Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Lip: Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular: Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Labial FrenumCardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Salivary Glands, Minor: Accessory salivary glands located in the lip, cheek, tongue, floor of mouth, palate and intramaxillary.Lip DiseasesSjogren's Syndrome: Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular: Enlargement of the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is often attributed to PULMONARY HYPERTENSION and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Vulvar Diseases: Pathological processes of the VULVA.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Lip Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIP.Sialadenitis: INFLAMMATION of salivary tissue (SALIVARY GLANDS), usually due to INFECTION or injuries.Salivary Ducts: Any of the ducts which transport saliva. Salivary ducts include the parotid duct, the major and minor sublingual ducts, and the submandibular duct.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Tooth Movement: Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Flowmeters: Devices used to measure the flow of fluids (see RHEOLOGY) or the AIR to measure RESPIRATION.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the HEART SEPTUM, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include HYPERTENSION; AORTIC STENOSIS; and gene MUTATION; (FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY).Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Cell Enlargement: Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Cuspid: The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Lobomycosis: A chronic, fungal, subcutaneous infection endemic in rural regions in South America and Central America. The causal organism is Lacazia labol.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Orthodontic Appliance Design: The planning, calculation, and creation of an apparatus for the purpose of correcting the placement or straightening of teeth.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Dental Models: Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.Heteroptera: A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Calcineurin: A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including HISTONES; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN; and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.Photography, Dental: Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.Mouth Mucosa: Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Maxillary Artery: A branch of the external carotid artery which distributes to the deep structures of the face (internal maxillary) and to the side of the face and nose (external maxillary).Activator Appliances: Loose-fitting removable orthodontic appliances which redirect the pressures of the facial and masticatory muscles onto the teeth and their supporting structures to produce improvements in tooth arrangements and occlusal relations.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Hymen: A thin fold of MUCOUS MEMBRANE situated at the orifice of the vagina.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Adenoids: A collection of lymphoid nodules on the posterior wall and roof of the NASOPHARYNX.Insect Hormones: Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.Orthodontics, Interceptive: Recognition and elimination of potential irregularities and malpositions in the developing dentofacial complex.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Salivary Gland DiseasesMonocrotaline: A pyrrolizidine alkaloid and a toxic plant constituent that poisons livestock and humans through the ingestion of contaminated grains and other foods. The alkaloid causes pulmonary artery hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pathological changes in the pulmonary vasculature. Significant attenuation of the cardiopulmonary changes are noted after oral magnesium treatment.Orthodontic Appliances, Removable: Dental devices such as RETAINERS, ORTHODONTIC used to improve gaps in teeth and structure of the jaws. These devices can be removed and reinserted at will.Sublingual Gland: A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antennapedia Homeodomain Protein: Antennapedia homeodomain protein is a homeobox protein involved in limb patterning in ARTHROPODS. Mutations in the gene for the antennapedia homeodomain protein are associated with the conversion of antenna to leg or leg to antenna DROSOPHILA.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Endomyocardial Fibrosis: A condition characterized by the thickening of the ventricular ENDOCARDIUM and subendocardium (MYOCARDIUM), seen mostly in children and young adults in the TROPICAL CLIMATE. The fibrous tissue extends from the apex toward and often involves the HEART VALVES causing restrictive blood flow into the respective ventricles (CARDIOMYOPATHY, RESTRICTIVE).Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Tribolium: A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Ventricular Pressure: The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Dental Occlusion, Centric: Contact between opposing teeth during a person's habitual bite.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Palate: The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate (PALATE, HARD) and the posterior soft palate (PALATE, SOFT).Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Dental Arch: The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Denture, Complete, Upper: A complete denture replacing all the natural maxillary teeth and associated maxillary structures. It is completely supported by the oral tissue and underlying maxillary bone.Mice, Inbred C57BLPhenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Dental Enamel: A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Cardiomegaly, Exercise-Induced: Heart enlargement and other remodeling in cardiac morphology and electrical circutry found in individuals who participate in intense repeated exercises.Orthodontic Brackets: Small metal or ceramic attachments used to fasten an arch wire. These attachments are soldered or welded to an orthodontic band or cemented directly onto the teeth. Bowles brackets, edgewise brackets, multiphase brackets, ribbon arch brackets, twin-wire brackets, and universal brackets are all types of orthodontic brackets.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Cephalometry: The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.Mouth DiseasesEndothelin-1: A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Otolaryngology: A surgical specialty concerned with the study and treatment of disorders of the ear, nose, and throat.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial: Neoplasms composed of fibrous and epithelial tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in fibrous tissue or epithelium.Malocclusion, Angle Class II: Malocclusion in which the mandible is posterior to the maxilla as reflected by the relationship of the first permanent molar (distoclusion).Herpes Labialis: Herpes simplex, caused by type 1 virus, primarily spread by oral secretions and usually occurring as a concomitant of fever. It may also develop in the absence of fever or prior illness. It commonly involves the facial region, especially the lips and the nares. (Dorland, 27th ed.)Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Ecthyma: An ulcerative pyoderma usually caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection at the site of minor trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Tooth, Artificial: A fabricated tooth substituting for a natural tooth in a prosthesis. It is usually made of porcelain or plastic.Constriction: The act of constricting.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Aortic Valve Stenosis: A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis), or at the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.Voice: The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.NFATC Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.Gingival Hypertrophy: Abnormal enlargement or overgrowth of the gingivae brought about by enlargement of existing cells.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Cheek: The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth.Heart Septum: This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.Tissue Adhesions: Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.Extraoral Traction Appliances: Extraoral devices for applying force to the dentition in order to avoid some of the problems in anchorage control met with in intermaxillary traction and to apply force in directions not otherwise possible.Orthodontic Appliances: Devices used for influencing tooth position. Orthodontic appliances may be classified as fixed or removable, active or retaining, and intraoral or extraoral. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p19)Alveolar Process: The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Ventricular Myosins: Isoforms of MYOSIN TYPE II, specifically found in the ventricular muscle of the HEART. Defects in the genes encoding ventricular myosins result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.Myostatin: A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.Rats, Inbred Dahl: Inbred rats derived from Sprague-Dawley rats and used for the study of salt-dependent hypertension. Salt-sensitive and salt-resistant strains have been selectively bred to show the opposite genetically determined blood pressure responses to excess sodium chloride ingestion.Paresthesia: Subjective cutaneous sensations (e.g., cold, warmth, tingling, pressure, etc.) that are experienced spontaneously in the absence of stimulation.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Physical Conditioning, Animal: Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Speech Acoustics: The acoustic aspects of speech in terms of frequency, intensity, and time.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.Phonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Losartan: An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Orthodontic Wires: Wires of various dimensions and grades made of stainless steel or precious metal. They are used in orthodontic treatment.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Muscle Cells: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.GATA4 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1: An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in a variety of adult tissues including the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, the KIDNEY, the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Activation of the type 1 angiotensin receptor causes VASOCONSTRICTION and sodium retention.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gq-G11: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES dependent signaling pathways. The Gq-G11 part of the name is also spelled Gq/G11.Hydralazine: A direct-acting vasodilator that is used as an antihypertensive agent.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A: A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Odontogenesis: The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Renin-Angiotensin System: A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.TetrazolesEmbryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Poisons: Substances which, when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed, or when applied to, injected into, or developed within the body in relatively small amounts may, by their chemical action, cause damage to structure or disturbance of function. (From Dorland, 27th ed)In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Receptors, Angiotensin: Cell surface proteins that bind ANGIOTENSINS and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cardiac Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in cardiac muscle.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Dental Stress Analysis: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic, Familial: An autosomal dominant inherited form of HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY. It results from any of more than 50 mutations involving genes encoding contractile proteins such as VENTRICULAR MYOSINS; cardiac TROPONIN T; ALPHA-TROPOMYOSIN.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome: A congenital disorder that is characterized by a triad of capillary malformations (HEMANGIOMA), venous malformations (ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA), and soft tissue or bony hypertrophy of the limb. This syndrome is caused by mutations in the VG5Q gene which encodes a strong angiogenesis stimulator.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Hypertension, Renovascular: Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Mature males develop a huge labial veil and teeth with spoon-shaped crowns; females and juveniles, the crowns are pointed. ... As with other representatives of the Loricariichthys group, mature males develop hypertrophied lips for brooding eggs. ...
Diaper dermatitis in infancy Epidermal cysts Angiomas Moles Freckles Lentigos Scars Scarification Vitiligo Tattoos Hypertrophy ... Bowen's disease Bowenoid papulosis Vulvar varicose veins Labial adhesions Perineodynia (perineal pain) Desquamative ...
... labial and penile and vulvar melanosis, melanotic macules) Nevus of Ito (nevus fuscoceruleus acromiodeltoideus) Nevus of Ota ( ... Gingival fibroma Gingival hypertrophy Hairy leukoplakia (oral hairy leukoplakia) Intraoral dental sinus Linea alba Leukoplakia ... infectious labial dermatitis, sheep pox) Orf-induced immunobullous disease Orolabial herpes (herpes labialis) Papular purpuric ... Congenital erosive and vesicular dermatosis Congenital hypertrophy of the lateral fold of the hallux Congenital lip pit ( ...
Hypertrophy of breast tissue may or may not be a problem for an individual adolescent; back pain, kyphosis, shoulder pain, and ... Labial adhesion is a fusion between the labia minora that may be small and posterior - and generally asymptomatic - or may ...
The labial disc and lips are dumb bell shaped and it has large lateral lips that are separated from the medial lips and the ... Galls result from hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the cells around the giant cells. Growth regulators (IAA) are thought to have ... The head of the males was flat to concave and showed a moderately elevated labial disc. The males also had four lateral lines, ...
The most common sites affected are the buccal mucosa, the labial mucosa and the alveolar mucosa, although any mucosal surface ... The epithelium may show hypertrophy (e.g. acanthosis) or atrophy. Red areas within leukoplakia represent atrophic or immature ... and the lower labial mucosa. Leukoplakia of the floor of the mouth and tongue accounts for over 90% of leukoplakias showing ...
Predominantly female phenotypes include a variable degree of labial fusion and clitoromegaly. Ambiguous phenotypic states ... including prostatic hypertrophy, polycythemia, gynecomastia, hair loss, acne, and the suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary ... or partial labial fusion. Previously, it was erroneously thought that individuals with PAIS were always infertile; at least one ...
Hypertrophy of the Dufour's gland is known to occur but more evidence is needed. During and after the mauling period, female ... Their similarities include absences of strong seta on third segment of labial palpuls, smaller scutal lamella, and a ...
Aesthetically, the nose-from the nasion (the midpoint of the nasofrontal junction) to the columella-labial junction-ideally ... if there is turbinate hypertrophy, an inferior turbinectomy can be performed. Perforated septum - The reconstruction of a ... the superior labial artery, and the angular artery. The external nose is supplied with blood by the facial artery, which ... which is an anteriorly based pedicle-graft supplied with blood by the septal branch of the superior labial artery. To perform ...
Koplik, Henry (1899). "the new diagnostic spots of measles on the buccal and labial mucous membranes". Med. News, (NY). 74: 673 ...
Aesthetically, the nose-from the nasion (the midpoint of the nasofrontal junction) to the columella-labial junction-ideally ... if there is turbinate hypertrophy, an inferior turbinectomy can be performed.[46] ... which is an anteriorly based pedicle-graft supplied with blood by the septal branch of the superior labial artery. To perform ... with the additional circulatory contributions of the superior labial artery and of the greater palatine artery. These three (3 ...
Tearing (and subsequent ulceration) of the upper labial frenum may be a sign of child abuse (non-accidental injury).[5] ... A mouth ulcer (in this case associated with aphthous stomatitis) on the labial mucosa (lining of the lower lip).. ... An aphthous ulcer on the labial mucosa. Note erythematous halo surrounding lesion. ...
Aphthous ulcers on the labial mucosa (lower lip is retracted). Note erythematous "halo" surrounding ulcer. ... the labial and buccal mucosa, lateral borders of the tongue and the floor of the mouth). Usually several ulcers appear at the ...
In time, these fluid-filled blisters form a cluster on the lip (labial) tissue, the area between the lip and skin (vermilion ...
Labial Hypertrophy. *Aplastic Anemia. *Arachnoid Cysts. Programs and Services for Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome. ...
Learn what causes labial hypertrophy, when it needs treatment, and tips for managing the condition. ... Labial hypertrophy is the medical term for enlarged labia. This condition may cause discomfort in your vaginal region. In some ... What are the symptoms of labial hypertrophy?. If you have mild labial hypertrophy, you may not notice it. Labia minora, however ... What causes labial hypertrophy?. Just as one of your legs may be slightly longer than the other, your labia probably dont ...
Learn more about Labial Hypertrophy symptoms, diagnosis, and treatments from experts at Boston Childrens, ranked best ... Labial Hypertrophy. Overview The labia are basically two fat pads to protect a womans clitoris and vagina from trauma. Labial ... The cause of labial hypertrophy is unclear.. * Having larger than normal labia isnt dangerous, though it may cause pain or ... Women with labial hypertrophy have normal sexual function because the clitoris, clitoral hood and vagina are normal. ...
Articles Tagged: labial hypertrophy. One side of my outer labia is much larger than the other. There is an obvious difference ... Labial hypertrophy (pronounced: lay-bee-al hi-per-tro-fee) is a long name that means the enlargement of the labia (sometimes ... Labial hypertrophy (pronounced: lay-bee-al hi-per-tro-fee) is a long name that means the enlargement of the labia (sometimes ... I have labial hypertrophy (enlarged labia) and havent gotten my period yet although my mother and sister got it when they were ...
Learn about Labial Hypertrophy, Labiaplasty, and find a cosmetic gynecologist in Granite Falls, NC. ... Is labial hypertrophy dangerous?. Labial hypertrophy is a benign (not dangerous) type of enlargement of the labia. It can ... Labial Hypertrophy Surgery in Granite Falls, NC. The labia are folds of skin found on the outside of a womans genitals. This ... Labial Hypertrophy Surgery - Labiaplasty. The procedure is relatively simple. You will see your provider for an exam and he or ...
Originally presenting at the age of 14, she began experiencing hypertrophy of the fat in the mons pubis and labia majora ... By the age of 24 she had disfiguring hypertrophy of these areas with severe fatty overgrowth, similar in nature to that ... she underwent computed tomography angiography with the imaging manifestation of severe massive subcutaneous fat hypertrophy; ... Massive labial lipomatous hypertrophy in familial partial lipodystrophy seen on computed tomographic angiography. ...
Learn about Labial Hypertrophy, Labiaplasty, and find a cosmetic gynecologist in Encino, CA. ... Is labial hypertrophy dangerous?. Labial hypertrophy is a benign (not dangerous) type of enlargement of the labia. It can ... Labial Hypertrophy Surgery in Encino, CA. The labia are folds of skin found on the outside of a womans genitals. This is also ... Labial Hypertrophy Surgery - Labiaplasty. The procedure is relatively simple. You will see your provider for an exam and he or ...
Medical News Today: What is labial hypertrophy and is it normal?. Labial hypertrophy is the medical term for when one or both ... Side effects of labial hypertrophy. Most people with labial hypertrophy will not have any additional symptoms or side effects. ... Labial hypertrophy can affect both sets of labia, but it is more likely to change the labia minora or inner lips. ... Labial hypertrophy is harmless. It does not impact a persons sexual health and does not mean they have an underlying medical ...
Labial Hypertrophy. *Limb Pain. *Lipomas. *Liposuction. *Low Back Pain. *Moles (Benign Skin Lesions) ...
Labial hypertrophy (pronounced: lay-bee-al hi-per-tro-fee) is a long name that means the enlargement of the labia (sometimes ... I think I have labial hypertrophy. Do I have to have surgery? ... It is unclear what causes labial hypertrophy. For some unknown ...
Labial hypertrophy *Genital injury or trauma. * Endocrine (hormonal) system disorders. * Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) ...
What is a girl to do? The problem of adolescent labial hypertrophy [abstract]. Obstet Gynecol 2014;123(suppl):124S-5S. ⇦ ... Mechanisms proposed for labial hypertrophy include congenital malformations, trauma, infection, and manual manipulation ( ... no consensus on the definition of labial hypertrophy or criteria for surgical intervention has been established (7). ... Breast and Labial Surgery in Adolescents. ABSTRACT: The obstetrician-gynecologist may receive requests from adolescents and ...
Other reported oral findings include high-arched palate; double lingual frenulum; cleft lip; cleft palate; absence of a labial ... sulcus; hypertrophy of the gums; taurodontism; and papillomas of the gums, tongue, palate, and buccal mucosa. ...
Labial Adhesions * Labial Hypertrophy * Labial Hypoplasia * Labor and Delivery * Laceration of Vagina ...
Labial hypertrophy. Labial hypertrophy is when one or both of the labia are larger than usual. The labia might be enlarged, one ... Labial hypertrophy is harmless. It wont affect your sex life and it doesnt mean you have a medical condition. But it can be ... Labiaplasty is an option for women who are badly affected by labial hypertrophy. This type of surgery usually involves reducing ... What is labial hypertrophy and is it normal?), Australian Society of Plastic Surgeons (Labiaplasty) ...
Naso-labial seborrhea 1 - Yes 112 * Blank 23696 257 Visible enlarged parotids 1 - Yes 9 * Blank 23799 258 Bossing of skull 1 - ... Fungiform papillary hypertrophy of tongue 1 - Yes 889 Blank 22919 251 Geographic tongue 1 - Yes 172 * Blank 23636 252 Fissures ... Fungiform papillary hypertrophy of tongue .............................. 250 Geographic tongue ...
Labial Hypoplasia. Labial Hypertrophy. *Congenital Anomalies of the Hymen Imperforate Hymen. Microperforate Hymen. Septate Hyme ...
labial adhesions. *labial hypertrophy. *labial hypoplasia. *laceration of vagina. *lactation disorders. *leiomyoma ...
labial adhesions. *labial hypertrophy. *labial hypoplasia. *laceration of vagina. *lactation disorders. *leiomyoma ...
Labial Hypertrophy. *Laparoscopic Surgery. *Pelvic Floor Weakness. *Rectocele. *Uterine Prolapse. *Urinary Incontinence ...
Labial hypertrophy. Enlargement of the labia Enlargement of the vaginal lips [ more ] 0000065 ...
Is there a correlation between having a complete septate uterus and labial hypertrophy? ...
Mature males develop a huge labial veil and teeth with spoon-shaped crowns; females and juveniles, the crowns are pointed. ... As with other representatives of the Loricariichthys group, mature males develop hypertrophied lips for brooding eggs. ...
s. Fungiform papillary hypertrophy of tongue: The fungiform papillae can be seen and felt when a tongue blade is drawn lightly ... Naso-labial seborrhea 1 yes 9 blank 20,313 453 Visible enlarged parotids 0 yes 20 blank 20,302 454 Bossing of skull 1 yes 28 ... Swelling and hypertrophy of the follicles may occur, at which time the skin becomes rough. Follicular hyperkeratosis and ... 500.X Hypertrophy of Tonsils and Adenoids 504.X Deviated Nasal Septum 505.X Nasal Polyp 507.X Hay Fever 507.1b Allergic ...
  • At Children's Center for Congenital Anomalies of the Reproductive Tract , an interdisciplinary team of pediatricians, gynecologists, urogynecologists and colorectal surgeons will work with your daughter to find the best approach to her labial hypertrophy. (childrenshospital.org)
  • For these reasons many circumcised women view the decision to circumcise their daughters as something as obvious as the decision to circumcise sons: why, one woman asked, would any reasonable mother want to burden her daughter with excess clitoral and labial tissue that is unhygienic, unsightly and interferes with sexual penetration, especially if the same mother would choose circumcision to ensure healthy and aesthetically appealing genitalia for her son? (antropologi.info)
  • Removal of an inferior wedge leaves the bulky superior tissue as the labial edge. (femininebeauty.info)
  • 3 Therefore, the internal and external V excisions are shaped differently, with the intervening subcutaneous tissue preserved while the leading labial edge is precisely re-approximated. (femininebeauty.info)
  • 2 I applaud them for emphasizing the importance of preserving the natural labial borders to maintain a normal appearance and to prevent a possibly painful scar. (femininebeauty.info)
  • Diaper dermatitis in infancy Epidermal cysts Angiomas Moles Freckles Lentigos Scars Scarification Vitiligo Tattoos Hypertrophy Sinus pudoris Bartholin's cyst Skene's duct cyst, a paraurethral cyst Candidiasis (thrush) Bacterial vaginosis (BV) Genital warts, due to human papilloma virus (HPV) Molluscum contagiosum Herpes simplex (genital herpes) Herpes zoster (shingles) Tinea (fungus) Hidradenitis suppurativa Infestations with pinworms (rare), scabies and lice. (wikipedia.org)
  • As far as I know, infibulation is not performed by Western cosmetic or plastic surgeons, however, they do perform clitoral hood reduction and labial excision. (theconversation.com)
  • Perhaps the authors chose the superior pedicle as a solution to the difficulty in approximating the thicker upper labium, which is attached to a thick, convoluted, lateral clitoral hood to the thinner inferior labial edge. (femininebeauty.info)
  • Dr. Dune sees female patients for evaluation and treatment of a wide variety of pelvic floor disorders and urogynecologic conditions, including urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, frequent urinary tract infections, fistulas, complications of vaginal mesh or slings requiring mesh removal, labial hypertrophy, various complex gynecologic conditions and other similar conditions. (weillcornell.org)
  • All neonates with ambiguous genitalia- intersex disorders, mucocolpos, labial closure or vulvovaginitis are evaluated in our Division. (mitera.gr)
  • Some people with labial hypertrophy may notice that their discomfort goes away if they stop wearing tight clothing or underwear. (edclinic.info)
  • Labial hypertrophy (or enlarged labia) can cause discomfort in many women during exercise or sexual intercourse and is common following childbirth. (sunsetcosmeticsurgery.com)
  • Ambiguous genitalia include a spectrum ranging from mildly virilized female genitalia with clitoromegaly and/or posterior labial fusion to essentially male genitalia with hypospadias and a unilateral gonad. (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
  • A 13-year-old boy was evaluated for excess maxillary labial mucosa with the resulting appearance of a maxillary double lip (Fig. 1). (ispub.com)
  • The excess labial mucosa was localized to either side of the midline (Fig. 3), forming a sessile, hypertrophied mass that extended mediolaterally the distance between the midpoints of the maxillary lateral incisors. (ispub.com)
  • In addition to making some women self conscious, this is a true medical condition called labial hypertrophy. (rgvcosmetic.com)
  • Many women find that labial hypertrophy is awkward or difficult problem to discuss. (franklistamd.com)
  • In this report, we present a neonate who had a disproportionately hypertrophied left upper limb with port-wine stain, dystrophy of the left humerus, and hypertrophy of the left clavicle on X-ray, and arteriovenous malformation and massive dilatation of the left subclavian artery on magnetic resonance angiography. (bvsalud.org)
  • To arrive at a definitive treatment plan and reach a conclusion as to labial versus lingual, it is first necessary to review the characteristics, known to date, that distinguish conventional fixed appliances from lingual appliance mechanotherapy. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • One of these is considered the typical " wilderae " morph because it possesses labial cirri, which also characterize males in the type series (Dunn, 1920). (amphibiaweb.org)