dystocia, is when, even though the uterus is contracting normally, the baby does not ... Eating or drinking during labour is an area of ongoing debate. While some have argued that eating in labour has no harmful ...
... there is a risk of infection in the placenta which can consequently spread to the baby. The placenta is particularly prone to ... 1955-, Walsh, Denis, (2007-01-01). Evidence-based care for normal labour and birth : a guide for midwives. Routledge. ISBN ... Proponents of lotus births view the baby and the placenta as one on a cellular level, as they are from the same source egg and ... Soon after the baby is born there is no longer any circulation in the placenta, so it's dead tissue and full of blood, making ...
Listeria can be isolated in the placenta, blood, meconium, nose, ears, and throat. Another, late-onset meningitis is acquired ... Miscarriage, stillbirth and preterm labor are complications of this infection. Symptoms last 7-10 days. Neonatal infection ( ...
Retroplacental hematomas are entirely behind the placenta and not touching the gestational sac. Subamniotic or preplacental ... Symptoms include vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, premature labor and threatened abortion. Ultrasonography is the preferred ...
"The distribution of activin and activin receptors in gestational tissues across human pregnancy and during labour". Placenta. ...
Some common reasons they deem necessary include: prolonged labor, retained placenta, and excessive bleeding. Most recently, ... Predominately, labor takes place within the home. Though 90% live within 5 km of a health facility, women choose to labor and ... Some believe that if the placenta touches the soil, or if an animal eats the placenta, the child will fall ill. So many tend to ... The most common complications are prolonged or obstructed labors, placenta retention, and immediate postpartum hemorrhage. ...
"Give it up for Placenta Party of Kenya", K24, 6 March 2010 Armbruster, Stefan. "What Now for Labor?", SBS Brisbane, 8 September ... The PlaCenta Party of Kenya was founded by Hellon, Timberlake and Arunga while they were still members of Hellon's Finger of ... "Placenta Party of Kenya" Retrieved on 20 October 2013. Mango, Carole. "Hellon Arunga tell Coast youth to reject draft" Archived ... "PlaCenta Party of Kenya to contest 2017 Presidential elections", Politico, 19 October 2011. "The Finger of God Trio Plans". ...
In fetal surgery, without inhibition of uterine contractions, premature labor is a complication that occurs in 100% of ... "Artificial placenta--a need for fetal surgery?". The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. 115 (5): 1021-1022. doi: ...
... aid prolonged labor, and difficulty delivering placenta. May invoke protector spirits (Virgin Mary or saints). They pray and ... Traditionally, the placenta is buried at the home, with a male's placenta being buried under the porch and a female's being ... During labor the midwife will massage the laboring person with oils and use hot compresses, and encourage walking and position ... Once the placenta is delivered, it is typically set aside to be analyzed for completeness. Indication of a retained placenta ...
However, after the 8th week, production of progesterone shifts to the placenta. The placenta utilizes maternal cholesterol as ... Whether a decrease in progesterone levels is critical for the initiation of labor has been argued and may be species-specific. ... At term the placenta produces about 250 mg progesterone per day. An additional animal source of progesterone is milk products. ... Between 7-9 weeks the placenta begins to produce progesterone in place of the corpus luteum, this process is named the luteal- ...
Kangas L, Kanto J, Erkkola R (December 16, 1977). "Transfer of nitrazepam across the human placenta". Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 12 ... Kanto JH (May 1982). "Use of benzodiazepines during pregnancy, labour and lactation, with particular reference to ... Nitrazepam rapidly crosses the placenta and is present in breast milk in high quantities. Therefore, benzodiazepines including ... Benzodiazepines are lipophilic and rapidly penetrate membranes, so rapidly penetrate the placenta with significant uptake of ...
"Expression of membrane prostaglandin E synthase in human placenta and fetal membranes and effect of labor". Endocrine. 20 (3): ... "Expression and localization of prostaglandin E synthase isoforms in human fetal membranes in term and preterm labor". J. Clin. ...
"Changes in the isoforms of the sodium pump in the placenta and myometrium of women in labor". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 188 (3): ...
The third and final stage of labor is the delivery of the placenta, which is usually expelled within a few hours and is often ... NICE (2007). Section 1.6, Normal labour: first stage NICE (2007). Section 1.7, Normal labour: second stage NICE (2007). Section ... has developed a purely reptilian placenta directly comparable in structure and function to a mammalian placenta. Vivipary is ... Labour in the bitch can be divided into 3 stages. The first stage is when the cervix dilates, this causes discomfort and ...
The gag reflex is used to help speed up either the labor process or the delivery of the placenta. Only 5.4% of birth in Zambia ... The placenta also plays a major role in the preservation of the women's fertility. One mbusa states: "The placenta is buried, ... Those laboring in health care centers may not have as much freedom in positioning. Similar to the pain experienced during labor ... Labor usually takes place in the home of the laboring women, should complications arise they are transferred to a maternity ...
labour and delivery. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. placenta:. *Placenta praevia ...
labour and delivery. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. placenta:. *Placenta praevia ... The most common cause of Erb's palsy is dystocia, an abnormal or difficult childbirth or labor. For example, it can occur if ... he reported a case of transient bilateral arm paralysis in a newborn after difficult labour. ...
labour and delivery. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. placenta:. *Placenta praevia ... An impaired placenta cannot support the pregnancy and this may lead to the loss of a chromosomally normal baby.[5] On the other ... Origin of error: Somatic errors are associated with lower levels of trisomy in the placenta and are expected usually to involve ... Confined placental mosaicism (CPM) represents a discrepancy between the chromosomal makeup of the cells in the placenta and the ...
labour and delivery. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. placenta:. *Placenta praevia ... Other symptoms include laboured breathing, voice distortion (as with helium) and subcutaneous emphysema, specifically affecting ...
labour and delivery. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. placenta:. *Placenta praevia ... McDonagh, A. F. (2007). "Movement of Bilirubin and Bilirubin Conjugates Across the Placenta". Pediatrics. 119 (5): 1032-1033, ... since bilirubin needs to remain unconjugated in order to cross the placenta to avoid being accumulated in the fetus.[19] After ...
labour and delivery. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. placenta:. *Placenta praevia ...
labour and delivery. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. placenta:. *Placenta praevia ...
The period from just after the baby is expelled until just after the placenta is expelled is called the third stage of labor. ... A retained placenta is a placenta that doesn't undergo expulsion within a normal time limit. Risks of retained placenta include ... Manual placenta removal is the evacuation of the placenta from the uterus by hand. It is usually carried out under anesthesia ... A placenta that does not separate easily from the uterine surface indicates the presence of placenta accreta. A Cochrane ...
found that 2/3 of patient with vasa previa at delivery had a low-lying placenta or placenta previa that resolved prior to the ... When bleeding occurs, the patient goes into labor, or if the membranes rupture, immediate treatment with an emergency caesarean ... It is thought that vasa previa arises from an early placenta previa. As the pregnancy progresses, the placenta tissue ... Oyelese Y, Smulian J (2006). "Placenta previa, placenta accreta, and vasa previa". Obstet Gynecol. 107 (4): 927-41. doi:10.1097 ...
labour and delivery. placenta:. *Placenta praevia. *Placental insufficiency. *Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome ...
My tech said that my placenta previa is the one thats least likely to move from covering the cervix). Ive had 2 small bleeds ... So Im 20 weeks and have just been told I have both complete placenta previa and irritable uterus. ( ... premature labour. If like to know others experiences who have had both PP & IU and whether baby was born early or term & any ... Any placenta experts on BH? Very abnormal placenta.... By gingermillie in forum Pregnancy & Birth General Chat ...
Tumultuous labor and tetanic contractions, which may cause:*premature separation of the placenta ... Shorter Labors. As I just mentioned from my own experience, when mom is upright and actively working through her labor, labor ... Epidurals have been shown to have the following effects on labor, laboring mothers, and the baby:*May cause sudden drop in ... Oxytocin is released as labor begins, and increases in amounts as labor progresses. After birth, when the infant stimulates the ...
... receive Pitocin during labor. But what does the research suggest about the safety of induction with oxytocin? ... The doctor recommended inducing labor at a time close to the due date which made no sense to me. How would inducing labor help ... because theres not enough time to recover from the reduced blood flow that happens when the placenta is compressed with each ... My first son was born naturally after 26 hours of labor..and he has no psychological or physical problems. I was in labor with ...
Labouring could be contagious! Shes the kind of person to go into labour and not make a peep just to keep me on track… ... The doctor and Fi helped me push out the placenta when the umbilical cord had stopped pulsating. Hubby did the honours of ... I kept on walking, my sister complained she was exhausted… I eyeballed her: "youre not serious here are you? Im in labour and ... since the labour was already there to stay. I didnt resist at all, on the contrary I welcomed the idea, at this point I was ...
It is an instrument which helps in determining whether or not it would be safe for the woman to be a part of spontaneous labor ... Placenta Forceps *Uterine Elevating Forceps. *Friedman Self Retaining Forceps. *Cervical Biopsy Forceps ... in which the gynecologist examines the womans pelvis and this examination is correlated to the process of delivery and labor. ...
wondered if any of your prem babies were so due to placenta previa. I am 34+1 today and had scan which says complete placenta ... about placenta previa but i think its the placenta covering the opening of the cervix which would be a problem during labour. I ...
The image of the placenta on paper is a keepsake that some parents TKToday. Placenta prints: Placenta prints are a growing ... "I photographed a birth a few years ago where the parents had 4 small canvases waiting and soon after the placenta came out the ... Shapiro says you can use pre-stretched canvas or acid-free art paper and simply press the veiny side of the placenta onto the ... father pressed the canvasses onto different parts of the placenta to create a multi-part wall hanging for their sons room." ...
The placenta is washed thoroughly. This removes any blood.. *The placenta is dried. This is done using a typical dehydrator ... Placenta pills are made using a fairly simple process:. *The mothers placenta is obtained. While doctors and hospitals may ... Sound strange? Would it sound even stranger if you knew that the placenta pills are made from the mothers own placenta? ... Eating the placenta helps the mother and young to avoid predators, by eliminating traces of life which a predator might use to ...
... my ob-gyn referred me to a high risk doctor for further screening because they suspected the placenta hasnt developed ... Baby Corner Message Board , Pregnancy Message Boards , Pregnancy, Labor & Childbirth Under-developed placenta ... Under-developed placenta About 6 weeks ago, my ob-gyn referred me to a high risk doctor for further screening because they ... suspected the placenta hasnt developed sufficiently. The new doctor said everything looks good but hes going to see me once ...
Hi I havent had a retained placenta but have had a homebirth and it was the best day of my life. As far as I know you are not ... i am due to see my midwife and would like to know if anyone has gone on to have a homebirth after having a retained placenta ... Is the other option a physiological 3rd stage when you wait for the placenta to come out on its own? (what happened last time? ... If you think that women have homebirths after previous c sections then a previous retained placenta should not be a good enough ...
The presence of labor affects cell-free, pregnancy-associated, placenta-specific miRNA levels in maternal plasma. Labor also ... In the non-labor group (32 women), cesarean section (C/S) was performed before the beginning of labor. In the labor group (32 ... placenta-specific miRNAs in the labor group were significantly higher than those in the non-labor group (P = 0.002 for 515-3p, ... placenta-specific miRNAs in the labor group were significantly higher than those in the non-labor group (P = 0.001 for 515-3p, ...
We collected 28 singleton placentas at the time of uncomplicated term vaginal delivery (7 spontaneous onset of labor, 21 ... Induction of labor is one of the most used procedures in obstetrics, performed to achieve vaginal delivery through cervical ... No significant difference in the autophagy expression was found between spontaneous or induced onset of labor. We found an ... We investigated the impact of induction of labor upon placental autophagy, a catabolic pathway activated in response to ...
Thus, it is assumed that phPS prepared from full-term human placentas delivered after a spontaneous labor comprises stem/ ... progenitor cells reverted to a proliferative embryonic stem cell-like-state upon exposure to labor-inducing intrmittent ... skin tests to an intradermal injection of a pharmaceutical allogeneic human Placenta Suspension (phPS) performed in obstetrical ... Thus, it is assumed that phPS prepared from full-term human placentas delivered after a spontaneous labor comprises stem/ ...
... there was no premature labor). However, we observed higher viral titers in all tissues, including the decidua and placenta of ... Effect of MHV-68 infection on the placenta. Because we observed viral infection of the placenta and decidua in mothers, the ... we demonstrated that a viral infection of the placenta may sensitize to bacterial infection and promote preterm labor. ... Placenta (C) and spleen (D) cytokine profile was determined in wt pregnant mice treated with poly(I:C) or MHV-68 4 and 9 d ...
Perinatal mortality in our series was 92/116 (79.3%). PGE1 induced labours-49: When PGE1 was used for labor induction in 49 ... CONCLUSION: Induction of labor with PGE1 was useful and effective when cervix was unfavorable and Bishop score was less than ... Before the introduction of prostaglandins for labor induction, it was a routine practice to do amniotomy and use oxytocin drip ... The role of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), for cervical ripening and labor induction/augmentation has been analyzed in this ...
Effect of labor on plasma concentrations and postpartum clearance of cell-free, pregnancy-associated, placenta-specific ... microRNAsEffect of labor on plasma concentrations and postpartum clearance of cell-free, pregnancy-associated, placenta- ...
Will it cause any problem during labor ?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Placenta praevia, Ask an ... I have low lying placenta. Will it cause any problem during labor ?. ... Low lying placenta at 24 weeks, usually goes up and by the time of delivery it should be of no problem. As for LUCS, if the ... Low lying placenta at 24 weeks, usually goes up and by the time of delivery it should be of no problem. As for LUCS, if the ...
Oxidative deamination of different amines in the placenta in spontaneous abortions and premature labor]. by N I Miskevich et ... Oxidative deamination of different amines in the placenta in spontaneous abortions and premature labor].. *. N I Miskevich, E I ...
The period from just after the baby is expelled until just after the placenta is expelled is called the third stage of labor. ... the latter allowing the placenta to be expelled without medical assistance. Although uncommon, in some cultures the placenta is ... The third stage of labor can be managed actively with several standard procedures, or it can be managed expectantly (also known ... occurs when the placenta comes out of the birth canal after childbirth. ...
The placenta grows with the placental site during pregnancy.. * During pregnancy and early labor the area of the placental site ... the placenta *Local anesthesia for vaginal/. perineal repair *Repair of the Perineum Tutorial 2: Birth of the Placenta Birth of ... Procedures for the birth of the normal placenta *End Note Back to Menu for Birth of the Normal Placenta , Back to beginning of ... Birth of the placenta by the Duncan Mechanism. *One edge of the placenta first slips through the cervix and into the vagina. ...
... call when you go into labor so I know I will be preparing your placenta soon. And another call when your baby is born to ... how to store your placenta, and instructions for how to take your placenta capsules. Here is an overview of the process:. I ... Your Placenta will be picked up within 24 hours of your birth and returned to you within 24 hours of that pick up. ... The steamed placenta is then thinly sliced, dried over night, and ground into a powder which is put into gel capsules. The ...
I opened my freezer to look for a long-lost salmon filet and found myself nose-to-nose with my daughters frozen placenta. It ... I had been contemplating the question of what to do with the placenta-later renamed, that god-damned placenta!-since conception ... Bye-Bye Placenta. Last week, I opened my freezer to look for a long-lost salmon filet and found myself nose-to-nose with my ... Instead of placenta ashes, I ended up with liver-colored soup. As I poured the mixture into a yogurt container (my makeshift ...
Placenta accreta is a rare condition that occurs when the placenta attaches itself too firmly to the wall of the uterus and ... In the later stages of pregnancy, the cervix starts to dilate to allow the head of the baby to drop, prior to labor starting. ... Placenta Praevia. Normally the placenta attaches to the front, back or side of the uterus, but if it attaches to the lower part ... Placenta accreta is a rare condition that occurs when the placenta attaches itself too firmly to the wall of the uterus and ...
Post-labor (postnatal) is the period starting immediately after childbirth, extending for about six weeks. This is the time ... I am assuming you do not know how a placenta looks like. Its not just a thin cord. Its pretty large, not something you can ... Post-Labor. Post-labor (postnatal) is the period starting immediately after childbirth, extending for about six weeks. This is ... However, some babies release meconium during labor and delivery. When a woman is in labor, her doctor will be able to tell if ...
Placenta previa is a problem of pregnancy in which the placenta grows in the lowest part of the womb (uterus) and covers all or ... Labor sometimes starts within several days of the heavy bleeding. Sometimes, bleeding may not occur until after labor starts. ... During pregnancy, the placenta moves as the womb stretches and grows. It is very common for the placenta to be low in the womb ... Placenta previa is a problem of pregnancy in which the placenta grows in the lowest part of the womb (uterus) and covers all or ...
  • Celebrities and specialist companies have promoted the so-called benefits of consuming the placenta for years. (dallasnews.com)
  • Most of the benefits of consuming the placenta are directly for the mother, but indirectly for the baby through mother's good energy level, abundant milk supply and mitigated postpartum mood swings," Otmakhova said. (smartparenting.com.ph)
  • A small, ongoing trial (van Beekhuizen 2009) is investigating the role of misoprostol in the management of retained placenta (the recruitment phase has been completed but no results are as yet available). (who.int)
  • for the management of retained placenta the general consensus is more difficult to establish. (hindawi.com)
  • The gold standard of management of retained placenta is adequate emergency resuscitation and manual removal under anaesthesia to avoid postpartum haemorrhage. (scirp.org)
  • The placenta is a temporary organ, generated in the womb of a pregnant woman. (pbs.org)
  • Proponents of consuming the placenta say it makes sense to eat the organ because it's laden with blood and hormones. (dallasnews.com)
  • Around the periphery of the placenta is a large vein (the marginal sinus), which returns a part of the maternal blood from the organ. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The placenta is a really fascinating organ to see," says the HPP's director, David Weinberg , who is at the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development . (asbmb.org)
  • I photographed a birth a few years ago where the parents had 4 small canvases waiting and soon after the placenta came out the father pressed the canvasses onto different parts of the placenta to create a multi-part wall hanging for their son's room. (today.com)
  • In Italy, women have been known to eat parts of the placenta to help with lactation. (eventbrite.com)
  • I photographed a birth a few years ago where the parents had 4 small canvases waiting and soon after the placenta came out the father pressed the canvasses onto different parts of the placenta to create a multi-part wall hanging for their son's room," said Jada Shapiro who runs Birth Day Presence in Brooklyn, NY, speaking to Today . (time.com)
  • I've had bleeding with clots since 25 weeks and we have no idea why (could be a bleed behind the placenta, could be parts of the placenta itself). (babycenter.com)
  • Recently, many new mothers are turning to placenta pills as a means of combating postpartum depression. (thelaboroflove.com)
  • Would you try placenta pills to treat postpartum depression? (thelaboroflove.com)
  • And actress January Jones claimed that eating her placenta helped her fight postpartum depression. (dallasnews.com)
  • While placentophagy is not widely encouraged in the United States and considered nothing more than medical waste in most American hospitals, studies have shown that women who eat their placenta experience less postpartum depression , increased breast milk production, less risk for postpartum hemorrhage and improved hormonal regulation through the replenishing of vital nutrients. (sheknows.com)
  • Even in the United States, there is a growing movement among those interested in natural healthcare to use the placenta to regulate hormones, ward off postpartum depression and increase milk production, as well as other benefits. (sheknows.com)
  • Advocates say the CRH-rich placenta helps alleviate postpartum depression, a state in which low levels of CRH are noted. (smartparenting.com.ph)
  • Taking placenta pills after giving birth has been a growing practice in the U.S. (and in the Philippines) because it is believed to help prevent postpartum depression and after-birth conditions. (smartparenting.com.ph)
  • Postpartum depression indicates low levels of CRH, and "it takes the hypothalamus about two weeks to reach rebirth levels of hormone output, hence consuming placenta packed with CRH helps in preventing postpartum depression," Otmakhova said. (smartparenting.com.ph)
  • Routine antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for women undergoing manual removal of the placenta. (who.int)
  • The same WHO guide also suggests that in the absence of haemorrhage, the woman should be observed for a further 30 minutes after the initial 30 minutes, before the manual removal of the placenta is attempted. (who.int)
  • A conservative approach is therefore advised and the timing of the manual removal of the placenta as a definitive treatment is left to the judgement of the clinician. (who.int)
  • Despite scant evidence it is commonly advised that if the placenta has not been expelled 30 minutes after delivery, manual removal of the placenta should be carried out under anaesthesia. (hindawi.com)
  • Should this appear insufficient, the next step is usually manual removal of the placenta (MROP). (hindawi.com)
  • Midwives will not advise women about eating their placenta because of this lack of evidence, and it must be the woman's choice if she chooses to do so. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The process of expulsion of the placenta after separation - Expulsion of the placenta is a function of abdominal, uterine, and gravitational forces and cord traction by the attendant. (utah.edu)
  • If the placenta is not expelled spontaneously, the use of additional oxytocin (10 IU, IV/IM) in combination with controlled cord traction is recommended. (who.int)
  • For all women after birth, if the third stage of labour lasts more than 30 minutes (P), does cord traction in addition to uterotonics (I) compared to standard care (C) improve maternal outcomes (O)? (who.int)
  • Comes with a realistic placenta and cord with a snap fastener attachment to the doll. (birthinternational.com)
  • She has not pulled on the cord, nor has she made any attempt to deliver the placenta. (smashwords.com)
  • To establish if placental transfusion, using deferred cord clamping for 60 seconds or more while holding the baby at or below the level of the placenta, will improve survival without disab. (bioportfolio.com)
  • hi everyone, i am due to see my midwife and would like to know if anyone has gone on to have a homebirth after having a retained placenta with there first child. (madeformums.com)
  • When a woman is in labor, her doctor will be able to tell if the baby has had a bowel movement because her amniotic fluid will be stained with meconium. (answers.com)
  • For more than a century afterward, microbiologists tried to grow bacteria from placenta and other material in the womb (like the amniotic fluid), and more than 90 percent of the time, they couldn't find the microbes that would allow that to happen. (pbs.org)
  • The GDG noted that spontaneous expulsion of the placenta can still occur, even in the absence of bleeding. (who.int)